We compute continuum and infinite volume limit extrapolations of the structure factors of neutron matter at finite temperature and density. Using a lattice formulation of leading-order pionless effective field theory, we compute the momentum dependence of the structure factors at finite temperature and at densities beyond the reach of the virial expansion. The Tan contact parameter is computed and the result agrees with the high momentum tail of the vector structure factor. All errors, statistical and systematic, are controlled for. This calculation is a first step towards a model-independent understanding of the linear response of neutron matter at finite temperature, a realm until now little explored.

Based on the distribution of tidal deformabilities and component masses of binary neutron star merger GW170817, the parametric equation of states (EOS) are employed to probe the nuclear symmetry energy and the properties of neutron star. To obtain a proper distribution of the parameters of the EOS that is consistent with the observation, Bayesian analysis is used and the constraints of causality and maximum mass are considered. From this analysis, it is found that the symmetry energy at twice the saturation density of nuclear matter can be constrained within $E_{sym}(2{\rho_{0}})$ = $34.5^{+20.5}_{-2.3}$ MeV at 90\% credible level. Moreover, the constraints on the radii and dimensionless tidal deformabilities of canonical neutron stars are also demonstrated through this analysis, and the corresponding constraints are 10.80 km $< R_{1.4} <$ 13.20 km and $133 < \Lambda_{1.4} < 686$ at 90\% credible level, with the most probable value of $\bar{R}_{1.4}$ = 12.60 km and $\bar{\Lambda}_{1.4}$ = 500, respectively. With respect to the prior, our result (posterior result) prefers a softer EOS, corresponding to a lower expected value of symmetry energy, a smaller radius and a smaller tidal deformability.

We apply a quark combination model with equal-velocity combination (EVC) approximation to study the elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) of hadrons in heavy-ion collisions in a wide collision energy range ($\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 27 - 5020 GeV). Taking advantage of the simple relationship between $v_{2}$ of hadrons and those of quarks and antiquarks under EVC, we extract $v_{2}$ of up/down quarks by the experimental data of proton and find it is consistent with that obtained by the data of $\Lambda$ and $\Xi$. We extract $v_{2}$ of strange quarks by the data of $\Omega$ and find it is consistent with that obtained by the data of $\Lambda$ and $\Xi$, and at RHIC energies we find it is also consistent with that obtained by the data of $\phi$. This means that $v_{2}$ of these light-flavor hadrons have a common quark-level source at hadronization. We further extract $v_{2}$ of charm quarks by the data of $D^{0}$ in Pb+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 5.02 TeV and that in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV. We find that charm quark dominates $v_{2}$ of $D$ mesons at low $p_{T}$ but light-flavor quarks significantly contribute to $v_{2}$ of $D$ mesons in the intermediate range $3\lesssim p_{T}\lesssim8$ GeV/c. We predict $v_{2}$ of charmed baryons $\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ and $\Xi_{c}^{0}$ which show a significant enhancement at intermediate $p_{T}$ due to the double contribution of light-flavor quarks. The properties of the obtained quark $v_{2}$ at hadronization are studied and a new regularity for $v_{2}$ of quarks as the function of $p_{T}/m$ is found.

We discuss a recent extraction of the $\pi N$ $\sigma$ term $\sigma_{\pi N}$ from a large-scale fit of pionic-atom strong-interaction data across the periodic table. The value thus derived, $\sigma_{\pi N}^{\rm FG}=57\pm 7$ MeV, is directly connected via the Gell-Mann--Oakes--Renner expression to the medium-renormalized $\pi N$ isovector scattering amplitude near threshold. It compares well with the value derived recently by the Bern-Bonn-J\"{u}lich group, $\sigma_{\pi N}^{\rm RS}=58\pm 5$ MeV, using the Roy-Steiner equations to control the extrapolation of the vanishingly small near threshold $\pi N$ isoscalar scattering amplitude to zero pion mass.

We propose a new factorized approach to QED radiative corrections (RCs) in inclusive and semi-inclusive lepton-hadron deep-inelastic scattering. The method allows the systematic resummation of the logarithmically enhanced RCs into factorized lepton distribution and fragmentation (or jet) functions that are universal for all final states. The new approach provides a uniform treatment of RCs for the extraction of parton distribution functions, transverse momentum dependent distributions, and other partonic correlation functions from lepton-hadron collision data.

We estimate the production of electromagnetic radiation (real and virtual photons) from the early, pre-equilibrium, stage of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The parton dynamics are obtained as a solution of the Boltzmann equation in the Fokker-Planck diffusion limit. The photon and dilepton rates are integrated and the obtained yields are compared with those from standard sources and with available experimental data. Non-equilibrium photon spectra are predicted for Pb+Pb at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV.

Excited states of $^{129}$In populated following the $\beta$-decay of $^{129}$Cd were experimentally studied with the GRIFFIN spectrometer at the ISAC facility of TRIUMF, Canada. A 480-MeV proton beam was impinged on a uranium carbide target and $^{129}$Cd was extracted using the Ion Guide Laser Ion Source (IG-LIS). $\beta$- and $\gamma$-rays following the decay of $^{129}$Cd were detected with the GRIFFIN spectrometer comprising the plastic scintillator SCEPTAR and 16 high-purity germanium (HPGe) clover-type detectors. %, along with the $\beta$-particles were detected with SCEPTAR. From the $\beta$-$\gamma$-$\gamma$ coincidence analysis, 32 new transitions and 7 new excited states were established, expanding the previously known level scheme of $^{129}$In. The $\log ft$ values deduced from the $\beta$-feeding intensities suggest that some of the high-lying states were populated by the $\nu 0 g_{7/2} \rightarrow \pi 0 g_{9/2}$ allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transition, which indicates that the allowed GT transition is more dominant in the $^{129}$Cd decay than previously reported. Observation of fragmented Gamow-Teller strengths is consistent with theoretical calculations.

By measuring the momentum correlations of pions created in heavy-ion collisions we can gain information about the space-time geometry of the particle emitting source. Recent experimental results from multiple different collaborations demonstrated that to properly describe the shape of the measured correlation functions, one needs to go beyond the Gaussian approximation. Some studies suggest that the Levy distribution could provide a good description of the source. While there are already many experimental results, there is very little input from the phenomenology side in explanation of the observed non-Gaussian source shapes. The EPOS model is a sophisticated hybrid model where the evolution of the newly-created system is governed by Parton-Based Gribov-Regge theory. It has already proved to be successful in describing many different experimental observations for the systems characterized by baryon chemical potential close to zero, but so far the source shape has not been explored in detail. In this paper we discuss studies of the pion emitting source based on the theoretical approach of the EPOS model.

The exclusive vector meson production in electron-ion collisions for the energies of the future colliders is investigated. We present predictions for the coherent and incoherent $\phi$ and $J/\psi$ production in $eAu$ collisions considering the possible states of nucleon configurations in the nuclear wave function and taking into account of the non-linear corrections to the QCD dynamics. The cross sections and transverse momentum distributions are estimated assuming the energies of the Electron-Ion Collider (EIC), Large Hadron Electron Collider (LHeC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC-$eh$). Our results indicate that a future experimental analysis of these processes can shed light on the modeling of the gluon saturation effects and constrain the description of the QCD dynamics at high energies.

We present a new strategy using artificial intelligence (AI) to build the first AI-based Monte Carlo event generator (MCEG) capable of faithfully generating final state particle phase space in lepton-hadron scattering. We show a blueprint for integrating machine learning strategies with calibrated detector simulations to build a vertex-level, AI-based MCEG, free of theoretical assumptions about femtometer scale physics. As the first steps towards this goal, we present a case study for inclusive electron-proton scattering using synthetic data from the PYTHIA MCEG for testing and validation purposes. Our quantitative results validate our proof of concept and demonstrate the predictive power of the trained models. The work suggests new venues for data preservation to enable future QCD studies of hadrons structure, and the developed technology can boost the science output of physics programs at facilities such as Jefferson Lab and the future Electron-Ion Collider.

In this work we provide an overview of the recent investigations on the non extensive Tsallis statistics and its applications to high energy physics and astrophysics, including physics at the LHC, hadron physics and neutron stars. We review some recent investigations on the power-law distributions arising in HEP experiments focusing on a thermodynamic description of the system formed, behaviour. The possible connections with a fractal structure of hadrons is also discussed. The main objective of the present work is to delineate the state-of-the-art of those studies, and show some open issues that deserve more careful investigation. We propose several possibilities to test the theory through analyses of experimental data.

Recently, Cheng et al. identified a number of massive white dwarfs (WD) that appear to have an additional heat source providing a luminosity near $\approx 10^{-3}L_\odot$ for multiple Gyr. In this paper we explore heating from electron capture and pycnonuclear reactions. We also explore heating from dark matter annihilation. WD stars appear to be too small to capture enough dark matter for this to be important. Finally, if dark matter condenses to very high densities inside a WD this could ignite nuclear reactions. We calculate the enhanced central density of a WD in the gravitational potential of a very dense dark matter core. While this might start a supernova, it seems unlikely to provide modest heating for a long time. We conclude that electron capture, pycnonuclear, and dark matter reactions are unlikely to provide significant heating in the massive WD that Cheng considers.