We report a demonstration of the hallmark concept of quantum optics: periodic collapse and revival of quantum coherence (QCR) in a room temperature ensemble of quantum dots (QD). Control over quantum states, inherent to QCR, together with the dynamical QD properties present an opportunity for practical room temperature building blocks of quantum information processing. The amplitude decay of QCR is dictated by the QD homogeneous linewidth, thus, enabling its extraction in a double-pulse Ramsey-type experiment. The more common photon echo technique was also invoked and yielded the same linewidth. Measured electrical bias and temperature dependencies of the transverse relaxation times enable to determine the two main decoherence mechanisms: carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scatterings.

While temperature is well understood as an intensive quantity in standard thermodynamics, it is less clear whether the same holds in the presence of strong correlations, especially in the case of quantum systems, which may even display correlations with no classical analogue. The problem lies in the fact that, under the presence of strong correlations, subsystems of a system in thermal equilibrium are, in general, not described by a thermal state at the same temperature as the global system and thus one cannot simply assign a local temperature to them. However, there have been identified situations in which correlations in thermal states decay sufficiently fast so that the state of their subsystems can be very well approximated by the reduced states of equilibrium systems that are only slightly bigger than the subsystems themselves, hence allowing for a valid local definition of temperature. In this work, we address the question of whether temperature is locally well defined for a bosonic system with local interactions that undergoes a phase transition at non-zero temperature. We consider a three-dimensional bosonic model in the grand canonical state and verify that a certain form of locality of temperature holds regardless of the temperature, and despite the presence of infinite-range correlations at and below the critical temperature of the phase transition.

The sensitivity of quantum systems to external disturbances is a fundamental problem for the implementation of functional quantum devices, quantum information and computation. Based on remarkable experimental progress in optics and ultra-cold gases, we study the consequences of a short-time (instantaneous) noise while an intensity-dependent phase acquisition is associated with a qubit propagating on $N$-cycle. By employing quantum coherence measures, we report emerging unstable regimes in which hitherto unknown quantum walks arise, such as self-focusing and breathing dynamics. Our results unveil appropriate settings which favor the stable regime, with the asymptotic distribution surviving for weak nonlinearities and disappearing in the thermodynamic limit with $1/N$. The diagram showing the threshold between different regimes reveals the quantum gates close to Pauli-Z as more noise-tolerant. As we move towards the Pauli-X quantum gate, such aptness dramatically decreases and the threshold to self-focusing regime becomes almost unavoidable. Quantum gates close to Hadamard exhibit an unusual aspect, in which an increment of the nonlinear strength can remove the dynamics from self-focusing regime.

Interactions are essential for the creation of correlated quantum many-body states. While two-body interactions underlie most natural phenomena, three- and four-body interactions are important for the physics of nuclei [1], exotic few-body states in ultracold quantum gases [2], the fractional quantum Hall effect [3], quantum error correction [4], and holography [5, 6]. Recently, a number of artificial quantum systems have emerged as simulators for many-body physics, featuring the ability to engineer strong interactions. However, the interactions in these systems have largely been limited to the two-body paradigm, and require building up multi-body interactions by combining two-body forces. Here, we demonstrate a pure N-body interaction between microwave photons stored in an arbitrary number of electromagnetic modes of a multimode cavity. The system is dressed such that there is collectively no interaction until a target total photon number is reached across multiple distinct modes, at which point they interact strongly. The microwave cavity features 9 modes with photon lifetimes of $\sim 2$ ms coupled to a superconducting transmon circuit, forming a multimode circuit QED system with single photon cooperativities of $\sim10^9$. We generate multimode interactions by using cavity photon number resolved drives on the transmon circuit to blockade any multiphoton state with a chosen total photon number distributed across the target modes. We harness the interaction for state preparation, preparing Fock states of increasing photon number via quantum optimal control pulses acting only on the cavity modes. We demonstrate multimode interactions by generating entanglement purely with uniform cavity drives and multimode photon blockade, and characterize the resulting two- and three-mode W states using a new protocol for multimode Wigner tomography.

Quantum Gaussian channels play a key role in quantum information theory. In particular, the attenuation and amplification channels are useful to describe noise and decoherence effects on continuous variables systems. They are directly associated to the beam splitter and two-mode squeezing operations, which have operational relevance in quantum protocols with bosonic models. An important property of these channels is that they are Gaussian completely positive maps and the action on a general input state depends on the parameters characterizing the channels. In this work, we study the coherence dynamics introduced by these channels on input Gaussian states. We derive explicit expressions for the coherence depending on the parameters describing the channels. By assuming a displaced thermal state with initial coherence as input state, for the attenuation case it is observed a revival of the coherence as a function of the transmissivity coefficient, whereas for the amplification channel the coherence reaches asymptotic values depending on the gain coefficient. Further, we obtain the entropy production for these class of operations, showing that it can be reduced by controlling the parameters involved. We write a simple expression for computing the entropy production due to the coherence for both channels. This can be useful to simulate many processes in quantum thermodynamics, as finite-time driving on bosonic modes.

As an important quantum resource, quantum coherence play key role in quantum information processing. It is often concerned with manipulation of families of quantum states rather than individual states in isolation. Given two pairs of coherent states $(\rho_1,\rho_2)$ and $(\sigma_1,\sigma_2)$, we are aimed to study how can we determine if there exists a strictly incoherent operation $\Phi$ such that $\Phi(\rho_i) =\sigma_i,i = 1,2$. This is also a classic question in quantum hypothesis testing. In this note, structural characterization of coherent preorder under strongly incoherent operations is provided. Basing on the characterization, we propose an approach to realize coherence distillation from rank-two mixed coherent states to $q$-level maximally coherent states. In addition, one scheme of coherence manipulation between rank-two mixed states is also presented.

The quantum analogue of ptychography, a powerful coherent diffractive imaging technique, is a simple method for reconstructing $d$-dimensional pure states. It relies on measuring partially overlapping parts of the input state in a single orthonormal basis and feeding the outcomes to an iterative phase-retrieval algorithm for postprocessing. We provide a proof of concept demonstration of this method by determining pure states given by superpositions of $d$ transverse spatial modes of an optical field. A set of $n$ rank-$r$ projectors, diagonal in the spatial mode basis, is used to generate $n$ partially overlapping parts of the input and each part is projectively measured in the Fourier transformed basis. For $d$ up to 32, we successfully reconstructed hundreds of random states using $n=5$ and $n=d$ rank-$\lceil d/2\rceil$ projectors. The extension of quantum ptychography for other types of photonic spatial modes is outlined.

The consistent definition of the thermodynamic functions of small open quantum systems in contact with an environment in equilibrium with a heat bath has been the subject of many debates in the quantum community. In the present work we reproduce and comment parts of a recent approach of this subject by Rivas [15]. This approach overcomes the controversial discussions generated by the coupling between a system and its environment for any type of coupling between the two parts and allows for a consistent description of the thermodynamical properties of the system strongly interacting with the bath

We investigated the spectra of resonances of four-vertex microwave networks simulating both quantum graphs with preserved and with partially violated time-reversal invariance before and after an edge switch operation. We show experimentally that under the edge switch operation the spectra of the microwave networks with preserved time reversal symmetry are level-1 interlaced, i.e., $\nu_{n-r}\leq \tilde \nu_{n}\leq \nu_{n+r}$, where $r=1$, in agreement with the recent theoretical predictions of [M. Aizenman, H. Schanz, U. Smilansky, and S. Warzel, Acta Phys. Pol. A {\bf 132}, 1699 (2017)]. Here, we denote by $\{\nu_{n}\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ and $\{\tilde \nu_{n}\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ the spectra of microwave networks before and after the edge switch transformation. We demonstrate that the experimental distribution $P(\Delta N)$ of the spectral shift $\Delta N$ is close to the theoretical one. Furthermore, we show experimentally that in the case of the four-vertex networks with partially violated time reversal symmetry the spectra are level-1 interlaced. Our experimental results are supplemented by the numerical calculations performed for quantum graphs with violated time-reversal symmetry. In this case the edge switch transformation also leads to the spectra which are level-1 interlaced. Moreover, we demonstrate that for microwave networks simulating graphs with violated time-reversal symmetry the experimental distribution $P(\Delta N)$ of the spectral shift $\Delta N$ agrees within the experimental uncertainly with the numerical one.

Knowledge on evolving physical fields is of paramount importance in science, technology, and economics. Dynamical field inference (DFI) addresses the problem of reconstructing a stochastically driven, dynamically evolving field from finite data. It relies on information field theory (IFT), the information theory for fields. Here, the relations of DFI, IFT, and the recently developed supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) are established in a pedagogical discussion. In IFT, field expectation values can be calculated from the partition function of the full space-time inference problem. The partition function of the inference problem invokes a functional Dirac function to guarantee the dynamics, as well as a field-dependent functional determinant, to establish proper normalization, both impeding the necessary evaluation of the path integral over all field configurations. STS replaces these problematic expressions via the introduction of fermionic ghost and bosonic Lagrange fields, respectively. The action of these fields has a supersymmetry, which means there exist an exchange operation between bosons and fermions that leaves the system invariant. In contrast to this, measurements of the dynamical fields do not adhere to this supersymmetry. The supersymmetry can also be broken spontaneously, in which case the system evolves chaotically. This will affect the predictability of the system and thereby make DFI more challenging.

Incompatibility among different physical quantities poses a broad limit on quantum information processing. In multi-parameter quantum estimation, the ultimate precision limit known as quantum Cram\'{e}r-Rao bound becomes unattainable due to the incompatibility. This paper introduces a prescription to redesign given incompatible quantum statistical models to attain their quantum Cram\'{e}r-Rao bounds. The prescription leads to a theoretical technique to find compatible models with an aid of anti-unitary symmetries. Our findings also offer a physical interpretation of mean Uhlmann curvature which characterizes quantumness of phase transitions.

Coherent optical states consist of a quantum superposition of different photon number (Fock) states, but because they do not form an orthogonal basis, no photon number states can be obtained from it by linear optics. Here we demonstrate the reverse, by manipulating a random continuous single-photon stream using quantum interference in an optical Sagnac loop, we create engineered quantum states of light with tunable photon statistics, including approximately coherent states. We demonstrate this experimentally using a true single-photon stream produced by a semiconductor quantum dot in an optical microcavity, and show that we can obtain light with g2(0)->1 in agreement with our theory, which can only be explained by quantum interference of at least 3 photons. The produced artificial light states are, however, much more complex than coherent states, containing quantum entanglement of photons, making them a resource for multi-photon entanglement.

Motivated by the success of group IV colour centres in nanodiamonds (NDs) for hybrid technology requiring a single photon source, we study single germanium-vacancy (GeV$^-$) centres in NDs at room temperature with size rangingfrom 10 to 50 nm and with remarkable spectral properties. We characterize their zero-phonon line (ZPL), study their internal population dynamics and compare their emission properties in the framework of a three level model with intensity dependent de-shelving. Furthermore, we characterize their lifetime, polarization and brightness. We find amaximum photon emission count rate of 1.6 MHz at saturation. We also report a polarization visibility of 92% from the fluorescence light, which potentially makes GeV$^-$ centres good candidates for quantum key distribution (QKD)requiring polarized single photons. We show that the GeV$^-$ in NDs presented in this work have a comparable spectral stability compared to their bulk counterpart which is needed for future applications using NDs.

Remarkably, complex assemblies of superconducting wires, electrodes, and Josephson junctions are compactly described by a handful of collective phase degrees of freedom that behave like quantum particles in a potential. The inductive wires contribute a parabolic confinement, while the tunnel junctions add a cosinusoidal corrugation. Usually, the ground state wavefunction is localized within a single potential well -- that is, quantum phase fluctuations are small -- although entering the regime of delocalization holds promise for metrology and qubit protection. A direct route is to loosen the inductive confinement and let the ground state phase spread over multiple Josephson periods, but this requires a circuit impedance vastly exceeding the resistance quantum and constitutes an ongoing experimental challenge. Here we take a complementary approach and fabricate a generalized Josephson element that can be tuned in situ between one- and two-Cooper-pair tunneling, doubling the frequency of the corrugation and thereby magnifying the number of wells probed by the ground state. We measure a tenfold suppression of flux sensitivity of the first transition energy, implying a twofold increase in the vacuum phase fluctuations.

We show that bosonic and fermionic Gaussian states (also known as "squeezed coherent states") can be uniquely characterized by their linear complex structure $J$ which is a linear map on the classical phase space. This extends conventional Gaussian methods based on covariance matrices and provides a unified framework to treat bosons and fermions simultaneously. Pure Gaussian states can be identified with the triple $(G,\Omega,J)$ of compatible K\"ahler structures, consisting of a positive definite metric $G$, a symplectic form $\Omega$ and a linear complex structure $J$ with $J^2=-1\!\!1$. Mixed Gaussian states can also be identified with such a triple, but with $J^2\neq -1\!\!1$. We apply these methods to show how computations involving Gaussian states can be reduced to algebraic operations of these objects, leading to many known and some unknown identities. This provides one of the most comprehensive comparisons of bosonic and fermionic Gaussian states in the literature.

We study information-disturbance trade-off in generalized entanglement swapping protocols wherein starting from Bell pairs $\left(1,2\right)$ and $\left(3,4\right)$, one performs an arbitrary joint measurement on $\left(2,3\right)$, so that $\left(1,4\right)$ now becomes correlated. We obtain trade-off inequalities between information gain in correlations of $\left(1,4\right)$ and residual information in correlations of $\left(1,2\right)$ and $\left(3,4\right)$ respectively and argue that information contained in correlations (information) is conserved if each inequality is an equality. We show that information is conserved for a maximally entangled measurement but is not conserved for any other complete orthogonal measurement and Bell measurement mixed with white noise. However, rather surprisingly, we find that information is conserved for rank-two Bell diagonal measurements, although such measurements do not conserve entanglement. We also show that a separable measurement on $\left(2,3\right)$ can conserve information, even if, as in our example, the post-measurement states of all three pairs $\left(1,2\right)$, $\left(3,4\right)$, and $\left(1,4\right)$ become separable. This implies correlations from an entangled pair can be transferred to separable pairs in nontrivial ways so that no information is lost in the process.

A nonlinear stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) is a fascinating physical process that dynamically explores chaotic and non-chaotic phases. In a recent paper Phys. Rev. Res. 2, 042004 (R) (2020), such a phenomenon is realized in a cavity-QED platform. There, the emergence of chaos and its impact on STIRAP efficiency are mainly demonstrated in the semiclassical limit. In the present paper I treat the problem in a fully quantum many-body framework. With the aim of extracting quantum signatures of a classically chaotic system, it is shown that an out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) measure precisely captures chaotic/non-chaotic features of the system. The prediction by OTOC is in precise matching with classical chaos quantified by Lyapunov exponent (LE). Furthermore, it is shown that the quantum route corresponding to the semiclassical followed state encounters a dip in single-particle purity within the chaotic phase, depicting a consequence of chaos. A dynamics through the chaotic phase is associated with spreading of many-body quantum state and an irreversible increase in the number of participating adiabatic eigenstates.

Motivated by the recent discovery of ergodicity breaking in geometrically frustrated systems, we study the quench dynamics of interacting hardcore bosons on a sawtooth ladder. We identify a set of initial states for which this system exhibits characteristic signatures of localization like initial state memory retention and slow growth of entanglement entropy for a wide parameter regime. Remarkably, this localization persists even when the many-body spectrum is thermalizing. We argue that the localized dynamics originates from an interaction induced quantum interference. Our results show that the sawtooth ladder can be a fertile platform for realizing non-equilibrium quantum states of matter.

We present the positive-partial-transpose squared conjecture introduced by M. Christandl at Banff International Research Station Workshop: Operator Structures in Quantum Information Theory (Banff International Research Station, Alberta, 2012). We investigate the conjecture in higher dimensions and offer two novel approaches (decomposition and composition of quantum channels) and correspondingly, several schemes for finding counterexamples to this conjecture. One of the schemes involving the composition of PPT quantum channels in unsolved dimensions yields a potential counterexample.

We introduce an algorithm for the classical simulation of Gaussian boson sampling that is quadratically faster than previously known methods. The complexity of the algorithm is exponential in the number of photon pairs detected, not just the number of photons, and is directly proportional to the time required to calculate a probability amplitude for a pure Gaussian state. The main innovation is to employ the Williamson decomposition to express a mixed Gaussian state as a probability distribution over pure displaced Gaussian states. By first sampling this random displacement, it is possible to reduce sampling to computing pure-state probability amplitudes, for which the most computationally-expensive step is calculating a loop hafnian. We implement and benchmark an improved loop hafnian algorithm and show that it can be used to compute pure-state probabilities, the dominant step in the sampling algorithm, of up to 50-photon events in a single workstation, i.e., without the need of a supercomputer.

We consider a double Gaussian approximation to describe the wavefunction of twin photons (also called a biphoton) created in a nonlinear crystal via a type-I spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) process. We find that the wavefunction develops a Gouy phase while it propagates, being dependent of the two-photon correlation through the Rayleigh length. We evaluate the covariance matrix and show that the logarithmic negativity, useful in quantifying entanglement in Gaussian states, although Rayleigh-dependent, does not depend on the propagation distance. In addition, we show that the two-photon entanglement can be connected to the biphoton Gouy phase as these quantities are Rayleigh-length-related. Then, we focus the double Gaussian biphoton wavefunction using a thin lens and calculate a Gouy phase that is in reasonable agreement with the experimental data of D. Kawase et al. published in Ref. [1].

This review article summarizes the requirement of low temperature conditions in existing experimental approaches to quantum computation and quantum simulation.

Searching for physics beyond the standard model is crucial for understanding the mystery of the universe, such as the dark matter. We utilized a single spin in a diamond as a sensor to explore the spin-dependent interactions mediated by the axion-like particles, which are well motivated by dark matter candidates. We recorded non-zero magnetic fields exerted on the single electron spin from a moving mass. The strength of the magnetic field is proportional to the velocity of the moving mass. The dependency of the magnetic field on the distance between the spin and the moving mass has been experimentally characterized. We analyzed the possible sources of this magnetic signal, and our results provide highly suggestive of the existence of a new spin-dependent interaction. Our work opens a door for investigating the physics beyond the standard model in laboratory.

Optically-addressable solid-state spin defects are promising candidates for storing and manipulating quantum information using their long coherence ground state manifold; individual defects can be entangled using photon-photon interactions, offering a path toward large scale quantum photonic networks. Quantum computing protocols place strict limits on the acceptable photon losses in the system. These low-loss requirements cannot be achieved without photonic engineering, but are attainable if combined with state-of-the-art nanophotonic technologies. However, most materials that host spin defects are challenging to process: as a result, the performance of quantum photonic devices is orders of magnitude behind that of their classical counterparts. Silicon carbide (SiC) is well-suited to bridge the classical-quantum photonics gap, since it hosts promising optically-addressable spin defects and can be processed into SiC-on-insulator for scalable, integrated photonics. In this Perspective, we discuss recent progress toward the development of scalable quantum photonic technologies based on solid state spins in silicon carbide, and discuss current challenges and future directions.

According to Bohr's principle of complementarity, a quanton can behave either as a wave or a particle, depending on the choice of the experimental setup. Some recent two-path interference experiments have devised methods where one can have a quantum superposition of the two choices, thus indicating that a quanton may be in a superposition of wave and particle nature. These experiments have been of interest from the point of view of Wheeler's delayed-choice experiment. However, it has also been claimed that this experiment can violate complementarity. Here we theoretically analyze a multipath interference experiment that has a which-path detector in a quantum superposition of being present and absent. We show that a tight multipath wave-particle duality relation is respected in all such situations, and complementarity holds good. The apparent violation of complementarity may be due to incorrect evaluation of path distinguishability in such scenarios.

We establish fundamental upper bounds on the amount of secret key that can be extracted from continuous variable quantum Gaussian states by using only local Gaussian operations, local classical processing, and public communication. For one-way communication, we prove that the key is bounded by the R\'enyi-$2$ Gaussian entanglement of formation $E_{F,2}^{\mathrm{\scriptscriptstyle G}}$, with the inequality being saturated for pure Gaussian states. The same is true if two-way public communication is allowed but Alice and Bob employ protocols that start with destructive local Gaussian measurements. In the most general setting of two-way communication and arbitrary interactive protocols, we argue that $2 E_{F,2}^{\mathrm{\scriptscriptstyle G}}$ is still a bound on the extractable key, although we conjecture that the factor of $2$ is superfluous. Finally, for a wide class of Gaussian states that includes all two-mode states, we prove a recently proposed conjecture on the equality between $E_{F,2}^{\mathrm{\scriptscriptstyle G}}$ and the Gaussian intrinsic entanglement, thus endowing both measures with a more solid operational meaning.

Quantum entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon where the quantum state of a many-body system with many degrees of freedom cannot be described independently of the state of each body with a given degree of freedom, no matter how far apart in space each body is. Entanglement is not only considered a resource in quantum information but also believed to affect complex condensed matter systems. Detecting and quantifying multi-particle entanglement in a many-body system is thus of fundamental significance for both quantum information science and condensed matter physics. Here, we detect and quantify multipartite entanglement in a spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain in a bulk solid. Multipartite entanglement was detected using quantum Fisher information which was obtained using dynamic susceptibility measured via inelastic neutron scattering. The scaling behaviour of quantum Fisher information was found to identify the spin 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain to belong to a class of strongly entangled quantum phase transitions with divergent multipartite entanglement.

Quantum hypothesis testing is an important tool for quantum information processing. Two main strategies have been widely adopted: in a minimum error discrimination strategy, the average error probability is minimized; while in an unambiguous discrimination strategy, an inconclusive decision (abstention) is allowed to vanish any possibility of errors when a conclusive result is obtained. In both scenarios, the testing between quantum states are relatively well-understood, for example, the ultimate limits of the performance are established decades ago; however, the testing between quantum channels is less understood. Although the ultimate limit of minimum error discrimination between channels has been explored recently, the corresponding limit of unambiguous discrimination is unknown. In this paper, we formulate an approximate unambiguous discrimination scenario, and derive the ultimate limits of the performance for both states and channels. In particular, in the channel case, our lower bound of the inconclusive probability holds for arbitrary adaptive sensing protocols. For the special class of `teleportation-covariant' channels, the lower bound is achievable with maximum entangled inputs and no adaptive strategy is necessary.

Free-Electron Bound-Electron Resonant Interaction (FEBERI) is the resonant inelastic interaction of periodically density-bunched free electrons with a quantum two level system. We present a comprehensive relativistic quantum mechanical theory for this interaction in a model in which the electrons are represented as quantum electron wavepackets (QEW). The analysis reveals the wave-particle duality nature of the QEW, delineating the point-particle-like and wave-like interaction regimes, and manifesting the physical reality of the wavefunction dimensions and its density modulation characteristics in interaction with matter. The analysis comprehends the case of laser-beam-modulated multiple QEWs that are modulation-phase correlated. Based on the Born interpretation of the electron wavefunction we predict quantum transitions enhancement proportional to the number of electrons squared, analogous to superradiance.

Quantum algorithms for both differential equation solving and for machine learning potentially offer an exponential speedup over all known classical algorithms. However, there also exist obstacles to obtaining this potential speedup in useful problem instances. The essential obstacle for quantum differential equation solving is that outputting useful information may require difficult post-processing, and the essential obstacle for quantum machine learning is that inputting the training set is a difficult task just by itself. In this paper, we demonstrate, when combined, these difficulties solve one another. We show how the output of quantum differential equation solving can serve as the input for quantum machine learning, allowing dynamical analysis in terms of principal components, power spectra, and wavelet decompositions. To illustrate this, we consider continuous time Markov processes on epidemiological and social networks. These quantum algorithms provide an exponential advantage over existing classical Monte Carlo methods.

Large-scale quantum networks require quantum memories featuring long-lived storage of non-classical light together with efficient, high-speed and reliable operation. The concurrent realization of these features is challenging due to inherent limitations of matter platforms and light-matter interaction protocols. Here, we propose an approach to overcome this obstacle, based on the implementation of the Autler-Townes-splitting (ATS) quantum-memory protocol on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) platform. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle of this approach by storing short pulses of single-photon-level light as a collective spin-excitation in a rubidium BEC. For 20 ns long-pulses, we achieve an ultra-low-noise memory with an efficiency of 30% and lifetime of 15 $\mu$s. The non-adiabatic character of the ATS protocol (leading to high-speed and low-noise operation) in combination with the intrinsically large atomic densities and ultra-low temperatures of the BEC platform (offering highly efficient and long-lived storage) opens up a new avenue towards high-performance quantum memories.

Averaging physical quantities over Lie groups appears in many contexts across the rapidly developing branches of physics like quantum information science or quantum optics. Such an averaging process can be always represented as averaging with respect to a finite number of elements of the group, called a finite averaging set. In the previous research such sets, known as $t$-designs, were constructed only for the case of averaging over unitary groups (hence the name unitary $t$-designs). In this work we investigate the problem of constructing finite averaging sets for averaging over general non-compact matrix Lie groups, which is much more subtle task due to the fact that the the uniform invariant measure on the group manifold (the Haar measure) is infinite. We provide a general construction of such sets based on the Cartan decomposition of the group, which splits the group into its compact and non-compact components. The averaging over the compact part can be done in a uniform way, whereas the averaging over the non-compact one has to be endowed with a suppresing weight function, and can be approached using generalised Gauss quadratures. This leads us to the general form of finite averaging sets for semisimple matrix Lie groups in the product form of finite averaging sets with respect to the compact and non-compact parts. We provide an explicit calculation of such sets for the group $SL(2, \mathbb{C})$, although our construction can be applied to other cases. Possible applications of our results cover finding finite ensambles of random operations in quantum information science and quantum optics, which can be used in constructions of randomised quantum algorithms, including optical interferometric implementations.

The Standard Quantum Limit (SQL) restricts the sensitivity of atom interferometers employing unentangled ensembles. Inertially sensitive light-pulse atom interferometry beyond the SQL requires the preparation of entangled atoms in different momentum states. So far, such a source of entangled atoms that is compatible with state-of-the-art interferometers has not been demonstrated. Here, we report the transfer of entanglement from the spin degree of freedom of a Bose-Einstein condensate to well-separated momentum modes. A measurement of number and phase correlations between the two momentum modes yields a squeezing parameter of -3.1(8) dB. The method is directly applicable for a future generation of entanglement-enhanced atom interferometers as desired for tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle and the detection of gravitational waves.

Studying sequential measurements is of the utmost importance to both the foundational aspects of quantum theory and the practical implementations of quantum technologies, with both of these applications being abstractly described by the concatenation of quantum instruments into a sequence of certain length. In general, the choice of instrument at any given step in the sequence can be conditionally chosen based on the classical results of all preceding instruments. For two instruments in a sequence we consider the conditional second instrument as an effective way of post-processing the first instrument into a new one. This is similar to how a measurement described by a positive operator-valued measure (POVM) can be post-processed into another by way of classical randomization of its outcomes using a stochastic matrix. In this work we study the post-processing relation of instruments and the partial order it induces on their equivalence classes. We characterize the greatest and the least element of this order, give examples of post-processings between different types of instruments and draw connections between post-processings of some of these instruments and their induced POVMs.

The effects of a beamsplitter are frequently described mathematically as a matrix acting on a two input ports vector. This might be comprehensive for a scalar field but certainly insufficient in case of photons which are vector fields. In this paper we discuss theoretical grounds to define elements of a 4x4 matrix to more accurately represent the beamsplitter, fully accounting for transverse polarization modes. We also provide experimental evidence confirming this matrix representation. From an educational point of view the paper addresses a new applicability of Hilbert space description of vector fields which may be used in a classical context such as the Fresnel formalism for reflection and transmission coefficients at a dielectric interface. That the formalism can be readily verified with a simple experiment provides further benefit. The beamsplitter expression derived can also be applied in the field of quantum computing.

In the paradigm with a small warped Spacelike Extra Dimensions (SED), the Higgs field is in general localized at a boundary of the SED (TeV-brane) where the gravity scale is redshifted to the TeV by a warp factor. If the SM gauge bosons and fermions propagate into the warped SED, one can generate the mass hierarchy for fermions. It is thus crucial to treat carefully the TeV-brane localized masses for such fermions, which is done in the literature by applying a regularization process suffering from a lack of consistency and more importantly being useless, as we demonstrate in detail in the present thesis. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the treatment of brane localized mass terms for 5D fermions, which requires the introduction of new Lagrangian terms at the SED boundaries, similar to the Gibbons-Hawking terms in gravity. The second part consists in applying different methods (function/distribution fields, 4D/5D calculations, etc) to various brane localized terms (kinetic terms, Majorana masses, etc), as well as a generalization to several classified models (flat/warped dimensions, intervalle/orbifold, etc). In the third part, we propose to compactify a flat SED on a star/rose graph with a large number of identical small leaves/petals. We obtain a compactified space with a large volume without a large compactification length to stabilize. We use the approach of 5D fermions to build a toy model of small Dirac neutrino masses (brane localized left-handed neutrinos and bulk right-handed ones).

We introduce the subsystem symmetry-preserving real-space entanglement renormalization group and apply it to study bifurcating flows generated by linear and fractal subsystem symmetry-protected topological phases in two spatial dimensions. We classify all bifurcating fixed points that are given by subsystem symmetric cluster states with two qubits per unit cell. In particular, we find that the square lattice cluster state is a quotient-bifurcating fixed point, while the cluster states derived from Yoshida's first order fractal spin liquid models are self-bifurcating fixed points. We discuss the relevance of bifurcating subsystem symmetry-preserving renormalization group fixed points for the classification and equivalence of subsystem symmetry-protected topological phases.

In this work, we present a quantum information framework for the entanglement behavior of the low energy quasiparticle (QP) excitations in various quantum phases in one-dimensional (1D) systems. We first establish an exact correspondence between the correlation matrix and the QP entanglement Hamiltonian for free fermions and find an extended in-gap state in the QP entanglement Hamiltonian as a consequence of the position uncertainty of the QP. A more general understanding of such an in-gap state can be extended to a Kramers theorem for the QP entanglement Hamiltonian, which also applies to strongly interacting systems. Further, we present a set of ubiquitous entanglement spectrum features, dubbed entanglement fragmentation, conditional mutual information, and measurement induced non-local entanglement for QPs in 1D symmetry protected topological phases. Our result thus provides a new framework to identify different phases of matter in terms of their QP entanglement.

In three dimensions, gapped phases can support "fractonic" quasiparticle excitations, which are either completely immobile or can only move within a low-dimensional submanifold, a peculiar topological phenomenon going beyond the conventional framework of topological quantum field theory. In this work we explore fractonic topological phases using three-dimensional coupled wire constructions, which have proven to be a successful tool to realize and characterize topological phases in two dimensions. We find that both gapped and gapless phases with fractonic excitations can emerge from the models. In the gapped case, we argue that fractonic excitations are mobile along the wire direction, but their mobility in the transverse plane is generally reduced. We show that the excitations in general have infinite-order fusion structure, distinct from previously known gapped fracton models. Like the 2D coupled wire constructions, many models exhibit gapless (or even chiral) surface states, which can be described by infinite-component Luttinger liquids. However, the universality class of the surface theory strongly depends on the surface orientation, thus revealing a new type of bulk-boundary correspondence unique to fracton phases.

Non-abelian gauge fields emerge naturally in the description of adiabatically evolving quantum systems having degenerate levels. Here we show that they also play a role in Thouless pumping in the presence of degenerate bands.To this end we consider a photonic Lieb lattice having two degenerate non-dispersive modes and we show that, when the lattice parameters are slowly modulated, the propagation of the photons bear the fingerprints of the underlying non-abelian gauge structure. The non-dispersive character of the bands enables a high degree of control on photon propagation. Our work paves the way to the generation and detection of non-abelian gauge fields in photonic and optical lattices.

The paper describes the results achieved in the development of the compact transportable fully automated optical clock based on a single 171Yb+ ion in a radiofrequency (RF) quadrupole trap. The resulted measurements demonstrated the 4.9E-16 output RF signal relative instability on 1000 s integration time with 298.1 kg weight, 0.921 volume, and 2.766 kW input power consumption of the device. A transformation of the ultrastable optical signal into the RF range was performed via the optical frequency comb with a supercontinuum fiber laser generator. The transformation was conducted without loss of initial stability and accuracy characteristics of the signal.

We present a novel solution to automated beam alignment optimization. This device is based on a Raspberry Pi computer, stepper motors, commercial optomechanics and electronic devices, and the open source machine learning algorithm M-LOOP. We provide schematic drawings for the custom hardware necessary to operate the device and discuss diagnostic techniques to determine the performance. The beam auto-aligning device has been used to improve the alignment of a laser beam into a single-mode optical fiber from manually optimized fiber alignment with an iteration time of typically 20~minutes. We present example data of one such measurement to illustrate device performance.

We study in detail an open quantum generalisation of a classical kinetically constrained model -- the East model -- known to exhibit slow glassy dynamics stemming from a complex hierarchy of metastable states with distinct lifetimes. Using the recently introduced theory of classical metastability for open quantum systems, we show that the driven open quantum East model features a hierarchy of classical metastabilities at low temperature and weak driving field. We find that the effective long-time description of its dynamics is not only classical, but shares many properties with the classical East model, such as obeying an effective detailed balance condition, and lacking static interactions between excitations, but with this occurring within a modified set of metastable phases which are coherent, and with an effective temperature that is dependent on the coherent drive.

We study the stability with respect to a broad class of perturbations of gapped ground state phases of quantum spin systems defined by frustration-free Hamiltonians. The core result of this work is a proof using the Bravyi-Hastings-Michalakis (BHM) strategy that under a condition of Local Topological Quantum Order, the bulk gap is stable under perturbations that decay at long distances faster than a stretched exponential. Compared to previous work we expand the class of frustration-free quantum spin models that can be handled to include models with more general boundary conditions, and models with discrete symmetry breaking. Detailed estimates allow us to formulate sufficient conditions for the validity of positive lower bounds for the gap that are uniform in the system size and that are explicit to some degree. We provide a survey of the BHM strategy following the approach of Michalakis and Zwolak, with alterations introduced to accommodate more general than just periodic boundary conditions and more general lattices. We express the fundamental condition known as LTQO by means of the notion of indistinguishability radius, which we introduce. Using the uniform finite-volume results we then proceed to study the thermodynamic limit. We first study the case of a unique limiting ground state and then also consider models with spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. In the latter case, LTQO cannot hold for all local observables. However, for perturbations that preserve the symmetry, we show stability of the gap and the structure of the broken symmetry phases. We prove that the GNS Hamiltonian associated with each pure state has a non-zero spectral gap above the ground state.

For a long period of time, we have been seeking how Berry curvature influnces the transport properties in materials breaking time-reversal symmetry. In time-reversal symmetric material, there will be no thermoelectric current induced by Berry curvature in linear regime. However, the nonlinear Hall current can be shown in non-magnetic and non-centrosymmetric materials, where Berry curvature dipole plays an important role. Most studies are developed from semi-classical Boltzmann equation. Here we show the quantum kinetic theory for nonlinear Nernst effect and introduce a new type of Berry curvature dipole: thermoelectric Berry curvature dipole. This new Berry curvature dipole will also induce the thermoelectric transport in nonlinear regime even in time-reversal invariant crystals. We will also apply our theory to topological crystalline insulator with tilted Dirac cone.

We present a family of topological quantum gravity theories associated with the geometric theory of the Ricci flow on Riemannian manifolds. First we use BRST quantization to construct a "primitive" topological Lifshitz-type theory for only the spatial metric, with spatial diffeomorphism invariance and no gauge symmetry, associated with Hamilton's Ricci flow: Hamilton's flow equation appears as the localization equation of the primitive theory. Then we extend the primitive theory by gauging foliation-preserving spacetime symmetries. Crucially, all our theories are required to exhibit an ${\cal N}=2$ extended BRST symmetry. First, we gauge spatial diffeomorphisms, and show that this gives us access to the mathematical technique known as the DeTurck trick. Finally, we gauge foliation-preserving time reparametrizations, both with the projectable and nonprojectable lapse function. The path integral of the full theory is localized to the solutions of Ricci-type flow equations, generalizing those of Perelman. The role of Perelman's dilaton is played by the nonprojectable lapse function. Perelman's ${\cal F}$-functional appears as the superpotential of our theory. Since there is no spin-statistics theorem in nonrelativistic quantum field theory, the two supercharges of our gravity theory do not have to be interpreted as BRST charges and, after the continuation to real time, the theory can be studied as a candidate for nonrelativistic quantum gravity with propagating bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom.

We present a design for an atomic oven suitable for loading ion traps, which is operated via optical heating with a continuous-wave multimode diode laser. The absence of the low-resistance electrical connections necessary for Joule heating allows the oven to be extremely well thermally isolated from the rest of the vacuum system, and for an oven filled with calcium we achieve a number density suitable for rapid ion loading in the target region with ~200 mW of laser power, limited by radiative losses. With simple feedforward to the laser power, the turn-on time for the oven is less than 20 s, while the oven contains enough calcium to operate continuously for many thousands of years without replenishment.

We present the novel approach to mathematical modeling of information processes in biosystems. It explores the mathematical formalism and methodology of quantum theory, especially quantum measurement theory. This approach is known as {\it quantum-like} and it should be distinguished from study of genuine quantum physical processes in biosystems (quantum biophysics, quantum cognition). It is based on quantum information representation of biosystem's state and modeling its dynamics in the framework of theory of open quantum systems. This paper starts with the non-physicist friendly presentation of quantum measurement theory, from the original von Neumann formulation to modern theory of quantum instruments. Then, latter is applied to model combinations of cognitive effects and gene regulation of glucose/lactose metabolism in Escherichia coli bacterium. The most general construction of quantum instruments is based on the scheme of indirect measurement, in that measurement apparatus plays the role of the environment for a biosystem. The biological essence of this scheme is illustrated by quantum formalization of Helmholtz sensation-perception theory. Then we move to open systems dynamics and consider quantum master equation, with concentrating on quantum Markov processes. In this framework, we model functioning of biological functions such as psychological functions and epigenetic mutation.

In this paper I explain how I usually introduce the Schr\"odinger equation during the quantum mechanics course. My preferred method is the chronological one. Since the Schr\"odinger equation belongs to a special case of wave equations I start the course with introducing the wave equation. The Schr\"odinger equation is derived with the help of the two quantum concepts introduced by Max Planck, Einstein, and de Broglie, i.e., the energy of a photon $E=\hbar\omega$ and the wavelength of the de Broglie wave $\lambda=h/p$. Finally, the difference between the classical wave equation and the quantum Schr\"odinger one is explained in order to help the students to grasp the meaning of quantum wavefunction $\Psi({\bf r},t)$. A comparison of the present method to the approaches given by the authors of quantum mechanics textbooks as well as that of the original Nuffield A level is presented. It is found that the present approach is different from those given by these authors, except by Weinberg or Dicke and Wittke. However, the approach is in line with the original Nuffield A level one.

A solvable model of a periodically-driven trapped mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, consisting of $N_1$ interacting bosons of mass $m_1$ driven by a force of amplitude $f_{L,1}$ and $N_2$ interacting bosons of mass $m_2$ driven by a force of amplitude $f_{L,2}$, is presented. The model generalizes the harmonic-interaction model for mixtures to the time-dependent domain. The resulting many-particle ground Floquet wavefunction and quasienergy, as well as the time-dependent densities and reduced density matrices, are prescribed explicitly and analyzed at the many-body and mean-field levels of theory for finite systems and at the limit of an infinite number of particles. We prove that the time-dependent densities per particle are given at the limit of an infinite number of particles by their respective mean-field quantities, and that the time-dependent reduced one-particle and two-particle density matrices per particle of the driven mixture are $100\%$ condensed. Interestingly, the quasienergy per particle {\it does not} coincide with the mean-field value at this limit, unless the relative center-of-mass coordinate of the two Bose-Einstein condensates is not activated by the driving forces $f_{L,1}$ and $f_{L,2}$. As an application, we investigate the imprinting of angular momentum and its fluctuations when steering a Bose-Einstein condensate by an interacting bosonic impurity, and the resulting modes of rotations. Whereas the expectation values per particle of the angular-momentum operator for the many-body and mean-field solutions coincide at the limit of an infinite number of particles, the respective fluctuations can differ substantially. The results are analyzed in terms of the transformation properties of the angular-momentum operator under translations and boosts and the interactions between the particles. Implications are briefly discussed.

A constrained BRST--BV Lagrangian formulation for totally symmetric massless HS fields in a $d$-dimensional Minkowski space is extended to a non-minimal constrained BRST--BV Lagrangian formulation by using a non-minimal BRST operator $Q_{c|\mathrm{tot}}$ with non-minimal Hamiltonian BFV oscillators $\overline{C}, \overline{\mathcal{P}}, \lambda, \pi$, as well as antighost and Nakanishi-Lautrup tensor fields, in order to introduce an admissible self-consistent gauge condition. The gauge-fixing procedure involves an operator gauge-fixing BRST-BFV Fermion $\Psi_H$ as a kernel of the gauge-fixing BRST--BV Fermion functional $\Psi$, manifesting the concept of BFV--BV duality. A Fock-space quantum action with non-minimal BRST-extended off-shell constraints is constructed as a shift of the total generalized field-antifield vector by a variational derivative of the gauge-fixing Fermion $\Psi$ in a total BRST--BV action $S^{\Psi}_{0|s} = \int d \eta_0 \langle \chi^{\Psi{} 0}_{\mathrm{tot}|c} \big| Q_{c|\mathrm{tot}}\big| \chi^{\Psi{} 0}_{\mathrm{tot}|c}\rangle$. We use a gauge condition which depends on two gauge parameters, thereby extending the case of $R_\xi$-gauges. For the generating functionals of Green's functions, BRST symmetry transformations are suggested and Ward identity is obtained.

In this colloquium, we review the research on excitons in van der Waals heterostructures from the point of view of variational calculations. We first make a presentation of the current and past literature, followed by a discussion on the connections between experimental and theoretical results. In particular, we focus our review of the literature on the absorption spectrum and polarizability, as well as the Stark shift and the dissociation rate. Afterwards, we begin the discussion of the use of variational methods in the study of excitons. We initially model the electron-hole interaction as a soft-Coulomb potential, which can be used to describe interlayer excitons. Using an \emph{ansatz}, based on the solution for the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator, we study the Rytova-Keldysh potential, which is appropriate to describe intralayer excitons in two-dimensional (2D) materials. These variational energies are then recalculated with a different \emph{ansatz}, based on the exact wavefunction of the 2D hydrogen atom, and the obtained energy curves are compared. Afterwards, we discuss the Wannier-Mott exciton model, reviewing it briefly before focusing on an application of this model to obtain both the exciton absorption spectrum and the binding energies for certain values of the physical parameters of the materials. Finally, we briefly discuss an approximation of the electron-hole interaction in interlayer excitons as an harmonic potential and the comparison of the obtained results with the existing values from both first--principles calculations and experimental measurements.

Quantum gases of light, as photons or polariton condensates in optical microcavities, are collective quantum systems enabling a tailoring of dissipation from e.g. cavity loss. This makes them a tool to study dissipative phases, an emerging subject in quantum manybody physics. Here we experimentally demonstrate a non-Hermitian phase transition of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate to a new dissipative phase, characterized by a biexponential decay of the condensate's second-order coherence. The phase transition occurs due to the emergence of an exceptional point in the quantum gas. While Bose-Einstein condensation is usually connected to ordinary lasing by a smooth crossover, the observed phase transition separates the novel, biexponential phase from both lasing and an intermediate, oscillatory condensate regime. Our findings pave the way for studies of a wide class of dissipative quantum phases, for instance in topological or lattice systems.