This article presents groomed jet substructure measurements in pp and Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector. The Soft Drop grooming algorithm provides access to the hard parton splittings inside a jet by removing soft wide-angle radiation. We report the groomed jet momentum splitting fraction, $z_{\rm g}$, and the (scaled) groomed jet radius, $\theta_{\rm g}$. Charged-particle jets are reconstructed at midrapidity using the anti-kT algorithm with resolution parameters $R = 0.2$ and $R = 0.4$. In heavy-ion collisions, the large underlying event poses a challenge for the reconstruction of groomed jet observables, since fluctuations in the background can cause groomed parton splittings to be misidentified. By using strong grooming conditions to reduce this background, we report these observables fully corrected for detector effects and background fluctuations for the first time. A narrowing of the $\theta_{\rm g}$ distribution in Pb$-$Pb collisions compared to pp collisions is seen, which provides direct evidence of the modification of the angular structure of jets in the quark$-$gluon plasma. No significant modification of the $z_{\rm g}$ distribution in Pb$-$Pb collisions compared to pp collisions is observed. These results are compared with a variety of theoretical models of jet quenching, and provide constraints on jet energy-loss mechanisms and coherence effects in the quark$-$gluon plasma.

We perform the first simultaneous global QCD extraction of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions and the TMD fragmentation functions in nuclei. We have considered the world set of data from semi-inclusive electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan di-lepton production. In total, this data set consists of 126 data points from HERMES, Fermilab, RHIC and LHC. Working at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, we achieve a $\chi^2/dof = 1.045$. In this analysis, we quantify the broadening of TMDs in nuclei comparing with those in free nucleons for the first time. We also make predictions for the ongoing JLab 12 GeV program and future EIC measurements.

A feasibility demonstration of three-dimensional (3D) muon tomography was performed for infrastructure equivalent targets using the proposed portable muography detector. For the target, we used two sets of lead blocks placed at different heights. The detector consists of two muon position-sensitive detectors, made of plastic scintillating fibers (PSFs) and multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs) with an angular resolution of 8 msr. The maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) method was used for the 3D imaging reconstruction of the muography simulation and measurement. For both simulation and experiment, the reconstructed positions of the blocks produce consistent results with prior knowledge of the blocks' arrangement. This result demonstrates the potential of the 3D tomographic imaging of infrastructure by using eleven detection positions for portable muography detectors to image infrastructure scale targets.

We introduce the concept of neutron-proton two-particle units ($np$-Weisskopf units) to be used in the analysis of the ($^3$He,$p)$ and $(p,^3$He) \added{reactions on nuclei} along the N=Z line. These are presented for the conditions relevant to the $(n,j,\ell$) orbits expected from $^{16}$O to $^{100}$Sn. As is the case of the Weisskopf units for electromagnetic transitions, the $np$-WU's will provide a simple, yet robust, measure of isoscalar and isovector $np$ pairing collective effects.

Experimental $\alpha$-decay half-life, spin, and parity of 398 nuclei in the range 50$\leq$Z$\leq$118 are utilized to propose a new formula (QF) with only 4 coefficients as well as to modify the Tagepera-Nurmia formula with just 3 coefficients (MTNF) by employing nonlinear regressions. These formulas, based on reduced mass ($\mu$) and angular momentum taken away by the $\alpha$-particle, are ascertained very effective for both favoured and unfavoured $\alpha$-decay in addition to their excellent match with all (Z, N) combinations of experimental $\alpha$-decay half-lives. After comparing with similar other empirical formulas of $\alpha$-decay half-life, QF and MTNF formulas are purported with accuracy, minimum uncertainty and deviation, dependency on least number of fitted coefficients together with less sensitivity to the uncertainties of $Q$-values. The QF formula is applied to predict $\alpha$-decay half-lives for 724 favoured and 635 unfavoured transitions having experimentally known $Q$-values. Moreover, these available $Q$-values are also employed to test various theoretical approaches viz. RMF, FRDM, WS4, RCHB, etc. along with machine learning method XGBoost for determining theoretical $Q$-values, incisively. Thereafter, using $Q$-values from the most precise theoretical treatment mentioned above along with the proposed formulas, probable $\alpha$-decay chains for Z$=$120 isotopes are identified.