In this work, we adapt a Monte Carlo algorithm introduced by Broadie and Glasserman (1997) to price a $\pi$-option. This method is based on the simulated price tree that comes from discretization and replication of possible trajectories of the underlying asset's price. As a result this algorithm produces lower and upper bounds that converge to the true price with the increasing depth of the tree. Under specific parametrization, this $\pi$-option is related to relative maximum drawdown and can be used in the real-market environment to protect a portfolio against volatile and unexpected price drops. We also provide some numerical analysis.
The recently developed rough Bergomi (rBergomi) model is a rough fractional stochastic volatility (RFSV) model which can generate more realistic term structure of at-the-money volatility skews compared with other RFSV models. However, its non-Markovianity brings mathematical and computational challenges for model calibration and simulation. To overcome these difficulties, we show that the rBergomi model can be approximated by the Bergomi model, which has the Markovian property. Our main theoretical result is to establish and describe the affine structure of the rBergomi model. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of our method by implementing a Markovian approximation algorithm based on a hybrid scheme.
In this paper we introduce a numerical method for optimal stopping in the framework of one dimensional diffusion. We use the Skorokhod embedding in order to construct recombining tree approximations for diffusions with general coefficients. This technique allows us to determine convergence rates and construct nearly optimal stopping times which are optimal at the same rate. Finally, we demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme with several examples of game options.
This paper is devoted to the study of robust fundamental theorems of asset pricing in discrete time and finite horizon settings. The new concept "robust pricing system" is introduced to rule out the existence of model independent arbitrage opportunities. Superhedging duality and strategy are obtained.
In this work, inspired by the Archer-Mouy-Selmi approach, we present two methodologies for scoring the stress test scenarios used by CCPs for sizing their Default Funds. These methodologies can be used by risk managers to compare different sets of scenarios and could be particularly useful when evaluating the relevance of adding new scenarios to a pre-existing set.
COVID-19 is an infectious disease that mostly affects the respiratory system. At the time of this research being performed, there were more than 1.4 million cases of COVID-19, and one of the biggest anxieties is not just our health, but our livelihoods, too. In this research, authors investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the global economy, more specifically, the impact of COVID-19 on financial movement of Crude Oil price and three U.S. stock indexes: DJI, S&P 500 and NASDAQ Composite. The proposed system for predicting commodity and stock prices integrates the Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) and Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (BDLSTM) networks. Firstly, SWT is used to decompose the data into approximation and detail coefficients. After decomposition, data of Crude Oil price and stock market indexes along with COVID-19 confirmed cases were used as input variables for future price movement forecasting. As a result, the proposed system BDLSTM+WT-ADA achieved satisfactory results in terms of five-day Crude Oil price forecast.
We present a generic path-dependent importance sampling algorithm where the Girsanov induced change of probability on the path space is represented by a sequence of neural networks taking the past of the trajectory as an input. At each learning step, the neural networks' parameters are trained so as to reduce the variance of the Monte Carlo estimator induced by this change of measure. This allows for a generic path dependent change of measure which can be used to reduce the variance of any path-dependent financial payoff. We show in our numerical experiments that for payoffs consisting of either a call, an asymmetric combination of calls and puts, a symmetric combination of calls and puts, a multi coupon autocall or a single coupon autocall, we are able to reduce the variance of the Monte Carlo estimators by factors between 2 and 9. The numerical experiments also show that the method is very robust to changes in the parameter values, which means that in practice, the training can be done offline and only updated on a weekly basis.
We consider the non-adapted version of a simple problem of portfolio optimization in a financial market that results from the presence of insider information. We analyze it via anticipating stochastic calculus and compare the results obtained by means of the Russo-Vallois forward, the Ayed-Kuo, and the Hitsuda-Skorokhod integrals. We compute the optimal portfolio for each of these cases. Our results give a partial indication that, while the forward integral yields a portfolio that is financially meaningful, the Ayed-Kuo and the Hitsuda-Skorokhod integrals do not provide an appropriate investment strategy for this problem.