New articles on Quantum Physics

[1] 2405.15797

Signatures of Integrability and Exactly Solvable Dynamics in an Infinite-Range Many-Body Floquet Spin System

In a recent work Sharma and Bhosale [Phys. Rev. B, 109, 014412 (2024)], $N$-spin Floquet model having infinite range Ising interaction was introduced. In this paper, we generalized the strength of interaction to $J$, such that $J=1$ case reduces to the aforementioned work. We show that for $J=1/2$ the model still exhibits integrability for an even number of qubits only. We analytically solve the cases of $6$, $8$, $10$, and $12$ qubits, finding its eigensystem, dynamics of entanglement for various initial states, and the unitary evolution operator. These quantities exhibit the signature of quantum integrability (QI). For the general case of even-$N > 12$ qubits, we conjuncture the presence of QI using the numerical evidences such as spectrum degeneracy, and the exact periodic nature of both the entanglement dynamics and the time-evolved unitary operator. We numerically show the absence of QI for odd $N$ by observing a violation of the signatures of QI. We analytically and numerically find that the maximum value of time-evolved concurrence ($C_{\mbox{max}}$) decreases with $N$, indicating the multipartite nature of entanglement. Possible experiments to verify our results are discussed.

[2] 2405.15853

Anomaly inflow for CSS and fractonic lattice models and dualities via cluster state measurement

Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes are a class of quantum error correction codes that contains the toric code and fracton models. A procedure called foliation defines a cluster state for a given CSS code. We use the CSS chain complex and its tensor product with other chain complexes to describe the topological structure in the foliated cluster state, and argue that it has a symmetry-protected topological order protected by generalized global symmetries supported on cycles in the foliated CSS chain complex. We demonstrate the so-called anomaly inflow between CSS codes and corresponding foliated cluster states by explicitly showing the equality of the gauge transformations of the bulk and boundary partition functions defined as functionals of defect world-volumes. We show that the bulk and boundary defects are related via measurement of the bulk system. Further, we provide a procedure to obtain statistical models associated with general CSS codes via the foliated cluster state, and derive a generalization of the Kramers-Wannier-Wegner duality for such statistical models with insertion of twist defects. We also study the measurement-assisted gauging method with cluster-state entanglers for CSS/fracton models based on recent proposals in the literature, and demonstrate a non-invertible fusion of duality operators. Using the cluster-state entanglers, we construct the so-called strange correlator for general CSS/fracton models. Finally, we introduce a new family of subsystem-symmetric quantum models each of which is self-dual under the generalized Kramers-Wannier-Wegner duality transformation, which becomes a non-invertible symmetry.

[3] 2405.15854

Accommodating Fabrication Defects on Floquet Codes with Minimal Hardware Requirements

Floquet codes are an intriguing generalisation of stabiliser and subsystem codes, which can provide good fault-tolerant characteristics while benefiting from reduced connectivity requirements in hardware. A recent question of interest has been how to run Floquet codes on devices which have defective -- and therefore unusable -- qubits. This is an under-studied issue of crucial importance for running such codes on realistic hardware. To address this challenge, we introduce a new method of accommodating defective qubits on a wide range of two-dimensional Floquet codes, which requires no additional connectivity in the underlying quantum hardware, no modifications to the original Floquet code's measurement schedule, can accommodate boundaries, and is optimal in terms of the number of qubits and stabilisers removed. We numerically demonstrate that, using this method, the planar honeycomb code is fault tolerant up to a fabrication defect probability of $\approx 12\%$. We find the fault-tolerant performance of this code under defect noise is competitive with that of the surface code, despite its sparser connectivity. We finally propose multiple ways this approach can be adapted to the underlying hardware, through utilising any additional connectivity available, and treating defective auxiliary qubits separately to defective data qubits. Our work therefore serves as a guide for the implementation of Floquet codes in realistic quantum hardware.

[4] 2405.15857

Multi-frequency control and measurement of a spin-7/2 system encoded in a transmon qudit

Qudits hold great promise for efficient quantum computation and the simulation of high-dimensional quantum systems. Utilizing a local Hilbert space of dimension d > 2 is known to speed up certain quantum algorithms relative to their qubit counterparts given efficient local qudit control and measurement. However, the direct realization of high-dimensional rotations and projectors has proved challenging, with most experiments relying on decompositions of SU(d) operations into series of rotations between two-level subspaces of adjacent states and projective readout of a small number of states. Here we employ simultaneous multi-frequency drives to generate rotations and projections in an effective spin-7/2 system by mapping it onto the energy eigenstates of a superconducting circuit. We implement single-shot readout of the 8 states using a multi-tone dispersive readout (F_assignment = 88.3%) and exploit the strong nonlinearity in a high EJ/EC transmon to simultaneously address each transition and realize a spin displacement operator. By combining the displacement operator with a virtual SNAP gate, we realize arbitrary single-qudit unitary operations in O(d) physical pulses and extract spin displacement gate fidelities ranging from 0.997 to 0.989 for virtual spins of size j = 1 to j = 7/2. These native qudit operations could be combined with entangling operations to explore qudit-based error correction or simulations of lattice gauge theories with qudits. Our multi-frequency approach to qudit control and measurement can be readily extended to other physical platforms that realize a multi-level system coupled to a cavity and can become a building block for efficient qudit-based quantum computation and simulation.

[5] 2405.15876

Quantum Phase Transition in a Modified Jaynes-Cummings Model

We introduce a modified Jaynes-Cummings model with single-photon cavity radiation field but with the atomic system instead of exchanging a single photon as in the Jaynes-Cummings model, it exchanges instead a squeezed photon with squeezing parameter r. This allows us to interpolate between the Rabi model, r = infinity, and the Jaynes-Cummings model, r = 0, by varying r. The model exhibits a quantum phase transition. Accordingly, the quantum phase transition realized in the Rabi model, giving rise to superradiance, also occurs in the Jaynes-Cummings model

[6] 2405.15892

Many-body systems with spurious modular commutators

Recently, it was proposed that the chiral central charge of a gapped, two-dimensional quantum many-body system is proportional to a bulk ground state entanglement measure known as the modular commutator. While there is significant evidence to support this relation, we show in this paper that it is not universal. We give examples of lattice systems that have vanishing chiral central charge which nevertheless give nonzero "spurious" values for the modular commutator for arbitrarily large system sizes, in both one and two dimensions. Our examples are based on cluster states and utilize the fact that they can generate nonlocal modular Hamiltonians.

[7] 2405.15931

Implementation of CU gates and its application in a remote-controlled quantum operation

Recently, remote-controlled quantum information processing has been proposed for its applications in secure quantum processing protocols and distributed quantum networks. For remote-controlled quantum gates, the experimental realization of controlled unitary (CU) gates between any quantum gates is an essential task. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme for implementing CU gates between arbitrary pairs of unitary gates using the polarization and time-bin degrees of freedom of single-photons. Then, we experimentally implement remote-controlled single-qubit unitary gates by controlling either the state preparation or measurement of the control qubit with high process fidelities. We believe that the proposed remote-controlled quantum gate model can pave the way for secure and efficient quantum information processing.

[8] 2405.15947

Mitigating scattering in a quantum system using only an integrating sphere

Strong quantum-correlated sources are essential but delicate resources for quantum information science and engineering protocols. Decoherence and loss are the two main disruptive processes that lead to the loss of nonclassical behavior in quantum correlations. In quantum systems, scattering can contribute to both decoherence and loss. In this work, we present an experimental scheme capable of significantly mitigating the adverse impact of scattering in quantum systems. Our quantum system is composed of a two-mode squeezed light generated with the four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor, and a scatterer is introduced to one of the two modes. An integrating sphere is then placed after the scatterer to recollect the scattered photons. We use mutual information between the two modes as the measure of quantum correlations, and demonstrate a 47.5% mutual information recovery from scattering, despite an enormous photon loss of greater than 85%. Our scheme is a pioneering step towards recovering quantum correlations from disruptive random processes, thus has the potential to bridge the gap between proof-of-principle demonstrations and practical real-world deployments of quantum protocols.

[9] 2405.15949

Daemonic quantum battery charged by thermalization

The reduced state of a small system strongly coupled to a charger in thermal equilibrium may be athermal and used as a small battery once disconnected. By harnessing the battery-charger correlations, the battery's extractable energy can increase above the ergotropy. We introduce a protocol that uses a quantum system as a memory that measures the charger and leaves the battery intact in its charged state. Using the information gained from the measurement, the daemonic ergotropy of the battery is extracted. Then the battery is reconnected to the charger, thermalizing and charging it. However, the memory should return to its initial standard state to close the thermodynamic cycle. Thus, on the one hand, the work cost of the cycle is the sum of the disconnecting and reconnecting battery-charger work plus the measurement and erasure work. On the other hand, the extracted energy is the daemonic ergotropy of the battery plus the ergotropy of the memory. The ratio of these quantities defines the efficiency of the cycle. The protocol is exemplified by a modified transverse spin 1/2 Ising chain, one spin functioning as the battery and the others as the charger. The memory is another auxiliary spin 1/2. We found pairs of measurement schemes from which we extract the same daemonic ergotropy from the battery, they dissipate the same amount of energy, and one leaves the memory in an active state, the other in a passive state. We study the memory's ergotropy and the daemonic ergotropy of the battery. We find that with measurements, the efficiency can surpass that of the unmeasured protocol, given conditions on temperature, coupling, and choice of the measurement operators.

[10] 2405.16018

Spin quantum number as quantum resource for quantum sensing

Identifying quantum resources for quantum sensing is of paramount importance. Up to date, two quantum resources has been widely recognized: the number $N$ of entangled quantum probes and the coherent evolution time $T$. Here we identify the spin quantum number $S$ of high-spin systems as another quantum resource, which can improve the sensing precision of magnetic field according to the Heisenberg scaling in the absence of noises. Similar to the case of $N$ and $T$, the utility of $S$ may be degraded by environmental noises. We analyze this point sysmatically under the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise (a prevalent noise in realistic physical systems). We find that the utility of $S$ vanishes in Markovian noises, but survives in non-Markovian noises, where it improves the sensing precision according to the classical scaling $1/\sqrt{S}$. Super-classical scaling can be achieved by suitable control of the high-spin system.

[11] 2405.16067

Weaving Complex Graph on simple low-dimensional qubit lattices

In quantum computing, the connectivity of qubits placed on two-dimensional chips limits the scalability and functionality of solid-state quantum computers. This paper presents two approaches to constructing complex quantum networks from simple qubit arrays, specifically grid lattices. The first approach utilizes a subset of qubits as tunable couplers, effectively yielding a range of non-trivial graph-based Hamiltonians. The second approach employs dynamic graph engineering by periodically activating and deactivating couplers, enabling the creation of effective quantum walks with longer-range couplings. Numerical simulations verify the effective dynamics of these approaches. In terms of these two approaches, we explore implementing various graphs, including cubes and fullerenes, etc, on two-dimensional lattices. These techniques facilitate the realization of analog quantum simulation, particularly continuous-time quantum walks discussed in detail in this manuscript, for different computational tasks on superconducting quantum chips despite their inherent low dimensional simple architecture.

[12] 2405.16070

Exact Spin Correlators of Integrable Quantum Circuits from Algebraic Geometry

We calculate the correlation functions of strings of spin operators for integrable quantum circuits exactly. These observables can be used for calibration of quantum simulation platforms. We use algebraic Bethe Ansatz, in combination with computational algebraic geometry to obtain analytic results for medium-size (around 10-20 qubits) quantum circuits. The results are rational functions of the quantum circuit parameters. We obtain analytic results for such correlation functions both in the real space and Fourier space. In the real space, we analyze the short time and long time limit of the correlation functions. In Fourier space, we obtain analytic results in different parameter regimes, which exhibit qualitatively different behaviors. Using these analytic results, one can easily generate numerical data to arbitrary precision.

[13] 2405.16073

Unveiling the 3D Morphology of Epitaxial GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Dots

Strain-free GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) grown by droplet etching and nanohole infilling (DENI) are highly promising candidates for the on-demand generation of indistinguishable and entangled photon sources. The spectroscopic fingerprint and quantum optical properties of QDs are significantly influenced by their morphology. The effects of nanohole geometry and infilled material on the exciton binding energies and fine structure splitting are well understood. However, a comprehensive understanding of GaAs/AlGaAs QD morphology remains elusive. To address this, we employ high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and reverse engineering through selective chemical etching and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Cross-sectional STEM of uncapped QDs reveals an inverted conical nanohole with Al-rich sidewalls and defect-free interfaces. Subsequent selective chemical etching and AFM measurements further reveal asymmetries in element distribution. This study enhances the understanding of DENI QD morphology and provides a fundamental three-dimensional structural model for simulating and optimizing their optoelectronic properties.

[14] 2405.16101

Entanglement generation in weakly-driven arrays of multilevel atoms via dipolar interactions

We investigate the driven-dissipative dynamics of 1D and 2D arrays of multilevel atoms interacting via dipole-dipole interactions and trapped at subwavelength scales. Here we show that in the weakly driven low excitation regime, multilevel atoms, in contrast to two-level atoms, can become strongly entangled. The entanglement manifests as the growth of collective spin-waves in the ground state manifold, and survives even after turning off the drive. We propose to use the $\sim 2.9~\mu$m transition between $\rm ^3{\rm P}_2 \leftrightarrow \, ^3{\rm D}_3$ in $\rm ^{88}Sr$ with $\rm 389~nm$ trapping light as an ideal experimental platform for validating our predictions and as a novel quantum interface for the exploration of complex many-body phenomena emerging from light-matter interactions.

[15] 2405.16132

Efficient Quantum Circuit Encoding of Object Information in 2D Ray Casting

Quantum computing holds the potential to solve problems that are practically unsolvable by classical computers due to its ability to significantly reduce time complexity. We aim to harness this potential to enhance ray casting, a pivotal technique in computer graphics for simplifying the rendering of 3D objects. To perform ray casting in a quantum computer, we need to encode the defining parameters of primitives into qubits. However, during the current noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era, challenges arise from the limited number of qubits and the impact of noise when executing multiple gates. Through logic optimization, we reduced the depth of quantum circuits as well as the number of gates and qubits. As a result, the event count of correct measurements from an IBM quantum computer significantly exceeded that of incorrect measurements.

[16] 2405.16182

Spread complexity and quantum chaos for periodically driven spin-chains

The complexity of quantum states under dynamical evolution can be investigated by studying the spread with time of the state over a pre-defined basis. It is known that this complexity is minimised by choosing the Krylov basis, thus defining the spread complexity. We study the dynamics of spread complexity for quantum maps using the Arnoldi iterative procedure. The main illustrative quantum many-body model we use is the periodically kicked Ising spin-chain with non-integrable deformations, a chaotic system where we look at both local and non-local interactions. In the various cases we find distinctive behaviour of the Arnoldi coefficients and spread complexity for regular vs. chaotic dynamics: suppressed fluctuations in the Arnoldi coefficients as well as larger saturation value in spread complexity in the chaotic case. We compare the behaviour of the Krylov measures with that of standard spectral diagnostics of chaos. We also study the effect of changing the driving frequency on the complexity saturation.

[17] 2405.16221

Nonreciprocal Multipartite Entanglement in a two-cavity magnomechanical system

We propose a scheme for the generation of nonreciprocal multipartite entanglement in a two-mode cavity magnomechanical system, consisting of two cross microwave (MW) cavities having an yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere, which is coupled through magnetic dipole interaction. Our results show that the magnon self-Kerr effect can significantly enhance bipartite entanglement, which turns out to be non-reciprocal when the magetic field is tuned along the crystallographic axis [110]. This is due to the frequency shift on the magnons (YIG sphere), which depends upon the direction of magnetic field. Interestingly, the degree of nonreciprocity of entanglement depends upon a careful optimal choice of system parameters like normalizd cavity detunings, bipartite nonlinear index $\Delta E_{K}$, self-Kerr coefficient and effective magnomechanical coupling rate $G$. In addition to bipartite entanglement, we also explored the nonreciprocity in tripartite entanglement. Our present theoretical proposal for nonreciprocity in multipartite entanglement may find applications in diverse engineering nonreciprocal devices.

[18] 2405.16254

Transfer learning in predicting quantum many-body dynamics: from physical observables to entanglement entropy

Deep neural networks have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in extracting meaningful representations from complex datasets. This has propelled representation learning as a compelling area of research across diverse fields. One interesting open question is how beneficial representation learning can be for quantum many-body physics, with its notouriosly high-dimensional state space. In this work, we showcase the capacity of a neural network that was trained on a subset of physical observables of a many-body system to partially acquire an implicit representation of the wave function. We illustrate this by demonstrating the effectiveness of reusing the representation learned by the neural network to enhance the learning process of another quantity derived from the quantum state. In particular, we focus on how the pre-trained neural network can enhance the learning of entanglement entropy. This is of particular interest as directly measuring the entanglement in a many-body system is very challenging, while a subset of physical observables can be easily measured in experiments. We show the pre-trained neural network learns the dynamics of entropy with fewer resources and higher precision in comparison with direct training on the entanglement entropy.

[19] 2405.16261

Gain sensitivity of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer by photon subtraction strategy

We study sensitivity of phase estimation of Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer with original two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) state. At the initial stage, the TMSV state is converted into two single-mode squeezed vacuum (SMSV) states, from each of which photons are subtracted by measurement by photon-number resolving (PNR) detector in auxiliary modes. New measurement-induced continuous variable (CV) states of a certain parity can already demonstrate gain sensitivity more than 20 dB in relation to the initial SMSV states at the output from the MZ interferometer and follow to Heisenberg scaling in the case of subtracting a large number of photons in the measuring channels for practical values of the SMSV squeezing 5 dB>. Using only one measurement-induced CV state of a certain parity together with the SMSV state shows an increase in sensitivity of no more than 11 dB. We show that the sensitivity of the phase estimation obtained by measuring the intensity difference of two measurement-induced CV states in two arms of the MZ interferometer can surpass quantum Cramer-Rao (QCR) boundary of the original two SMSV states just in the practical range of input squeezing 5 dB>. In general, the strategy with preliminary subtraction of photons from two SMSV enables greatly enhance the sensitivity of the MZ interferometer in the practical case of small values of squeezing.

[20] 2405.16275

Assessing the Role of Communication in Scalable Multi-Core Quantum Architectures

Multi-core quantum architectures offer a solution to the scalability limitations of traditional monolithic designs. However, dividing the system into multiple chips introduces a critical bottleneck: communication between cores. This paper introduces qcomm, a simulation tool designed to assess the impact of communication on the performance of scalable multi-core quantum architectures. Qcomm allows users to adjust various architectural and physical parameters of the system, and outputs various communication metrics. We use qcomm to perform a preliminary study on how these parameters affect communication performance in a multi-core quantum system.

[21] 2405.16280

Probing electric-dipole-enabled transitions in the excited state of the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

The excited orbitals of color centers typically show stronger electric dipoles, which can serve as a resource for entanglement, emission tuning, or electric field sensing. Here, we use resonant laser excitation to expose strong transition dipoles in the excited state (ES) orbitals of the negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. By applying microwave electric fields, we perform strong Rabi driving between ES orbitals, and show that the dressed states can be tuned in frequency and are protected against fluctuations of the transverse electric field. In contrast with previous results, we observe sharp microwave resonances between magnetic states of the ES orbitals, and find that they are broadened due to simultaneous electric dipole driving.

[22] 2405.16294

Nonclassical characteristics in spin-1/2 Heisenberg XYZ model with added DM and KSEA interactions under sinusoidal magnetic field: Hierarchy of quantum resources

We investigate the behavior of various measures of quantum coherence and quantum correlation in the spin-1/2 Heisenberg XYZ model with added Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) and Kaplan--Shekhtman--Entin-Wohlman--Aharony (KSEA) interactions at a thermal regime described by a Gibbs density operator. We aim to understand the restricted hierarchical classification of different quantum resources, where quantum coherence $\supseteq$ quantum discord $\supseteq$ quantum entanglement $\supseteq$ quantum steering $\supseteq$ Bell nonlocality. In order to enhance quantum coherence, quantum correlation, and fidelity of teleportation, our analysis encompasses the effects of independently provided sinusoidal magnetic field control as well as DM and KSEA interactions on the considered system. The results reveal that enhancing the entanglement or quantum correlation of the channel does not always guarantee successful teleportation or even an improvement in teleportation fidelity. Thus, the relationship between teleportation fidelity and the channel's underlying quantum properties is intricate. Our study provides valuable insights into the complex interplay of quantum coherence and correlation hierarchy, offering potential applications for quantum communication and information processing technologies.

[23] 2405.16300

Dirac fermions with electric dipole moment and position-dependent mass in the presence of a magnetic field generated by magnetic monopoles

In this paper, we determine the bound-state solutions for Dirac fermions with electric dipole moment (EDM) and position-dependent mass (PDM) in the presence of a radial magnetic field generated by magnetic monopoles. To achieve this, we work with the (2+1)-dimensional (DE) Dirac equation with nonminimal coupling in polar coordinates. Posteriorly, we obtain a second-order differential equation via quadratic DE (simplified by a similarity transformation). Solving this differential equation through a change of variable and the asymptotic behavior, we obtain a generalized Laguerre equation. From this, we obtain the bound-state solutions of the system, given by the two-component Dirac spinor and by the relativistic energy spectrum. So, we note that such spinor is written in terms of the generalized Laguerre polynomials, and such spectrum (for a fermion and an antifermion) is quantized in terms of the radial and total magnetic quantum numbers $n$ and $m_j$, and explicitly depends on the EDM $d$, PDM parameter $\kappa$, magnetic charge density $\lambda_m$, and on the spinorial parameter $s$. In particular, the quantization is a direct result of the existence of $\kappa$ (i.e., $\kappa$ acts as a kind of ``external field or potential''). Besides, we discuss in detail the characteristics of the spectrum as well as graphically analyze the behavior of the spectrum as a function of $\kappa$ and $\lambda_m$ for three different values of $n$ (ground state and the first two excited states).

[24] 2405.16303

Extended spin relaxation times of optically addressed telecom defects in silicon carbide

Optically interfaced solid-state defects are promising candidates for quantum communication technologies. The ideal defect system would feature bright telecom emission, long-lived spin states, and a scalable material platform, simultaneously. Here, we employ one such system, vanadium (V4+) in silicon carbide (SiC), to establish a potential telecom spin-photon interface within a mature semiconductor host. This demonstration of efficient optical spin polarization and readout facilitates all optical measurements of temperature-dependent spin relaxation times (T1). With this technique, we lower the temperature from about 2K to 100 mK to observe a remarkable four-orders-of-magnitude increase in spin T1 from all measured sites, with site-specific values ranging from 57 ms to above 27 s. Furthermore, we identify the underlying relaxation mechanisms, which involve a two-phonon Orbach process, indicating the opportunity for strain-tuning to enable qubit operation at higher temperatures. These results position V4+ in SiC as a prime candidate for scalable quantum nodes in future quantum networks.

[25] 2405.16322

Circuit Implementation and Analysis of a Quantum-Walk Based Search Complement Algorithm

We propose a modified version of the quantum walk-based search algorithm created by Shenvi, Kempe and Whaley, also known as the SKW algorithm. In our version of the algorithm, we modified the evolution operator of the system so that it is composed by the product of the shift operator associated to the $2^n$-complete graph with self-loops and a perturbed coin operator based on the Hadamard operator that works as an oracle for the search. The modified evolution operator leads the opposite behavior as in the original algorithm, that is, the probability to measure the target state is reduced. We call this new behavior the $\textit{search complement}$. Taking a multigraph and matrix approach, we were able to explain that the new algorithm decreases the probability of the target state given that there are less paths that lead towards the node that is associated to the target state in a Unitary Coined Discrete-Time Quantum Walk. The search complement algorithm was executed experimentally on IBM quantum processor $\textit{ibmq_manila}$ obtaining statistical distances $\ell_1\leq 0.0895$ when decreasing the probability of one state out of four.

[26] 2405.16375

Hybrid Quantum Downsampling Networks

Classical max pooling plays a crucial role in reducing data dimensionality among various well-known deep learning models, yet it often leads to the loss of vital information. We proposed a novel hybrid quantum downsampling module (HQD), which is a noise-resilient algorithm. By integrating a substantial number of quantum bits (qubits), our approach ensures the key characteristics of the original image are maximally preserved within the local receptive field. Moreover, HQD provides unique advantages in the context of the noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) era. We introduce a unique quantum variational circuit in our design, utilizing rotating gates including RX, RY, RZ gates, and the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate to explore nonlinear characteristics. The results indicate that the network architectures incorporating the HQD module significantly outperform the classical structures with max pooling in CIFAR-10 and CIFAR-100 datasets. The accuracy of all tested models improved by an average of approximately 3%, with a maximum fluctuation of only 0.4% under various quantum noise conditions.

[27] 2405.16394

Quantum State Diffusion on a Graph

Quantum walks have frequently envisioned the behavior of a quantum state traversing a classically defined, generally finite, graph structure. While this approach has already generated significant results, it imposes a strong assumption: all nodes where the walker is not positioned are quiescent. This paper will examine some mathematical structures that underlie state diffusion on arbitrary graphs, that is the circulation of states within a graph. We will seek to frame the multi-walker problem as a finite quantum cellular automaton. Every vertex holds a walker at all times. The walkers will never collide and at each time step their positions update non-deterministically by a quantum swap of walkers at opposite ends of a randomly chosen edge. The update is accomplished by a unitary transformation of the position of a walker to a superposition of all such possible swaps and then performing a quantum measurement on the superposition of possible swaps. This behavior generates strong entanglement between vertex states which provides a path toward developing local actions producing diffusion throughout the graph without depending on the specific structure of the graph through blind computation.

[28] 2405.16404

Quantum entanglement dynamics of the three-qubit W_zeta quantum state coupled to spin chain with ternary interaction

In this study, we explore the dynamics of quantum entanglement using the negativity criterion for the W_zeta quantum state. We investigate changes in negativity in terms of anisotropy parameters, gamma, the strength of the external magnetic field applied to the spin chain, eta, the triple interaction strength, alpha. We examine how these parameters affect the entanglement properties of the system and discuss the implications for quantum information processing and quantum communication protocols. By analyzing the negativity of the W_zeta state under different conditions, we gain insights into the behaviour of entanglement in complex quantum systems. Our results shed light on the intricate interplay between various factors that influence quantum entanglement and provide a foundation for further investigations in this field of research.

[29] 2405.16477

Toffoli gates solve the tetrahedron equations

The circuit model of quantum computation can be interpreted as a scattering process. In particular, factorised scattering operators result in integrable quantum circuits that provide universal quantum computation and are potentially less noisy. These are realized through Yang-Baxter or 2-simplex operators. A natural question is to extend this construction to higher qubit gates, like the Toffoli gates, which also lead to universal quantum computation but with shallower circuits. We show that unitary families of such operators are constructed by the 3-dimensional generalizations of the Yang-Baxter operators known as tetrahedron or 3-simplex operators. The latter satisfy a spectral parameter-dependent tetrahedron equation. This construction goes through for $n$-Toffoli gates realized using $n$-simplex operators.

[30] 2405.16518

Experimental demonstration of 4-state reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution over 200km

Reference frame independent quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) has gained widespread attention due to the unique advantage for practical application, as it circumvents the need for active reference frame alignment within the system. However, in comparison to the standard BB84 protocol, the original 6-state RFI protocol requires a greater number of quantum states to be operated by Alice and Bob, which is an aspect that merits optimization. In this work, we propose a 4-state RFI protocol and illustrate that Alice and Bob each require only four quantum states to perform channel estimation that remains independent of reference frame deviation, which can proficiently reduce the system complexity. Furthermore, through numerical simulations taking the finite-size key effect into consideration, we show that 4-state RFI protocol can achieve a secure key rate and transmission distance on par with the original 6-state RFI protocol. Finally, a experiment over 200 km is inplemented to conducted the feasibility of our scheme. We believe that our protocol can streamline the implementation of RFI-QKD and thereby contribute to the practical advancement of RFI-QKD.

[31] 2405.16540

Quasi-probabilistic Bit Erasure Causes Bell Non-locality

We show that a maximal violation of the Bell-CHSH inequality for two entangled qubits, i.e., Bell non-locality, is a direct consequence of a local bit erasure by means of a quasi-stochastic process, i.e., a stochastic process in which some transition probabilities are negative.

[32] 2405.16548

Tree-like process tensor contraction for automated compression of environments

The algorithm ``automated compression of environments'' (ACE) [Nat. Phys. 18, 662 (2022)] provides a versatile way of simulating an extremely broad class of open quantum systems. This is achieved by encapsulating the influence of the environment, which is determined by the interaction Hamiltonian(s) and initial states, into compact process tensor matrix product operator (PT-MPO) representations. The generality of the ACE method comes at high numerical cost. Here, we demonstrate that orders-of-magnitude improvement of ACE is possible by changing the order of PT-MPO contraction from a sequential to a tree-like scheme. The problem of combining two partial PT-MPOs with large inner bonds is solved by a preselection approach. The drawbacks of the preselection approach are that the MPO compression is suboptimal and that it is more prone to error accumulation than sequential combination and compression. We therefore also identify strategies to mitigate these disadvantages by fine-tuning compression parameters. This results in a scheme that is similar in compression efficiency and accuracy to the original ACE algorithm, yet is significantly faster. Our numerical experiments reach similar conclusions for bosonic and fermionic test cases, suggesting that our findings are characteristic of the combination of PT-MPOs more generally.

[33] 2405.16558

Experimental Refrence-Frame-Independent Quantum Key Distribution over 250 km of Optical Fiber

The reference-frame-independent quantum key distribution (RFI-QKD) protocol enables QKD systems to function effectively despite slowly varying reference frames, offering a distinct advantage in practical scenarios, particularly in mobile platforms. In this study, we successfully distribute secure key bits over a 250 km optical fiber distance by developing an RFI-QKD system with a repetition rate of 150 MHz. Benefiting from high repetition rate, we achieve a finite-key secret key rate of 49.65 bit/s at a distance of 200 km, which is more than three times higher than state-of-the-art systems. Our work dramatically extends the transmission distance and enhances the secret key rate of RFI-QKD, significantly promoting its practical application.

[34] 2405.16578

A consolidated and accessible security proof for finite-size decoy-state quantum key distribution

In recent years, quantum key distribution (QKD) has evolved from a scientific research field to a commercially viable security solution, supported by mathematically formulated security proofs. However, since the knowledge required for a full understanding of a security proof is scattered across numerous publications, it has proven difficult to gain a comprehensive understanding of each step involved in the process and their limitations without considerable effort and attention to detail. Our paper aims to address this issue by presenting an accessible and comprehensive security proof for the finite-size 1-decoy (and 2-decoy) BB84 protocol in Renner's entropic uncertainty relation framework. We extensively consolidate and unify concepts from many works, thoroughly discussing the underlying assumptions and resolving technical inconsistencies. This work can serve as a foundation for the discussion of QKD security and for the identification of potential vulnerabilities and device imperfections. Our step-by-step approach and consistent notation assumes no prior exposure to security proofs, making it a robust and comprehensible reference, while maintaining theoretical rigor. Therefore, our contribution represents a significant advancement towards a broader understanding of QKD security proofs.

[35] 2405.16621

Surface Code Stabilizer Measurements for Rydberg Atoms

We consider stabilizer measurements for surface codes with neutral atoms and identify gate protocols that minimize logical error rates in the presence of a fundamental error source -- spontaneous emission from Rydberg states. We demonstrate that logical error rates are minimized by protocols that prevent the propagation of Rydberg leakage errors and not by protocols that minimize the physical two-qubit error rate. We provide laser-pulse-level gate protocols to counter these errors. These protocols significantly reduce the logical error rate for implementations of surface codes involving one or two species of atoms. Our work demonstrates the importance of optimizing quantum gates for logical errors in addition to gate fidelities and opens the way to the efficient realization of surface codes with neutral atoms.

[36] 2405.16651

Variational Quantum Framework for Partial Differential Equation Constrained Optimization

We present a novel variational quantum framework for partial differential equation (PDE) constrained design optimization problems. Such problems arise in simulation based design in many scientific and engineering domains. For instance in aerodynamic design, the PDE constraints are the conservation laws such as momentum, mass and energy balance, the design variables are vehicle shape parameters and material properties, and the objective could be to minimize the effect of transient heat loads on the vehicle or to maximize the lift. The proposed framework utilizes the variational quantum linear system (VQLS) algorithm and a black box optimizer as its two main building blocks. VQLS is used to solve the linear system, arising from the discretization of the PDE constraints for given design parameters, and evaluate the design cost/objective function. The black box optimizer is used to select next set of parameter values based on this evaluated cost, leading to nested bi-level optimization structure within a hybrid classical-quantum setting. We present detailed complexity analysis to highlight the potential advantages of our proposed framework over classical techniques. We implement our framework using the PennyLane library, apply it to solve a prototypical heat transfer optimization problem, and present simulation results using Bayesian optimization as the black box

[37] 2405.16733

SIC-POVMs and the Knaster's Conjecture

Symmetric Informationally Complete Positive Operator-Valued Measures (SIC-POVMs) have been constructed in many dimensions using the Weyl-Heisenberg group. In the quantum information community, it is commonly believed that SCI-POVMs exist in all dimensions; however, the general proof of their existence is still an open problem. The Bloch sphere representation of SIC-POVMs allows for a general geometric description of the set of operators, where they form the vertices of a regular simplex oriented based on a continuous function. We use this perspective of the SIC-POVMs to prove the Knaster's conjecture for the geometry of SIC-POVMs and prove the existence of a continuous family of generalized SIC-POVMs where $(n^2-1)$ of the matrices have the same value of $Tr(\rho^k)$. Furthermore, by using numerical methods, we show that a regular simplex can be constructed such that all its vertices map to the same value of $Tr(\rho^3)$ on the Bloch sphere of $3$ and $4$ dimensional Hilbert spaces. In the $3$-dimensional Hilbert space, we generate $10^4$ generalized SIC-POVMs for randomly chosen $Tr(\rho^3)$ values such that all the elements are equivalent up to unitary transformations.

[38] 2405.16737

Zooming in on discrete space

Although we lack complete understanding of quantum aspects of gravitation, it is usually agreed, using general arguments, that a final quantum gravity theory will endow space and time with some (fundamental or effective) notion of discreteness. This granular character is supposed to lie on space and time scales of $l_P \sim 10^{-33}$ cm and $\tau_P\sim 10^{-42}$ s, respectively -- the Planck scale -- , far beyond any hope of direct assessment. Here, by modeling displacements of particles on a discrete underlying space as Poisson processes, we speculate on the possibility of amplifying the effects of space discreteness (if existent) by several orders of magnitude, using the statistical variance of correlated displacements of particles/systems with very different masses. Although still out of reach by current technology, the analysis presented here suggests that it may be possible to see hints of space(time) discreteness at larger scales than one would usually expect.

[39] 2405.16808

Geometric Phase in Kitaev Quantum Spin Liquid

Quantum spin liquid has massive many spin entanglement in the ground state, we can evaluate it by the entanglement entropy, but the latter can not be observed directly by experiment. In this manuscript, we try to characterize its topological properties by the geometric phase. However the usual adiabatic or non-adiabatic geometric phase can not appear in the density matrix of entanglement entropy, so we extend it to the sub-geometric phase which can exist in the density matrix and have influence on the entanglement entropy, spin correlation function as well as other physical observable. We will demonstrate that the imaginary part of sub-geometric phase will deviate the resonance peak by an amount concerning with this phase and affect the energy level crossing, while the real part of sub-geometric phase will determine the stability of initial state, it may provide a complement on the selection rule of quantum transition.

[40] 2405.16842

Locality, Correlations, Information, and non-Hermitian Quantum Systems

Local non-Hermitian (NH) quantum systems generically exhibit breakdown of Lieb-Robinson (LR) bounds, motivating study of whether new locality measures might shed light not seen by existing measures. In this paper we discuss extensions of the connected correlation function (CC) as measures of locality and information spreading in both Hermitian and NH systems. We find that in Hermitian systems, $\delta\rho = \rho-\rho_A\otimes\rho_B$ can be written as a linear combination of CCs, allowing placement of a LR bound on $\Vert\delta\rho\Vert_2$, which we show generically extends to a LR bound on mutual information. Additionally, we extend the CC to NH systems in a form that recovers locality, and use the metric formalism to derive a modified CC which recovers not just locality but even LR bounds. We find that even with these CCs, the bound on $\Vert\delta\rho\Vert_2$ breaks down in certain NH cases, which can be used to place a necessary condition on which NH Hamiltonians are capable of nonlocal entanglement generation. Numerical simulations are provided by means of exact diagonalization for the NH Transverse-Field Ising Model, demonstrating both breakdown and recovery of LR bounds.

[41] 2405.16967

Imaginary past of a quantum particle moving on imaginary time

The analytical continuation of classical equations of motion to complex times suggests that a tunnelling particle spends in the barrier an imaginary duration $i|\mathcal T|$. Does this mean that it takes a finite time to tunnel, or should tunnelling be seen as an instantaneous process? It is well known that examination of the adiabatic limit in a small additional AC field points towards $|\mathcal T|$ being the time it takes to traverse the barrier. However, this is only half the story. We probe the transmitted particle's history, and find that it "remembers" very little of the field's past behaviour, as if the transit time were close to zero. The ensuing contradiction suggests that the question is ill-posed, and we explain why.

[42] 2405.16970

Memory-assisted measurement-device-independent quantum secret sharing

Measurement-device-independent quantum secret sharing (MDI-QSS) can eliminate all the security loopholes associated with imperfect measurement devices and greatly enhance QS's security under practical experimental condition. MDI-QSS requires each communication user to send single photon to the measurement party for the coincident measurement. However, the unsynchronization of the transmitted photons greatly limits MDI-QSS's practical performance.In the paper, we propose a high-efficient quantum memory (QM)-assisted MDI-QSS protocol, which employs the QM-assisted synchronization of three heralded single-photon sources to efficiently generate three simultaneous single-photon states. The QM constructed with all-optical, polarization-insensitive storage loop has superior performance in terms of bandwidth, storage efficiency, and noise resistance, and is feasible under current experiment conditions. Combining with the decoy-state method, we perform the numerical simulation of the secure key rate in the symmetric model without considering the finite-size effect. The simulation results show that our QM-assisted MDI-QSS protocol exhibit largely improved secure key rate and maximal photon transmission distance compared with all existing MDI-QSS protocols without QM. Our protocol provides a promising way for implementing the high-efficient long-distance MDI-QSS in the near future.

[43] 2405.16974

Inherent quantum resources in the stationary spin chains

The standard way to generate many-body quantum correlations is via a dynamical protocol: an initial product state is transformed by interactions that generate non-classical correlations at later times. Here, we show that many-body Bell correlations are inherently present in the eigenstates of a variety of spin-1/2 chains. In particular, we show that the eigenstates and thermal states of the collective Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model possess many-body Bell correlations. We demonstrate that the Bell correlations can take on quantized values that change discontinuously with variations in the total magnetization. Finally, we show that these many-body Bell correlations persist even in the presence of both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder.

[44] 2405.16975

Hydrodynamics and the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis

The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) describes the properties of diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of local operators in the eigenenergy basis. In this work, we propose a relation between (i) the singular behaviour of the off-diagonal part of ETH at small energy differences, and (ii) the smooth profile of the diagonal part of ETH as a function of the energy density. We establish this connection from the decay of the autocorrelation functions of local operators, which is constrained by the presence of local conserved quantities whose evolution is described by hydrodynamics. We corroborate our predictions with numerical simulations of two non-integrable spin-1 Ising models, one diffusive and one super-diffusive, which we perform using dynamical quantum typicality up to 18 spins.

[45] 2405.17021

Truncated Modular Exponentiation Operators: A Strategy for Quantum Factoring

Modular exponentiation (ME) operators are one of the fundamental components of Shor's algorithm, and the place where most of the quantum resources are deployed. I propose a method for constructing the ME operators that relies upon the simple observation that the work register starts in state $\vert 1 \rangle$. Therefore, we do not have to create an ME operator $U$ that accepts a general input, but rather, one that takes an input from the periodic sequence of states $\vert f(x) \rangle$ for $x \in \{0, 1, \cdots, r-1\}$, where $f(x)$ is the ME function with period $r$. The operator $U$ can be partitioned into $r$ levels, where the gates in level $x \in \{0, 1, \cdots, r-1\}$ increment the state $\vert f(x) \rangle$ to the state $\vert f(x+1) \rangle$. The gates below $x$ do not affect the state $\vert f(x+1) \rangle$. The obvious problem with this method is that it is self-defeating: If we knew the operator $U$, then we would know the period $r$ of the ME function, and there would be no need for Shor's algorithm. I show, however, that the ME operators are very forgiving, and truncated approximate forms in which levels have been omitted are able to extract factors just as well as the exact operators. I demonstrate this by factoring the numbers $N = 21, 33, 35, 143, 247$ by using less than half the requisite number of levels in the ME operators. This procedure works because the method of continued fractions only requires an approximate phase value. This is the basis for a factorization strategy in which we fill the circuits for the ME operators with more and more gates, and the correlations between the various composite operators $U^p$ (where $p$ is a power of two) compensate for the missing levels.

[46] 2405.17046

Modified Six State Cryptographic Protocol with Entangled Ancilla Component States

In a realistic situation, it is very difficult to communicate securely between two distant parties without introducing any disturbances. These disturbances might occur either due to external noise or may be due to the interference of an eavesdropper sitting in between the sender and the receiver. In this work, we probe here the existence of the possibility of the situation of generation of a secret key even if the eavesdropper is able to construct an entangled ancilla state in such a way that she can extract information from the intercepted qubit. To achieve this task, we consider and modify the six-state QKD protocol in which Eve can construct the unitary transformation that may make all ancilla components entangled at the output. Then, we calculate the mutual information between Alice and Bob and Alice and Eve, and identify the region where the secret key is generated even in the presence of Eve. We find that, in general, the mutual information of Alice and Eve depends not only on the disturbance D, but here we have shown that it also depends on the concurrence of the ancilla component states. We have further shown that it is possible to derive the disturbance-free mutual information of Alice and Eve, if Eve manipulates her entangled ancilla state in a particular manner. Thus, in this way, we are able to show that a secret key can be generated between Alice and Bob even if the disturbance is large enough. Moreover, we show that Bruss's six state QKD protocol failed to generate the secret key in the region where the modified six-state QKD protocol can generate the secret key.

[47] 2405.17060

Graph Neural Networks on Quantum Computers

Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) are powerful machine learning models that excel at analyzing structured data represented as graphs, demonstrating remarkable performance in applications like social network analysis and recommendation systems. However, classical GNNs face scalability challenges when dealing with large-scale graphs. This paper proposes frameworks for implementing GNNs on quantum computers to potentially address the challenges. We devise quantum algorithms corresponding to the three fundamental types of classical GNNs: Graph Convolutional Networks, Graph Attention Networks, and Message-Passing GNNs. A complexity analysis of our quantum implementation of the Simplified Graph Convolutional (SGC) Network shows potential quantum advantages over its classical counterpart, with significant improvements in time and space complexities. Our complexities can have trade-offs between the two: when optimizing for minimal circuit depth, our quantum SGC achieves logarithmic time complexity in the input sizes (albeit at the cost of linear space complexity). When optimizing for minimal qubit usage, the quantum SGC exhibits space complexity logarithmic in the input sizes, offering an exponential reduction compared to classical SGCs, while still maintaining better time complexity. These results suggest our Quantum GNN frameworks could efficiently process large-scale graphs. This work paves the way for implementing more advanced Graph Neural Network models on quantum computers, opening new possibilities in quantum machine learning for analyzing graph-structured data.

[48] 2405.17065

Model-Driven Engineering for Quantum Programming: A Case Study on Ground State Energy Calculation

This study introduces a novel framework that brings together two main Quantum Programming methodologies, gate-based Quantum Computing and Quantum Annealing, by applying the Model-Driven Engineering principles. This aims to enhance the adaptability, design and scalability of quantum programs, facilitating their design and operation across diverse computing platforms. A notable achievement of this research is the development of a mapping method for programs between gate-based quantum computers and quantum annealers which can lead to the automatic transformation of these programs. Specifically, this method is applied to the Variational Quantum Eigensolver Algorithm and Quantum Anneling Ising Model, targeting ground state solutions. Finding ground-state solutions is crucial for a wide range of scientific applications, ranging from simulating chemistry lab experiments to medical applications, such as vaccine development. The success of this application demonstrates Model-Driven Engineering for Quantum Programming frameworks's practical viability and sets a clear path for quantum Computing's broader use in solving intricate problems.

[49] 2405.17115

Heisenberg-limited sensitivity in the estimation of two parameters in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

Achieving the ultimate quantum precision in the estimation of multiple physical parameters simultaneously is a challenge in quantum metrology due to fundamental limitations and experimental challenges in harnessing the necessary quantum resources. We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to reach Heisenberg limited sensitivity in the simultaneous estimation of two unknown phase parameters in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer by using a squeezed and a coherent state of light as input and homodyne detections at the outputs.

[50] 2405.17121

Entanglement signature in quantum work statistics in the slow-driving regime

In slowly driven classical systems, work is a stochastic quantity and its probability distribution is known to satisfy the work fluctuation-dissipation relation, which states that the mean and variance of the dissipated work are linearly related. Recently, it was shown that generation of quantum coherence in the instantaneous energy eigenbasis leads to a correction to this linear relation in the slow-driving regime. Here, we go even further by investigating nonclassical features of work fluctuations in setups with more than one system. To do this, we first generalize slow control protocols to encompass multipartite systems, allowing for the generation of quantum correlations during the driving process. Then, focussing on two-qubit systems, we show that entanglement generation leads to a positive contribution to the dissipated work, which is distinct from the quantum correction due to local coherence generation known from previous work. Our results show that entanglement generated during slow control protocols, e.g. as an unavoidable consequence of qubit crosstalk, comes at the cost of increased dissipation.

[51] 2405.17145

Disentanglement-induced multistability

Multistability cannot be derived from any theoretical model that is based on a monostable master equation. On the other hand, multistability is experimentally-observed in a variety of quantum systems. A master equation having a nonlinear term that gives rise to disentanglement has been recently proposed . The dynamics governed by this master equation is explored for a quantum system made of coupled spins. It is found that the added nonlinear term can give rise to multistability. The spins' response to an externally applied magnetic field is evaluated, and both a phase transition and a dynamical instability are found. These findings, which originate from disentanglement-induced multistability, indirectly support the hypothesis that spontaneous disentanglement occurs in quantum systems.

[52] 2405.17157

Generation and robustness of non-local correlations induced by Heisenberg XYZ and intrinsic decoherence models: (x,y)-spin-orbit interactions and $x$- magnetic field

In this work, the Milburn intrinsic decoherence model is used to investigate the role of spin-spin Heisenberg XYZ interaction supported by spin-orbit Dzyaloshinsky Moriya (DM) interactions of x and y directions together in the non-local correlation (NLC) dynamics of Local quantum Fisher information (LQFI), local quantum uncertainty (LQU), and Log-negativity's entanglement. The two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ (non-X) states' nonlocal correlation generations are explored under the effects of the uniformity and the inhomogeneity of an applied x-direction external inhomogeneous magnetic field (EIMF). Our meticulous exploration of the obtained results shows that the spin-spin Heisenberg XYZ and x,y-spin-orbit interactions have a high capability to raise non-local correlations in the presence of a weak external magnetic field. The raised non-local correlation can be improved by strengthening the spin-spin and x,y spin-orbit interactions and increasing the EIMF's inhomogeneity and uniformity. Non-local correlation oscillations' amplitudes and fluctuations are increased. The degradations of the NLCs' generations in the presence of intrinsic decoherence (NLCs' robustness against intrinsic decoherence) can be decreased by strengthening the spin-spin interactions. They can be increased by increasing the intensities of x,y spin-orbit interactions as well as increasing the EIMF's inhomogeneity and uniformity.

[53] 2405.17230

Synergistic Dynamical Decoupling and Circuit Design for Enhanced Algorithm Performance on Near-Term Quantum Devices

Dynamical decoupling (DD) is a promising technique for mitigating errors in near term quantum devices. However, its effectiveness depends on both hardware characteristics and algorithm implementation details. This paper explores the synergistic effects of dynamical decoupling and optimized circuit design in maximizing the performance and robustness of algorithms on near term quantum devices. By utilizing eight IBM quantum devices, we analyze how hardware features and algorithm design impact the effectiveness of DD for error mitigation. Our analysis takes into account factors such as circuit fidelity, scheduling duration, and hardware native gate set. We also examine the influence of algorithmic implementation details including specific gate decompositions, DD sequences, and optimization levels. The results reveal an inverse relationship between the effectiveness of DD and the inherent performance of the algorithm. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance of gate directionality and circuit symmetry in improving performance. This study offers valuable insights for optimizing DD protocols and circuit designs, highlighting the significance of a holistic approach that leverages both hardware features and algorithm design for high quality and reliable execution of near term quantum algorithms.

[54] 2405.17300

Quantum violations of simultaneous reality

With basis on (i) the physical principle of local causality and (ii) a certain notion of elements of reality, Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) put forward an argument showing that physical instances may exist in which two non-commuting observables can be simultaneous elements of the physical reality. Here, by introducing an operational criterion of simultaneous reality, we show the very opposite, that is, quantum mechanics actually prevents non-commuting observables to be simultaneous elements of reality in general. In addition, we introduce a measure to quantify the extent to which the criterion is violated and explore the implications of such a measure in connection with incompatibility and correlations. Our findings suggest new manners of intepreting quantum phenomena.

[55] 2405.17354

Optimizing topology for quantum probing with discrete-time quantum walks

Discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) represents a convenient mathematical framework for describing the motion of a particle on a discrete set of positions when this motion is conditioned by the values of certain internal degrees of freedom, which are usually referred to as the {\em coin} of the particle. As such, and owing to the inherent dependence of the position distribution on the coin degrees of freedom, DTQWs naturally emerge as promising candidates for quantum metrology. In this paper, we explore the use of DTQWs as quantum probes in scenarios where the parameter of interest is encoded in the internal degree of freedom of the walker, and investigate the role of the topology of the walker's space on the attainable precision. In particular, we start considering the encoding of the parameter by rotations for a walker on the line, and evaluate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) and the position Fisher information (FI), explicitly determining the optimal initial state in position space that maximizes the QFI across all encoding schemes. This allows us to understand the role of interference in the position space and to introduce an optimal topology, which maximizes the QFI of the coin parameter and makes the position FI equal to the QFI.

[56] 2405.17356

Physical Implementability for Reversible Magic State Manipulation

Magic states are essential for achieving universal quantum computation. This study introduces a reversible framework for the manipulation of magic states in odd dimensions, delineating a necessary and sufficient condition for the exact transformations between magic states under maps that preserve the trace of states and positivity of discrete Wigner representation. Utilizing the stochastic formalism, we demonstrate that magic mana emerges as the unique measure for such reversible magic state transformations. We propose the concept of physical implementability for characterizing the hardness and cost of maintaining reversibility. Our findings show that, analogous to the entanglement theory, going beyond the positivity constraint enables an exact reversible theory of magic manipulation, thereby hinting at a potential incongruity between the reversibility of quantum resources and the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. Physical implementability for reversible manipulation provides a new perspective for understanding and quantifying quantum resources, contributing to an operational framework for understanding the cost of reversible quantum resource manipulation.

[57] 2405.17379

Classifying 2D topological phases: mapping ground states to string-nets

We prove the conjectured classification of topological phases in two spatial dimensions with gappable boundary, in a simplified setting. Two gapped ground states of lattice Hamiltonians are in the same quantum phase of matter, or topological phase, if they can be connected by a constant-depth quantum circuit. It is conjectured that the Levin-Wen string-net models exhaust all possible gapped phases with gappable boundary, and these phases are labeled by unitary modular tensor categories. We prove this under the assumption that every phase has a representative state with zero correlation length satisfying the entanglement bootstrap axioms, or a strict form of area law. Our main technical development is to transform these states into string-net states using constant-depth quantum circuits.

[58] 2405.17385

Thermalization and Criticality on an Analog-Digital Quantum Simulator

Understanding how interacting particles approach thermal equilibrium is a major challenge of quantum simulators. Unlocking the full potential of such systems toward this goal requires flexible initial state preparation, precise time evolution, and extensive probes for final state characterization. We present a quantum simulator comprising 69 superconducting qubits which supports both universal quantum gates and high-fidelity analog evolution, with performance beyond the reach of classical simulation in cross-entropy benchmarking experiments. Emulating a two-dimensional (2D) XY quantum magnet, we leverage a wide range of measurement techniques to study quantum states after ramps from an antiferromagnetic initial state. We observe signatures of the classical Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, as well as strong deviations from Kibble-Zurek scaling predictions attributed to the interplay between quantum and classical coarsening of the correlated domains. This interpretation is corroborated by injecting variable energy density into the initial state, which enables studying the effects of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) in targeted parts of the eigenspectrum. Finally, we digitally prepare the system in pairwise-entangled dimer states and image the transport of energy and vorticity during thermalization. These results establish the efficacy of superconducting analog-digital quantum processors for preparing states across many-body spectra and unveiling their thermalization dynamics.

[59] 2405.17388

Non-Unitary Quantum Machine Learning

We introduce several novel probabilistic quantum algorithms that overcome the normal unitary restrictions in quantum machine learning by leveraging the Linear Combination of Unitaries (LCU) method. Among our contributions are quantum native implementations of Residual Networks (ResNet); demonstrating a path to avoiding barren plateaus while maintaining the complexity of models that are hard to simulate classically. Furthermore, by generalising to allow control of the strength of residual connections, we show that the lower bound of the LCU success probability can be set to any arbitrary desired value. We also implement a quantum analogue of average pooling layers from convolutional networks. Our empirical analysis demonstrates that the LCU success probability remains stable for the MNIST database, unlocking a potential quadratic advantage in terms of image size compared to classical techniques. Finally, we propose a general framework for irreducible subspace projections for quantum encoded data. Using this, we demonstrate a novel rotationally invariant encoding for point cloud data via Schur-Weyl duality. We also show how this framework can be used to parameterise and control the amount of symmetry in an encoding; demonstrating improved classification performance for partially permutation invariant encoded point cloud data when compared to non-invariant or fully permutation invariant encodings. These new general algorithmic frameworks are all constructed under the same LCU method, suggesting that even more novel algorithms could be achieved by utilising the LCU technique.

[60] 2301.06545

Pair Production in time-dependent Electric field at Finite times

We investigate the finite time behavior of pair production from the vacuum by time-dependent Sauter pulsed electric fields in spinor quantum electrodynamics (QED). Using the exact analytic solution of the mode function, we find the one-particle distribution function in momentum space. The longitudinal momentum spectrum of particles shows oscillatory behavior at a finite time in a small window of longitudinal momentum where the electric field diminishes to around one-hundredth of its maximum magnitude and its oscillation time is close to Compton time. This oscillation is asymmetric, i.e., the amplitude of oscillation is maximum for negative longitudinal momentum compared to positive rate. The change in the longitudinal momentum spectrum can occur due to the quantum interference effect, and this quantum interference effect comes from the result of dynamical tunneling. The transverse momentum spectrum shows the Gaussian structure with a peak at zero transverse momentum when $t = 0$. After $t \approx \tau/2$, the smooth Gaussian design becomes distorted, and we see inconstancy in spectrum structure, either a dip at the origin with an off-axis maximum or a peak at zero transverse momentum with small mountains up to $t \approx 2{\tau}$ observed. After that, the spectrum shows a maximum height at zero transverse momentum with weakly pronounced peaks.

[61] 2405.13114

Probing CP Violation and Mass Hierarchy in Neutrino Oscillations in Matter through Quantum Speed Limits

The quantum speed limits (QSLs) set fundamental lower bounds on the time required for a quantum system to evolve from a given initial state to a final state. In this work, we investigate CP violation and the mass hierarchy problem of neutrino oscillations in matter using the QSL time as a key analytical tool. We examine the QSL time for the unitary evolution of two- and three-flavor neutrino states, both in vacuum and in the presence of matter. Two-flavor neutrino oscillations are used as a precursor to their three-flavor counterparts. We further compute the QSL time for neutrino state evolution and entanglement in terms of neutrino survival and oscillation probabilities, which are experimentally measurable quantities in neutrino experiments. A difference in the QSL time between the normal and inverted mass hierarchy scenarios, for neutrino state evolution as well as for entanglement, under the effect of a CP violation phase is observed. Our results are illustrated using energy-varying sets of accelerator neutrino sources from experiments such as T2K, NOvA, and DUNE. Notably, three-flavor neutrino oscillations in constant matter density exhibit faster state evolution across all these neutrino experiments in the normal mass hierarchy scenario. Additionally, we observe fast entanglement growth in DUNE assuming a normal mass hierarchy.

[62] 2405.14376

Quantum Chaos in Random Ising Networks

We report a systematic investigation of universal quantum chaotic signatures in the transverse field Ising model on an Erd\H{o}s-R\'enyi network. This is achieved by studying local spectral measures such as the level spacing and the level velocity statistics. A spectral form factor analysis is also performed as a global measure, probing energy level correlations at arbitrary spectral distances. Our findings show that these measures capture the breakdown of chaotic behavior upon varying the connectivity and strength of the transverse field in various regimes. We demonstrate that the level spacing statistics and the spectral form factor signal this breakdown for sparsely and densely connected networks. The velocity statistics capture the surviving chaotic signatures in the sparse limit. However, these integrable-like regimes extend over a vanishingly small segment in the full range of connectivity.

[63] 2405.15806

Breaking news on last achievements on the definition of the black-body total internal energy

The internal total-energy of the black-body is a physical quantity of paramount importance in the development of modern physics. Accordingly, together with a brief historical development, we report and comment last breaking news (2018-2024) concerning the definition and properties of this quantity. The first comment concerns with the inclusion of the Casimir energy that avoids the vacuum catastrophe implied by he presence of zero-point energy, thus leading to further quantum contributions associated with boundary effects. The second comment concerns with a semi-classical simulation of a one dimensional black-body whose results suggest a possible reconsideration on the role of classical physics on the quantum black-body.

[64] 2405.15809

Analytical Correlation in the H$_{2}$ Molecule from the Independent Atom Ansatz

The independent atom ansatz of density functional theory yields an accurate analytical expression for dynamic correlation energy in the H$_{2}$ molecule: $E_{c} = 0.5(1 - \sqrt{2})(ab|ba)$ for the atom-additive self-consistent density $\rho = |a|^{2} + |b|^{2}$. Combined with exact atomic self-exchange, it recovers more than 99.5 % of nearly exact SCAN exchange-correlation energy at R > 0.5 $\r{A}$, differing by less than 0.12 eV. The total energy functional correctly dissociates the H-H bond and yields absolute errors of 0.002 $\r{A}$, 0.19 eV, and 13 cm$^{-1}$ relative to experiment at the tight binding computational cost. The chemical bond formation is attributed to the asymptotic Heitler-London resonance of quasi-orthogonal atomic states ($- (ab|ba)$) with no contributions from kinetic energy or charge accumulation in the bond.

[65] 2405.15838

What You Shouldn't Know About Quantum Computers

Whether you're a CEO strategizing the future of your company, a tech enthusiast debating your next career move, a high school teacher eager to enlighten your students, or simply tired of the relentless quantum hype, this is crafted just for you. Cutting through the complex jargon to deliver the straight facts on quantum computing, peeling away the layers of mystique to reveal the true potential and limitations of this groundbreaking technology. Prepare to have your misconceptions challenged, and your understanding deepened in this clear-eyed view of the quantum future, written to inform and inspire readers across the spectrum of curiosity and need.

[66] 2405.15915

From inverse-cascade to sub-diffusive dynamic scaling in driven disordered Bose fluids

We explore the emergence of universal dynamic scaling in an interacting Bose gas around the condensation transition, under the combined influence of an external driving force and spatial disorder. As time progresses, we find that the Bose gas crosses over three distinct dynamical regimes: (i) an inverse turbulent cascade where interactions dominate the drive, (ii) a stationary regime where the inverse cascade and the drive counterbalance one other, and (iii) a sub-diffusive cascade in energy space governed by the drive and disorder, a phenomenon recently observed experimentally. We show that all three dynamical regimes can be described by self-similar scaling laws.

[67] 2405.15951

Non-invertible SPT, gauging and symmetry fractionalization

We explicitly realize the Rep($Q_8$) non-invertible symmetry-protected topological (SPT) state as a 1+1d cluster state on a tensor product Hilbert space of qubits. Using the Kramers-Wannier operator, we construct the lattice models for the phases of all the symmetries in the Rep($Q_8$) duality web. We further show that we can construct a class of lattice models with Rep($G$) symmetry including non-invertible SPT phases if they have a dual anomalous abelian symmetry. Upon dualizing, there is a rich interplay between onsite symmetries, non-onsite symmetries, non-abelian symmetries, and non-invertible symmetries. We show that these interplay can be explained using the symmetry fractionalization in the 2+1d bulk SET.

[68] 2405.16017

On the measurements in Quantum Gravity

In this essay, we argue that certain aspects of the measurement require revision in Quantum Gravity. Using entropic arguments, we propose that the number of measurement outcomes and the accuracy (or the range) of the measurement are limited by the entropy of the black hole associated with the observer scale. This also implies the necessity of modifying the algebra of commutation relationships to ensure a finite representation of observables, changing the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in this manner.

[69] 2405.16024

Quantum entanglement of multiple excitons in strained graphene

We studied the effects arising from a coherent source of photons on the entanglement between excitons in a strained graphene monolayer. The graphene layer was considered to be embedded in an imperfect optical microcavity. In our investigation, we have studied the entanglement dynamics of systems consisting of up to five excitons, which are treated as atomic-like qubits. Entangled states of multiple qubits are useful in quantum error correction codes. We have monitored the time evolution of the concurrence, three-$\pi$, mutual information, and especially the negativity. We have demonstrated that coherent pumping can create lasting entanglement between the excitons. However, the entanglement only persists when the rate at which photons are pumped is smaller than the decay rate of the cavity. Our results show that the degree in entanglement between the excitons is increased with the intensity of the strain-induced pseudomagnetic field in the graphene sheet. Additionally, we have shown that a maximum amount of entanglement occurs at a finite number of excitons in the system which depends on the parameters describing the structure.

[70] 2405.16139

Renormalized Internally-Contracted Multireference Coupled Cluster with Perturbative Triples

In this work, we combine the many-body formulation of the internally contracted multireference coupled cluster (ic-MRCC) method with Evangelista's multireference formulation of the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG). The DSRG method can be viewed as a unitary multireference coupled cluster theory, which renormalizes the amplitudes based on a flow equation approach to eliminate numerical instabilities. We extend this approach by demonstrating that the unitary flow equation approach can be adapted for nonunitary transformations, rationalizing the renormalization of ic-MRCC amplitudes. We denote the new approach, the renormalized ic-MRCC (ric-MRCC) method. To achieve high accuracy with a reasonable computational cost, we introduce a new approximation to the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff expansion. We fully consider the linear commutator while approximating the quadratic commutator, for which we neglect specific contractions involving amplitudes with active indices. Moreover, we introduce approximate perturbative triples to obtain the ric-MRCCSD[T] method. We demonstrate the accuracy of our approaches in comparison to advanced multireference methods for the potential energy curves of H8, F2, H2O, N2, and Cr2. Additionally, we show that ric-MRCCSD and ric-MRCSSD[T] match the accuracy of CCSD(T) for evaluating spectroscopic constants and of full configuration interaction energies for a set of small molecules.

[71] 2405.16222

Proposal for a Quantum Mechanical Test of Gravity at Millimeter Scale

The experimental verification of the Newton law of gravity at small scales has been a longstanding challenge. Recently, torsion balance experiments have successfully measured gravitational force at the millimeter scale. However, testing gravity force on quantum mechanical wave function at small scales remains difficult. In this paper, we propose a novel experiment that utilizes the Josephson effect to detect the different evolution of quantum phase induced from the potential difference caused by gravity. We demonstrate that this experiment can test gravity quantum mechanically at the millimeter scale, and also has a potential to investigate the parity invariance of gravity at small scales.

[72] 2405.16366

Josephson bifurcation readout: beyond the monochromatic approximation

We analyze properties of bifurcation quantum detectors based on weakly nonlinear superconducting resonance circuits, in particular, with application to quantum readout. The developed quantitative description demonstrates strong influence of higher harmonics on their characteristics. While this effect is relevant for various circuits, including the conventional Josephson bifurcation amplifier and the parametrically driven circuit, we first focus on the period-doubling bifurcation under a force driving. This kind of bifurcation is due to nominally quadratic nonlinearity, which enables parametric down-conversion of the driving signal at nearly double resonance frequency to the basic mode. We analyze the effect of higher harmonics on the dynamics of the basic mode, inherent in a nonlinear circuit, which in our case is based on a Josephson junction with a sinusoidal current-phase relation as the origin of nonlinearity. We demonstrate that effects beyond the monochromatic approximation significantly modify the bare characteristics and evaluate their contribution. Due to high sensitivity of this circuit to small variations of parameters, it can serve as an efficient detector of the quantum state of superconducting qubits.

[73] 2405.16380

Dynamic Inhomogeneous Quantum Resource Scheduling with Reinforcement Learning

A central challenge in quantum information science and technology is achieving real-time estimation and feedforward control of quantum systems. This challenge is compounded by the inherent inhomogeneity of quantum resources, such as qubit properties and controls, and their intrinsically probabilistic nature. This leads to stochastic challenges in error detection and probabilistic outcomes in processes such as heralded remote entanglement. Given these complexities, optimizing the construction of quantum resource states is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we address the quantum resource scheduling issue by formulating the problem and simulating it within a digitized environment, allowing the exploration and development of agent-based optimization strategies. We employ reinforcement learning agents within this probabilistic setting and introduce a new framework utilizing a Transformer model that emphasizes self-attention mechanisms for pairs of qubits. This approach facilitates dynamic scheduling by providing real-time, next-step guidance. Our method significantly improves the performance of quantum systems, achieving more than a 3$\times$ improvement over rule-based agents, and establishes an innovative framework that improves the joint design of physical and control systems for quantum applications in communication, networking, and computing.

[74] 2405.16425

Dipolar bosons in a twisted bilayer geometry

In recent years, twisted bilayer systems such as bilayer graphene have attracted a great deal of attention as the twist angle introduces a degree of freedom which can be used to non-trivially modify system properties. This idea has been picked up in the cold atom community, first with a theoretical proposal to simulate twisted bilayers in state-dependent optical lattices, and, more recently, with an experimental realization of twisted bilayers with bosonic atoms in two different spin states. In this manuscript, we theoretically investigate dipolar bosons in a twisted bilayer geometry. The interplay between dipolar interaction and the twist between the layers results in the emergence of quantum states not observed in the absence of twist. We study how system properties vary as we change the twist angle at fixed distance between the layers and fixed dipolar interaction. We find that at a twist angle $\theta=0.1^{\circ}$, the observed quantum phases are consistent with those seen in the absence of twist angle, i.e. paired superfluid, paired supersolid, and paired solid phases. However, a slight increase in the twist angle to $\theta=0.2^{\circ}$ disrupts these paired phases in favor of a phase separation between checkerboard solid and superfluid regions. Notably, at a twist angle of $\theta=5.21^{\circ}$, the local occupation number follows the moir\'e pattern of the underlying moir\'e bilayers so that a periodic structure of insulating islands is formed. These insulating islands are surrounded by a superfluid.

[75] 2405.16525

Entanglement and Bell inequality violation in vector diboson systems produced in decays of spin-0 particles

We discuss entanglement and the violation of the CGLMP inequality in a system of two vector bosons produced in the decay of a spin-0 particle. We assume the most general CPT conserving, Lorentz-invariant coupling of the spin-0 particle with the daughter bosons. We compute the most general two-boson density matrix obtained by averaging over kinematical configurations with an appropriate probability distribution (which can be obtained when both bosons subsequently decay into fermion-antifermion). We show that the two-boson state is entangled and violates the CGLMP inequality for all values of the (anomalous) coupling constants and that in this case the state is entangled iff it can violate the CGLMP inequality. As an exemplary process of this kind we use the decay $H\to ZZ$ with anomalous coupling.

[76] 2405.16532

Zhukovsky-Volterra top and quantisation ideals

In this letter, we revisit the quantisation problem for a fundamental model of classical mechanics - the Zhukovsky-Volterra top. We have discovered a four-parametric pencil of compatible Poisson brackets, comprising two quadratic and two linear Poisson brackets. Using the quantisation ideal method, we have identified two distinct quantisations of the Zhukovsky-Volterra top. The first type corresponds to the universal enveloping algebras of $so(3)$, leading to Lie-Poisson brackets in the classical limit. The second type can be regarded as a quantisation of the four-parametric inhomogeneous quadratic Poisson pencil. We discuss the relationships between the quantisations obtained in our paper, Sklyanin's quantisation of the Euler top, and Levin-Olshanetsky-Zotov's quantisation of the Zhukovsky-Volterra top.

[77] 2405.16793

Multiphoton quantum sensing

While the fundamental principles of light-matter interaction are well-understood and drive countless technologies, the world of multiphoton processes remains a fascinating puzzle, holding the potential to drastically alter our understanding of how light interacts with matter at its most basic level. This rich interplay of light and matter unveils novel phenomena that can be harnessed for sensing with exceptional precision, as exemplified by multiphoton quantum sensing. This thesis delves into the applications of multiphoton quantum protocols, particularly in imaging, communication, and plasmonic sensing, to surpass classical limitations and achieve enhanced sensitivity. We explore the potential of multiphoton quantum processes, particularly in the nanoscale regime and within subsystems of macroscopic systems, where novel and ultra-sensitive sensing methodologies emerge. Subsequent chapters of this thesis demonstrate the transformative potential of multiphoton quantum sensing, elucidating the design, implementation, and experimental results of specific sensing protocols tailored to diverse applications. Our analysis combines experimental observations and theoretical predictions to assess the sensitivity and performance of these protocols. Additionally, the thesis discusses potential future directions and advancements in the field, envisioning applications in biomolecule detection, environmental monitoring, and fundamental studies of light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Concluding reflections highlight the implications of multiphoton quantum sensing across scientific disciplines and lay the groundwork for future research endeavors.

[78] 2405.16972

Chip-Scale Point-Source Sagnac Interferometer by Phase-Space Squeezing

Matter-wave interferometry is essential to both science and technology. Phase-space squeezing has been shown to be an advantageous source of atoms, whereby the spread in momentum is decreased. Here, we show that the opposite squeezing may be just as advantageous. As a case in point, we analyze the effect of such a source on point source atom interferometry (PSI), which enables rotation sensing. We describe how a squeezed PSI (SPSI) increases the sensitivity and dynamic range while facilitating short cycle times and high repetition rates. We present regions in parameter space for which the figures of merit are improved by orders of magnitude and show that under some definition of compactness, the SPSI is superior by more than four orders of magnitude. The SPSI thus enables either enhancing the performance for standard size devices or maintaining the performance while miniaturizing to a chip-scale device, opening the door to real-life applications.

[79] 2405.17192

Quantum Parity Detectors: a qubit based particle detection scheme with meV thresholds for rare-event searches

The next generation of rare-event searches, such as those aimed at determining the nature of particle dark matter or in measuring fundamental neutrino properties, will benefit from particle detectors with thresholds at the meV scale, 100-1000x lower than currently available. Quantum parity detectors (QPDs) are a novel class of proposed quantum devices that use the tremendous sensitivity of superconducting qubits to quasiparticle tunneling events as their detection concept. As envisioned, phonons generated by particle interactions within a crystalline substrate cause an eventual quasiparticle cascade within a surface patterned superconducting qubit element. This process alters the fundamental charge parity of the device in a binary manner, which can be used to deduce the initial properties of the energy deposition. We lay out the operating mechanism, noise sources, and expected sensitivity of QPDs based on a spectrum of charge-qubit types and readout mechanisms and detail an R&D pathway to demonstrating sensitivity to sub-eV energy deposits.

[80] 2405.17296

Coupling Light with Matter for Identifying Dominant Subnetworks

We present a novel light-matter platform that uses complex-valued oscillator networks, a form of physical neural networks, to identify dominant subnetworks and uncover indirect correlations within larger networks. This approach offers significant advantages, including low energy consumption, high processing speed, and the immediate identification of co- and counter-regulated nodes without post-processing. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated through its application to biological networks, and we also propose its applicability to a wide range of other network types.

[81] 2405.17305

Non-Abelian Hopf-Euler insulators

We discuss a class of three-band non-Abelian topological insulators in three dimensions which carry a single bulk Hopf index protected by spatiotemporal ($\mathcal{PT}$) inversion symmetry. These phases may also host subdimensional topological invariants given by the Euler characteristic class, resulting in real Hopf-Euler insulators. Such systems naturally realize helical nodal structures in the 3D Brillouin zone, providing a physical manifestation of the linking number described by the Hopf invariant. We show that, by opening a gap between the valence bands of these systems, one finds a fully-gapped `flag' phase, which displays a three-band multi-gap Pontryagin invariant. Unlike the previously reported $\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric four-band real Hopf insulator, which hosts a $\mathbb{Z} \oplus \mathbb{Z}$ invariant, these phases are not unitarily equivalent to two copies of a complex two-band Hopf insulator. We show that these uncharted phases can be obtained through dimensional extension of two-dimensional Euler insulators, and that they support (1) an optical bulk integrated circular shift effect quantized by the Hopf invariant, (2) quantum-geometric breathing in the real space Wannier functions, and (3) surface Euler topology on boundaries. Consequently, our findings pave a way for novel experimental realizations of real-space quantum-geometry, as these systems may be directly simulated by utilizing synthethic dimensions in metamaterials or ultracold atoms.

[82] 2405.17310

Exact dynamics of quantum dissipative $XX$ models: Wannier-Stark localization in the fragmented operator space

We address dissipative dynamics of the one-dimensional nearest-neighbour $XX$ spin-$1/2$ chain governed by the Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad (GKSL) equation. In the absence of dissipation the model is integrable. We identify a broad class of dissipative terms that generically destroy integrability but leave the operator space of the model fragmented into an extensive number of dynamically disjoint subspaces of varying dimensions. In sufficiently small subspaces the GKSL equation in the Heisenberg representation can be easily solved, sometimes in a closed analytical form. We provide an example of such an exact solution for a specific choice of dissipative terms. It is found that observables experience the Wannier-Stark localization in the corresponding operator subspace. As a result, the expectation values of the observables are linear combinations of essentially a few discrete decay modes, the long time dynamics being governed by the slowest mode. We examine the complex Liouvillian eigenvalue corresponding to this latter mode as a function of the dissipation strength. We find an exceptional point at a critical dissipation strength that separates oscillating and non-oscillating decay. We also describe a different type of dissipation that leads to a single decay mode in the whole operator subspace. Finally, we point out that our exact solutions of the GKSL equation entail exact solutions of the Schr\"odinger equation describing the quench dynamics in closed spin ladders dual to the dissipative spin chains.

[83] 2405.17348

Kondo-Zeno crossover in the dynamics of a monitored quantum dot

We study the dynamics of a quantum dot coupled to a metallic bath and subject to continuous monitoring of its charge density. The dynamics averaged over measurement noise is described by a dissipative Anderson impurity model with local Markovian dephasing, that we solve using an extension of the Non-Crossing Approximation in the vectorized Hilbert space. We show that the decay time scale of an initially polarised spin which is suddenly coupled to the bath and to the monitoring protocol displays a crossover from Kondo screening, with a lifetime controlled by interactions, to Quantum Zeno effect, with a lifetime which decreases with bare dissipation as the dephasing or monitoring rate is increased. Using a Schrieffer-Wolff transformation on the Lindbladian we derive an effective model for the long-time dynamics which is described at weak dissipation by a non-Hermitian Kondo model with complex-valued spin-spin exchange. As the dephasing is increased heating due to doublon production takes over and control the spin decay.

[84] 2405.17431

Crystalline invariants of fractional Chern insulators

In the presence of crystalline symmetry, topologically ordered states can acquire a host of symmetry-protected invariants. These determine the patterns of crystalline symmetry fractionalization of the anyons in addition to fractionally quantized responses to lattice defects. Here we show how ground state expectation values of partial rotations centered at high symmetry points can be used to extract crystalline invariants. Using methods from conformal field theory and G-crossed braided tensor categories, we develop a theory of invariants obtained from partial rotations, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. We then perform numerical Monte Carlo calculations for projected parton wave functions of fractional Chern insulators, demonstrating remarkable agreement between theory and numerics. For the topological orders we consider, we show that the Hall conductivity, filling fraction, and partial rotation invariants fully characterize the crystalline invariants of the system. Our results also yield invariants of continuum fractional quantum Hall states protected by spatial rotational symmetry.