New articles on quant-ph


[1] 2008.02813

Squeezed lasing

We introduce the idea of a squeezed laser, in which a squeezed cavity mode develops a macroscopic photonic occupation powered by stimulated emission. Above the lasing threshold, the emitted light retains both the spectral purity inherent of a laser and the photon correlations characteristic of a photonic mode with squeezed quadratures. Our proposal, which can be implemented in optical setups, relies on the parametric driving of the cavity and dissipative stabilization by a broadband squeezed vacuum. We show that the squeezed laser can find applications going beyond those of standard lasers thanks to the squeezed character, such as enhanced operation in multi-photon microscopy or Heisenberg scaling of the Fisher information in quantum parameter estimation.


[2] 2008.02816

Symmetry breaking and error correction in open quantum systems

Symmetry-breaking transitions are a well-understood phenomenon of closed quantum systems in quantum optics, condensed matter, and high energy physics. However, symmetry breaking in open systems is less thoroughly understood, in part due to the richer steady-state and symmetry structure that such systems possess. For the prototypical open system---a Lindbladian---a unitary symmetry can be imposed in a "weak" or a "strong" way. We characterize the possible $\mathbb{Z}_n$ symmetry breaking transitions for both cases. In the case of $\mathbb{Z}_2$, a weak-symmetry-broken phase guarantees at most a classical bit steady-state structure, while a strong-symmetry-broken phase admits a partially-protected steady-state qubit. Viewing photonic cat qubits through the lens of strong-symmetry breaking, we show how to dynamically recover the logical information after any gap-preserving strong-symmetric error; such recovery becomes perfect exponentially quickly in the number of photons. Our study forges a connection between driven-dissipative phase transitions and error correction.


[3] 2008.02818

Time's Arrow of a Quantum Superposition of Thermodynamic Evolutions

A priori, there exists no preferential temporal direction as microscopic physical laws are time-symmetric. Still, the second law of thermodynamics allows one to associate the `forward' temporal direction to a positive entropy variation in a thermodynamic process, and a negative variation with its `time-reversal' counterpart. This definition of a temporal axis is normally considered to apply in both classical and quantum contexts. Yet, quantum physics admits also superpositions between forward and time-reversal processes, thereby seemingly eluding conventional definitions of time's arrow. In this work, we demonstrate that a quantum measurement of entropy can distinguish the two temporal directions, effectively projecting such superpositions of thermodynamic processes onto the forward (time-reversal) time-direction when large positive (negative) values are measured. Remarkably, for small values (of the order of plus or minus one), the amplitudes of forward and time-reversal processes can interfere, giving rise to entropy distributions featuring a more or less reversible process than either of the two components individually, or any classical mixture thereof. Finally, we extend these concepts to the case of a thermal machine running in a superposition of the heat engine and the refrigerator mode, illustrating how such interference effects can be employed to reduce undesirable fluctuations.


[4] 2008.02819

Reducing qubit requirements while maintaining numerical precision for the Variational Quantum Eigensolver: A Basis-Set-Free Approach

We present a basis-set-free approach to the variational quantum eigensolver using an adaptive representation of the spatial part of molecular wavefunctions. Our approach directly determines system-specific representations of qubit Hamiltonians while fully omitting globally defined basis sets. In this work, we use directly determined pair-natural orbitals on the level of second-order perturbation theory. This results in compact qubit Hamiltonians with high numerical accuracy. We demonstrate initial applications with compact Hamiltonians on up to 20 qubits where conventional representation would for the same systems require 40-100 or more qubits.


[5] 2008.02820

Non-perturbative effects in Bogolubov-van Hove approach to quantum master equation corrections

We study the perturbation expansion near the Bogolubov-van Hove limit, where a small parameter is introduced both in the coupling constant and in the time. We show that such a perturbation theory is singular. In particular, we show that the initial condition for the perturbative part of the density matrix differs from the one for the whole density matrix. For the spin-boson model in the rotating wave approximation at zero temperature we show that the perturbative part of the density matrix satisfies the time-independent Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation for arbitrary order of the perturbation theory.


[6] 2008.02826

Interferometric Approach to Open Quantum Systems and Non-Markovian Dynamics

We combine the dynamics of open quantum systems with interferometry and interference introducing the concept of open system interferometer. By considering a single photon in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where the polarization (open system) and frequency (environment) of the photon interact, we theoretically show how inside the interferometer path-wise polarization dephasing dynamics is Markovian while the joint dynamics displays non-Markovian features. Outside the interferometer and due to interference, the open system displays rich dynamical features with distinct alternatives: Only one path displaying non-Markovian memory effects, both paths individually displaying them, or no memory effects appearing at all. Our results also illustrate that measuring the photon's path can either create or destroy non-Markovian memory effects depending on whether the measurement takes place in or outside the interferometer. Moreover, the scheme allows to probe the optical path difference inside the interferometer by studying non-Markovianity outside the interferometer. With our framework and interference, it is also possible to introduce dissipative features for the open system dynamics even though the system-environment interaction itself contains only dephasing. In general, the results open so far unexplored avenues to control open system dynamics and for fundamental studies of quantum physics.


[7] 2008.02873

High-Fidelity Control of Superconducting Qubits Using Direct Microwave Synthesis in Higher Nyquist Zones

Control electronics for superconducting quantum processors have strict requirements for accurate command of the sensitive quantum states of their qubits. Hinging on the purity of ultra-phase-stable oscillators to upconvert very-low-noise baseband pulses, conventional control systems can become prohibitively complex and expensive when scaling to larger quantum devices, especially as high sampling rates become desirable for fine-grained pulse shaping. Few-GHz radio-frequency digital-to-analog converters (RF DACs) present a more economical avenue for high-fidelity control while simultaneously providing greater command over the spectrum of the synthesized signal. Modern RF DACs with extra-wide bandwidths are able to directly synthesize tones above their sampling rates, thereby keeping the system clock rate at a level compatible with modern digital logic systems while still being able to generate high-frequency pulses with arbitrary profiles. We have incorporated custom superconducting qubit control logic into off-the-shelf hardware capable of low-noise pulse synthesis up to 7.5 GHz using an RF DAC clocked at 5 GHz. Our approach enables highly linear and stable microwave synthesis over a wide bandwidth, giving rise to resource-efficient control and the potential for reducing the required number of cables entering the cryogenic environment. We characterize the performance of the hardware using a five-transmon superconducting device and demonstrate consistently reduced two-qubit gate error (as low as 1.8%) accompanied by superior control chain linearity compared to traditional configurations. The exceptional flexibility and stability further establish a foundation for scalable quantum control beyond intermediate-scale devices.


[8] 2008.02941

Exploring entanglement and optimization within the Hamiltonian Variational Ansatz

Quantum variational algorithms are one of the most promising applications of near-term quantum computers; however, recent studies have demonstrated that unless the variational quantum circuits are configured in a problem-specific manner, optimization of such circuits will most likely fail. In this paper, we focus on a special family of quantum circuits called the Hamiltonian Variational Ansatz (HVA), which takes inspiration from the quantum approximation optimization algorithm and adiabatic quantum computation. Through the study of its entanglement spectrum and energy gradient statistics, we find that HVA exhibits favorable structural properties such as mild or entirely absent barren plateaus and a restricted state space that eases their optimization in comparison to the well-studied "hardware-efficient ansatz." We also numerically observe that the optimization landscape of HVA becomes almost trap free when the ansatz is over-parameterized. We observe a size-dependent "computational phase transition" as the number of layers in the HVA circuit is increased where the optimization crosses over from a hard to an easy region in terms of the quality of the approximations and speed of convergence to a good solution. In contrast with the analogous transitions observed in the learning of random unitaries which occur at a number of layers that grows exponentially with the number of qubits, our Variational Quantum Eigensolver experiments suggest that the threshold to achieve the over-parameterization phenomenon scales at most polynomially in the number of qubits for the transverse field Ising and XXZ models. Lastly, as a demonstration of its entangling power and effectiveness, we show that HVA can find accurate approximations to the ground states of a modified Haldane-Shastry Hamiltonian on a ring, which has long-range interactions and has a power-law entanglement scaling.


[9] 2008.02946

Simulating periodic systems on quantum computer

The variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is one of the most appealing quantum algorithms to simulate electronic structure properties of molecules on near-term noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices. In this work, we generalize the VQE algorithm for simulating extended systems. However, the numerical study of an one-dimensional (1D) infinite hydrogen chain using existing VQE algorithms shows a remarkable deviation of the ground state energy with respect to the exact full configuration interaction (FCI) result. Here, we present two schemes to improve the accuracy of quantum simulations for extended systems. The first one is a modified VQE algorithm, which introduces an unitary transformation of Hartree-Fock orbitals to avoid the complex Hamiltonian. The second one is a Post-VQE approach combining VQE with the quantum subspace expansion approach (VQE/QSE). Numerical benchmark calculations demonstrate that both of two schemes provide an accurate enough description of the potential energy curve of the 1D hydrogen chain. In addition, excited states computed with the VQE/QSE approach also agree very well with FCI results.


[10] 2008.02949

Robust photon transmission in nonlinear parity-time-symmetric cavities

We explore the photon transfer in the nonlinear parity-time-symmetry system of two coupled cavities, which contains nonlinear gain and loss dependent on the intracavity photons. Analytical solution to the steady state gives a saturated gain, which satisfy the parity-time symmetry automatically. The eigen-frequency self-adapts the nonlinear saturated gain to reach the maximum efficiency in the steady state. We find that the saturated gain in the weak coupling regime does not match the loss in the steady state, exhibiting an appearance of a spontaneous symmetry-breaking. The photon transmission efficiency in the parity-time-symmetric regime is robust against the variation of the coupling strength, which improves the results of the conventional methods by tuning the frequency or the coupling strength to maintain optimal efficiency. Our scheme provides an experimental platform for realizing the robust photon transfer in cavities with nonlinear parity-time symmetry.


[11] 2008.02969

Quantum-enhanced stochastic phase estimation with SU(1,1) interferometer

The quantum stochastic phase estimation has many applications in the precise measurement of various physical parameters. Similar to the estimation of a constant phase, there is a standard quantum limit for stochastic phase estimation, which can be obtained with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer and coherent input state. Recently, it has been shown that the stochastic standard quantum limit can be surpassed with non-classical resources such as the squeezed light. However, practical methods to achieve the quantum enhancement in the stochastic phase estimation remains largely unexplored. Here we propose a method utilizing the SU(1,1) interferometer and coherent input states to estimate a stochastic optical phase. As an example, we investigate the Ornstein-Uhlenback stochastic phase. We analyze the performance of this method for three key estimation problems: prediction, tracking and smoothing. The results show significant reduction of the mean square error compared with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer under the same photon number flux inside the interferometers. In particular, we show that the method with the SU(1,1) interferometer can achieve the fundamental quantum scaling, the stochastic Heisenberg scaling, and surpass the precision of the canonical measurement.


[12] 2008.03011

Family of even/odd CV states, their properties and deterministic generation of the hybrid entangled states

We consider a family of continuous variable (CV) states being a superposition of displaced number states with equal modulo but opposite in sign displacement amplitudes. Either an even or odd CV state is mixed with a delocalized photon at a beam splitter with arbitrary transmittance and reflectance coefficients with the subsequent registration of the measurement outcome in an auxiliary mode to deterministically generate hybrid entanglement. We show that at certain values of the experimental parameters maximally entangled states are generated. The considered approach is also applicable to truncated finite versions of even/odd CV states. We study the nonclassical properties of the introduced states and show their Wigner functions exhibit properties inherent to nonclassical states. Other nonclassical properties of the states under consideration have also been studied.


[13] 2008.03026

Heat engines with single-shot deterministic work extraction

We introduce heat engines working in the nano-regime that allow to extract a finite amount of deterministic work. We show that the efficiency of these cycles is strictly smaller than Carnot's, and we associate this difference with a fundamental irreversibility that is present in single-shot transformations. When fluctuations in the extracted work are allowed there is a trade-off between their size and the efficiency. As the size of fluctuations increases so does the efficiency, and optimal efficiency is recovered for unbounded fluctuations, while certain amount of deterministic work is drawn from the cycle. Finally, we show that if the working medium is composed by many particles, by creating an amount of correlations between the subsystems that scales logarithmically with their number, Carnot's efficiency can also be approached in the asymptotic limit along with deterministic work extraction.


[14] 2008.03048

Effective discrimination of chiral molecules in a cavity

We present a scheme to realize precise discrimination of chiral molecules in a cavity. Assisted by additional laser pulses, cavity fields can evolve to different coherence states with contrary-sign displacements according to the handedness of molecules. Consequently, the handedness of molecules can be read out with homodyne measurement on the cavity, and the successful probability is nearly unity without very strong cavity fields. Numerical results show that the scheme is insensitive to errors, noise and decoherence. Therefore, the scheme may provide helpful perspectives for accurate discrimination of chiral molecules.


[15] 2008.03059

Heralded atomic nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation with Rydberg blockade

We propose a protocol to realize atomic nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation (NHQC) with two computational atoms and an auxiliary atom. Dynamics of the system is analyzed in the regime of Rydberg blockade, and robust laser pulses are designed via reverse engineering, so that quantum gates can be easily realized with high fidelities. In addition, we also study the evolution suffering from dissipation with a master equation. The result indicates that decays of atoms can be heralded by measuring the state of the auxiliary atom, and nearly perfect unitary evolution can be obtained if the auxiliary atom remains in its Rydberg state. Therefore, the protocol may be helpful to realize NHQC in dissipative environment.


[16] 2008.03062

Cavity magnon polariton based precision magnetometry

A photon-magnon hybrid quantum system can be realised by coupling the electron spin resonance of a magnetic material to a microwave cavity mode. The quasiparticles associated with the system dynamics are the cavity magnon polaritons, which arise from the mixing of strongly coupled magnons and photons. We illustrate how these particles can be used to probe the magnetisation of a sample with a remarkable sensitivity, devising suitable spin-magnetometers which ultimately can be used to directly assess oscillating magnetic fields. Specifically, the capability of cavity magnon polaritons of converting magnetic excitations to electromagnetic ones, allows for translating to magnetism the quantum-limited sensitivity reached by state-of-the-art electronics. Here we employ hybrid systems composed of microwave cavities and ferrimagnetic spheres, to experimentally implement two types of novel spin-magnetometers.


[17] 2008.03079

Universality class and exact phase boundary in the superradiant phase transition

The Dicke model and Rabi model can undergo phase transitions from the normal phase to the superradiant phase at the same boundary, which can be accurately determined using some approximated approaches. The underlying mechanism for this coincidence is still unclear and the universality class of these two models is elusive. Here we prove this phase transition exactly using the path-integral approach based on the faithful Schwinger fermion representation, and give a unified phase boundary condition for these models. We demonstrate that at the phase boundary, the fluctuation of the bosonic field is vanished, thus it can be treated as a classical field, based on which a much simplified method to determine the phase boundary is developed. This explains why the approximated theories by treating the operators as classical variables can yield the exact boundary. We use this method to study several similar spin and boson models, showing its much wider applicability than the previously used approaches. Our results demonstrate that these phase transitions belong to the same universality by the classical Landau theory of phase transitions, which can be confirmed using the platforms in the recent experiments.


[18] 2008.03083

Equivalence of space and time-bins in DPS-QKD

We set up differential phase shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD), over 105 km of single-mode optical fiber, with a quantum bit error rate of less than 15% at a secure key rate of 2 kbps. The testbed was first used to investigate the effect of excess bias voltage and hold-off time on the temporal distribution of photons within a gate window of an InGaAs single-photon detector (SPD) and quantified the effects of afterpulsing. The key generation efficiency, and security, in DPS-QKDimprove with an increase in the number of path delays or time-bin superpositions. We finally demonstrate the implementation of superposition states using a time-bin approach, and establish equivalence with the path-based superposition approach, thus yielding a simpler approach to implementing superposition states for use in DPS-QKD.


[19] 2008.03094

Uncertainty Relations of Variances in View of the Weak Value

The Schr{\"o}dinger inequality is known to underlie the Kennard-Robertson inequality, which is the standard expression of quantum uncertainty for the product of variances of two observables $A$ and $B$, in the sense that the latter is derived from the former. In this paper we point out that, albeit more subtle, there is yet another inequality which underlies the Schr{\"o}dinger inequality in the same sense. The key component of this observation is the use of the weak-value operator $A_{\rm w}(B)$ introduced in our previous works (named after Aharonov's weak value), which was shown to act as the proxy operator for $A$ when $B$ is measured. The lower bound of our novel inequality supplements that of the Schr{\"o}dinger inequality by a term representing the discord between $A_{\rm w}(B)$ and $A$. In addition, the decomposition of the Schr{\"o}dinger inequality, which was also obtained in our previous works by making use the weak-value operator, is examined more closely to analyze its structure and the minimal uncertainty states. Our results are exemplified with some elementary spin 1 and 3/2 models as well as the familiar case of $A$ and $B$ being the position and momentum of a particle.


[20] 2008.03112

Ramsey interferometry as a witness of acceleration radiation

We adapt a typical Ramsey interferometer by inserting a linear accelerator capable of accelerating an atom inside a single-mode cavity. We demonstrate that this simple scheme allows us to estimate the effects of acceleration radiation via interferometric visibility. By using a Rydberg-like atom, our results suggest that, for the transition regime of the order of GHz and interaction time of 1 ns, acceleration radiation effects can be observable for accelerations as low as $10^{17}$ m/s$^2$.


[21] 2008.03161

Squeezing as a resource to counteract phase diffusion in optical phase estimation

We address a phase estimation scheme using Gaussian states in the presence of non-Gaussian phase noise. At variance with previous analysis, we analyze situations in which the noise occurs before encoding phase information. In particular, we study how squeezing may be profitably used before or after phase diffusion. Our results show that squeezing the probe after the noise greatly enhances the sensitivity of the estimation scheme, as witnessed by the increase of the quantum Fisher information. We then consider a realistic setup where homodyne detection is employed at the measurement stage, and address its optimality as well as its performance in the two different scenarios.


[22] 2008.03222

Twin-field quantum key distribution with fully discrete phase randomization

Twin-field (TF) quantum key distribution (QKD) can overcome fundamental secret-key-rate bounds on point-to-point QKD links, allowing us to reach longer distances than ever before. Since its introduction, several TF-QKD variants have been proposed, and some of them have already been implemented experimentally. Most of them assume that the users can emit weak coherent pulses with a continuous random phase. In practice, this assumption is often not satisfied, which could open up security loopholes in their implementations. To close this loophole, we propose and prove the security of a TF-QKD variant that relies exclusively on discrete phase randomisation. Remarkably, our results show that it can also provide higher secret-key rates than counterpart protocols that rely on continuous phase randomisation.


[23] 2008.03228

Monitoring of dynamical phase-space trajectories with sub-Heisenberg indeterminacy

The Heisenberg uncertainty relation describes the fact that the phase-space trajectory of a single quantum system cannot be precisely determined with respect to semi-classical reference values to better than twice the quantum system's ground state uncertainty. Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen pointed out that according to quantum theory, however, there are pairs of quantum systems whose properties with respect to each other can be arbitrarily precisely determined. Here we report the experimental proof that even the dynamics of a quantum system, i.e. its phase-space trajectory, can be precisely determined with respect to another quantum system. We present measurements with a remaining indeterminacy of canonical conjugate variables ten times smaller than the lowest possible for a semi-classical reference. Our result may trigger research on the foundations of quantum mechanics and supports quantum technology for entanglement-enhanced metrology and secure communication.


[24] 2008.03240

Quantum State Tomography with Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks

Quantum state tomography (QST) is a challenging task in intermediate-scale quantum devices. Here, we apply conditional generative adversarial networks (CGANs) to QST. In the CGAN framework, two duelling neural networks, a generator and a discriminator, learn multi-modal models from data. We augment a CGAN with custom neural-network layers that enable conversion of output from any standard neural network into a physical density matrix. To reconstruct the density matrix, the generator and discriminator networks train each other on data using standard gradient-based methods. We demonstrate that our QST-CGAN reconstructs optical quantum states with high fidelity orders of magnitude faster, and from less data, than a standard maximum-likelihood method. We also show that the QST-CGAN can reconstruct a quantum state in a single evaluation of the generator network if it has been pre-trained on similar quantum states.


[25] 2007.05365

Entanglement Entropy from TFD Entropy Operator

In this work, a canonical method to compute entanglement entropy is proposed. We show that for two-dimensional conformal theories defined in a torus, a choice of moduli space allows the typical entropy operator of the TFD to provide the entanglement entropy of the degrees of freedom defined in a segment and their complement. In this procedure, it is not necessary to make an analytic continuation from the R\'enyi entropy and the von Neumann entanglement entropy is calculated directly from the expected value of an entanglement entropy operator. We also propose a model for the evolution of the entanglement entropy and show that it grows linearly with time.


[26] 2008.02814

Microscopic theory of cavity-confined monolayer semiconductors: polariton-induced valley relaxation and the prospect of enhancing and controlling the valley pseudospin by chiral strong coupling

We apply a microscopic theory of exciton-polaritons in cavity-confined monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides including both optical polarizations in the monolayer plane, allowing to describe how chiral cavity photons interact with the valley degrees of freedom of the active material. Upon polariton formation, the degenerate excitons inhabiting the two inequivalent valleys are shown to assume bonding and antibonding superpositions as a result of cavity-mediated intravalley interactions combined with intervalley Coulomb interactions. This is representative of a polariton-induced coherent mixing of the valley polarization. In combination with disorder, this mixing is prone to open a new valley relaxation channel which attains significance with increasing cavity coupling. Importantly, we show that optical cavities with an asymmetric reflectance of left- and right-handed circularly-polarized photons offer a considerably more robust platform to realize a conserved valley polarization, as the valley localization of excitons is reinstated by an asymmetric Rabi splitting which lifts their degeneracy. Moreover, we show this degeneracy lifting to allow for wavelength-selective access to the valley pseudospin by means of a polariton-induced chiral Stark effect, offering interesting opportunities for valleytronic applications.


[27] 2008.02854

Quantum anomalous Hall phase in synthetic bilayers via twistless twistronics

We recently proposed quantum simulators of "twistronic-like" physics based on ultracold atoms and syntheticdimensions [Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 030504 (2020)]. Conceptually, the scheme is based on the idea that aphysical monolayer optical lattice of desired geometry is upgraded to a synthetic bilayer system by identifyingthe internal states of the trapped atoms with synthetic spatial dimensions. The couplings between the internalstates, i.e. between sites on the two layers, can be exquisitely controlled by laser induced Raman transitions.By spatially modulating the interlayer coupling, Moir\'e-like patterns can be directly imprinted on the latticewithout the need of a physical twist of the layers. This scheme leads practically to a uniform pattern across thelattice with the added advantage of widely tunable interlayer coupling strengths. The latter feature facilitates theengineering of flat bands at larger "magic" angles, or more directly, for smaller unit cells than in conventionaltwisted materials. In this paper we extend these ideas and demonstrate that our system exhibits topologicalband structures under appropriate conditions. To achieve non-trivial band topology we consider imanaginarynext-to-nearest neighbor tunnelings that drive the system into a quantum anomalous Hall phase. In particular,we focus on three groups of bands, whose their Chern numbers triplet can be associated to a trivial insulator(0,0,0), a standard non-trivial (-1,0,1) and a non-standard non-trivial (-1,1,0). We identify regimes of parameterswhere these three situations occur. We show the presence of an anomalous Hall phase and the appearance oftopological edge states. Our works open the path for experiments on topological effects in twistronics without atwist


[28] 2008.03010

Phonon-induced anomalous gauge potential for photonic isolation in frequency space

Photonic gauge potentials are crucial for manipulating charge-neutral photons like their counterpart electrons in the electromagnetic field, allowing analogous Aharonov-Bohm effect in photonics and paving the way for critical applications like photonic isolation. Normally, a gauge potential exhibits phase inversion along two opposite propagation paths. Here we experimentally demonstrate phonon-induced anomalous gauge potentials with non-inverted gauge phases in a spatial-frequency space, where quasi-phase-matched nonlinear Brillouin scatterings enable such unique direction-dependent gauge phases. Based on this scheme, we construct photonic isolators in the frequency domain permitting nonreciprocal propagation of light along the frequency axis, where coherent phase control in the photonic isolator allows switching completely the directionality through an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. Moreover, similar coherent controlled unidirectional frequency conversions are also illustrated. These results may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to implement synthetic-dimension devices for on-chip optical signal processing.


[29] 2008.03057

Transfer of a levitating nanoparticle between optical tweezers

We demonstrate and characterize the transfer of a levitating silica nanosphere between two optical tweezers, at low pressure. Both optical traps are mounted on the heads of optical fibers and placed on translation stages in vacuum chambers. Our setup allows to physically separate the particle loading environment from the experimental chamber, where the second tweezer can position the particle inside a high Finesse optical cavity. The separation prevents from spoiling the cavity mirrors and the chamber cleanliness during the particle loading phase. Our system provides a very reliable and simply reproducible protocol for preparing cavity optomechanics experiments with levitating nanoparticles, opening the way to systematic studies of quantum phenomena and easing the realization of sensing devices.


[30] 2008.03078

Spin dynamics under the influence of elliptically rotating fields: Extracting the field topology from time-averaged quantities

We focus on quantum systems that can be effectively described as a localized spin-$s$ particle subject to a static magnetic field coplanar to a coexisting elliptically rotating time-periodic field. Depending on the values taken on by the static and rotating components, the total magnetic field shows two regimes with different topological properties. Along the boundary that separates these two regimes, the total magnetic field vanishes periodically in time and the system dynamics becomes highly nonadiabatic. We derive a relation between two time-averaged quantities of the system which is linked to the topology of the applied magnetic field. Based on this finding, we propose a measurable quantity that has the ability to indicate the topology of the total magnetic field without knowing a priori the value of the static component. We also propose a possible implementation of our approach by a trapped-ion quantum system. The results presented here are independent of the initial state of the system. In particular, when the system is initialized in a Floquet state, we find some interesting properties of the quasienergy spectrum which are linked to the topological change of the total magnetic field. Throughout the paper, the theoretical results are illustrated with numerical simulations for the case of a two-level quantum system.


[31] 2008.03187

Do bras and kets have dimensions?

The bra and ket notation introduced by Dirac and the dimensional analysis are two powerful tools for the physicist. Curiously, almost nothing is said about connections between these two topics in the literature. We show here that bras and kets have dimensions. This could help students to grasp a better comprehension of this abstract notation.


[32] 2008.03280

The Generalized OTOC from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics: Study of Random Fluctuations from Eigenstate Representation of Correlation Functions

The concept of out-of-time-ordered correlation (OTOC) function is treated as a very strong theoretical probe of quantum randomness, using which one can study both chaotic and non-chaotic phenomena in the context of quantum statistical mechanics. In this paper, we define a general class of OTOC, which can perfectly capture quantum randomness phenomena in a better way. Further we demonstrate an equivalent formalism of computation using a general time independent Hamiltonian having well defined eigenstate representation for integrable supersymmetric quantum systems. We found that one needs to consider two new correlators apart from the usual one to have a complete quantum description. To visualize the impact of the given formalism we consider the two well known models viz. Harmonic Oscillator and one dimensional potential well within the framework of supersymmetry. For the Harmonic Oscillator case we obtain similar periodic time dependence but dissimilar parameter dependences compared to the results obtained from both micro-canonical and canonical ensembles in quantum mechanics without supersymmetry. On the other hand, for one dimensional potential well problem we found significantly different time scale and the other parameter dependence compared to the results obtained from non-supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, to establish the consistency of the prescribed formalism in the classical limit, we demonstrate the phase space averaged version of the classical version of OTOCs from a model independent Hamiltonian along with the previously mentioned these well cited models.