Bazhanov--Stroganov maps are set theoretical solutions to the 4-simplex equation, namely the fourth member of the family of $n$-simplex equations, which are fundamental equations of mathematical physics. In this letter, we develop a method for constructing Bazhanov--Stroganov 4-simplex maps as extensions of solutions to the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation. We employ this method to construct birarional, noninvolutive 4-simplex maps which boil down to the famous Hirota tetrahedron map at a certain limit.

We report an optical fiber experiment in which we investigate the interaction between an individual soliton and a dense soliton gas. We evidence a refraction phenomenon where the tracer soliton experiences an effective velocity change due to its interaction with the optical soliton gas. This interaction results in a significant spatial shift that is measured and compared with theoretical predictions obtained via the inverse scattering transform (IST) theory. The effective velocity change associated with the refraction phenomenon is found to be in good quantitative agreement with the results of the spectral kinetic theory of soliton gas. Our results validate the collision rate ansatz that plays a fundamental role in the kinetic theory of soliton gas and also is at heart of generalized hydrodynamics of many-body integrable systems.

A discrete Boltzmann model (DBM) for plasma kinetics is proposed. The DBM contains two physical functions. The first is to capture the main features aiming to investigate and the second is to present schemes for checking thermodynamic non-equilibrium (TNE) state and describing TNE effects. For the first function, mathematically, the model is composed of a discrete Boltzmann equation coupled by a magnetic induction equation. Physically, the model is equivalent to a hydrodynamic model plus a coarse-grained model for the most relevant TNE behaviors including the entropy production rate. The first function is verified by recovering hydrodynamic non-equilibrium (HNE) behaviors of a number of typical benchmark problems. Extracting and analyzing the most relevant TNE effects in Orszag-Tang problem are practical applications of the second function. As a further application, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with interface inverse and re-shock process is numerically studied. It is found that, in the case without magnetic field, the non-organized momentum flux shows the most pronounced effects near shock front, while the non-organized energy flux shows the most pronounced behaviors near perturbed interface. The influence of magnetic field on TNE effects shows stages: before the interface inverse, the TNE strength is enhanced by reducing the interface inverse speed; while after the interface inverse, the TNE strength is significantly reduced. Both the global averaged TNE strength and entropy production rate contributed by non-organized energy flux can be used as physical criteria to identify whether or not the magnetic field is sufficient to prevent the interface inverse.

The thermal conductivity of a $d=1$ lattice of ferromagnetically coupled planar rotators is studied through molecular dynamics. Two different types of anisotropies (local and in the coupling) are assumed in the inertial XY model. In the limit of extreme anisotropy, both models approach the Ising model and its thermal conductivity $\kappa$, which, at high temperatures, scales like $\kappa\sim T^{-3}$. This behavior reinforces the result obtained in various $d$-dimensional models, namely $\kappa \propto L\, e_{q}^{-B(L^{\gamma}T)^{\eta}}$ where $e_q^z \equiv[1+(1-q)z]^{\frac{1}{1-q}}\;(e_1^z=e^z)$, $L$ being the linear size of the $d$-dimensional macroscopic lattice. The scaling law $\frac{\eta \,\gamma}{q-1}=1$ guarantees the validity of Fourier's law, $\forall d$.