We propose a data-driven approach to extracting interactions among oscillators in synchronized networks. The phase model describing the network is estimated directly from time-series data by solving a multiparameter eigenvalue problem associated with the Koopman operator on vector-valued function spaces. The asymptotic phase function of the oscillator and phase coupling functions are simultaneously obtained within the same framework without prior knowledge of the network. We validate the proposed method by numerical simulations and analyze real-world data of synchronized networks.

Synchronous collisions between a large number of solitons are considered in the context of a statistical description. It is shown that during the interaction of solitons of the same signs the wave field is effectively smoothed out. When the number of solitons increases and the sequence of their amplitudes decay slower, the focused wave becomes even smoother and the statistical moments get frozen for a long time. This quasi-stationary state is characterized by greatly reduced statistical moments and by the soliton density close to critical. It may be treated as the small-dispersion limit, what makes it possible to analytically estimate all high-order statistical moments. While the focus of the study is made on the Korteweg--de Vries equation and its modified version, a much broader applicability of the results to equations that support soliton-type solutions is discussed

Intrinsically coupled nonlinear systems present different oscillating components that exchange energy among themselves. A paradigmatic example is the spring pendulum, which displays spring, pendulum, and coupled oscillations. We analyze the energy exchanges among the oscillations, and obtain that it is enhanced for chaotic orbits. Moreover, the highest rates of energy exchange for the coupling occur along the homoclinic tangle of the primary hyperbolic point embedded in a chaotic sea. The results show a clear relation between internal energy exchanges and the dynamics of a coupled system.

We consider three 'classical doubles' of any semisimple, connected and simply connected compact Lie group $G$: the cotangent bundle, the Heisenberg double and the internally fused quasi-Poisson double. On each double we identify a pair of 'master integrable systems' and investigate their Poisson reductions. In the simplest cotangent bundle case, the reduction is defined by taking quotient by the cotangent lift of the conjugation action of $G$ on itself, and this naturally generalizes to the other two doubles. In each case, we derive explicit formulas for the reduced Poisson structure and equations of motion, and find that they are associated with well known classical dynamical $r$-matrices. Our principal result is that we provide a unified treatment of a large family of reduced systems, which contains new models as well as examples of spin Sutherland and Ruijsenaars--Schneider models that were studied previously. We argue that on generic symplectic leaves of the Poisson quotients the reduced systems are integrable in the degenerate sense, although further work is required to prove this rigorously.

Pairs of misalignment-produced axions with nearby masses can experience a nonlinear resonance that leads to enhanced direct and astrophysical signatures of axion dark matter. In much of the relevant parameter space, self-interactions cause axion fluctuations to become nonperturbative and to collapse in the early Universe. We investigate the observational consequences of such nonperturbative structure in this ``friendly axion'' scenario with $3+1$ dimensional simulations. Critically, we find that nonlinear dynamics work to equilibrate the abundance of the two axions, making it easier than previously expected to experimentally confirm the existence of a resonant pair. We also compute the gravitational wave emission from friendly axion dark matter; while the resulting stochastic background is likely undetectable for axion masses above $10^{-22} \, \text{eV}$, the polarization of the cosmic microwave background does constrain possible hyperlight, friendly subcomponents. Finally, we demonstrate that dense, self-interaction--bound oscillons formed during the period of strong nonlinearity are driven by the homogeneous axion background, enhancing their lifetime beyond the in-vacuum expectation.

Full dispersive models of water waves, such as the Whitham equation and the full dispersion Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation, are interesting from both the physical and mathematical points of view. This paper studies analogous full dispersive KP models of nonlinear elastic waves propagating in a nonlocal elastic medium. In particular we consider anti-plane shear elastic waves which are assumed to be small-amplitude long waves. We propose two different full dispersive extensions of the KP equation in the case of cubic nonlinearity and "negative dispersion". One of them is called the Whitham-type full dispersion KP equation and the other one is called the BBM-type full dispersion KP equation. Most of the existing KP-type equations in the literature are particular cases of our full dispersion KP equations. We also introduce the simplified models of the new proposed full dispersion KP equations by approximating the operators in the equations. We show that the line solitary wave solution of a simplified form of the Whitham-type full dispersion KP equation is linearly unstable to long-wavelength transverse disturbances if the propagation speed of the line solitary wave is greater than a certain value. A similar analysis for a simplified form of the BBM-type full dispersion KP equation does not provide a linear instability assessment.

Controlling interfaces of phase separating fluid mixtures is key to creating diverse functional soft materials. Traditionally, this is accomplished with surface-modifying chemical agents. Using experiment and theory, we study how mechanical activity shapes soft interfaces that separate an active and a passive fluid. Chaotic flows in the active fluid give rise to giant interfacial fluctuations and non-inertial propagating active waves. At high activities, stresses disrupt interface continuity and drive droplet generation, producing an emulsion-like active state comprised of finite-sized droplets. When in contact with a solid boundary, active interfaces exhibit non-equilibrium wetting transitions, wherein the fluid climbs the wall against gravity. These results demonstrate the promise of mechanically driven interfaces for creating a new class of soft active matter.

Irregular, especially chaotic, behavior is often undesirable for economic processes because it presents challenges for predicting their dynamics. In this situation, control of such a process by its mathematical model can be used to suppress chaotic behavior and to transit the system from irregular to regular dynamics. In this paper, we have constructed an overlapping generations model with a control function. By applying evolutionary algorithms we showed that in the absence of control, both regular and irregular behavior (periodic and chaotic) could be observed in this model. We then used the synthesis of control by the Pyragas control method with two control parameters to solve the problem of controlling the irregular behavior of the model. We solved a number of optimization problems applying evolutionary algorithms to select control parameters in order to ensure stability of periodic orbits. We compared qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the model's dynamics before and after applying control and verified the results obtained using simulation. We thus demonstrated that artificial intelligence technologies (in particular, evolutionary algorithms) combined with the Pyragas control method are well suited for in-depth analysis and stabilization of irregular dynamics in the model considered in this paper.

We considered a simple model describing the propagation of an epidemic on a geographical network. The initial rate of growth of the epidemic is the maximal eigenvalue of a matrix formed by the susceptibles and the graph Laplacian. Assuming the vaccination reduces the susceptibles, we define different vaccination strategies: uniform, local, or following a given vector. Using perturbation theory and the special form of the graph Laplacian, we show that it is most efficient to vaccinate along with the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue of the Laplacian. This result is illustrated on a 7 vertex graph, a grid, and a realistic example of the french rail network.

In this paper, we revise the derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation from the Heisenberg spin chain stressing physical aspects and all technicalities.