New articles on math

[1] 2007.01858

Cauchy duality for Banach spaces of vector-valued analytic functions

In this paper, we provide a construction of Cauchy dual space for Banach space of vector-valued analytic functions on $\Omega\subset \mathbb{C}$. Moreover, we describe the relationship between the analytic model for a left-invertible operator $T$ and analytic model for the Cauchy dual operator $T^\prime$

[2] 2007.01860

Sensitivity Analysis for the 2D Navier-Stokes Equations with Applications to Continuous Data Assimilation

We rigorously prove the well-posedness of the formal sensitivity equations with respect to the Reynolds number corresponding to the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Moreover, we do so by showing a sequence of difference quotients converges to the unique solution of the sensitivity equations for both the 2D Navier-Stokes equations and the related data assimilation equations, which utilize the continuous data assimilation algorithm proposed by Azouani, Olson, and Titi. As a result, this method of proof provides uniform bounds on difference quotients, demonstrating parameter recovery algorithms that change parameters as the system evolves will not blow-up. We also note that this appears to be the first such rigorous proof of global existence and uniqueness to strong or weak solutions to the sensitivity equations for the 2D Navier-Stokes equations (in the natural case of zero initial data), and that they can be obtained as a limit of difference quotients with respect to the Reynolds number.

[3] 2007.01863

An optimal design problem with non-standard growth and no concentration effects

We obtain an integral representation for certain functionals arising in the context of optimal design and damage evolution problems under non-standard growth conditions and perimeter penalization. Under our hypotheses, the integral representation includes a term which is absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure and a perimeter term, but no additional singular term. We also provide an application to the modelling of thin films.

[4] 2007.01865

A New Linear Inversion Formula for a class of Hypergeometric polynomials

Given complex parameters $x$, $\nu$, $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma \notin -\mathbb{N}$, consider the infinite lower triangular matrix $\mathbf{A}(x,\nu;\alpha, \beta,\gamma)$ with elements $$ A_{n,k}(x,\nu;\alpha,\beta,\gamma) = \displaystyle (-1)^k\binom{n+\alpha}{k+\alpha} \cdot F(k-n,-(\beta+n)\nu;-(\gamma+n);x) $$ for $1 \leqslant k \leqslant n$, depending on the Hypergeometric polynomials $F(-n,\cdot;\cdot;x)$, $n \in \mathbb{N}^*$. After stating a general criterion for the inversion of infinite matrices in terms of associated generating functions, we prove that the inverse matrix $\mathbf{B}(x,\nu;\alpha, \beta,\gamma) = \mathbf{A}(x,\nu;\alpha, \beta,\gamma)^{-1}$ is given by \begin{align} B_{n,k}(x,\nu;\alpha, \beta,\gamma) = & \; \displaystyle (-1)^k\binom{n+\alpha}{k+\alpha} \; \cdot \nonumber \\ & \; \biggl [ \; \frac{\gamma+k}{\beta+k} \, F(k-n,(\beta+k)\nu;\gamma+k;x) \; + \nonumber \\ & \; \; \; \frac{\beta-\gamma}{\beta+k} \, F(k-n,(\beta+k)\nu;1+\gamma+k;x) \; \biggr ] \nonumber \end{align} for $1 \leqslant k \leqslant n$, thus providing a new class of linear inversion formulas. Functional relations for the generating functions of related sequences $S$ and $T$, that is, $T = \mathbf{A}(x,\nu;\alpha, \beta,\gamma) \, S \Longleftrightarrow S = \mathbf{B}(x,\nu;\alpha, \beta,\gamma) \, T$, are also provided.

[5] 2007.01869

New Recipes for Brownian Loop Soups

We define a large new class of conformal primary operators in the ensemble of Brownian loops in two dimensions known as the ``Brownian loop soup,'' and compute their correlation functions analytically and in closed form. The loop soup is a conformally invariant statistical ensemble with central charge $c = 2 \lambda$, where $\lambda > 0$ is the intensity of the soup. Previous work identified exponentials of the layering operator $e^{i \beta N(z)}$ as primary operators. Each Brownian loop was assigned $\pm 1$ randomly, and $N(z)$ was defined to be the sum of these numbers over all loops that encircle the point $z$. These exponential operators then have conformal dimension ${\frac{\lambda}{10}}(1 - \cos \beta)$. Here we generalize this procedure by assigning a more general random value to each loop. The operator $e^{i \beta N(z)}$ remains primary with conformal dimension $\frac {\lambda}{10}(1 - \phi(\beta))$, where $\phi(\beta)$ is the characteristic function of the probability distribution used to assign random values to each loop. Using recent results we compute in closed form the exact two-point functions in the upper half-plane and four-point functions in the full plane of this very general class of operators. These correlation functions depend analytically on the parameters $\lambda, \beta_i, z_i$, and on the characteristic function $\phi(\beta)$. They satisfy the conformal Ward identities and are crossing symmetric. As in previous work, the conformal block expansion of the four-point function reveals the existence of additional and as-yet uncharacterized conformal primary operators.

[6] 2007.01892

Generalized Path Pairs and Fuss-Catalan Triangles

Path pairs are a modification of parallelogram polyominoes that provide yet another combinatorial interpretation of the Catalan numbers. More generally, the number of path pairs of length $n$ and distance $\delta$ corresponds to the $(n-1,\delta-1)$ entry of Shapiro's so-called Catalan triangle. In this paper, we widen the notion of path pairs $(\gamma_1,\gamma_2)$ to the situation where $\gamma_1$ and $\gamma_2$ may have different lengths, and then enforce divisibility conditions on runs of vertical steps in $\gamma_2$. This creates a two-parameter family of integer triangles that generalize the Catalan triangle and qualify as proper Riordan arrays for many choices of parameters. In particular, we use generalized path pairs to provide a new combinatorial interpretation for all entries in every proper Riordan array $\mathcal{R}(d(t),h(t))$ of the form $d(t) = C_k(t)^i$, $h(t) = C_k(t)^k$, where $1 \leq i \leq k$ and $C_k(t)$ is the generating function for some sequence of Fuss-Catalan numbers (some $k \geq 2$). Closed formulas are then provided for the number of generalized path pairs across an even broader range of parameters, as well as for the number of weak path pairs with a fixed number of non-initial intersections.

[7] 2007.01894

Integral representation for Euler sums of hyperharmonic numbers

In this short paper, we derive an integral representation for Euler sums of hyperharmonic numbers. We use results established by other authors to then show that the integral has a closed-form in terms of zeta values and Stirling numbers of the first kind. Specifically, the integral has the form of $$\int_0^\infty \frac{t^{m-1}\ln(1-e^{-t})}{(1-e^{-t})^r} \ dt$$ where $m, r \in \mathbb{N}$, $m > r$ and $r\ge1$.

[8] 2007.01895

On 3-distance spherical 5-designs

Inspired by a recently formulated conjecture by Bannai et al. we investigate spherical codes which admit exactly three different distances and are spherical 5-designs. Computing and analyzing distance distributions we provide new proof of the fact (due to Levenshtein) that such codes are maximal and rule out certain cases towards a proof of the conjecture.

[9] 2007.01896

Spatial Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma as a Transformation Semigroup

The prisoner's dilemma (PD) is a game-theoretic model studied in a wide array of fields to understand the emergence of cooperation between rational self-interested agents. In this work, we formulate a spatial iterated PD as a discrete-event dynamical system where agents play the game in each time-step and analyse it algebraically using Krohn-Rhodes algebraic automata theory using a computational implementation of the holonomy decomposition of transformation semigroups. In each iteration all players adopt the most profitable strategy in their immediate neighbourhood. Perturbations resetting the strategy of a given player provide additional generating events for the dynamics. Our initial study shows that the algebraic structure, including how natural subsystems comprising permutation groups acting on the spatial distributions of strategies, arise in certain parameter regimes for the pay-off matrix, and are absent for other parameter regimes. Differences in the number of group levels in the holonomy decomposition (an upper bound for Krohn-Rhodes complexity) are revealed as more pools of reversibility appear when the temptation to defect is at an intermediate level. Algebraic structure uncovered by this analysis can be interpreted to shed light on the dynamics of the spatial iterated PD.

[10] 2007.01908

New Results on Modular Golomb Rulers, Optical Orthogonal Codes and Related Structures

We prove new existence and nonexistence results for modular Golomb rulers in this paper. We completely determine which modular Golomb rulers of order $k$ exist, for all $k\leq 11$, and we present a general existence result that holds for all $k \geq 3$. We also derive new nonexistence results for infinite classes of modular Golomb rulers and related structures such as difference packings, optical orthogonal codes, cyclic Steiner systems and relative difference families.

[11] 2007.01914

Dynamical degrees of automorphisms on abelian varieties

For any given Salem number, we construct an automorphism on a simple abelian variety whose first dynamical degree is the square of the Salem number. Our construction works for both simple abelian varieties with totally indefinite quaternion multiplication and for simple abelian varieties of the second kind. We then give a complete classification of the dynamical degree sequences for abelian varieties of dimension at most four and obtain an ergodic result for sequences of pullbacks of forms.

[12] 2007.01920

On the random variable $w_a$ and its connection with the Dirichlet divisor problem

In this paper, we study a discrete random variable $w_a$: $$ X = \left\{x_i \;\Big{|}\;\frac{a-i}{a} \right\},\; \mathbb{P}(w_a = x_i) = \frac{1}{a},\;i=1,..,a,\;\;a \in \mathbb{N}^{*}$$ Its characteristics are found. It is shown that the variance of the sum of random variables: $$ Var\Big[\sum_{a=1}^{n}w_a\Big] = \sum_{i=1}^{a}\sum_{j=1}^{b}Cov(w_a,w_b) $$ $$ Cov(w_a,w_b) = \frac{gcd(a,b)^2-1}{12 a b}$$ The variance estimate is given: $$ Var\Big[\sum_{a=1}^{n}w_a\Big] = O\left(n \ln{n} - n + O(n) - H_n^2\right) $$ It is shown that when considering: $$\left \lfloor{\frac{x}{a}}\right \rfloor = \frac{x}{a} - E[w_a]$$ we can get the formula for counting $D(n)$ -- the number of lattice points under the hyperbola $\frac{n}{xy},\; 1 \leq x \leq n,\; 1 \leq y \leq n$: $$D(n) = n \ln{n} + (2\gamma - 1)n + H_{\sqrt{n}} + O(1) $$ satisfied with a standard deviation of the order $O\left(\sqrt{\sqrt{n} \ln{\sqrt{n}} - \sqrt{n} + O(\sqrt{n}) - H_n^2}\right)$ with the hidden constant in main term $ C = \frac{1}{2\pi^2}$. therefore, we can say that this estimate is $ O(n^{\frac{1}{4}+\epsilon})$ since: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\left(\frac{x^{\frac{1}{4}+\epsilon}}{\sqrt{\sqrt{n} \ln{\sqrt{n}} + \sqrt{n} - H_n^2}}\right) = 0 $$ for some very small $\epsilon$.

[13] 2007.01933

Discrete Approximation to Brownian Motion with Varying Dimension in Bounded Domains

In this paper we study the discrete approximation to Brownian motion with varying dimension (BMVD in abbreviation) introduced in [4] by continuous time random walks on square lattices. The state space of BMVD contains a $2$-dimensional component, a $3$-dimensional component, and a "darning point" which joins these two components. Such a state space is equipped with the geodesic distance, under which BMVD is a diffusion process. In this paper, we prove that BMVD restricted on a bounded domain containing the darning point is the weak limit of continuous time reversible random walks with exponential holding times. Upon each move, except at the "darning point", these random walks jump to any of its nearest neighbors with equal probability. The behavior of such a random walk at the "darning point" is also given explicitly in this paper.

[14] 2007.01939

On the Weak Maximizing Properties

Quite recently, a new property related to norm-attaining operators has been introduced: the weak maximizing property (WMP). In this note, we define a generalised version of it considering other topologies than the weak one (mainly the weak$^*$ topology). We provide new sufficient conditions, based on the moduli of asymptotic uniform smoothness and convexity, which imply that a pair $(X,Y)$ enjoys a certain maximizing property. This approach not only allows us to (re)obtain as a direct consequence that the pair $(\ell_p,\ell_q)$ has the WMP, but also provides many more natural examples of pairs having a given maximizing property.

[15] 2007.01948

Exploiting Extended Krylov Subspace for the Reduction of Regular and Singular Circuit Models

During the past decade, Model Order Reduction (MOR) has become key enabler for the efficient simulation of large circuit models. MOR techniques based on moment matching are well established due to their simplicity and computational performance in the reduction process. However, the efficacy of these methods based on the ordinary Krylov subspace is usually unsatisfactory to approximate the original behaviour. In this paper, we present a moment matching method based on the extended Krylov subspace combined with the superposition property that can handle large input models and generate more accurate and efficient reduced-order models for circuit simulation methods. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method is verified using industrial power grid benchmarks.

[16] 2007.01957

Optimal control for the infinity obstacle problem

In this note, we show that a natural optimal control problem for the $\infty$-obstacle problem admits an optimal control which is also an optimal state. Moreover, we show the convergence of the minimal value of an optimal control problem for the $p$-obstacle problem to the minimal value of our optimal control problem for the $\infty$-obstacle problem, as $p\to\infty$.

[17] 2007.01958

Two-sample Testing for Large, Sparse High-Dimensional Multinomials under Rare/Weak Perturbations

Given two samples from possibly different discrete distributions over a common set of size $N$, consider the problem of testing whether these distributions are identical, vs. the following rare/weak perturbation alternative: the frequencies of $N^{1-\beta}$ elements are perturbed by $r(\log N)/2n$ in the Hellinger distance, where $n$ is the size of each sample. We adapt the Higher Criticism (HC) test to this setting using P-values obtained from $N$ exact binomial tests. We characterize the asymptotic performance of the HC-based test in terms of the sparsity parameter $\beta$ and the perturbation intensity parameter $r$. Specifically, we derive a region in the $(\beta,r)$-plane where the test asymptotically has maximal power, while having asymptotically no power outside this region. Our analysis distinguishes between the cases of dense ($N\gg n$) and sparse ($N\ll n$) contingency tables. In the dense case, the phase transition curve matches that of an analogous two-sample normal means model.

[18] 2007.01961

Karhunen-Loève Expansions for Axially Symmetric Gaussian Processes: Modeling Strategies and $L^2$ Approximations

Axially symmetric processes on spheres, for which the second-order dependency structure may substantially vary with shifts in latitude, are a prominent alternative to model the spatial uncertainty of natural variables located over large portions of the Earth. In this paper, we focus on Karhunen-Lo\`eve expansions of axially symmetric Gaussian processes. First, we investigate a parametric family of Karhunen-Lo\`eve coefficients that allows for versatile spatial covariance functions. The isotropy as well as the longitudinal independence can be obtained as limit cases of our proposal. Second, we introduce a strategy to render any longitudinally reversible process irreversible, which means that its covariance function could admit certain types of asymmetries along longitudes. Then, finitely truncated Karhunen-Lo\`eve expansions are used to approximate axially symmetric processes. For such approximations, bounds for the $L^2$-error are provided. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate our findings.

[19] 2007.01963

Spinorial representation of surfaces in Lorentzian homogeneous spaces of dimension 3

We find a spinorial representation of a Riemannian or Lorentzian surface in a Lorentzian homogeneous space of dimension $3$ and, as applications, we get a representation theorem for surfaces in the class of $\mathbb{L}(\kappa,\tau)$ spaces, we recover the Calabi correspondence between minimal surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^3$ and maximal surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^{1,2}$, and we obtain a new Lawson type correspondence between CMC surfaces in $\mathbb{R}^{1,2}$ and certain CMC surfaces in the 3-dimensional pseudo-hyperbolic space $\mathbb{H}_1^{3}$.

[20] 2007.01969

Variational Asymptotic Preserving Scheme for the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck System

We design a variational asymptotic preserving scheme for the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck system with the high field scaling, which describes the Brownian motion of a large system of particles in a surrounding bath. Our scheme builds on an implicit-explicit framework, wherein the stiff terms coming from the collision and field effects are solved implicitly while the convection terms are solved explicitly. To treat the implicit part, we propose a variational approach by viewing it as a Wasserstein gradient flow of the relative entropy, and solve it via a proximal quasi-Newton method. In so doing we get positivity and asymptotic preservation for free. The method is also massively parallelizable and thus suitable for high dimensional problems. We further show that the convergence of our implicit solver is uniform across different scales. A suite of numerical examples are presented at the end to validate the performance of the proposed scheme.

[21] 2007.01974

On one-sided topological conjugacy of topological Markov shifts and gauge actions on Cuntz--Krieger algebras

We will characterize topological conjugacy classes of one-sided topological Markov shifts in terms of the associated Cuntz--Krieger algebras and its gauge actions with potentials.

[22] 2007.01981

Uniquely $D$-colourable digraphs with large girth II: simplification via generalization

We prove that for every digraph $D$ and every choice of positive integers $k$, $\ell$ there exists a digraph $D^*$ with girth at least $\ell$ together with a surjective acyclic homomorphism $\psi\colon D^*\to D$ such that: (i) for every digraph $C$ of order at most $k$, there exists an acyclic homomorphism $D^*\to C$ if and only if there exists an acyclic homomorphism $D\to C$; and (ii) for every $D$-pointed digraph $C$ of order at most $k$ and every acyclic homomorphism $\varphi\colon D^*\to C$ there exists a unique acyclic homomorphism $f\colon D\to C$ such that $\varphi=f\circ\psi$. This implies the main results in [A. Harutyunyan et al., Uniquely $D$-colourable digraphs with large girth, Canad. J. Math., 64(6) (2012), 1310-1328; MR2994666] analogously with how the work [J. Ne\v{s}et\v{r}il and X. Zhu, On sparse graphs with given colorings and homomorphisms, J. Combin. Theory Ser. B, 90(1) (2004), 161-172; MR2041324] generalizes and extends [X. Zhu, Uniquely $H$-colorable graphs with large girth, J. Graph Theory, 23(1) (1996), 33-41; MR1402136].

[23] 2007.01982

Isometry groups of infinite-genus hyperbolic surfaces

Given a 2-manifold, a fundamental question to ask is which groups can be realized as the isometry group of a Riemannan metric of constant curvature on the manifold. In this paper, we give a nearly complete classification of such groups for infinite-genus 2-manifolds with no planar ends. Surprisingly, we show there is an uncountable class of such 2-manifolds where every countable group can be realized as an isometry group (namely, those with self-similar end spaces). We apply this result to obtain obstructions to standard group theoretic properties for the groups of homeomorphisms, diffeomorphisms, and the mapping class groups of such 2-manifolds. For example, none of these groups satisfy the Tits Alternative; are coherent; are linear; are cyclically or linearly orderable; or are residually finite. As a second application, we give an algebraic rigidity result for mapping class groups.

[24] 2007.01983

Primal-Dual Partial Inverse Splitting for Constrained Monotone Inclusions

In this work we study a constrained monotone inclusion involving the normal cone to a closed vector subspace and a priori information on primal solutions. We model this information by imposing that solutions belongs to the fixed point set of an averaged nonexpansive mapping. We characterize the solutions using an auxiliary inclusion that involves the partial inverse operator. Then, we propose the primal-dual partial inverse splitting and we prove its weak convergence to a solution of the inclusion, generalizing several methods in the literature. The efficiency of the proposed method is illustrated in two non-smooth convex optimization problems whose constraints have vector subspace structure. Finally, the proposed algorithm is applied to find a solution to a stochastic arc capacity expansion problem in transport networks.

[25] 2007.01985

Fundamental Groups and Limits of Almost Homogeneous Spaces

We show that for a sequence of proper length spaces $X_n$ with groups $\Gamma_n$ acting discretely and almost transitively by isometries, if they converge to a proper finite dimensional length space $X$, then $X$ is a nilpotent Lie group with an invariant sub-Finsler metric. Also, for large enough $n$, there are subgroups $\Lambda_n \leq \pi_1(X_n)$ and surjective morphisms $\Lambda_n\to \pi_1(X)$.

[26] 2007.01986

Parabolic equations with unbounded lower-order coefficients in Sobolev spaces with mixed norms

We prove the Lp,q-solvability of parabolic equations in divergence form with full lower order terms. The coefficients and non-homogeneous terms belong to mixed Lebesgue spaces with the lowest integrability conditions. In particular, the coefficients for the lower-order terms are not necessarily bounded. We study both the Dirichlet and conormal derivative boundary value problems on irregular domains. We also prove embedding results for parabolic Sobolev spaces, the proof of which is of independent interest.

[27] 2007.01987

Spatial stationarity, ergodicity and CLT for parabolic Anderson model with delta initial condition in dimension $d\geq 1$

Suppose that $\{u(t\,, x)\}_{t >0, x \in\R^d}$ is the solution to a $d$-dimensional parabolic Anderson model with delta initial condition and driven by a Gaussian noise that is white in time and has a spatially homogeneous covariance given by a nonnegative-definite measure $f$ which satisfies Dalang's condition. Let $\bm{p}_t(x):= (2\pi t)^{-d/2}\exp\{-\|x\|^2/(2t)\}$ denote the standard Gaussian heat kernel on $\R^d$. We prove that for all $t>0$, the process $U(t):=\{u(t\,, x)/\bm{p}_t(x): x\in \R^d\}$ is stationary using Feynman-Kac's formula, and is ergodic under the additional condition $\hat{f}\{0\}=0$, where $\hat{f}$ is the Fourier transform of $f$. Moreover, using Malliavin-Stein method, we investigate various central limit theorems for $U(t)$ based on the quantitative analysis of $f$. In particular, when $f$ is given by Riesz kernel, i.e., $f(\d x) = \|x\|^{-\beta}\d x$, we obtain a multiple phase transition for the CLT for $U(t)$ from $\beta\in(0\,,1)$ to $\beta=1$ to $\beta\in(1\,,d\wedge 2)$.

[28] 2007.01991

A note on rank-metric codes

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ denote the finite field with $q=p^\lambda$ elements. Maximum Rank-metric codes (MRD for short) are subsets of $M_{m\times n}(\mathbb{F}_q)$ whose number of elements attains the Singleton-like bound. The first MRD codes known was found by Delsarte (1978) and Gabidulin (1985). Sheekey (2016) presented a new class of MRD codes over $\mathbb{F}q$ called twisted Gabidulin codes and also proposed a generalization of the twisted Gabidulin codes to the codes $\mathcal{H}_{k,s}(L_1,L_2)$. The equivalence and duality of twisted Gabidulin codes was discussed by Lunardoni, Trombetti, and Zhou (2018). A new class of MRD codes in $M_{2n\times 2n}(\mathbb{F}_q)$ was found by Trombetti-Zhou (2018). In this work, we characterize the equivalence of the class of codes proposed by Sheekey, generalizing the results known for twisted Gabidulin codes and Trombetti-Zhou codes. In the second part of the paper, we restrict ourselves to the case $L_1(x)=x$, where we present its right nucleus, middle nucleus, Delsarte dual and adjoint codes. In the last section, we present the automorphism group of $\mathcal{H}_{k,s}(x,L(x))$ and compute its cardinality. In particular, we obtain the number of elements in the automorphism group of the twisted Gabidulin codes.

[29] 2007.01994

A gentle introduction to the differential equation method and dynamic concentration

We discuss the differential equation method for establishing dynamic concentration of discrete random processes. We present several relatively simple examples of it and aim to make the method understandable to the unfamiliar reader.

[30] 2007.01996

On the Asymptotic Linear Convergence Speed of Anderson Acceleration, Nesterov Acceleration, and Nonlinear GMRES

We consider nonlinear convergence acceleration methods for fixed-point iteration $x_{k+1}=q(x_k)$, including Anderson acceleration (AA), nonlinear GMRES (NGMRES), and Nesterov-type acceleration (corresponding to AA with window size one). We focus on fixed-point methods that converge asymptotically linearly with convergence factor $\rho<1$ and that solve an underlying fully smooth and non-convex optimization problem. It is often observed that AA and NGMRES substantially improve the asymptotic convergence behavior of the fixed-point iteration, but this improvement has not been quantified theoretically. We investigate this problem under simplified conditions. First, we consider stationary versions of AA and NGMRES, and determine coefficients that result in optimal asymptotic convergence factors, given knowledge of the spectrum of $q'(x)$ at the fixed point $x^*$. This allows us to understand and quantify the asymptotic convergence improvement that can be provided by nonlinear convergence acceleration, viewing $x_{k+1}=q(x_k)$ as a nonlinear preconditioner for AA and NGMRES. Second, for the case of infinite window size, we consider linear asymptotic convergence bounds for GMRES applied to the fixed-point iteration linearized about $x^*$. Since AA and NGMRES are equivalent to GMRES in the linear case, one may expect the GMRES convergence factors to be relevant for AA and NGMRES as $x_k \rightarrow x^*$. Our results are illustrated numerically for a class of test problems from canonical tensor decomposition, comparing steepest descent and alternating least squares (ALS) as the fixed-point iterations that are accelerated by AA and NGMRES. Our numerical tests show that both approaches allow us to estimate asymptotic convergence speed for nonstationary AA and NGMRES with finite window size.

[31] 2007.02001

Fixed point theorems and convergence theorems for a generalized nonexpansive mapping in uniformly convex Banach spaces

In this paper, we prove the existence of fixed points of mappings satisfying the condition (Da), a kind of generalized nonexpansive mappings, on a weakly compact convex subset in a Banach space satisfying Opial's condition. And we use Sahu([6]) and Thakur([10])'s iterative scheme to establish several convergence theorems in uniformly convex Banach spaces and give an example to show that this scheme converges faster than the scheme in [1]

[32] 2007.02008

A spectral extremal problem on graphs with given size and matching number

Brualdi and Hoffman (1985) proposed the problem of determining the maximal spectral radius of graphs with given size. In this paper, we consider the Brualdi-Hoffman type problem of graphs with given matching number. The maximal $Q$-spectral radius of graphs with given size and matching number is obtained, and the corresponding extremal graphs are also determined.

[33] 2007.02009

Power dilation systems $\{f(z^k)\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}$ in Dirichlet-type spaces

In this paper, we concentrate on power dilation systems $\{f(z^k)\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}$ in Dirichlet-type spaces $\mathcal{D}_t\ (t\in\mathbb{R})$. When $t\neq0$, we prove that $\{f(z^k)\}_{k\in\mathbb{N}}$ is orthogonal in $\mathcal{D}_t$ only if $f=cz^N$ for some constant $c$ and some positive integer $N$. We also give complete characterizations of unconditional bases and frames formed by power dilation systems for Drichlet-type spaces.

[34] 2007.02011

The purity phenomenon for symmetric separated set-systems

Let $n$ be a positive integer. A collection $\cal S$ of subsets of $[n]=\{1,\ldots,n\}$ is called {\it symmetric} if $X\in {\cal S}$ implies $X^\ast\in {\cal S}$, where $X^\ast:=\{i\in [n]\colon n-i+1\notin X\}$. We show that in each of the three types of separation relations: {\it strong}, {\it weak} and {\it chord} ones, the following "purity phenomenon" takes place: all inclusion-wise maximal symmetric separated collections in $2^{[n]}$ have the same cardinality. These give "symmetric versions" of well-known results on the purity of usual strongly, weakly and chord separated collections of subsets of $[n]$, and in the case of weak separation, this extends a recent result due to Karpman on the purity of symmetric weakly separated collections in $\binom{[n]}{n/2}$ for $n$ even.

[35] 2007.02019

CR Yamabe constant, CR Yamabe flow and its soliton

On a compact strictly pseudoconvex CR manifold $(M,\th)$, we consider the CR Yamabe constant of its infinite conformal covering. By using the maximum principles, we then prove a uniqueness theorem for the CR Yamabe flow on a complete noncompact CR manifold. Finally we obtain some properties of the CR Yamabe soliton on complete noncompact CR manifolds.

[36] 2007.02023

Navier--Stokes regularity criteria in sum spaces

In this paper, we will consider regularity criteria for the Navier--Stokes equation in mixed Lebesgue sum spaces. In particular, we will prove regularity criteria that only require control of the velocity, vorticity, or the positive part of the second eigenvalue of the strain matrix, in the sum space of two scale critical spaces. This represents a significant step forward, because each sum space regularity criterion covers a whole family of scale critical regularity criteria in a single estimate. In order to show this, we will also prove a new inclusion and inequality for sum spaces in families of mixed Lebesgue spaces with a scale invariance that is also of independent interest.

[37] 2007.02030

Weight-finite modules over the quantum affine and double quantum affine algebras of type $\mathfrak a_1$

We define the categories of weight-finite modules over the type $\mathfrak a_1$ quantum affine algebra $\dot{\mathrm{U}}_q(\mathfrak a_1)$ and over the type $\mathfrak a_1$ double quantum affine algebra $\ddot{\mathrm{U}}_q(\mathfrak a_1)$ that we introduced in a previous paper. In both cases, we classify the simple objects in those categories. In the quantum affine case, we prove that they coincide with the simple finite-dimensional $\dot{\mathrm{U}}_q(\mathfrak a_1)$-modules which were classified by Chari and Pressley in terms of their highest (rational and $\ell$-dominant) $\ell$-weights or, equivalently, by their Drinfel'd polynomials. In the double quantum affine case, we show that simple weight-finite modules are classified by their ($t$-dominant) highest $t$-weight spaces, a family of simple modules over the subalgebra $\ddot{\mathrm{U}}_q^0(\mathfrak a_1)$ of $\ddot{\mathrm{U}}_q(\mathfrak a_1)$ which is conjecturally isomorphic to a split extension of the elliptic Hall algebra. The proof of the classification, in the double quantum affine case, relies on the construction of a double quantum affine analogue of the evaluation modules that appear in the quantum affine setting.

[38] 2007.02031

Some considerations on Collatz conjecture

Some simple facts are proved ruling the Collatz tree and the chains of vertices appearing in it, leading to the reduction of the number of significant elements appearing in the tree. Although the Collatz conjecture remains open, these fact may cast some light on the nature of the problem.

[39] 2007.02055

Quantum variance for dihedral Maass forms

We establish an asymptotic formula for the weighted quantum variance of dihedral Maass forms on $\Gamma_0(D) \backslash \mathbb H$ in the large eigenvalue limit, for certain fixed $D$. As predicted in the physics literature, the resulting quadratic form is related to the classical variance of the geodesic flow on $\Gamma_0(D) \backslash \mathbb H$, but also includes factors that are sensitive to underlying arithmetic of the number field $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{D})$.

[40] 2007.02058

On the $h$-principle for Horizontal Immersions in Certain Corank $2$ Fat Distributions

In this article we consider a class of fat corank $2$ distribution on a manifold, which includes the holomorphic contact structures. We prove the h-principle for regular horizontal immersion $\Sigma\to (M,\mathcal{D})$ for such a distribution $\mathcal{D}$ on $M$ if $\dim M \ge 4\dim\Sigma + 6$. In particular, we show that $\mathcal{D}$-horizontal maps always exist provided $\dim M \ge \max \{4\dim\Sigma + 6, 5\dim\Sigma-1\}$.

[41] 2007.02059

Gallai-Ramsey numbers for monochromatic $K_4^{+}$ or $K_{3}$

A Gallai $k$-coloring is a $k$-edge coloring of a complete graph in which there are no rainbow triangles. For two given graphs $H, G$ and two positive integers $k,s$ with that $s\leq k$, the $k$-colored Gallai-Ramsey number $gr_{k}(K_{3}: s\cdot H,~ (k-s)\cdot G)$ is the minimum integer $n$ such that every Gallai $k$-colored $K_{n}$ contains a monochromatic copy of $H$ colored by one of the first $s$ colors or a monochromatic copy of $G$ colored by one of the remaining $k-s$ colors. In this paper, we determine the value of Gallai-Ramsey number in the case that $H=K_{4}^{+}$ and $G=K_{3}$. Thus the Gallai-Ramsey number $gr_{k}(K_{3}: K_{4}^{+})$ is obtained.

[42] 2007.02061

Ramified local isometric embeddings of singular Riemannian metrics

In this paper, we are concerned with the existence of local isometric embeddings into Euclidean space for analytic Riemannian metrics $g$, defined on a domain $U\subset \mathbf{R}^n$, which are singular in the sense that the determinant of the metric tensor is allowed to vanish at an isolated point (say the origin). Specifically, we show that, under suitable technical assumptions, there exists a local analytic isometric embedding $u$ from $(U',\Pi^*g)$ into Euclidean space $\mathbf{E}^{(n^2+3n-4)/2}$, where $\Pi:U' \to U\backslash\{0\}$ is a finite Riemannian branched cover of a deleted neighborhood of the origin. Our result can thus be thought of as a generalization of the classical Cartan-Janet Theorem to the singular setting in which the metric tensor is degenerate at an isolated point. Our proof uses Leray's ramified Cauchy-Kovalevskaya Theorem for analytic differential systems, in the form obtained by Choquet-Bruhat for non-linear systems.

[43] 2007.02068

The fibers of the ramified Prym map

We study the ramified Prym map $\mathcal P_{g,r} \longrightarrow \mathcal A_{g-1+\frac r2}^{\delta}$ which assigns to a ramified double cover of a smooth irreducible curve of genus $g$ ramified in $r$ points the Prym variety of the covering. We focus on the six cases where the dimension of the source is strictly greater than the dimension of the target giving a geometric description of the generic fibre. We also give an explicit example of a totally geodesic curve which is an irreducible component of a fibre of the Prym map ${\mathcal P}_{1,2}$.

[44] 2007.02069

On $p$-adic versions of the Manin-Mumford Conjecture

We prove $p$-adic versions of a classical result in arithmetic geometry stating that an irreducible subvariety of an abelian variety with dense torsion has to be the translate of a subgroup by a torsion point. We do so in the context of certain rigid analytic spaces and formal groups over a $p$-adic field $K$ or its ring of integers $R$, respectively. In particular, we show that the rigidity results for algebraic functions underlying the so-called Manin-Mumford Conjecture generalize to suitable $p$-adic analytic functions. In the formal setting, this approach leads us to uncover purely $p$-adic Manin-Mumford type results for formal groups not coming from abelian schemes. Moreover, we observe that a version of the Tate-Voloch Conjecture holds in the $p$-adic setting: torsion points either lie squarely on a subscheme or are uniformly bounded away from it in the $p$-adic distance.

[45] 2007.02079

Superposition principles for the Zakai equations and the Fokker-Planck equations on measure spaces

The work concerns the superposition between the Zakai equations and the Fokker-Planck equations on measure spaces. First, we prove a superposition principle for the Fokker-Planck equations on $\mR^\mN$ under the integrable condition. And then by means of it, we show two superposition principles for the weak solutions of the Zakai equations from the nonlinear filtering problems and the weak solutions of the Fokker-Planck equations on measure spaces. As a by-product, we give some weak conditions under which the Fokker-Planck equations can be solved in the weak sense.

[46] 2007.02088

Uniqueness of minimal unstable lamination for discretized Anosov flows

We consider the class of partially hyperbolic diffeomorphisms $f:M\to M$ obtained as the discretization of topological Anosov flows. We show uniqueness of minimal unstable lamination for these systems provided that the underlying Anosov flow is transitive and not orbit equivalent to a suspension. As a consequence, uniqueness of quasi-attractors is obtained. If the underlying Anosov flow is not transitive we get an analogous finiteness result provided that the restriction of the flow to any of its attracting basic pieces is not a suspension. A similar uniqueness result is also obtained for certain one-dimensional center skew-products.

[47] 2007.02089

On mixed pressure-velocity regularity criteria to the Navier-Stokes equations in Lorentz spaces

In this paper we derive regular criteria in Lorentz spaces for Leray-Hopf weak solutions $v$ of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations based on the formal equivalence relation $\pi\cong|v|^2$, where $\pi$ denotes the fluid pressure and $v$ the fluid velocity. It is called the mixed pressure-velocity problem (the P-V problem). It is shown that if $\f{\pi}{(e^{-|x|^2}+|v|)^{\theta}}\in L^p(0,T;L^{q,\infty})\,,$ where $0\leq\theta\leq1$ and $\f2p+\f3q=2-\theta$, then $v$ is regular on $(0,T]$. Note that, if $\Om$ is periodic, we may replace $\,e^{-|x|^2} \,$ by a positive constant. This result improves a 2018 statement obtained by one of the authors. Furthermore, as an integral part of our contribution, we give an overview on the known results on the P-V problem, and also on two main techniques used by many authors to establish sufficient conditions for regularity of the so-called Ladyzhenskaya-Prodi-Serrin (L-P-S) type.

[48] 2007.02090

Piecewise Divergence-Free $H(\textrm{div})$-Nonconforming Virtual Elements for Stokes Problem in Any Dimensions

Piecewise divergence-free $H(\div)$-nonconforming virtual elements are designed for Stokes problem in any dimensions. After introducing a local energy projector based on the Stokes problem and the stabilization, a divergence-free nonconforming virtual element method is proposed for Stokes problem. A detailed and rigorous error analysis is presented for the discrete method, including the norm equivalence of the stabilization on the kernel of the local energy projector, the interpolation error estimate, the discrete inf-sup condition, and the optimal error estimate of the discrete method. An important property in the analysis is that the local energy projector commutes with the divergence operator. A reduced virtual element method is also discussed. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical convergence.

[49] 2007.02094

On stationary solutions to normal, coplanar, discrete Boltzmann equation models

The paper proves existence of renormalized solutions for a class of velocity-discrete coplanar stationary Boltzmann equations with given indata. The proof is based on the construction of a sequence of approximations with L1 compactness for an integrated collision frequency and gain term. The compactness is obtained using the Kolmogorov Riesz theorem.

[50] 2007.02098

The Wright functions of the second kind in Mathematical Physics

In this review paper we stress the importance of the higher transcendental Wright functions of the second kind in the framework of Mathematical Physics.We first start with the analytical properties of the classical Wright functions of which we distinguish two kinds. We then justify the relevance of the Wright functions of the second kind as fundamental solutions of the time-fractional diffusion-wave equations. Indeed, we think that this approach is the most accessible point of view for describing non-Gaussian stochastic processes and the transition from sub-diffusion processes to wave propagation. Through the sections of the text and suitable appendices we plan to address the reader in this pathway towards the applications of the Wright functions of the second kind. Keywords: Fractional Calculus, Wright Functions, Green's Functions, Diffusion-Wave Equation,

[51] 2007.02107

Minimisers of a general Riesz-type Problem

We consider sets in $\mathbb R^N$ which minimise, for fixed volume, the sum of the perimeter and a non-local term given by the double integral of a kernel $g:\mathbb R^N\setminus\{0\}\to \mathbb R^+$. We establish some general existence and regularity results for minimisers. In the two-dimensional case we show that balls are the unique minimisers if the perimeter-dominated regime, for a wide class of functions $g$.

[52] 2007.02110

Time-symmetric optimal stochastic control problems in space-time domains

We present a pair of adjoint optimal control problems characterizing a class of time-symmetric stochastic processes defined on random time intervals. The associated PDEs are of free-boundary type. The particularity of our approach is that it involves two adjoint optimal stopping times adapted to a pair of filtrations, the traditional increasing one and another, decreasing. They are the keys of the time symmetry of the construction, which can be regarded as a generalization of "Schr\"odinger's problem" (1931-32) to space-time domains. The relation with the notion of "Hidden diffusions" is also described.

[53] 2007.02118

A differential algebra and the homotopy type of the complement of a toric arrangement

We show that the rational homotopy type of the complement of a toric arrangement is completely determined by two sets of combinatorial data. This is obtained by introducing a differential graded algebra over Q whose minimal model is equivalent to the Sullivan minimal model of the arrangement.

[54] 2007.02134

Thick subcategories on curves

We classify thick subcategories $\mathcal T \subset D^b(\mathrm{coh}\,C)$ for smooth projective curves $C$ over an algebraically closed field.

[55] 2007.02136

On zero dimensional sequential spaces

We develop tools to recognize sequential spaces with large inductive dimension zero. We show the Hawaiian earring group $G$ is 0 dimensional, when endowed with the quotient topology, inherited from the space of based loops with the compact open topology. In particular $G$ is $T_4$ and hence inclusion $G \rightarrow F_M (G)$ is a topological embedding into the free topological group $F_M (G)$ in the sense of Markov.

[56] 2007.02137

The Isoparametric Story, a Heritage of Élie Cartan

In this article, we survey along the historical route the classification of isoparametric hypersurfaces in the sphere, paying attention to the employed techniques in the case of four principal curvatures.

[57] 2007.02140

On cyclic strong exceptional collections of line bundles on surfaces

We study exceptional collections of line bundles on surfaces. We prove that any full cyclic strong exceptional collection of line bundles on a rational surface is an augmentation in the sense of L.Hille and M.Perling. We find simple geometric criteria of exceptionality (strong exceptionality, cyclic strong exceptionality) for collections of line bundles on weak del Pezzo surfaces. As a result, we classify smooth projective surfaces admitting a full cyclic strong exceptional collection of line bundles. Also, we provide an example of a weak del Pezzo surface of degree 2 and a full strong exceptional collection of line bundles on it which does not come from augmentations, thus answering a question by Hille and Perling.

[58] 2007.02142

A bijection between two subfamilies of Motzkin paths

Two subfamilies of Motzkin paths, with the same numbers of up, down, horizontal steps were known to be equinumerous with ternary trees and related objects. We construct a bijection between these two families that does not use any auxiliary objects, like ternary trees.

[59] 2007.02146

Representations of coefficients of power series in classical statistical mechanics. Their classification and complexity criteria

It is declared that the aim of simplifying representations of coefficients of power series of classical statistical mechanics is to simplify a process of obtaining estimates of the coefficients using their simplified representations. The aim of the article is: to formulate criteria for the complexity (from the above point of view) of representations of coefficients of the power series of classical statistical mechanics and to demonstrate their application by examples of comparing the Ree-Hoover representations of virial coefficients (briefly -- the RH representations) with such representations of power series coefficients that are based on the conception of the frame classification of labeled graphs (the abbreviation -- FC). To solve these problems, mathematical notions were introduced (such as a basic product, a basic integral, a basic linear combination, a basic linear combination with coefficients of insignificant complexity(the abbreviation -- BLC with CIC) and the classification of representations of the coefficients of power series of classical statistical mechanics is proposed. In the classification, the class of BLC's with CIC is the most important. It includes all the above representations of the coefficients of power series of classical statistical mechanics. Three criteria are formulated for estimate the comparative complexity of BLC's with CIC. These criteria are ordered by their accuracy. Based on each of these criteria, a criterion for the comparative complexity of finite sets of BLC's with CIC is constructed. The constructed criteria are ordered by their accuracy. The application of all the constructed criteria is demonstrated by examples of comparing RH representations with the representations of the power series coefficients based on the concept FC. The obtained results are presented in the tables and commented.

[60] 2007.02147

A Dynamized Power Flow Method based on Differential Transformation

This paper proposes a novel method for solving and tracing power flow solutions with changes of a loading parameter. Different from the conventional continuation power flow method, which repeatedly solves static AC power flow equations, the proposed method extends the power flow model into a fictitious dynamic system by adding a differential equation on the loading parameter. As a result, the original solution curve tracing problem is converted to solving the time domain trajectories of the reformulated dynamic system. A non-iterative algorithm based on differential transformation is proposed to analytically solve the aforementioned dynamized model in form of power series of time. This paper proves that the nonlinear power flow equations in the time domain are converted to formally linear equations in the domain of the power series order after the differential transformation, thus avoiding numerical iterations. Case studies on several test systems including a 2383-bus system show the merits of the proposed method.

[61] 2007.02153

An Empirical Bayes Approach to Shrinkage Estimation on the Manifold of Symmetric Positive-Definite Matrices

The James-Stein estimator is an estimator of the multivariate normal mean and dominates the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) under squared error loss. The original work inspired great interest in developing shrinkage estimators for a variety of problems. Nonetheless, research on shrinkage estimation for manifold-valued data is scarce. In this paper, we propose shrinkage estimators for the parameters of the Log-Normal distribution defined on the manifold of $N \times N$ symmetric positive-definite matrices. For this manifold, we choose the Log-Euclidean metric as its Riemannian metric since it is easy to compute and is widely used in applications. By using the Log-Euclidean distance in the loss function, we derive a shrinkage estimator in an analytic form and show that it is asymptotically optimal within a large class of estimators including the MLE, which is the sample Fr\'echet mean of the data. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed shrinkage estimator via several simulated data experiments. Furthermore, we apply the shrinkage estimator to perform statistical inference in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging problems.

[62] 2007.02158

From Cuts to R trees

We provide sharp conditions under which a collection of separators A of a connected topological space Z leads to a canonical R-tree T . Any group acting on Z by homeomorphisms will act by homeomorphisms on T.

[63] 2007.02173

On Jordan classes for Vinberg's theta-groups

Popov has recently introduced an analogue of Jordan classes (packets, or decomposition classes) for the action of a theta-group (G_0,V), showing that they are finitely-many, locally-closed, irreducible unions of G_0-orbits of constant dimension partitioning V. We carry out a local study of their closures showing that Jordan classes are smooth and that their closure is a union of Jordan classes. We parametrize Jordan classes and G_0-orbits in a given class in terms of the action of subgroups of Vinberg's little Weyl group, and include several examples and counterexamples underlying the differences with the symmetric case and the critical issues arising in the theta-situation.

[64] 2007.02174

1--Meixner random vectors

A definition of $d$--dimensional $n$--Meixner random vectors is given first. This definition involves the commutators of their semi--quantum operators. After that we will focus on the $1$-Meixner random vectors, and derive a system of $d$ partial differential equations satisfied by their Laplace transform. We provide a set of necessary conditions for this system to be integrable. We use these conditions to give a complete characterization of all non--degenerate three--dimensional $1$--Meixner random vectors. It must be mentioned that the three--dimensional case produces the first example in which the components of a $1$--Meixner random vector cannot be reduced, via an injective linear transformation, to three independent classic Meixner random variables.

[65] 2007.02175

A mixed method for time-transient acoustic wave propagation in metamaterials

In this paper we develop a finite element method for acoustic wave propagation in Drude-type metamaterials. The governing equation is written as a symmetrizable hyperbolic system with auxiliary variables. The standard mixed finite elements and discontinuous finite elements are used for spatial discretization, and the Crank-Nicolson scheme is used for time discretization. The a priori error analysis of fully discrete scheme is carried out in details. Numerical experiments illustrating the theoretical results and metamaterial wave propagation, are included.

[66] 2007.02183

Local $\mathcal{P}$ entropy and stabilized automorphism groups of subshifts

For a homeomorphism $T \colon X \to X$ of a compact metric space $X$, the stabilized automorphism group $\text{Aut}^{(\infty)}(T)$ consists of all self-homeomorphisms of $X$ which commute with some power of $T$. Motivated by the study of these groups in the context of shifts of finite type, we introduce a certain entropy for groups called local $\mathcal{P}$ entropy. We show that when $(X,T)$ is a non-trivial mixing shift of finite type, the local $\mathcal{P}$ entropy of the group $\text{Aut}^{(\infty)}(T)$ is determined by the topological entropy of $(X,T)$. We use this to give a complete classification of the isomorphism type of the stabilized automorphism groups of full shifts.

[67] 2007.02186

Rate-optimality of consistent distribution-free tests of independence based on center-outward ranks and signs

Rank correlations have found many innovative applications in the last decade. In particular, suitable versions of rank correlations have been used for consistent tests of independence between pairs of random variables. The use of ranks is especially appealing for continuous data as tests become distribution-free. However, the traditional concept of ranks relies on ordering data and is, thus, tied to univariate observations. As a result it has long remained unclear how one may construct distribution-free yet consistent tests of independence between multivariate random vectors. This is the problem we address in this paper, in which we lay out a general framework for designing dependence measures that give tests of multivariate independence that are not only consistent and distribution-free but which we also prove to be statistically efficient. Our framework leverages the recently introduced concept of center-outward ranks and signs, a multivariate generalization of traditional ranks, and adopts a common standard form for dependence measures that encompasses many popular measures from the literature. In a unified study, we derive a general asymptotic representation of center-outward test statistics under independence, extending to the multivariate setting the classical Hajek asymptotic representation results. This representation permits a direct calculation of limiting null distributions for the proposed test statistics. Moreover, it facilitates a local power analysis that provides strong support for the center-outward approach to multivariate ranks by establishing, for the first time, the rate-optimality of center-outward tests within families of Konijn alternatives.

[68] 2007.02188

The maximum of the periodogram of Hilbert space valued time series

We are interested to detect periodic signals in Hilbert space valued time series when the length of the period is unknown. A natural test statistic is the maximum Hilbert-Schmidt norm of the periodogram operator over all fundamental frequencies. In this paper we analyze the asymptotic distribution of this test statistic. We consider the case where the noise variables are independent and then generalize our results to functional linear processes. Details for implementing the test are provided for the class of functional autoregressive processes. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach by examining air quality data from Graz, Austria. The accuracy of the asymptotic theory in finite samples is evaluated in a simulation experiment.

[69] 2007.02189

The joint survival signature of coherent systems with shared components

The concept of joint bivariate signature, introduced by Navarro et al. (2013), is a useful tool for studying the dependence between two systems with shared components. As with the univariate signature, introduced by Samaniego (2007), its applications are limited to systems with only one type of components which restricts its practical use. Coolen and Coolen-Maturi (2012) introduced the survival signature, which is capable of dealing with multiple types of components. In this paper we present a survival signature for systems with shared components, including one or multiple types of components.

[70] 2007.02191

Coded Distributed Computing with Partial Recovery

Coded computation techniques provide robustness against straggling workers in distributed computing. However, most of the existing schemes require exact provisioning of the straggling behaviour and ignore the computations carried out by straggling workers. Moreover, these schemes are typically designed to recover the desired computation results accurately, while in many machine learning and iterative optimization algorithms, faster approximate solutions are known to result in an improvement in the overall convergence time. In this paper, we first introduce a novel coded matrix-vector multiplication scheme, called coded computation with partial recovery (CCPR), which benefits from the advantages of both coded and uncoded computation schemes, and reduces both the computation time and the decoding complexity by allowing a trade-off between the accuracy and the speed of computation. We then extend this approach to distributed implementation of more general computation tasks by proposing a coded communication scheme with partial recovery, where the results of subtasks computed by the workers are coded before being communicated. Numerical simulations on a large linear regression task confirm the benefits of the proposed distributed computation scheme with partial recovery in terms of the trade-off between the computation accuracy and latency.

[71] 2007.02192

Continuous shrinkage prior revisited: a collapsing behavior and remedy

Modern genomic studies are increasingly focused on identifying more and more genes clinically associated with a health response. Commonly used Bayesian shrinkage priors are designed primarily to detect only a handful of signals when the dimension of the predictors is very high. In this article, we investigate the performance of a popular continuous shrinkage prior in the presence of relatively large number of true signals. We draw attention to an undesirable phenomenon; the posterior mean is rendered very close to a null vector, caused by a sharp underestimation of the global-scale parameter. The phenomenon is triggered by the absence of a tail-index controlling mechanism in the Bayesian shrinkage priors. We provide a remedy by developing a global-local-tail shrinkage prior which can automatically learn the tail-index and can provide accurate inference even in the presence of moderately large number of signals. The collapsing behavior of the Horseshoe with its remedy is exemplified in numerical examples and in two gene expression datasets.

[72] 2007.02195

Delay-coordinate maps, coherence, and approximate spectra of evolution operators

The problem of data-driven identification of coherent observables of measure-preserving, ergodic dynamical systems is studied using kernel integral operator techniques. An approach is proposed whereby complex-valued observables with approximately cyclical behavior are constructed from a pair eigenfunctions of integral operators built from delay-coordinate mapped data. It is shown that these observables are $\epsilon$-approximate eigenfunctions of the Koopman evolution operator of the system, with a bound $\epsilon$ controlled by the length of the delay-embedding window, the evolution time, and appropriate spectral gap parameters. In particular, $ \epsilon$ can be made arbitrarily small as the embedding window increases so long as the corresponding eigenvalues remain sufficiently isolated in the spectrum of the integral operator. It is also shown that the time-autocorrelation functions of such observables are $\epsilon$-approximate Koopman eigenvalue, exhibiting a well-defined characteristic oscillatory frequency (estimated using the Koopman generator) and a slowly-decaying modulating envelope. The results hold for measure-preserving, ergodic dynamical systems of arbitrary spectral character, including mixing systems with continuous spectrum and no non-constant Koopman eigenfunctions in $L^2$. Numerical examples reveal a coherent observable of the Lorenz 63 system whose autocorrelation function remains above 0.5 in modulus over approximately 10 Lyapunov timescales.

[73] 2007.02211

Boundedness of some multi-parameter fiber-wise multiplier operators

We prove $L^p$ estimates for various multi-parameter bi- and trilinear operators with symbols acting on fibers of the two-dimensional functions. In particular, this yields estimates for the general bi-parameter form of the twisted paraproduct studied in arXiv:1011.6140.

[74] 2007.02212

Approximation of heavy-tailed distributions via stable-driven SDEs

Constructions of numerous approximate sampling algorithms are based on the well-known fact that certain Gibbs measures are stationary distributions of ergodic stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by the Brownian motion. However, for some heavy-tailed distributions it can be shown that the associated SDE is not exponentially ergodic and that related sampling algorithms may perform poorly. A natural idea that has recently been explored in the machine learning literature in this context is to make use of stochastic processes with heavy tails instead of the Brownian motion. In this paper we provide a rigorous theoretical framework for studying the problem of approximating heavy-tailed distributions via ergodic SDEs driven by symmetric (rotationally invariant) $\alpha$-stable processes.

[75] 2007.02215

Coherent state representations of the holomorphic automorphism group of the tube domain over the dual of the Vinberg cone

We classify all irreducible coherent state representations of the holomorphic automorphism group of the tube domain over the dual of the Vinberg cone. The equivalence classes of these representations stand in one-one correspondence with those of unitarizations of the holomorphic multiplier representations over the domain except for the one-dimensional representations of the group.

[76] 2007.02216

Subgraph probability of random graphs with specified degrees and applications to chromatic number and connectivity

Given a graphical degree sequence ${\bf d}=(d_1,\ldots, d_n)$, let $G(n, {\bf d})$ denote a uniformly random graph on vertex set $[n]$ where vertex $ i$ has degree $d_i$ for every $1\le i\le n$. We give upper and lower bounds on the joint probability of an arbitrary set of edges in $G(n,{\bf d})$. These upper and lower bounds are approximately what one would get in the configuration model, and thus the analysis in the configuration model can be translated directly to $G(n,{\bf d})$, without conditioning on that the configuration model produces a simple graph. Many existing results of $G(n,{\bf d})$ in the literature can be significantly improved with simpler proofs, by applying this new probabilistic tool. One example we give is about the chromatic number of $G(n,{\bf d})$. In another application, we use these joint probabilities to study the connectivity of $G(n,{\bf d})$. When $\Delta^2=o(M)$ where $\Delta$ is the maximum component of ${\bf d}$, we fully characterise the connectivity phase transition of $G(n,{\bf d})$. We also give sufficient conditions for $G(n,{\bf d})$ being connected when $\Delta$ is unrestricted.

[77] 2007.02223

Super-convergence analysis on exponential integrator for stochastic heat equation driven by additive fractional Brownian motion

In this paper, we consider the strong convergence order of the exponential integrator for the stochastic heat equation driven by an additive fractional Brownian motion with Hurst parameter $H\in(\frac12,1)$. By showing the strong order one of accuracy of the exponential integrator under appropriote assumptions, we present the first super-convergence result in temporal direction on full discretizations for stochastic partial differential equations driven by infinite dimensional fractional Brownian motions with Hurst parameter $H\in(\frac12,1)$. The proof is a combination of Malliavin calculus, the $L^p(\Omega)$-estimate of the Skorohod integral and the smoothing effect of the Laplacian operator.

[78] 2007.02227

Deep learning method for solving stochastic optimal control problem via stochastic maximum principle

In this paper, we aim to solve the stochastic optimal control problem via deep learning. Through the stochastic maximum principle and its corresponding Hamiltonian system, we propose a framework in which the original control problem is reformulated as a new one. This new stochastic optimal control problem has a quadratic loss function at the terminal time which provides an easier way to build a neural network structure. But the cost is that we must deal with an additional maximum condition. Some numerical examples such as the linear quadratic (LQ) stochastic optimal control problem and the calculation of G-expectation have been studied.

[79] 2007.02247

Motivic and Étale Spanier-Whitehead duality and the Becker-Gottlieb transfer

In this paper, we develop a theory of Becker-Gottlieb transfer based on Spanier-Whitehead duality that holds in both the motivic and \'etale settings for smooth quasi-projective varieties in as broad a context as possible: for example, for varieties over non-separably closed fields in all characteristics, and also for both the \'etale and motivic settings. In view of the fact that the most promising applications of the traditional Becker-Gottlieb transfer has been to torsors and Borel-style equivariant cohomology theories, we focus our applications to motivic cohomology theories for torsors as well as Borel-style equivariant motivic cohomology theories, both defined with respect to motivic spectra. We obtain several results in this direction, including a stable splitting in generalized motivic cohomology theories. Various further applications will be discussed in forthcoming papers.

[80] 2007.02249

Additivity and Double Coset formulae for the Motivic and Étale Becker-Gottlieb transfer

In this paper, which is a continuation of earlier work by the first author and Gunnar Carlsson, one of the first results we establish is the additivity of the motivic Becker-Gottlieb transfer, the corresponding trace as well as their realizations. We then apply this to derive several important consequences: for example, we settle a conjecture of Morel regarding the assertion that the Euler-characteristic of $\rmG/\NT$ for a split reductive group scheme $\rmG$ and the normalizer of a split maximal torus $\NT$ is $1$ in the Grothendieck-Witt ring. We also obtain the analogues of various double coset formulae known in the classical setting of algebraic topology.

[81] 2007.02254

Positive Liouville theorem and asymptotic behaviour for $(p,A)$-Laplacian type elliptic equations with Fuchsian potentials in Morrey space

We study Liouville-type theorems and the asymptotic behaviour of positive solutions near an isolated singular point $\zeta\in\partial\Omega\cup\{\infty\}$ of the quasilinear elliptic equations $$-\text{div}(|\nabla u|_A^{p-2}A\nabla u)+V|u|^{p-2}u =0\quad\text{in } \Omega\setminus\{\zeta\},$$ where $\Omega$ is a domain in $\mathbb{R}^d$ ($d\geq 2$), and $A=(a_{ij})\in L_{\rm loc}^{\infty}(\Omega;\mathbb{R}^{d\times d})$ is a symmetric and locally uniformly positive definite matrix. The potential $V$ lies in a certain local Morrey space (depending on $p$) and has a Fuchsian-type isolated singularity at $\zeta$.

[82] 2007.02255

Are chain-complete posets co-wellpowered?

We show that the category $\mathbf{CPO}$ of chain-complete posets is not co-wellpowered but that it is weakly co-wellpowered. This implies that $\mathbf{CPO}$ is nearly locally presentable.

[83] 2007.02257

Bavard's duality theorem of invariant quasimorphisms

Let $H$ be a normal subgroup of a group $G$. A quasimorphism $f$ on $H$ is $G$-invariant if there is a non-negative number $D$ satisfying $|f(gxg^{-1}) - f(x)| \le D$ for every $g \in G$ and every $x \in H$. The purpose in this paper is to prove Bavard's duality theorem of $G$-invariant quasimorphisms, which was previously proved by Kawasaki and Kimura in the case $H = [G,H]$. Our duality theorem gives a connection between $G$-invariant quasimorphisms and $(G,H)$-commutator lengths. Here for $x \in [G,H]$, the $(G,H)$-commutator length $\cl_{G,H}(x)$ of $x$ is the minimum number $n$ such that $x$ is a product of $n$ commutators which are written by $[g,h]$ with $g \in G$ and $h \in H$. In the proof, we give a geometric interpretation of $(G,H)$-commutator lengths.

[84] 2007.02258

Bifurcations of thresholds in essential spectra of elliptic operators under localized non-Hermitian perturbations

We consider the operator $${\cal H} = {\cal H}' -\frac{\partial^2\ }{\partial x_d^2} \quad\text{on}\quad\omega\times\mathbb{R}$$ subject to the Dirichlet or Robin condition, where a domain $\omega\subseteq\mathbb{R}^{d-1}$ is bounded or unbounded. The symbol ${\cal H}'$ stands for a second order self-adjoint differential operator on $\omega$ such that the spectrum of the operator ${\cal H}'$ contains several discrete eigenvalues $\Lambda_{j}$, $j=1,\ldots, m$. These eigenvalues are thresholds in the essential spectrum of the operator ${\cal H}$. We study how these thresholds bifurcate once we add a small localized perturbation $\epsilon{\cal L}(\epsilon)$ to the operator ${\cal H}$, where $\epsilon$ is a small positive parameter and ${\cal L}(\epsilon)$ is an abstract, not necessarily symmetric operator. We show that these thresholds bifurcate into eigenvalues and resonances of the operator ${\cal H}$ in the vicinity of $\Lambda_j$ for sufficiently small $\epsilon$. We prove effective simple conditions determining the existence of these resonances and eigenvalues and find the leading terms of their asymptotic expansions. Our analysis applies to generic non-self-adjoint perturbations and, in particular, to perturbations characterized by the parity-time ($PT$) symmetry. Potential applications of our result embrace a broad class of physical systems governed by dispersive or diffractive effects. We use our findings to develop a scheme for a controllable generation of non-Hermitian optical states with normalizable power and real part of the complex-valued propagation constant lying in the continuum. The corresponding eigenfunctions can be interpreted as an optical generalization of bound states in the continuum. For a particular example, the persistence of asymptotic expansions is confirmed with direct numerical evaluation of the perturbed spectrum.

[85] 2007.02260

Irreducible Jet modules for the vector field Lie algebra on $\mathbb{S}^1\times \mathbb{C}$

For a commutative algebra $A$ over $\mathbb{C}$, denote $\mathfrak{g}=\text{Der}(A)$. A module over the smash product $A\# U(\mathfrak{g})$ is called a jet $\mathfrak{g}$-module, where $U(\mathfrak{g})$ is the universal enveloping algebra of $\mathfrak{g}$. In the present paper, we study jet modules in the case of $A=\mathbb{C}[t_1,t_1^{-1},t_2]$. We show that $A\# U(\mathfrak{g})\cong\mathcal{D}\otimes U(L)$, where $\mathcal{D}$ is the Weyl algebra $\mathbb{C}[t_1,t_1^{-1},t_2, \frac{\partial}{\partial t_1},\frac{\partial}{\partial t_2}]$, and $L$ is a Lie subalgebra of $A\#U(\mathfrak{g})$ called the jet Lie algebra corresponding to $\mathfrak{g}$. Using a Lie algebra monomorphism $\theta:L \rightarrow \text{Der} (\mathbb{C}[[x_1]][x_2 ])$, we show that any irreducible finite dimensional $L$-module is isomorphic to an irreducible $\mathfrak{gl}_2$-module. As an application, we give tensor product realizations of irreducible jet modules over $\mathfrak{g}$ with finite dimensional weight spaces.

[86] 2007.02262

Regularity of multi-parameter Fourier integral operators

We study the regularity of Fourier integral operators, by allowing their symbols to satisfy certain multi-parameter characteristics. As a result, we prove a sharp L^p-estimate obtained by Seeger, Sogge and Stein on product spaces.

[87] 2007.02275

Computation of refined toric invariants II

In 2015, G.~Mikhalkin introduced a refined count for real rational curves in toric surfaces. The counted curves have to pass through some real and complex points located on the toric boundary of the surface, and the count is refined according to the value of a so called quantum index. This count happens only to depend on the number of complex points on each toric divisors, leading to an invariant. First, we give a way to compute the quantum index of any oriented real rational curve, getting rid of the previously needed "purely imaginary" assumption on the complex points. Then, we use the tropical geometry approach to relate these classical refined invariants to tropical refined invariants, defined using Block-G\"ottsche multiplicity. This generalizes the result of Mikhalkin relating both invariants in the case where all the points are real, and the result of the author where complex points are located on a single toric divisor.

[88] 2007.02281

Approximation Results for Sums of Independent Random Variables

In this article, we consider Poisson and Poisson convoluted geometric approximation to the sums of $n$ independent random variables under moment conditions. We use Stein's method to derive the approximation results in total variation distance. The error bounds obtained are either comparable to or improvement over the existing bounds available in the literature. Also, we give an application to the waiting time distribution of 2-runs.

[89] 2007.02284

Oscillation of damped second order quasilinear wave equations with mixed arguments

Following the previous work [1], we investigate the impact of damping on the oscillation of smooth solutions to some kind of quasilinear wave equations with Robin and Dirichlet boundary condition. By using generalized Riccati transformation and technical inequality method, we give some sufficient conditions to guarantee the oscillation of all smooth solutions. From the results, we conclude that positive damping can ``hold back" oscillation. At last, some examples are presented to confirm our main results.

[90] 2007.02286

Incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Maxwell system with Ohm's law limit from Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system: Hilbert expansion approach

We prove a global-in-time classical solution limit from the two-species Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system to the two-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Maxwell system with Ohm's law. Besides the techniques developed for the classical solutions to the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann equations in the past years, such as the nonlinear energy method and micro-macro decomposition are employed, key roles are played by the decay properties of both the electric field and the wave equation with linear damping of the divergence free magnetic field. This is a companion paper of [Jiang-Luo: From Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system to two-fluid incompressible Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Maxwell system with Ohm's law: convergence for classical solutions. arXiv:1905.04739] in which Hilbert expansion is not employed.

[91] 2007.02289

Properties of multitype subcritical branching processes in random environment

We study properties of a $p-$type subcritical branching process in random environment initiated at moment zero by a vector $\mathbf{z}=\left( z_{1},..,z_{p}\right) $\ of particles of different types. Assuming that the process belongs to the class of the so-called strongly subcritical processes we show that its survival probability to moment $n$\ behaves for large $n$\ as $C(\mathbf{z})\lambda ^{n}$\ where $\lambda $\ is the upper Lyapunov exponent for the product of mean matrices of the process and $C(\mathbf{z})$% \ is an explicitly given constant. We also demonstrate that the limiting conditional distribution of the number of particles given the survival of the process for a long time does not depend on the vector $\mathbf{z}$ of the number of particles initiated the process.

[92] 2007.02293

Angle sums of Schläfli orthoschemes

For the simplices $$ K_n^A=\{x\in\mathbb{R}^{n+1}:x_1\ge x_2\ge \ldots\ge x_{n+1},x_1-x_{n+1}\le 1,x_1+\ldots+x_{n+1}=0\} $$ and $$ K_n^B=\{x\in\mathbb{R}^n:1\ge x_1\ge x_2\ge \ldots\ge x_n\ge 0\}, $$ called Schl\"afli orthoschemes of type $A$ and $B$, respectively, we evaluate the tangent cones at their $j$-faces and compute explicitly the sum of the conic intrinsic volumes of these tangent cones at all $j$-faces of $K_n^A$ and $K_n^B$, respectively. This setting contains sums of external and internal angles of $K_n^A$ and $K_n^B$ as special cases. The sums are evaluated in terms of Stirling numbers of both kinds. We generalize these results to finite products of Schl\"afli orthoschemes of type $A$ and $B$ and, as a probabilistic consequence, derive formulas for the expected number of $j$-faces of the Minkowski sums of the convex hulls of a finite number of Gaussian random walks and random bridges. Furthermore, we evaluate the analogous angle sums for the tangent cones of Weyl chambers of types $A$ and $B$ and finite products thereof.

[93] 2007.02297

Improved dispersion bounds for modified Fibonacci lattices

We study the dispersion of point sets in the unit square; i.e. the size of the largest axes-parallel box amidst such point sets. It is known that $\liminf_{N\to\infty} N\mathrm{disp}(N,2)\in \left[\frac54,2\right],$ where $\mathrm{disp}(N,2)$ is the minimal possible dispersion for an $N$-element point set in the unit square. The upper bound 2 is obtained by an explicit point construction - the well-known Fibonacci lattice. In this paper we find a modification of this point set such that its dispersion is significantly lower than the dispersion of the Fibonacci lattice. Our main result will imply that $\liminf_{N\to\infty} N\mathrm{disp}(N,2)\leq \varphi^3/\sqrt{5}=1.894427...$

[94] 2007.02301

On the Erdős primitive set conjecture in function fields

Erd\H{o}s proved that $\mathcal{F}(A) := \sum_{a \in A}\frac{1}{a\log a}$ converges for any primitive set of integers $A$ and later conjectured this sum is maximized when $A$ is the set of primes. Banks and Martin further conjectured that $\mathcal{F}(\mathcal{P}_1) > \ldots > \mathcal{F}(\mathcal{P}_k) > \mathcal{F}(\mathcal{P}_{k+1}) > \ldots$, where $\mathcal{P}_j$ is the set of integers with $j$ prime factors counting multiplicity, though this was recently disproven by Lichtman. We consider the corresponding problems over the function field $\mathbb{F}_q[x]$, investigating the sum $\mathcal{F}(A) := \sum_{f \in A} \frac{1}{\text{deg} f \cdot q^{\text{deg} f}}$. We establish a uniform bound for $\mathcal{F}(A)$ over all primitive sets of polynomials $A \subset \mathbb{F}_q[x]$ and conjecture that it is maximized by the set of monic irreducible polynomials. We find that the analogue of the Banks-Martin conjecture is false for $q = 2, 3$, and $4$, but we find computational evidence that it holds for $q > 4$.

[95] 2007.02305

Semiparametric transformation model for competing risks data with cure fraction

Modelling and analysis of competing risks data with long-term survivors is an important area of research in recent years. For example, in the study of cancer patients treated for soft tissue sarcoma, patient may die due to different causes. Considerable portion of the patients may remain cancer free after the treatment. Accordingly, it is important to incorporate long-term survivors in the analysis of competing risks data. Motivated by this, we propose a new method for the analysis of competing risks data with long term survivors. The new method enables us to estimate the overall survival probability without estimating the cure fraction. We formulate the effects of covariates on sub-distribution (cumulative incidence) functions using linear transformation model. Estimating equations based on counting process are developed to find the estimators of regression coefficients. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are studied using martingale theory. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to assess the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators. Finally, we illustrate our method using a real data set.

[96] 2007.02310

Faster algorithms for Markov equivalence

Maximal ancestral graphs (MAGs) have many desirable properties; in particular they can fully describe conditional independences from directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) in the presence of latent and selection variables. However, different MAGs may encode the same conditional independences, and are said to be \emph{Markov equivalent}. Thus identifying necessary and sufficient conditions for equivalence is essential for structure learning. Several criteria for this already exist, but in this paper we give a new non-parametric characterization in terms of the heads and tails that arise in the parameterization for discrete models. We also provide a polynomial time algorithm ($O(ne^{2})$, where $n$ and $e$ are the number of vertices and edges respectively) to verify equivalence. Moreover, we extend our criterion to ADMGs and summary graphs and propose an algorithm that converts an ADMG or summary graph to an equivalent MAG in polynomial time ($O(n^{2}e)$). Hence by combining both algorithms, we can also verify equivalence between two summary graphs or ADMGs.

[97] 2007.02315

Multi-Armed Bandit Based Client Scheduling for Federated Learning

By exploiting the computing power and local data of distributed clients, federated learning (FL) features ubiquitous properties such as reduction of communication overhead and preserving data privacy. In each communication round of FL, the clients update local models based on their own data and upload their local updates via wireless channels. However, latency caused by hundreds to thousands of communication rounds remains a bottleneck in FL. To minimize the training latency, this work provides a multi-armed bandit-based framework for online client scheduling (CS) in FL without knowing wireless channel state information and statistical characteristics of clients. Firstly, we propose a CS algorithm based on the upper confidence bound policy (CS-UCB) for ideal scenarios where local datasets of clients are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) and balanced. An upper bound of the expected performance regret of the proposed CS-UCB algorithm is provided, which indicates that the regret grows logarithmically over communication rounds. Then, to address non-ideal scenarios with non-i.i.d. and unbalanced properties of local datasets and varying availability of clients, we further propose a CS algorithm based on the UCB policy and virtual queue technique (CS-UCB-Q). An upper bound is also derived, which shows that the expected performance regret of the proposed CS-UCB-Q algorithm can have a sub-linear growth over communication rounds under certain conditions. Besides, the convergence performance of FL training is also analyzed. Finally, simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

[98] 2007.02316

Optimal portfolios for different anticipating integrals under insider information

We consider the non-adapted version of a simple problem of portfolio optimization in a financial market that results from the presence of insider information. We analyze it via anticipating stochastic calculus and compare the results obtained by means of the Russo-Vallois forward, the Ayed-Kuo, and the Hitsuda-Skorokhod integrals. We compute the optimal portfolio for each of these cases. Our results give a partial indication that, while the forward integral yields a portfolio that is financially meaningful, the Ayed-Kuo and the Hitsuda-Skorokhod integrals do not provide an appropriate investment strategy for this problem.

[99] 2007.02318

On the Lehmer's totient problem on Number Fields

Lehmer's totient problem asks if there exists a composite number $d$ such that its totient divide $d-1$. In this article we generalize the Lehmer's totient problem in algebraic number fields. We introduce the notion of a Lehmer number. Lehmer numbers are defined to be the natural numbers which obey the Lehmer's problem in the ring of algebraic integers of a field.

[100] 2007.02324

Extreme point methods in the study of isometries on certain non-commutative spaces

In this paper we characterize surjective isometries on certain classes of non-commutative spaces associated with semi-finite von Neumann algebras: the Lorentz spaces $L^{w,1}$, as well as the spaces $L^1+L^\infty$ and $L^1\cap L^\infty$ . The technique used in all three cases relies on characterizations of the extreme points of the unit balls of these spaces.

[101] 2007.02329

Almost finiteness and homology of certain non-free actions

We show that Cantor minimal $\mathbb{Z}\rtimes\mathbb{Z}_2$-systems and essentially free amenable odometers are almost finite. We also compute the homology groups of Cantor minimal $\mathbb{Z}\rtimes\mathbb{Z}_2$-systems and show that the associated transformation groupoids satisfy the HK conjecture if and only if the action is free.

[102] 2007.02330

Universal codes in the shared-randomness model for channels with general distortion capabilities

Consider a channel that is capable of corrupting the data that is transmitted through it. In its standard form, the channel coding problem asks for an encoding function mapping messages to codewords that makes communication over the given channel resilient to a given noise level. This means that when a codeword is sent over the channel, the receiver is able to recover it from a noisy version, provided the added noise is below some bound. We study a stronger type of code, called a universal code. A universal code is an encoding that is resilient to a given noise level for every channel and that, moreover, works without knowing the channel. In contrast to encoding, the decoding function knows the type of channel. We allow the encoding and the decoding functions to share randomness, which is unavailable to the channel. For a universal code, there are two parameters of interest: the rate, which is the ratio between the message length and the codeword length, and the number of shared random bits. There are two scenarios for the type of attack that a channel can perform. In the oblivious scenario, the channel adds noise based on the message and the encoding function but does not know the codeword. In the Hamming scenario, the channel knows the codeword and is fully adversarial. We show the existence in both scenarios of universal codes with rate converging to the optimal value as n grows, where n is the codeword length. The number of shared random bits is O(log n) in the oblivious scenario, and O(n) in the Hamming scenario, which, for typical values of the noise level, we show to be optimal, modulo the constant hidden in the O() notation. In both scenarios, the universal encoding is done in time polynomial in n, but the channel-dependent decoding procedures are not efficient.

[103] 2007.02331

Stability estimates for relativistic Schrödinger equation from partial boundary data

In this article we study stability aspects for the determination of time-dependent vector and scalar potentials in relativistic Schr\"odinger equation from partial knowledge of boundary measurements. For space dimensions strictly greater than 2 we obtain log-log stability estimates for the determination of vector potentials (modulo gauge equivalence) and log-log-log stability estimates for the determination of scalar potentials from partial boundary data assuming suitable a-priori bounds on these potentials.

[104] 2007.02335

Bilinear Decomposition and Divergence-Curl Estimates on Products Related to Local Hardy Spaces and Their Dual Spaces

Let $p\in(0,1)$, $\alpha:=1/p-1$ and, for any $\tau\in [0,\infty)$, $\Phi_{p}(\tau):=\tau/(1+\tau^{1-p})$. Let $H^p(\mathbb R^n)$, $h^p(\mathbb R^n)$ and $\Lambda_{n\alpha}(\mathbb{R}^n)$ be, respectively, the Hardy space, the local Hardy space and the inhomogeneous Lipschitz space on $\mathbb{R}^n$. In this article, applying the inhomogeneous renormalization of wavelets, the authors establish a bilinear decomposition for multiplications of elements in $h^p(\mathbb R^n)$ [or $H^p(\mathbb R^n)$] and $\Lambda_{n\alpha}(\mathbb{R}^n)$, and prove that these bilinear decompositions are sharp in some sense. As applications, the authors also obtain some estimates of the product of elements in the local Hardy space $h^p(\mathbb R^n)$ with $p\in(0,1]$ and its dual space, respectively, with zero $\lfloor n\alpha\rfloor$-inhomogeneous curl and zero divergence, where $\lfloor n\alpha\rfloor$ denotes the largest integer not greater than $n\alpha$. Moreover, the authors find new structures of $h^{\Phi_p}(\mathbb R^n)$ and $H^{\Phi_p}(\mathbb R^n)$ by showing that $h^{\Phi_p}(\mathbb R^n)=h^1(\mathbb R^n)+h^p(\mathbb R^n)$ and $H^{\Phi_p}(\mathbb R^n)=H^1(\mathbb R^n)+H^p(\mathbb R^n)$ with equivalent quasi-norms, and also prove that the dual spaces of both $h^{\Phi_p}(\mathbb R^n)$ and $h^p(\mathbb R^n)$ coincide. These results give a complete picture on the multiplication between the local Hardy space and its dual space.

[105] 2007.02344

Distribution function

From a known result of diophantine equations of the first degree with 2 unknowns we simply find the results of the distribution function of the sequences of positive integers generated by the functions at the origin of the problems 3x+1 and 5x+1.

[106] 2007.02345

Existence of infinitely many solutions to a fractional $p$-Kirchhoff problem involving singularity and critical exponent

We prove the existence of infinitely many nonnegative solutions to the following nonlocal elliptic partial differential equation involving singularity. \begin{align} \mathfrak{M}\left(\int_{Q}\frac{|u(x)-u(y)|^p}{|x-y|^{N+ps}}dxdy\right)(-\Delta)_{p}^{s} u&=\frac{\lambda}{|u|^{\gamma-1}u}+|u|^{p_s^*-2}u~\text{in}~\Omega,\nonumber u&=0~\text{in}~\mathbb{R}^N\setminus\Omega,\nonumber \end{align} where $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^N,\, N\geq2$ is a bounded domain with Lipschitz boundary, $\lambda>0$, $N>sp$, $0<s,\gamma<1$, $(-\Delta)_{p}^{s}$ is the fractional $p$-Laplacian operator for $1<p<\infty$ and $p_s^*=\frac{Np}{N-sp}$ is the critical Sobolev exponent. We will employ a {\it cut-off} argument to obtain the existence of infinitely many solutions. Further, by using the Moser iteration technique, we will prove an uniform $L^{\infty}(\bar{\Omega})$ bound for the solutions.

[107] 2007.02346

On the logarithmic epiperimetric inequality for the obstacle problem

We give three different proofs of the log-epiperimetric inequality at singular points for the obstacle problem. In the first, direct proof, we write the competitor explicitly; the second proof is also constructive, but this time the competitor is given through the solution of an evolution problem on the sphere. We compare the competitors obtained in the different proofs and their relation to other similar results that appeared recently. Finally, in the appendix, we give a general theorem, which can be applied also in other contexts and in which the construction of the competitor is reduced to finding a flow satisfying two differential inequalities.

[108] 2007.02349

Transfer operators and limit laws for typical cocycles

We show that typical cocycles (in the sense of Bonatti and Viana) over irreducible subshifts of finite type obey several limit laws with respect to the unique equilibrium states for H\"older potentials. These include the central limit theorem and the large deviation principle. We also establish the analytic dependence of the top Lyapunov exponent on the underlying equilibrium state. The transfer operator and its spectral properties play key roles in establishing these limit laws.

[109] 2007.02354

Analysis of a splitting scheme for a class of nonlinear stochastic Schrödinger equations

We analyze the qualitative properties and the order of convergence of a splitting scheme for a class of nonlinear stochastic Schr\"odinger equations driven by additive It\^o noise. The class of nonlinearities of interest includes nonlocal interaction cubic nonlinearities. We show that the numerical solution is symplectic and preserves the expected mass for all times. On top of that, for the convergence analysis, some exponential moment bounds for the exact and numerical solutions are proved. This enables us to provide strong orders of convergence as well as orders of convergence in probability and almost surely. Finally, extensive numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the proposed numerical scheme.

[110] 2007.02357

Existence and uniqueness of some Cauchy Type Problems in fractional q-difference calculus

In this paper we derive a sufficient condition for the existence of a unique solution of a Cauchy type q-fractional problem (involving the fractional q-derivative of Riemann-Liouville type) for some nonlinear differential equations. The key technique is to first prove that this Cauchy type q-fractional problem is equivalent to a corresponding Volterra q-integral equation. Moreover, we define the $q$-analogue of the Hilfer fractional derivative or composite fractional derivative operator and prove some similar new equivalence, existence and uniqueness results as above. Finally, some examples are presented to illustrate our main results in cases where we can even give concrete formulas for these unique solutions.

[111] 2007.02360

On Molecular Flow Velocity Meters

The concentration of molecules in the medium can provide us very useful information about the medium. In this paper, we use this information and design a molecular flow velocity meter using a molecule releasing node and a receiver that counts these molecules. We first assume $M$ hypotheses according to $M$ possible medium flow velocity values and an $L$-sample decoder at the receiver and obtain the flow velocity detector using maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) method. To analyze the performance of the proposed flow velocity detector, we obtain the error probability, and its Gaussian approximation and Chernoff information (CI) upper bound. We obtain the optimum sampling times which minimize the error probability and the sub-optimum sampling times which minimize the Gaussian approximation and the CI upper bound. When we have binary hypothesis, we show that the sub-optimum sampling times which minimize the CI upper bound are equal. When we have $M$ hypotheses and $L \rightarrow \infty$, we show that the sub-optimum sampling times that minimize the CI upper bound yield to $M \choose 2$ sampling times with $M \choose 2$ weights. Then, we assume a randomly chosen constant flow velocity and obtain the MAP and minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimators for the $L$-sample receiver. We consider the mean square error (MSE) to investigate the error performance of the flow velocity estimators and obtain the Bayesian Cramer-Rao (BCR) and expected Cramer-Rao (ECR) lower bounds on the MSE of the estimators. Further, we obtain the sampling times which minimize the MSE. We show that when the flow velocity is in the direction of the connecting line between the releasing node and the receiver with uniform distribution for the magnitude of the flow velocity, and $L \rightarrow \infty$, two different sampling times are enough for the MAP estimator.

[112] 2007.02364

A new generalized inverse of matrices from core-EP decomposition

A new generalized inverse for a square matrix $H\in\mathbb{C}^{n\times n}$, called CCE-inverse, is established by the core-EP decomposition and Moore-Penrose inverse $H^{\dag}$. We propose some characterizations of the CCE-inverse. Furthermore, two canonical forms of the CCE-inverse are presented. At last, we introduce the definitions of CCE-matrices and $k$-CCE matrices, and prove that CCE-matrices are the same as $i$-EP matrices studied by Wang and Liu in [The weak group matrix, Aequationes Mathematicae, 93(6): 1261-1273, 2019].

[113] 2007.02373

Linear Strands and Minimal Free Resolutions of Certain Equigenerated Monomial Ideals

Let $R = k[x_1, \dotsc , x_n]$ denote the standard graded polynomial ring over a field $k$. We study certain classes of equigenerated monomial ideals and use a previous construction of the author to deduce Betti tables for such ideals. Using these Betti numbers, we are then able to construct an explicit linear strand, and, in the case where the ideals under consideration have linear resolution, explicit minimal free resolutions.

[114] 2007.02378

Three Fuss-Catalan posets in interaction and their associative algebras

We introduce $\delta$-cliffs, a generalization of permutations and increasing trees depending on a range map $\delta$. We define a first lattice structure on these objects and we establish general results about its subposets. Among them, we describe sufficient conditions to have EL-shellable posets, lattices with algorithms to compute the meet and the join of two elements, and lattices constructible by interval doubling. Some of these subposets admit natural geometric realizations. Then, we introduce three families of subposets which, for some maps $\delta$, have underlying sets enumerated by the Fuss-Catalan numbers. Among these, one is a generalization of Stanley lattices and another one is a generalization of Tamari lattices. These three families of posets fit into a chain for the order extension relation and they share some properties. Finally, in the same way as the product of the Malvenuto-Reutenauer algebra forms intervals of the right weak order of permutations, we construct algebras whose products form intervals of the lattices of $\delta$-cliff. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions on $\delta$ to have associative, finitely presented, or free algebras. We end this work by using the previous Fuss-Catalan posets to define quotients of our algebras of $\delta$-cliffs. In particular, one is a generalization of the Loday-Ronco algebra and we get new generalizations of this structure.

[115] 2007.02390

The (homological) persistence of gerrymandering

We apply persistent homology, the dominant tool from the field of topological data analysis, to study electoral redistricting. Our method combines the geographic information from a political districting plan with election data to produce a persistence diagram. We are then able to visualize and analyze large ensembles of computer-generated districting plans of the type commonly used in modern redistricting research (and court challenges). We set out three applications: zoning a state at each scale of districting, comparing elections, and seeking signals of gerrymandering. Our case studies focus on redistricting in Pennsylvania and North Carolina, two states whose legal challenges to enacted plans have raised considerable public interest in the last few years. To address the question of robustness of the persistence diagrams to perturbations in vote data and in district boundaries, we translate the classical stability theorem of Cohen--Steiner et al. into our setting and find that it can be phrased in a manner that is easy to interpret. We accompany the theoretical bound with an empirical demonstration to illustrate diagram stability in practice.

[116] 2007.02396

The Bernstein projector determined by a weak associate class of good cosets

Let $G$ be a reductive group over a $p$-adic field $F$ of characteristic zero, with $p \gg 0$. In [Kim04], J.-L. Kim studied an equivalence relation called weak associativity on the set of unrefined minimal $K$-types for $G$ in the sense of A. Moy and G. Prasad. Following [Kim04], we attach to the set \(\overline{\mathfrak s}\) of good \(K\)-types in a weak associate class of positive-depth unrefined minimal $K$-types a $G(F)$-invariant open and closed subset $\mathfrak g(F)_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}$ of the Lie algebra $\mathfrak g(F)$ of $G(F)$, and a subset $\tilde G_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}$ of the admissible dual \(\tilde G\) of \(G(F)\) consisting of those representations containing an unrefined minimal $K$-type that belongs to $\overline{\mathfrak s}$. Then \(\tilde G_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}\) is the union of finitely many Bernstein components for $G$, so that we can consider the Bernstein projector $E_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}$ that it determines. We show that $E_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}$ vanishes outside the Moy--Prasad $G(F)$-domain $G(F)_r \subset G(F)$, and reformulate a result of Kim as saying that the restriction of $E_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}$ to $G(F)_r$, pushed forward via the logarithm to the Moy--Prasad $G(F)$-domain $\mathfrak g(F)_r \subset \mathfrak g(F)$, agrees on $\mathfrak g(F)_r$ with the inverse Fourier transform of the characteristic function of $\mathfrak g(F)_{\overline{\mathfrak s}}$. This is a variant of one of the descriptions given by R. Bezrukavnikov, D. Kazhdan and Y. Varshavsky in arXiv:1504.01353 for the depth-$r$ Bernstein projector.

[117] 2007.02398

Truncated Hausdorff Moment Problem and Analytic Solution of the Time-Optimal Problem for One Class of Nonlinear Control Systems

A complete analytic solution for the time-optimal control problem for nonlinear control systems of the form $\dot x_1=u$, $\dot x_j=x_1^{j-1}$, $j=2,\ldots,n$, is obtained for arbitrary $n$. The main goal of the paper is to present the following surprising observation: this nonlinear optimality problem leads to a truncated Hausdorff moment problem, which is applied essentially for finding the optimal time and optimal controls.

[118] 2007.02401

Graded Betti numbers of some circulant graphs

Let $G$ be the circulant graph $C_n(S)$ with $S \subseteq \{1, 2, \dots, \lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor\}$, and let $I(G)$ denote the edge ideal in the polynomial ring $R=\mathbb{K}[x_0, x_1, \dots, x_{n-1}]$ over a field $\mathbb{K}$. In this paper, we compute the $\mathbb{N}$-graded Betti numbers of the edge ideals of three families of circulant graphs $C_n(1,2,\dots,\widehat{j},\dots,\lfloor \frac{n}{2} \rfloor)$, $C_{lm}(1,2,\dots,\widehat{2l},\dots, \widehat{3l},\dots,\lfloor \frac{lm}{2} \rfloor)$ and $C_{lm}(1,2,\dots,\widehat{l},\dots,\widehat{2l},\dots, \widehat{3l},\dots,\lfloor \frac{lm}{2} \rfloor)$. Other algebraic and combinatorial properties like regularity, projective dimension, induced matching number and when such graphs are well-covered, Cohen-Macaulay, Sequentially Cohen-Macaulay, Buchsbaum and $S_2$ are also discussed.

[119] 2007.02403

A proof of the Koebe-Andre'ev-Thurston theorem via flow from tangency packings

Recently, Connelly and Gortler gave a novel proof of the circle packing theorem for tangency packings by introducing a hybrid combinatorial-geometric operation, flip-and-flow, that allows two tangency packings whose contact graphs differ by a combinatorial edge flip to be continuously deformed from one to the other while maintaining tangencies across all of their common edges. Starting from a canonical tangency circle packing with the desired number of circles a finite sequence of flip-and-flow operations may be applied to obtain a circle packing for any desired (proper) contact graph with the same number of circles. In this paper, we extend the Connelly-Gortler method to allow circles to overlap by angles up to $\pi/2$. As a result, we obtain a new proof of the general Koebe-Andre'ev-Thurston theorem for disk packings on $\mathbb{S}^2$ with overlaps and a numerical algorithm for computing them. Our development makes use of the correspondence between circles and disks on $\mathbb{S}^2$ and hyperplanes and half-spaces in the 4-dimensional Minkowski spacetime $\mathbb{R}^{1,3}$, which we illuminate in a preliminary section. Using this view we generalize a notion of convexity of circle polyhedra that has recently been used to prove the global rigidity of certain circle packings. Finally, we use this view to show that all convex circle polyhedra are infinitesimally rigid, generalizing a recent related result.

[120] 2007.02405

On integral weight spectra of the MDS codes cosets of weight 1, 2, and 3

The weight of a coset of a code is the smallest Hamming weight of any vector in the coset. For a linear code of length $n$, we call integral weight spectrum the overall numbers of weight $w$ vectors, $0\le w\le n$, in all the cosets of a fixed weight. For maximum distance separable (MDS) codes, we obtained new convenient formulas of integral weight spectra of cosets of weight 1 and 2. Also, we give the spectra for the weight 3 cosets of MDS codes with minimum distance $5$ and covering radius $3$.

[121] 2007.02408

Atomistic modelling of near-crack-tip plasticity

An atomistic model of near-crack-tip plasticity on a square lattice under anti-plane shear kinematics is formulated and studied. The model is based upon a new geometric and functional framework of a lattice manifold complex, which ensures that the crack surface is fully taken into account, while preserving the crucial notion of duality. As a result, existence of locally stable equilibrium configurations containing both a crack opening and dislocations is established. Notably, with the boundary in the form of a crack surface accounted for, no minimum separation between a dislocation core and the crack surface or the crack tip is required. The work presented here constitutes a foundation for several further studies aiming to put the phenomenon of near-crack-tip plasticity on a rigorous footing.

[122] 2007.02414

Analysis of Neural Clusters due to Deep Brain Stimulation Pulses

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established method for treating pathological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette syndrome, and essential tremor. While the precise mechanisms which underly the effectiveness of DBS are not fully understood, theoretical studies of populations of neural oscillators stimulated by periodic pulses suggest that this may be related to clustering, in which subpopulations of the neurons are synchronized, but the subpopulations are desynchronized with respect to each other. The details of the clustering behavior depend on the frequency and amplitude of the stimulation in a complicated way. In the present study, we investigate how the number of clusters, their stability properties, and their basins of attraction can be understood in terms of one-dimensional maps defined on the circle. Moreover, we generalize this analysis to stimuli that consist of pulses with alternating properties, which provide additional degrees of freedom in the design of DBS stimuli. Our results illustrate how the complicated properties of clustering behavior for periodically forced neural oscillator populations can be understood in terms of a much simpler dynamical system.

[123] 2007.02428

Depth-Adaptive Neural Networks from the Optimal Control viewpoint

In recent years, deep learning has been connected with optimal control as a way to define a notion of a continuous underlying learning problem. In this view, neural networks can be interpreted as a discretization of a parametric Ordinary Differential Equation which, in the limit, defines a continuous-depth neural network. The learning task then consists in finding the best ODE parameters for the problem under consideration, and their number increases with the accuracy of the time discretization. Although important steps have been taken to realize the advantages of such continuous formulations, most current learning techniques fix a discretization (i.e. the number of layers is fixed). In this work, we propose an iterative adaptive algorithm where we progressively refine the time discretization (i.e. we increase the number of layers). Provided that certain tolerances are met across the iterations, we prove that the strategy converges to the underlying continuous problem. One salient advantage of such a shallow-to-deep approach is that it helps to benefit in practice from the higher approximation properties of deep networks by mitigating over-parametrization issues. The performance of the approach is illustrated in several numerical examples.

[124] 2007.02429

Bers Slices in Families of Univalent Maps

We construct embeddings of Bers slices of ideal polygon reflection groups into the classical family of univalent functions $\Sigma$. This embedding is such that the conformal mating of the reflection group with the anti-holomorphic polynomial $z\mapsto\overline{z}^d$ is the Schwarz reflection map arising from the corresponding map in $\Sigma$. We characterize the image of this embedding in $\Sigma$ as a family of univalent rational maps. Moreover, we show that the limit set of every Kleinian reflection group in the closure of the Bers slice is naturally homeomorphic to the Julia set of an anti-holomorphic polynomial.

[125] 2007.02430

An infinite-dimensional 2-generated primitive axial algebra of Monster type

Rehren proved that a primitive 2-generated axial algebra of Monster type $(\alpha,\beta)$ has dimension at most eight if $\alpha\notin\{2\beta,4\beta\}$. In this note we construct an infinite-dimensional 2-generated primitive axial algebra of Monster type $(2,\frac{1}{2})$ over an arbitrary field $F$ with $char(F)\neq 2,3$. This shows that the second special case, $\alpha=4\beta$, is a true exception to Rehren's bound.

[126] 2007.02440

Interpolation results for pathwise Hamilton-Jacobi equations

We study the interplay between the regularity of paths and Hamiltonians in the theory of pathwise Hamilton-Jacobi equations with the use of interpolation methods. The regularity of the paths is measured with respect to Sobolev, Besov, H\"older, and variation norms, and criteria for the Hamiltonians are presented in terms of both regularity and structure. We also explore various properties of functions that are representable as the difference of convex functions, the largest space of Hamiltonians for which the equation is well-posed for all continuous paths. Finally, we discuss some open problems and conjectures.

[127] 2007.02446

The Hodge realization functor on the derived category of relative motives

We give, for a complex algebraic variety $S$, a Hodge realization functor $\mathcal F_S^{Hdg}$ from the derived category of constructible motives $DA_c(S)$ to the derived category $D(MHM(S))$ of algebraic mixed Hodge modules over $S$. Moreover, for $f:T\to S$ a morphism of complex quasi-projective algebraic varieties, $\mathcal F_{-}^{Hdg}$ commutes with the four operation $f^*$,$f_*$,$f_!$,$f^!$ on $DA_c(-)$ and $D(MHM(-))$, making the Hodge realization functor a morphism of 2-functor wich for a given $S$ sends $DA_c(S)$ to $D(MHM(S)$, moreover $\mathcal F_S^{Hdg}$ commutes with tensor product. We also give an algebraic and analytic Gauss-Manin realization functor from which we obtain a base change theorem for algebraic De Rham cohomology and for all smooth morphisms a realtive version of the comparaison theorem of Grothendieck between the algebaric De Rham cohomology and the analytic De Rham cohomology.

[128] 2007.02448

Novel min-max reformulations of Linear Inverse Problems

In this article, we dwell into the class of so-called ill-posed Linear Inverse Problems (LIP) which simply refers to the task of recovering the entire signal from its relatively few random linear measurements. Such problems arise in a variety of settings with applications ranging from medical image processing, recommender systems, etc. We propose a slightly generalized version of the error constrained linear inverse problem and obtain a novel and equivalent convex-concave min-max reformulation by providing an exposition to its convex geometry. Saddle points of the min-max problem are completely characterized in terms of a solution to the LIP, and vice versa. Applying simple saddle point seeking ascend-descent type algorithms to solve the min-max problems provides novel and simple algorithms to find a solution to the LIP. Moreover, the reformulation of an LIP as the min-max problem provided in this article is crucial in developing methods to solve the dictionary learning problem with almost sure recovery constraints.

[129] 2007.02450

On the convergence properties of Durrmeyer-Sampling Type Operators in Orlicz spaces

Here we provide a unifying treatment of the convergence of a general form of sampling type operators, given by the so-called Durrmeyer sampling type series. In particular we provide a pointwise and uniform convergence theorem on $\mathbb{R}$, and in this context we also furnish a quantitative estimate for the order of approximation, using the modulus of continuity of the function to be approximated. Then we obtain a modular convergence theorem in the general setting of Orlicz spaces $L^\varphi(\mathbb{R})$. From the latter result, the convergence in $L^p(\mathbb{R})$-space, $L^\alpha\log^\beta L$, and the exponential spaces follow as particular cases. Finally, applications and examples with graphical representations are given for several sampling series with special kernels.

[130] 2007.02451

The Berkani's property and a note on some recent results

In this paper, we continue the study of property $(UW_{\Pi})$ introduced in \cite{berkani2}, in connection with other Weyl type theorems. Moreover, we give counterexamples to show that some recent results related to this property, which are announced and proved by P. Aiena and M. Kachad in \cite{aiena1} are false. Furthermore, we specify the mistakes committed in each of them and we give the correct versions. We also give a global note on the paper \cite{jayanthi}.

[131] 2007.02459

Decomposing Linear Representations of Finite Groups

We develop a package using the computer algebra system GAP for computing the decomposition of a representation $\rho$ of a finite group $G$ over $\mathbb{C}$ into irreducibles, as well as the corresponding decomposition of the centraliser ring of $\rho(G)$. Currently, the only open-source programs for decomposing representations are for non-zero characteristic fields. While methods for characteristic zero are known, there are no open-source computer programs that implement these methods, nor are details on how to achieve good performance of such an implementation published. We aim to record such details and demonstrate an application of our program in reducing the size of semidefinite programs.

[132] 2007.02467

Topics in Topology and Homotopy Theory

This book is an account of certain topics in general and algebraic topology.

[133] 2007.02472

A modified axiomatic foundation of the analytic hierarchy process

This paper reports a modified axiomatic foundation of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), where the reciprocal property of paired comparisons is broken. The novel concept of reciprocal symmetry breaking is proposed to characterize the considered situation without reciprocal property. It is found that the uncertainty experienced by the decision maker can be naturally incorporated into the modified axioms. Some results are derived from the new axioms involving the new concept of approximate consistency and the method of eliciting priorities. The phenomenon of ranking reversal is revisited from a theoretical viewpoint under the modified axiomatic foundation. The situations without ranking reversal are addressed and called ranking equilibrium. The likelihood of ranking reversal is captured by introducing a possibility degree index based on the Kendall's coefficient of concordance. The modified axioms and the derived facts form a novel operational basis of the AHP choice model under some uncertainty. The observations reveal that a more flexible expression of decision information could be accepted as compared to the judgments with reciprocal property.

[134] 2007.02475

Partial Data Inverse Problems for Nonlinear Magnetic Schrödinger Equations

We prove that the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map, measured on a part of the boundary of a bounded domain in $\mathbb{R}^n, n\geq2$, can uniquely determine, in a nonlinear magnetic Schr\"odinger equation, the vector-valued magnetic potential and the scalar electric potential, both being nonlinear in the solution.

[135] 2007.02479

Quantization of deformed cluster Poisson varieties

Fock and Goncharov described a quantization of cluster $\mathcal{X}$-varieties (also known as cluster Poisson varieties) in [FG09]. Meanwhile, families of deformations of cluster $\mathcal{X}$-varieties were introduced in [BFMNC18]. In this paper we show that the two constructions are compatible -- we extend the Fock-Goncharov quantization of $\mathcal{X}$-varieties to the families of [BFMNC18]. As a corollary, we obtain that these families and each of their fibers have Poisson structures. We relate this construction to the Berenstein-Zelevinsky quantization of $\mathcal{A}$-varieties ([BZ05]). Finally, inspired by the counter-example to quantum positivity of the quantum greedy basis in [LLRZ14], we compute a counter-example to quantum positivity of the quantum theta basis.

[136] 2007.02485

The weak Lefschetz property of Gorenstein algebras of codimension three associated to the Apéry sets

It has been conjectured that {\it all} graded Artinian Gorenstein algebras of codimension three have the weak Lefschetz property over a field of characteristic zero. In this paper, we study the weak Lefschetz property of associated graded algebras $A$ of the Ap\'ery set of $M$-pure symmetric numerical semigroups generated by four natural numbers. In 2010, Bryant proved that these algebras are graded Artinian Gorenstein algebras of codimension three. In a recent article, Guerrieri showed that if $A$ is not a complete intersection, then $A$ is of form $A=R/I$ with $R=K[x,y,z]$ and \begin{align*} I=(x^a, y^b-x^{b-\gamma} z^\gamma, z^c, x^{a-b+\gamma}y^{b-\beta}, y^{b-\beta}z^{c-\gamma}), \end{align*} where $ 1\leq \beta\leq b-1,\; \max\{1, b-a+1 \}\leq \gamma\leq \min \{b-1,c-1\}$ and $a\geq c\geq 2$. We prove that $A$ has the weak Lefschetz property in the following cases: (a) $ \max\{1,b-a+c-1\}\leq \beta\leq b-1$ and $\gamma\geq \lfloor\frac{\beta-a+b+c-2}{2}\rfloor$; (b) $ a\leq 2b-c$ and $| a-b| +c-1\leq \beta\leq b-1$; (c) one of $a,b,c$ is at most five.

[137] 2007.02488

On the explicit two-stage fourth-order accurate time discretizations

This paper continues to study the explicit two-stage fourth-order accurate time discretiza- tions [5, 7]. By introducing variable weights, we propose a class of more general explicit one-step two-stage time discretizations, which are different from the existing methods, such as the Euler methods, Runge-Kutta methods, and multistage multiderivative methods etc. We study the absolute stability, the stability interval, and the intersection between the imaginary axis and the absolute stability region. Our results show that our two-stage time discretizations can be fourth-order accurate conditionally, the absolute stability region of the proposed methods with some special choices of the variable weights can be larger than that of the classical explicit fourth- or fifth-order Runge-Kutta method, and the interval of absolute stability can be almost twice as much as the latter. Several numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the performance and accuracy as well as the stability of our proposed methods

[138] 2007.02497

Deformation theory of nearly $\mathrm{G}_2$ manifolds

We study the deformation theory of nearly $\mathrm{G}_2$ manifolds. These are seven dimensional manifolds admitting real Killing spinors. We show that the infinitesimal deformations of nearly $\mathrm{G}_2$ structures are obstructed in general. Explicitly, we prove that the infinitesimal deformations of the homogeneous nearly $\mathrm{G}_2$ structure on the Aloff--Wallach space are all obstructed to second order. We also completely describe the cohomology of nearly $\mathrm{G}_2$ manifolds.

[139] 2007.02499

Multi-Peak solutions to Chern-Simons-Schrödinger systems with non-radial potential

In this paper, we consider the existence of static solutions to the nonlinear Chern-Simons-Schr\"odinger system \begin{equation}\label{eqabstr} \left\{\begin{array}{ll} -ihD_0\Psi-h^2(D_1D_1+D_2D_2)\Psi+V\Psi=|\Psi|^{p-2}\Psi,\\ \partial_0A_1-\partial_1A_0=-\frac 12ih[\overline{\Psi}D_2\Psi-\Psi\overline{D_2\Psi}],\\ \partial_0A_2-\partial_2A_0=\frac 12ih[\overline{\Psi}D_1\Psi-\Psi\overline{D_1\Psi}],\\ \partial_1A_2-\partial_2A_1=-\frac12|\Psi|^2,\\ \end{array} \right. \end{equation} where $p>2$ and non-radial potential $V(x)$ satisfies some certain conditions. We show that for every positive integer $k$, there exists $h_0>0$ such that for $0<h<h_0$, problem \eqref{eqabstr} has a nontrivial static solution $(\Psi_h, A_0^h, A_1^h,A_2^h)$. Moreover, $\Psi_h$ is a positive non-radial function with $k$ positive peaks, which approach to the local maximum point of $V(x)$ as $h\to 0^+$.

[140] 2007.02502

The boundary of linear subvarieties

We describe the boundary of linear subvarieties in the moduli space of multi-scale differentials. Linear subvarieties are algebraic subvarieties of strata of (possibly) meromorphic differentials that in local period coordinates are given by linear equations. The main example of such are affine invariant submanifolds, that is, closures of $\operatorname{SL}(2,\mathbb{R})$-orbits. We prove that the boundary of any linear subvariety is again given by linear equations in generalized period coordinates of the boundary. Our main technical tool is an asymptotic analysis of periods near the boundary of the moduli space of multi-scale differentials which yields further techniques and results of independent interest.

[141] 2007.02505

Fibers of rational maps and Rees algebras of their base ideals

We consider a rational map $\phi: \mathbb{P}_k^{m} \dashrightarrow \mathbb{P}_k^n$ that is a parameterization of an $m$-dimensional variety. Our main goal is to study the $(m-1)$-dimensional fibers of $\phi$ in relation to the $m$-th local cohomology modules of the Rees algebra of its base ideal.

[142] 2007.02506

Dorroh extensions of algebras and coalgebras, I

In this article, we study Dorroh extensions of algebras and Dorroh extensions of coalgebras. Their structures are described. Some properties of these extensions are presented. We also introduce the finite duals of algebras and modules which are not necessarily unital. Using these finite duals, we determine the dual relations between the two kinds of extensions.

[143] 2007.02507

On the Chern character in Higher Twisted K-theory and spherical T-duality

In this paper, we construct for higher twists that arise from cohomotopy classes, the Chern character in higher twisted K-theory, that maps into higher twisted cohomology. We show that it gives rise to an isomorphism between higher twisted K-theory and higher twisted cohomology over the reals. Finally we compute spherical T-duality in higher twisted K-theory and higher twisted cohomology in very general cases.

[144] 2007.02508

On hypergeometric series and Multiple Zeta Values

We establish some relations between hypergeometric series and Multiple Zeta Values. Also we offer some exotic applications.

[145] 2007.02512

Corrected Trapezoidal Rules for Boundary Integral Equations in Three Dimensions

The manuscript describes a quadrature rule that is designed for the high order discretization of boundary integral equations (BIEs) using the Nystr\"{o}m method. The technique is designed for surfaces that can naturally be parameterized using a uniform grid on a rectangle, such as deformed tori, or channels with periodic boundary conditions. When a BIE on such a geometry is discretized using the Nystr\"{o}m method based on the Trapezoidal quadrature rule, the resulting scheme tends to converge only slowly, due to the singularity in the kernel function. The key finding of the manuscript is that the convergence order can be greatly improved by modifying only a very small number of elements in the coefficient matrix. Specifically, it is demonstrated that by correcting only the diagonal entries in the coefficient matrix, $O(h^{3})$ convergence can be attained for the single and double layer potentials associated with both the Laplace and the Helmholtz kernels. A nine-point correction stencil leads to an $O(h^5)$ scheme. The method proposed can be viewed as a generalization of the quadrature rule of Duan and Rokhlin, which was designed for the 2D Lippmann-Schwinger equation in the plane. The techniques proposed are supported by a rigorous error analysis that relies on Wigner-type limits involving the Epstein zeta function and its parametric derivatives.

[146] 2007.02522

The $g$-extra edge-connectivity of balanced hypercubes

The $g$-extra edge-connectivity is an important measure for the reliability of interconnection networks. Recently, Yang et al. [Appl. Math. Comput. 320 (2018) 464--473] determined the $3$-extra edge-connectivity of balanced hypercubes $BH_n$ and conjectured that the $g$-extra edge-connectivity of $BH_n$ is $\lambda_g(BH_n)=2(g+1)n-4g+4$ for $2\leq g\leq 2n-1$. In this paper, we confirm their conjecture for $n\geq 6-\dfrac{12}{g+1}$ and $2\leq g\leq 8$, and disprove their conjecture for $n\geq \dfrac{3e_g(BH_n)}{g+1}$ and $9\leq g\leq 2n-1$, where $e_g(BH_n)=\max\{|E(BH_n[U])|\mid U\subseteq V(BH_n), |U|=g+1\}$.

[147] 2007.02524

The moduli space of stable rank 2 parabolic bundles over an elliptic curve with 3 marked points

We explicitly describe the moduli space $M^s(X,3)$ of stable rank 2 parabolic bundles over an elliptic curve $X$ with trivial determinant bundle and 3 marked points. Specifically, we exhibit $M^s(X,3)$ as a blow-up of an embedded elliptic curve in $(\mathbb{CP}^1)^3$. The moduli space $M^s(X,3)$ can also be interpreted as the $SU(2)$ character variety of the 3-punctured torus. Our description of $M^s(X,3)$ reproduces the known Poincar\'{e} polynomial for this space.

[148] 2007.02531

Optimizing Information Freshness in Two-Hop Status Update Systems under a Resource Constraint

This paper considers a two-hop status update system, in which an information source aims for the timely delivery of status updates to the destination with the aid of a relay. The relay is assumed to be an energy-constraint device and our goal is to devise scheduling policies that adaptively switch between the information decoding and information forwarding to minimize the long-term average Age-of-Information (AoI) at the destination, under a resource constraint on the average number of forwarding operations at the relay. We first identify an optimal scheduling policy by modelling the considered scheduling problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP) problem. We resolve the CMDP problem by transforming it into an unconstrained Markov decision process (MDP) using a Lagrangian method. The structural properties of the optimal scheduling policy is analyzed, which is shown to have a multiple threshold structure. For implementation simplicity, based on the structural properties of the CMDP-based policy, we then propose a low-complexity double threshold relaying (DTR) policy with only two thresholds, one for relay's age and the other one for the age gain between destination and relay. We manage to derive approximate closed-form expressions of the average AoI at the destination, and the average number of forwarding operations at the relay for the DTR policy, by modelling the tangled evolution of age at the relay and destination as a Markov chain (MC). Numerical results are provided to verify all the theoretical analysis, and show that the low-complexity DTR policy can achieve near optimal performance compared with the optimal scheduling policy derived from the CMDP problem. The simulation results also unveil that only one threshold for the relay's age is needed in the DTR policy when there is no resource constraint or the resource constraint is loose.

[149] 2007.02535

Projective Poincaré and Picard bundles for moduli spaces of vector bundles over nodal curves

Let $U^{'s}_L(n,d)$ be the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank $n$ with determinant $L$ where $L$ is a fixed line bundle of degree $d$ over a nodal curve $Y$. We prove that the projective Poincare bundle on $Y \times U^{'s}_L(n,d)$ and the projective Picard bundle on $U^{'s}_L(n,d)$ are stable for suitable polarisation. For a nonsingular point $x \in Y$, we show that the restriction of the projective Poincare bundle to $x \times U^{'s}_L(n,d)$ is stable for any polarisation. We prove that for the arithmetic genus $g\ge 3$ and for $g=n=2, d$ odd, the Picard group of the moduli space $U'_L(n,d)$ of semistable vector bundles of rank $n$ with determinant $L$ of degree $d$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}$.

[150] 2007.02538

Solid propellant combustion in the low Mach one-dimensional approximation: from an index-one differential-algebraic formulation to high-fidelity simulations through high-order time integration with adaptive time-stepping

An unsteady one-dimensional model of solid propellant combustion, based on a low-Mach assumption, is presented and semi-discretised in space via a finite volume scheme. The mathematical nature of this system is shown to be differential-algebraic of index one. A high-fidelity numerical strategy with stiffly accurate singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods is proposed, and time adaptation is made possible using embedded schemes. High-order is shown to be reached, while handling the constraints properly, both at the interface and for the mass conservation in the gaseous flow field. Three challenging test-cases are thoroughly investigated: ignition transients, growth of combustion instabilities through a Hopf bifurcation leading to a limit cycle periodic solution and the unsteady response of the system when detailed gas-phase kinetics are included in the model. The method exhibits high efficiency for all cases in terms of both computational time and accuracy compared to first and second-order schemes traditionally used in the combustion literature, where the time step adaptation is CFL-or variation-based.

[151] 2007.02543

Quantum moment map and obstructions to the existence of closed Fedosov star products

It is shown that the normalized trace of Fedosov star product for quantum moment map depends only on the path component in the cohomology class of the symplectic form and the cohomology class of the closed formal 2-form required to define Fedosov connections (Theorem 1.3). As an application we obtain a family of obstructions to the existence of closed Fedosov star products naturally attached to symplectic manifolds (Theorem 1.5) and K\"ahler manifolds (Theorem 1.6). These obstructions are integral invariants depending only on the path component of the cohomology class of the symplectic form. Restricted to compact K\"ahler manifolds we re-discover an obstruction found earlier in [29].

[152] 2007.02544

On the Cauchy problem for Friedrichs systems on globally hyperbolic manifolds with timelike boundary

In this paper, the Cauchy problem for a Friedrichs system on a globally hyperbolic manifold with a timelike boundary is investigated. By imposing admissible boundary conditions, the existence and the uniqueness of strong solutions are shown. Furthermore, if the Friedrichs system is hyperbolic, the Cauchy problem is proved to be well-posed in the sense of Hadamard. Finally, examples of Friedrichs systems with admissible boundary conditions are provided. Keywords: symmetric hyperbolic systems, symmetric positive systems, admissible boundary conditions, Dirac operator, normally hyperbolic operator, Klein-Gordon operator, heat operator, reaction-diffusion operator, globally hyperbolic manifolds with timelike boundary.

[153] 2007.02546

On a Repulsion Keller--Segel System with a Logarithmic Sensitivity

In this paper, we study the initial-boundary value problem of a repulsion Keller--Segel system with a logarithmic sensitivity modeling the reinforced random walk. By establishing an energy-dissipation identity, we prove the existence of classical solutions in two dimensions as well as existence of weak solutions in the three-dimensional setting. Moreover, it is shown that the weak solutions enjoys an eventual regularity property, i.e., it becomes regular after certain time $T>0$. An exponential convergence rate toward the spatially homogeneous steady states is obtained as well. We adopt a new approach developed recently by the author \cite{J19} to study the eventual regularity. The argument is based on observation of the exponential stability of constant solutions in scaling-invariant spaces together with certain dissipative property of the global solutions in the same spaces.

[154] 2007.02547

Optimal Reinsurance under the Mean-Variance Premium Principle to Minimize the Probability of Ruin

We consider the problem of minimizing the probability of ruin by purchasing reinsurance whose premium is computed according to the mean-variance premium principle, a combination of the expected-value and variance premium principles. We derive closed-form expressions of the optimal reinsurance strategy and the corresponding minimum probability of ruin under the diffusion approximation of the classical Cram\'er-Lundberg risk process perturbed by a diffusion. We find an explicit expression for the reinsurance strategy that maximizes the adjustment coefficient for the classical risk process perturbed by a diffusion. Also, for this risk process, we use stochastic Perron's method to prove that the minimum probability of ruin is the unique viscosity solution of its Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation with appropriate boundary conditions. Finally, we prove that, under an appropriate scaling of the classical risk process, the minimum probability of ruin converges to the minimum probability of ruin under the diffusion approximation.

[155] 2007.02549

Some inequalities involving perimeter and torsional rigidity

We consider shape functionals of the form $F_q(\Omega)=P(\Omega)T^q(\Omega)$ on the class of open sets of prescribed Lebesgue measure. Here $q>0$ is fixed, $P(\Omega)$ denotes the perimeter of $\Omega$ and $T(\Omega)$ is the torsional rigidity of $\Omega$. The minimization and maximization of $F_q(\Omega)$ is considered on various classes of admissible domains $\Omega$: in the class $\mathcal{A}_{all}$ of all domains, in the class $\mathcal{A}_{convex}$ of convex domains, and in the class $\mathcal{A}_{thin}$ of thin domains.

[156] 2007.02554

Development in periodic series,method for resolving differential equations

The development of functions of real variables in Taylor and Frobenius series (whole series which are formed in nonorthogonal, nonperiodic bases), in sinusoidal Fourier series (bases of orthogonal, periodic functions), in series of special functions (bases of orthogonal, nonperiodic functions), etc. is a commonly used method for solving a wide range of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs).In this article, based on an in-depth analysis of the properties of periodic sinusoidal Fourier series (SFS), we will be able to apply this procedure to a much broader category of ODEs (all linear, homogeneous and non-homogeneous equations with constant coefficients, a large category of linear and non-linear equations with variable coefficients, systems of ODEs, integro-differential equations, etc.). We will also extend this procedure and we use it to solve certain ODEs, on non-orthogonal periodic bases, represented by non sinusoidal periodic Fourier series (SFN).

[157] 2007.02555

Nonlinear Markov Chains with Finite State Space: Invariant Distributions and Long-Term Behaviour

Nonlinear Markov chains with finite state space have been introduced in Kolokoltsov (2010). The characteristic property of these processes is that the transition probabilities do not only depend on the state, but also on the distribution of the process. In this paper we provide first results regarding their invariant distributions and long-term behaviour. We will show that under a continuity assumption an invariant distribution exists. Moreover, we provide a sufficient criterion for the uniqueness of the invariant distribution that relies on the Brouwer degree. Thereafter, we will present examples of peculiar limit behaviour that cannot occur for classical linear Markov chains. Finally, we present for the case of small state spaces sufficient (and easy-to-verify) criteria for the ergodicity of the process.

[158] 2007.02556

Emergent behaviors of Cucker-Smale flocks on the hyperboloid

We study emergent behaviors of Cucker-Smale(CS) flocks on the hyperboloid $\mathbb{H}^d$ in any dimensions. In a recent work \cite{H-H-K-K-M}, a first-order aggregation model on the hyperboloid was proposed and its emergent dynamics was analyzed in terms of initial configuration and system parameters. In this paper, we are interested in the second-order modeling of Cucker-Smale flocks on the hyperboloid. For this, we derive our second-order model from the abstract CS model on complete and smooth Riemannian manifolds by explicitly calculating the geodesic and parallel transport. Velocity alignment has been shown by combining general {velocity alignment estimates} for the abstract CS model on manifolds and verifications of a priori estimate of second derivative of energy functional. For the two-dimensional case $\mathbb{H}^2$, similar to the recent result in \cite{A-H-S}, asymptotic flocking admits only two types of asymptotic scenarios, either convergence to a rest state or a state lying on the same plane (coplanar state). We also provide several numerical simulations to illustrate an aforementioned dichotomy on the asymptotic dynamics of the hyperboloid CS model on $\mathbb{H}^2$.

[159] 2007.02562

Low Regularity Estimates for CutFEM Approximations of an Elliptic Problem with Mixed Boundary Conditions

We show error estimates for a cut finite element approximation of a second order elliptic problem with mixed boundary conditions. The error estimates are of low regularity type where we consider the case when the exact solution $u \in H^s$ with $s\in (1,3/2]$. For Nitsche type methods this case requires special handling of the terms involving the normal flux of the exact solution at the the boundary. For Dirichlet boundary conditions the estimates are optimal, whereas in the case of mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions they are suboptimal by a logarithmic factor.

[160] 2007.02563

An improvement of Zalcman's lemma in $C^n$

The aim of this paper is to give a proof of improving of Zalcman's lemma.

[161] 2007.02568

Asymptotic spreading speeds for a predator-prey system with two predators and one prey

This paper investigates the large time behaviour of a three species reaction-diffusion system, modelling the spatial invasion of two predators feeding on a single prey species. In addition to the competition for food, the two predators exhibit competitive interactions and under some parameter conditions ($\mu>0$), they can also be considered as two mutants. When mutations occur in the predator populations, the spatial spread of invasion takes place at a definite speed, identical for both mutants. When the two predators are not coupled through mutation, the spreading behaviour exhibits a more complex propagating pattern, including multiple layers with different speeds. In addition, some parameter conditions reveal situations where a nonlocal pulling phenomenon occurs and in particular where the spreading speed is not linearly determined.

[162] 2007.02573

On the Weyl-Ahlfors theory of derived curves

For derived curves intersecting a family of decomposable hyperplanes in subgeneral position, we obtain an analog of Cartan-Nochka Second Main Theorem, generalizing a classical result of Fujimoto about decomposable hyperplanes in general position.

[163] 2007.02576

Hochschild homology and the derived de Rham complex revisited

We characterize two objects by universal property: the derived de Rham complex and Hochschild homology together with its Hochschild-Kostant-Rosenberg filtration. This involves endowing these objects with extra structure, built on notions of "homotopy-coherent cochain complex" and "filtered circle action" that we study here. We use these universal properties to give a conceptual proof of the statements relating Hochschild homology and the derived de Rham complex, in particular giving a new construction of the filtrations on cyclic, negative cyclic, and periodic cyclic homology that relate these invariants to derived de Rham cohomology.

[164] 2007.02582

Weight modules for map (super)algebra related to the Virasoro algebra

We classify Jet modules for the Lie (super)algebras $\mathfrak{L}=W\ltimes(\mathfrak{g}\otimes\mathbb{C}[t,t^{-1}])$, where $W$ is the Witt algebra and $\mathfrak{g}$ is a Lie superalgebra with an even diagonlizable derivation. Then we give a concept method to classify all simple cuspidal modules for $\mathfrak{L}$ and the map superalgebras, which are of the form $\mathfrak{L}\otimes R$, where $R$ is a Noetherian unital supercommutative associative superalgebra.

[165] 2007.02587

On the Connection between Dynamical Optimal Transport and Functional Lifting

Functional lifting methods provide a tool for approximating solutions of difficult non-convex problems by embedding them into a larger space. In this work, we investigate a mathematically rigorous formulation based on embedding into the space of pointwise probability measures over a fixed range $\Gamma$. Interestingly, this approach can be derived as a generalization of the theory of dynamical optimal transport. Imposing the established continuity equation as a constraint corresponds to variational models with first-order regularization. By modifying the continuity equation, the approach can also be extended to models with higher-order regularization.

[166] 2007.02590

Angle sums of random polytopes

For two families of random polytopes we compute explicitly the expected sums of the conic intrinsic volumes and the Grassmann angles at all faces of any given dimension of the polytope under consideration. As special cases, we compute the expected sums of internal and external angles at all faces of any fixed dimension. The first family are the Gaussian polytopes defined as convex hulls of i.i.d. samples from a non-degenerate Gaussian distribution in $\mathbb R^d$. The second family are convex hulls of random walks with exchangeable increments satisfying certain mild general position assumption. The expected sums are expressed in terms of the angles of the regular simplices and the Stirling numbers, respectively. There are non-trivial analogies between these two settings. Also, we show that the expected Grassmann angle sums of a random polytope with a rotationally invariant law are invariant under affine transformations. Of independent interest may be also results on the faces of linear images of polyhedral sets. These results are well known but it seems that no detailed proofs can be found in the existing literature.

[167] 2007.02594

Monodromy Conjecture for log generic polynomials

A log generic hypersurface in $\mathbb{P}^n$ with respect to a birational modification of $\mathbb{P}^n$ is by definition the image of a generic element of a high power of an ample linear series on the modification. A log very-generic hypersurface is defined similarly but restricting to line bundles satisfying a non-resonance condition. Fixing a log resolution of a product $f=f_1\ldots f_p$ of polynomials, we show that the monodromy conjecture, relating the motivic zeta function with the complex monodromy, holds for the tuple $(f_1,\ldots,f_p,g)$ and for the product $fg$, if $g$ is log generic. We also show that the stronger version of the monodromy conjecture, relating the motivic zeta function with the Bernstein-Sato ideal, holds for the tuple $(f_1,\ldots,f_p,g)$ and for the product $fg$, if $g$ is log very-generic.

[168] 2007.02596

Testing normality in any dimension by Fourier methods in a multivariate Stein equation

We study a novel class of affine invariant and consistent tests for multivariate normality. The tests are based on a characterization of the standard $d$-variate normal distribution by means of the unique solution of an initial value problem connected to a partial differential equation, which is motivated by a multivariate Stein equation. The test criterion is a suitably weighted $L^2$-statistic. We derive the limit distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis as well as under contiguous and fixed alternatives to normality. A consistent estimator of the limiting variance under fixed alternatives as well as an asymptotic confidence interval of the distance of an underlying alternative with respect to the multivariate normal law is derived. In simulation studies, we show that the tests are strong in comparison with prominent competitors, and that the empirical coverage rate of the asymptotic confidence interval converges to the nominal level. We present a real data example, and we outline topics for further research.

[169] 2007.02597

On the sedimentation of a droplet in Stokes flow

This paper is dedicated to the analysis of the transport-Stokes equation which describes sedimentation of inertialess suspensions in a viscous flow at mesoscopic scaling. First we present a global existence and uniqueness result for $L^1\cap L^\infty$ initial densities with finite first moment. Secondly, we consider the case where the initial data is the characteristic function of an axisymmetric bounded domain and investigate the regularity of its surface. Using spherical parametrisation, a hyperbolic equation for the evolution of the radius of the droplet is derived and we present a local existence and uniqueness result. Finally, we investigate the case where the initial shape of the droplet is spherical and show that the solution corresponds to the Hadamard and Rybczynski result. We present numerical simulations in the spherical case.

[170] 2007.02607

On the vanishing dissipation limit for the incompressible MHD equations on bounded domains

In this paper, we investigate the solvability, regularity and the vanishing dissipation limit of solutions to the three-dimensional viscous magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in bounded domains. On the boundary, the velocity field fulfills a Navier-slip condition, while the magnetic field satisfies the insulating condition. It is shown that the initial-boundary problem has a global weak solution for a general smooth domain. More importantly, for a flat domain, we establish the uniform local well-posedness of the strong solution with higher order uniform regularity and the asymptotic convergence with a rate to the solution of the ideal MHD as the dissipation tends to zero.

[171] 2007.02614

Classification of Calabi Hypersurfaces with parallel Fubini-Pick form

In this paper, we present the classification of 2 and 3-dimensional Calabi hypersurfaces with parallel Fubini-Pick form with respect to the Levi-Civita connection of the Calabi metric.

[172] 2007.02618

Nonconcavity of the Spectral Radius in Levinger's Theorem

Let ${\bf A} \in R^{n \times n}$ be a nonnegative irreducible square matrix and let $r({\bf A})$ be its spectral radius and Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue. Levinger (1970) asserted and several have proven that $r(t):=r((1{-}t) {\bf A} + t {\bf A}^\top)$ increases over $t \in [0,1/2]$ and decreases over $t \in [1/2,1]$. It has further been stated that $r(t)$ is concave over $t \in (0,1)$. Here we show that the latter claim is false in general through a number of counterexamples, but prove it is true for ${\bf A} \in R^{2\times 2}$, weighted shift matrices (but not weighted cyclic shift matrices), tridiagonal Toeplitz matrices, and the 3-parameter Toeplitz matrices from Fiedler, but not Toeplitz matrices in general. A general characterization of the range of $t$, or the class of matrices, for which the spectral radius is concave in Levinger's homotopy remains an open problem.

[173] 2007.02619

Higher order approximation for stochastic wave equation

The infinitesimal generator (fractional Laplacian) of a process obtained by subordinating a killed Brownian motion catches the power-law attenuation of wave propagation. This paper studies the numerical schemes for the stochastic wave equation with fractional Laplacian as the space operator, the noise term of which is an infinite dimensional Brownian motion or fractional Brownian motion (fBm). Firstly, we establish the regularity of the mild solution of the stochastic fractional wave equation. Then a spectral Galerkin method is used for the approximation in space, and the space convergence rate is improved by postprocessing the infinite dimensional Gaussian noise. In the temporal direction, when the time derivative of the mild solution is bounded in the sense of mean-squared $L^p$-norm, we propose a modified stochastic trigonometric method, getting a higher strong convergence rate than the existing results, i.e., the time convergence rate is bigger than $1$. Particularly, for time discretization, the provided method can achieve an order of $2$ at the expenses of requiring some extra regularity to the mild solution. The theoretical error estimates are confirmed by numerical experiments.

[174] 2007.02623

Second moment of Dirichlet $L$-functions, character sums over subgroups and upper bounds on relative class numbers

We prove an asymptotic formula for the mean-square average of $L$- functions associated to subgroups of characters of sufficiently large size. Our proof relies on the study of certain character sums ${\cal A}(p,d)$ recently introduced by E. Elma. We obtain an asymptotic formula for ${\cal A}(p,d)$ which holds true for any divisor $d$ of $p-1$ removing previous restrictions on the size of $d$. This anwers a question raised in Elma's paper. Our proof relies both on estimates on the frequency of large character sums and techniques from the theory of uniform distribution. As an application we deduce the following bound $h_{p,d}^- \leq 2\left (\frac{(1+o(1))p}{24}\right )^{m/4}$ on the relative class numbers of the imaginary number fields of conductor $p\equiv 1\mod d$ and degree $m=(p-1)/d$.

[175] 2007.02636

Self-dual modules in characteristic two and normal subgroups

We prove Clifford theoretic results on the representations of finite groups which only hold in characteristic $2$. Let $G$ be a finite group, let $N$ be a normal subgroup of $G$ and let $\varphi$ be an irreducible $2$-Brauer character of $N$ which is self-dual. We prove that there is a unique self-dual irreducible Brauer character $\theta$ of $G$ such that $\varphi$ occurs with odd multiplicity in the restriction of $\theta$ to $N$. Moreover this multiplicity is $1$. Conversely if $\theta$ is an irreducible $2$-Brauer character of $G$ which is self-dual but not of quadratic type, the restriction of $\theta$ to $N$ is a sum of distinct self-dual irreducible Brauer character of $N$, none of which have quadratic type. Let $b$ be a real $2$-block of $N$. We show that there is a unique real $2$-block of $G$ covering $b$ which is weakly regular.

[176] 2007.02644

Conjectures on L-functions for projective bundles on Dedekind domains

Let $\mathcal{O}_K$ be the ring of integers in an algebraic number field $K$ with $S:=\operatorname{Spec}(\mathcal{O}_K)$. Let $T$ be a regular scheme of finite type over $S$ and let $X$ be a scheme of finite type over $T$ with a stratification of closed subschemes \[ \emptyset=X_{n+1} \subseteq X_n \subseteq \cdots \subseteq X_2 \subseteq X_1:=X \] with $X_i-X_{i+1}=\mathbb{A}^{d_i}_T$. We prove that if the Soule conjecture holds for $T$ and the Beilinson-Soule vanishing conjecture holds for $X_i$ it follows the Soule conjecture on special values of L-functions holds for $X$. As a special case we get an approach to Soules conjecture on special values of L-functions for flag bundles and grassmannian bundles on $S$ using induction and the geometry of flag bundles. We moreover reduce the study of the Beilinson-Soule vanishing conjecture and the Soule conjecture on special values of L-functions to the study of affine regular schemes of finite type over $\mathbb{Z}$. Hence we get an approach to the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture for abelian schemes using affine regular schemes of finite type over $\mathbb{Z}$.

[177] 2007.02647

Simplicial Galois Deformation Functors

In a recent work of Galatius and Venkatesh, the authors showed the importance of studying simplicial generalizations of Galois deformation functors. They established a precise link between the simplicial universal deformation ring $R$ prorepresenting such a deformation problem (with local conditions) and a derived Hecke algebra. Here we focus on the algebraic part of their study which we complete in two directions. First, we introduce the notion of simplicial pseudo-characters and prove relations between the (derived) deformation functors of simplicial pseudo-characters and that of simplicial Galois representations. Secondly, we define the relative cotangent complex of a simplicial deformation functor and, in the ordinary case, we relate it to the relative complex of ordinary Galois cochains. Finally, we recall how the latter can be used to relate the fundamental group of $R$ to the ordinary dual adjoint Selmer group, by a homomorphism already introduced in Galatius-Venkatesh and studied in greater generality in Tilouine-Urban.

[178] 2007.02648

Over-The-Air Computation for Distributed Machine Learning

Motivated by various applications in distributed Machine Learning (ML) in massive wireless sensor networks, this paper addresses the problem of computing approximate values of functions over the wireless channel and provides examples of applications of our results to distributed training and ML-based prediction. The ``over-the-air'' computation of a function of data captured at different wireless devices has a huge potential for reducing the communication cost, which is needed for example for training of ML models. It is of particular interest to massive wireless scenarios because, as shown in this paper, its communication cost forntraining scales more favorable with the number of devices than that of traditional schemes that reconstruct all the data. We consider noisy fast-fading channels that pose major challenges to the ``over-the-air'' computation. As a result, function values are approximated from superimposed noisy signals transmitted by different devices. The fading and noise processes are not limited to Gaussian distributions, and are assumed to be in the more general class of sub-gaussian distributions. Our result does not assume necessarily independent fading and noise, thus allowing for correlations over time and between devices.

[179] 2007.02649

Norm controlled cohomology of transformation groups

We generalize the result of Brandenbursky and Marcinkovski for the bounded cohomology of transformation groups to infinite volume case. To state the result, we introduce the notion of norm controlled cohomology as a generalization of bounded cohomology.

[180] 2007.02654

Inverse scattering method for Hitchin systems of types $B_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$, and their generalizations

We give a solution of the Inverse Scattering Problem for integrable systems with a finite number degrees of freedom, admitting a Lax representation with spectral parameter on a Riemann surface. While conventional approaches deal with the systems with $GL(n)$ symmetry, we focus on the problems arising in the case of symmetry with respect to a semi-simple group. Our main results apply to Hitchin systems of the types $B_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$.

[181] 2007.02665

Weak formulation of the MTW condition and convexity properties of potentials

We simplify the geometric interpretation of the weak Ma-Trudinger-Wang condition for regularity in optimal transportation and provide a geometric proof of the global c-convexity of locally $c$-convex potentials when the cost function $c$ is only assumed twice differentiable.

[182] 2007.02672

Invariant subspaces for Fréchet spaces without continuous norm

Let $(X,(p_j))$ be a Fr\'echet space with a Schauder basis and without continuous norm, where $(p_j)$ is an increasing sequence of seminorms inducing the topology of $X$. We show that $X$ satisfies the Invariant Subspace Property if and only if there exists $j_0\ge 1$ such that $\ker p_{j+1}$ is of finite codimension in $\ker p_{j}$ for every $j\ge j_0$.

[183] 2007.02677

Consistency analysis of bilevel data-driven learning in inverse problems

One fundamental problem when solving inverse problems is how to find regularization parameters. This article considers solving this problem using data-driven bilevel optimization, i.e. we consider the adaptive learning of the regularization parameter from data by means of optimization. This approach can be interpreted as solving an empirical risk minimization problem, and we analyze its performance in the large data sample size limit for general nonlinear problems. To reduce the associated computational cost, online numerical schemes are derived using the stochastic gradient method. We prove convergence of these numerical schemes under suitable assumptions on the forward problem. Numerical experiments are presented illustrating the theoretical results and demonstrating the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approaches for various linear and nonlinear inverse problems, including Darcy flow, the eikonal equation, and an image denoising example.

[184] 2007.02689

Number Field Sieve with Provable Complexity

In this thesis we give an in-depth introduction to the General Number Field Sieve, as it was used by Buhler, Lenstra, and Pomerance, before looking at one of the modern developments of this algorithm: A randomized version with provable complexity. This version was posited in 2017 by Lee and Venkatesan and will be preceded by ample material from both algebraic and analytic number theory, Galois theory, and probability theory.

[185] 2007.02694

On the correctness of finite-rank approximations by series of shifted Gaussians

In this paper we consider interpolation problem connected with series by integer shifts of Gaussians. Known approaches for these problems met numerical difficulties. Due to it another method is considered based on finite-rank approximations by linear systems. The main result for this approach is to establish correctness of the finite-rank linear system under consideration. And the main result of the paper is to prove correctness of the finite-rank linear system approximation. For that an explicit formula for the main determinant of the linear system is derived to demonstrate that it is non-zero.

[186] 2007.02695

Two-Stage Adaptive Pooling with RT-qPCR for COVID-19 Screening

We propose two-stage adaptive pooling schemes, 2-STAP and 2-STAMP, for detecting COVID-19 using real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test kits. Similar to the Tapestry scheme of Ghosh et al., the proposed schemes leverage soft information from the RT-qPCR process about the total viral load in the pool. This is in contrast to conventional group testing schemes where the measurements are Boolean. The proposed schemes provide higher testing throughput than the popularly used Dorfman's scheme. They also provide higher testing throughput, sensitivity and specificity than the state-of-the-art non-adaptive Tapestry scheme. The number of pipetting operations is lower than state-of-the-art non-adaptive pooling schemes, and is higher than that for the Dorfman's scheme. The proposed schemes can work with substantially smaller group sizes than non-adaptive schemes and are simple to describe. Monte-Carlo simulations using the statistical model in the work of Ghosh et al. (Tapestry) show that 10 infected people in a population of size 961 can be identified with 70.86 tests on the average with a sensitivity of 99.50% and specificity of 99.62. This is 13.5x, 4.24x, and 1.3x the testing throughput of individual testing, Dorfman's testing, and the Tapestry scheme, respectively.

[187] 2007.02697

Ulam numbers have zero density

In this paper we show that the natural density $\mathcal{D}[(U_m)]$ of Ulam numbers $(U_m)$ satisfies $\mathcal{D}[(U_m)]=0$. That is, we show that for $(U_m)\subset [1,k]$ then \begin{align}\lim \limits_{k\longrightarrow \infty}\frac{\left |(U_m)\cap [1,k]\right |}{k}=0.\nonumber \end{align}

[188] 2007.02704

Ergodic behavior of control and mean field games problems depending on acceleration

The goal of this paper is to study the long time behavior of solutions of the first-order mean field game (MFG) systems with a control on the acceleration. The main issue for this is the lack of small time controllability of the problem, which prevents to define the associated ergodic mean field game problem in the standard way. To overcome this issue, we first study the long-time average of optimal control problems with control on the acceleration: we prove that the time average of the value function converges to an ergodic constant and represent this ergodic constant as a minimum of a Lagrangian over a suitable class of closed probability measure. This characterization leads us to define the ergodic MFG problem as a fixed-point problem on the set of closed probability measures. Then we also show that this MFG ergodic problem has at least one solution, that the associated ergodic constant is unique under the standard mono-tonicity assumption and that the time-average of the value function of the time-dependent MFG problem with control of acceleration converges to this ergodic constant.

[189] 2007.02705

On the 2-systole of stretched enough positive scalar curvature metrics on $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2$

We use recent developments by Gromov and Zhu to derive an upper bound for the 2-systole of the homology class of $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \{*\}$ in a $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2$ with a positive scalar curvature metric such that the set of spheres homologous to $\mathbb{S}^2 \times \{*\}$ is wide enough in some sense.

[190] 2007.02708

The dual approach to non-negative super-resolution: perturbation analysis

We study the problem of super-resolution, where we recover the locations and weights of non-negative point sources from a few samples of their convolution with a Gaussian kernel. It has been shown that exact recovery is possible by minimising the total variation norm of the measure, and a practical way of achieve this is by solving the dual problem. In this paper, we study the stability of solutions with respect to the solutions dual problem, both in the case of exact measurements and in the case of measurements with additive noise. In particular, we establish a relationship between perturbations in the dual variable and perturbations in the primal variable around the optimiser and a similar relationship between perturbations in the dual variable around the optimiser and the magnitude of the additive noise in the measurements. Our analysis is based on a quantitative version of the implicit function theorem.

[191] 2007.02710

Admissible surfaces in progressive addition lenses

Progressive addition lenses contain a surface of spatially-varying curvature, which provides variable optical power for different viewing areas over the lens. We derive complete compatibility equations that provide the exact magnitude of cylinder along lines of curvatures on any arbitrary PAL smooth surface. These equations reveal that, contrary to current knowledge, cylinder, and its derivative, does not only depend on principal curvature and its derivatives along the principal line but also on the geodesic curvature and its derivatives along the line orthogonal to the principal line. We quantify the relevance of the geodesic curvature through numerical computations. We also derive an extended and exact Minkwitz theorem only restricted to be applied along lines of curvatures, but excluding umbilical points.

[192] 2007.02723

Weak error analysis for stochastic gradient descent optimization algorithms

Stochastic gradient descent (SGD) type optimization schemes are fundamental ingredients in a large number of machine learning based algorithms. In particular, SGD type optimization schemes are frequently employed in applications involving natural language processing, object and face recognition, fraud detection, computational advertisement, and numerical approximations of partial differential equations. In mathematical convergence results for SGD type optimization schemes there are usually two types of error criteria studied in the scientific literature, that is, the error in the strong sense and the error with respect to the objective function. In applications one is often not only interested in the size of the error with respect to the objective function but also in the size of the error with respect to a test function which is possibly different from the objective function. The analysis of the size of this error is the subject of this article. In particular, the main result of this article proves under suitable assumptions that the size of this error decays at the same speed as in the special case where the test function coincides with the objective function.

[193] 2007.02729

Sharp Poincaré and log-Sobolev inequalities for the switch chain on regular bipartite graphs

Consider the switch chain on the set of $d$-regular bipartite graphs on $n$ vertices with $3\leq d\leq n^{c}$, for a small universal constant $c>0$. We prove that the chain satisfies a Poincar\'e inequality with a constant of order $O(nd)$; moreover, when $d$ is fixed, we establish a log-Sobolev inequality for the chain with a constant of order $O_d(n\log n)$. We show that both results are optimal. The Poincar\'e inequality implies that in the regime $3\leq d\leq n^c$ the mixing time of the switch chain is at most $O\big((nd)^2 \log(nd)\big)$, improving on the previously known bound $O\big((nd)^{13} \log(nd)\big)$ due to Kannan, Tetali and Vempala. The log-Sobolev inequality that we establish for constant $d$ implies a bound $O(n\log^2 n)$ on the mixing time of the chain which, up to the $\log n$ factor, captures a conjectured optimal bound. Our proof strategy relies on building, for any fixed function on the set of $d$-regular bipartite simple graphs, an appropriate extension to a function on the set of multigraphs given by the configuration model. We then establish a comparison procedure with the well studied random transposition model in order to obtain the corresponding functional inequalities. While our method falls into a rich class of comparison techniques for Markov chains on different state spaces, the crucial feature of the method -- dealing with chains with a large distortion between their stationary measures -- is a novel addition to the theory.

[194] 2007.02732

Frobenius W-algebras and traces of Frobenius Heisenberg categories

To each symmetric graded Frobenius superalgebra we associate a W-algebra. We then define a linear isomorphism between the trace of the Frobenius Heisenberg category and a central reduction of this W-algebra. We conjecture that this is an isomorphism of graded superalgebras.

[195] 2007.02743

Group partition categories

To every group $G$ we associate a linear monoidal category $\mathcal{P}\mathit{ar}(G)$ that we call a group partition category. We give explicit bases for the morphism spaces and also an efficient presentation of the category in terms of generators and relations. We then define an embedding of $\mathcal{P}\mathit{ar}(G)$ into the group Heisenberg category associated to $G$. This embedding intertwines the natural actions of both categories on modules for wreath products of $G$. Finally, we prove that the additive Karoubi envelope of $\mathcal{P}\mathit{ar}(G)$ is equivalent to a wreath product interpolating category introduced by Knop, thereby giving a simple concrete description of that category.

[196] 2007.02746

Strong convergence of inertial extragradient algorithms for solving variational inequalities and fixed point problems

The paper investigates two inertial extragradient algorithms for seeking a common solution to a variational inequality problem involving a monotone and Lipschitz continuous mapping and a fixed point problem with a demicontractive mapping in real Hilbert spaces. Our algorithms only need to calculate the projection on the feasible set once in each iteration. Moreover, they can work well without the prior information of the Lipschitz constant of the cost operator and do not contain any line search process. The strong convergence of the algorithms is established under suitable conditions. Some experiments are presented to illustrate the numerical efficiency of the suggested algorithms and compare them with some existing ones.

[197] 2007.02759

Intelligent Reflecting Surface Aided Wireless Communications: A Tutorial

Intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) is an enabling technology to engineer the radio signal prorogation in wireless networks. By smartly tuning the signal reflection via a large number of low-cost passive reflecting elements, IRS is capable of dynamically altering wireless channels to enhance the communication performance. It is thus expected that the new IRS-aided hybrid wireless network comprising both active and passive components will be highly promising to achieve a sustainable capacity growth cost-effectively in the future. Despite its great potential, IRS faces new challenges to be efficiently integrated into wireless networks, such as reflection optimization, channel estimation, and deployment from communication design perspectives. In this paper, we provide a tutorial overview of IRS-aided wireless communication to address the above issues, and elaborate its reflection and channel models, hardware architecture and practical constraints, as well as various appealing applications in wireless networks. Moreover, we highlight important directions worthy of further investigation in future work.

[198] 2007.02765

Approximation of partial differential equations on compact resistance spaces

We consider linear partial differential equations on resistance spaces that are uniformly elliptic and parabolic in the sense of quadratic forms and involve abstract gradient and divergence terms. Our main interest is to provide graph and metric graph approximations for their unique solutions. For families of equations with different coefficients on a single compact resistance space we prove that solutions have accumulation points with respect to the uniform convergence in space, provided that the coefficients remain bounded. If in a sequence of equations the coefficients converge suitably, the solutions converge uniformly along a subsequence. For the special case of local resistance forms on finitely ramified sets we also consider sequences of resistance spaces approximating the finitely ramified set from within. Under suitable assumptions on the coefficients (extensions of) linearizations of the solutions of equations on the approximating spaces accumulate or even converge uniformly along a subsequence to the solution of the target equation on the finitely ramified set. The results cover discrete and metric graph approximations, and both are discussed.

[199] 2007.02768

Convex hulls of several multidimensional Gaussian random walks

We derive explicit formulae for the expected volume and the expected number of facets of the convex hull of several multidimensional Gaussian random walks in terms of the Gaussian persistence probabilities. Special cases include the convex hull of a single Gaussian random walk and the $d$-dimensional Gaussian polytope with or without the origin.

[200] 2007.02770

Piecewise semi-ellipsoidal control invariant sets

Computing control invariant sets is paramount in many applications. The families of sets commonly used for computations are ellipsoids and polyhedra. However, searching for a control invariant set over the family of ellipsoids is conservative for systems more complex than unconstrained linear time invariant systems. Moreover, even if the control invariant set may be approximated arbitrarily closely by polyhedra, the complexity of the polyhedra may grow rapidly in certain directions. An attractive generalization of these two families are piecewise semi-ellipsoids. We provide in this paper a convex programming approach for computing control invariant sets of this family.

[201] 2007.02772

On Lagrange multiplier theorems for non-smooth optimization for a large class of variational models in Banach spaces

In this short communication, we present optimality conditions for a class of non-smooth variational problems. The main results are based on standard tools of functional analysis and calculus of variations. Firstly we address a model with equality constraints and, in a second step, a more general model with equality and inequality constraints, always in a general Banach spaces context.

[202] 2007.02775

Limit Theorems and Wrapping Transforms in Bi-free Probability Theory

In this paper, we characterize idempotent distributions with respect to the bi-free multiplicative convolution on the bi-torus. Also, the bi-free analogous Levy triplet of an infinitely divisible distribution on the bi-torus without non-trivial idempotent factors is obtained. This triplet is unique and generates a homomorphism from the bi-free multiplicative semigroup of infinitely divisible distributions to the classical one. The relevances of the limit theorems associated with four convolutions, classical and bi-free additive convolutions and classical and bi-free multiplicative convolutions, are analyzed. The analysis relies on the convergence criteria for limit theorems and the use of push-forward measures induced by the wrapping map from the plane to the bi-torus. Different from the bi-free circumstance, the classical multiplicative L\'{e}vy triplet is not always unique. Due to this, some conditions are furnished to ensure uniqueness.

[203] 2007.02776

Reduction of a nonlinear system and its numerical solution using a fractional iterative method

A nonlinear algebraic equation system of 5 variables is numerically solved, which is derived from the application of the Fourier transform to a differential equation system that allows modeling the behavior of the temperatures and the efficiencies of a hybrid solar receiver, which in simple terms is the combination of a photovoltaic system with a thermoelectric system. In addition, a way to reduce the previous system to a nonlinear system of only 2 variables is presented. Naturally, reducing algebraic equation systems of dimension N to systems of smaller dimensions has the main advantage of reducing the number of variables involved in a problem, but the analytical expressions of the systems become more complicated. However, to minimize this disadvantage, an iterative method that does not explicitly depend on the analytical complexity of the system to be solved is used. A fractional iterative method, valid for one and several variables, that uses the properties of fractional calculus, in particular the fact that the fractional derivatives of constants are not always zero, to find solutions of nonlinear systems is presented.

[204] 2007.02779

Some virtually poly-free Artin groups

In this short note we prove that a class of Artin groups of affine and complex types are virtually poly-free, answering partially the question if all Artin groups are virtually poly-free.

[205] 2007.02781

Bounds on Pachner moves and systoles of cusped 3-manifolds

Any two geometric ideal triangulations of a one-cusped complete hyperbolic $3$-manifold $M$ are related by a sequence of Pachner moves through topological triangulations. We give a bound on the length of this sequence in terms of the total number of tetrahedra and a lower bound on dihedral angles. This leads to a naive but effective algorithm to check if two hyperbolic knots are equivalent, given geometric ideal triangulations of their complements. Given a geometric ideal triangulation of $M$, we also give a lower bound on the systole length of $M$ in terms of the number of tetrahedra and a lower bound on dihedral angles. This allows us to show that given a knot $K$ in $S^3$ and $\theta_0>0$, if a knot $K'$ is obtained by twisting pairs of strands of $K$ sufficiently many times then $S^3 \setminus K'$ does not admit any geometric ideal triangulation with all dihedral angles at least $\theta_0$.

[206] 2007.02784

A Novel Regularization Based on the Error Function for Sparse Recovery

Regularization plays an important role in solving ill-posed problems by adding extra information about the desired solution, such as sparsity. Many regularization terms usually involve some vector norm, e.g., $L_1$ and $L_2$ norms. In this paper, we propose a novel regularization framework that uses the error function to approximate the unit step function. It can be considered as a surrogate function for the $L_0$ norm. The asymptotic behavior of the error function with respect to its intrinsic parameter indicates that the proposed regularization can approximate the standard $L_0$, $L_1$ norms as the parameter approaches to $0$ and $\infty,$ respectively. Statistically, it is also less biased than the $L_1$ approach. We then incorporate the error function into either a constrained or an unconstrained model when recovering a sparse signal from an under-determined linear system. Computationally, both problems can be solved via an iterative reweighted $L_1$ (IRL1) algorithm with guaranteed convergence. A large number of experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in various sparse recovery scenarios.

[207] 2007.02785

Spline Moment Models for the one-dimensional Boltzmann-BGK equation

We introduce Spline Moment Equations (SME) for kinetic equations using a new weighted spline ansatz of the distribution function and investigate the ansatz, the model, and its performance by simulating the one-dimensional Boltzmann-BGK equation. The new basis is composed of weighted constrained splines for the approximation of distribution functions that preserves mass, momentum, and energy. This basis is then used to derive moment equations using a Galerkin approach for a shifted and scaled Boltzmann-BGK equation, to allow for an accurate and efficient discretization in velocity space with an adaptive grid. The equations are given in compact analytical form and we show that the hyperbolicity properties are similar to the well-known Grad moment model. The model is investigated numerically using the shock tube, the symmetric two-beam test and a stationary shock structure test case. All tests reveal the good approximation properties of the new SME model when the parameters of the spline basis functions are chosen properly. The new SME model outperforms existing moment models and results in a smaller error while using a small number of variables for efficient computations.

[208] 2007.02791

Studying complex manifolds by using groups $G_{n}^{k}$ and $Γ_{n}^{k}$

In the present paper, we study several complex manifolds by using the following idea. First, we construct a certain moduli space and study the fundamental group of this space. This fundamental group is naturally mapped to the groups $G_{n}^{k}$ and $\Gamma_{n}^{k}$. This is the step towards ``complexification'' of the $G_{n}^{k}$ and $\Gamma_{n}^{k}$ approach first developed in \cite{2019arXiv190508049M}.

[209] 2007.02792

Invariant means on Abelian groups capture complementability of Banach spaces in their second duals

Let $X$ be a Banach space. Then $X$ is complemented in the bidual $X^{**}$ if and only if there exists an invariant mean $\ell_\infty(G, X)\to X$ with respect to a free Abelian group $G$ of rank equal to the cardinality of $X^{**}$, and this happens if and only if there exists an invariant mean with respect to the additive group of $X^{**}$. This improves upon previous results due to Bustos Domecq =and the second-named author, where certain idempotent semigroups of cardinality equal to the cardinality of $X^{**}$ were considered, and answers a question of J.M.F. Castillo (private communication). En route to the proof of the main result, we endow the family of all finite-dimensional subspaces of an infinite-dimensional vector space with a structure of a free commutative monoid with the property that the product of two subspaces contains the respective subspaces, which is possibly of interest in itself.

[210] 2007.02799

Interactions between function theory and holomorphic dynamics

This is a survey talk on the ICMS conference "Resonances of complex dynamics", 9-13 July 2018. Three examples which show how dynamical considerations lead to new results in complex function theory are discussed. These examples are: a) a refinement of of the Wiman-Valiron method, b) the proof of Hayman's conjecture on the value distribution of derivatives of meromorphic functions, and c) a new simplified proof of the result of Lin and Wang on the number of critical points of the Green function on a torus.

[211] 2007.02805

The interplay of dormancy and transfer in bacterial populations: Invasion, fixation and coexistence regimes

We investigate the interplay between two fundamental mechanisms of microbial population dynamics and evolution called dormancy and horizontal gene transfer. The corresponding traits come in many guises and are ubiquitous in microbial communities, affecting their dynamics in important ways. Recently, they have each moved (separately) into the focus of stochastic individual-based modelling (Billiard et al. 2016, 2018; Champagnat, M\'el\'eard and Tran, 2019; Blath and T\'obi\'as 2019). Here, we examine their combined effects in a unified model. Indeed, we consider the (idealized) scenario of two sub-populations, respectively carrying 'trait 1' and 'trait 2', where trait 1 individuals are able to switch (under competitive pressure) into a dormant state, and trait 2 individuals are able to execute horizontal gene transfer, turning trait 1 individuals into trait 2 ones, at a rate depending on the frequency of individuals. In the large-population limit, we examine the fate of a single trait $i$ individual (a 'mutant') arriving in a trait $j$ resident population living in equilibrium, for $i,j=1,2, i \neq j$. We provide a complete analysis of the invasion dynamics in all cases where the resident population is individually fit and the initial behaviour of the mutant population is non-critical. We identify parameter regimes for the invasion and fixation of the new trait, stable coexistence of the two traits, and 'founder control' (where the initial resident always dominates, irrespective of its trait). The most striking result is that stable coexistence occurs in certain scenarios even if trait 2 (which benefits from transfer at the cost of trait 1) would be unfit when being merely on its own. In the case of founder control, the limiting dynamical system has an unstable coexistence equilibrium. In all cases, we observe the classical (up to 3) phases of invasion dynamics \`a la Champagnat (2006).

[212] 2007.02814

Multiparametric geometry of numbers and its application to splitting transference theorems

In this paper we consider a multiparametric version of Wolfgang Schmidt and Leonard Summerer's parametric geometry of numbers. We apply this approach in two settings: the first one concerns weighted Diophantine approximation, the second one concerns Diophantine exponents of lattices. In both settings we use multiparametric approach to define intermediate exponents. Then we split the weighted version of Dyson's transference theorem and an analogue of Khintchine's transference theorem for Diophantine exponents of lattices into chains of inequalities between the intermediate exponents.

[213] 2007.02815

Spectral heat content for α-stable processes in C1,1 open sets

In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior, as $t\downarrow 0$, of the spectral heat content $Q^{(\alpha)}_{D}(t)$ for isotropic $\alpha$-stable processes, $\alpha\in [1,2)$, in bounded $C^{1,1}$ open sets $D\subset \R^{d}$, $d\geq 2$. Together with the results from \cite{Val2017} for $d=1$ and \cite{GPS19} for $\alpha\in (0,1)$, the main theorem of this paper establishes the asymptotic behavior of the spectral heat content up to the second term for all $\alpha\in (0,2)$ and $d\geq1$, and resolves the conjecture raised in \cite{Val2017}.

[214] 2007.02819

The number of oriented rational links with a given deficiency number

Let $U_n$ be the set of un-oriented and rational links with crossing number $n$, a precise formula for $|U_n|$ was obtained by Ernst and Sumners in 1987. In this paper, we study the enumeration problem of oriented rational links. Let $\Lambda_n$ be the set of oriented rational links with crossing number $n$ and let $\Lambda_n(d)$ be the set of oriented rational links with crossing number $n$ ($n\ge 2$) and deficiency $d$. In this paper, we derive precise formulas for $|\Lambda_n|$ and $|\Lambda_n(d)|$ for any given $n$ and $d$ and show that $$ \Lambda_n(d)=F_{n-d-1}^{(d)}+\frac{1+(-1)^{nd}}{2}F^{(\lfloor \frac{d}{2}\rfloor)}_{\lfloor \frac{n}{2}\rfloor -\lfloor \frac{d+1}{2}\rfloor}, $$ where $F_n^{(d)}$ is the convolved Fibonacci sequence.

[215] 2007.02831

Symmetries of a two-dimensional continued fraction

In this paper we describe the group of symmetries of a two-dimensional continued fraction. As a multidimensional generalization of continued fractions we consider Klein polyhedra. We distinguish two types of symmetries: the Dirichlet-type ones, that correspond to the multiplication by units of the corresponding number field, and so called palindromic ones. The main result of the paper is a criterion for a two-dimensional continued fraction to have a palindromic symmetry. This criterion is analogous to the criterion for the period of a quadratic irrationality to be symmetric.

[216] 2007.02848

Weak SINDy For Partial Differential Equations

We extend the WSINDy (Weak SINDy) method of sparse recovery introduced previously by the authors (arXiv:2005.04339) to the setting of partial differential equations (PDEs). As in the case of ODE discovery, the weak form replaces pointwise approximation of derivatives with local integrations against test functions and achieves effective machine-precision recovery of weights from noise-free data (i.e. below the tolerance of the simulation scheme) as well as natural robustness to noise without the use of noise filtering. The resulting WSINDy_PDE algorithm uses separable test functions implemented efficiently via convolutions for discovery of PDE models with computational complexity $O(NM)$ from data points with $M = N^{D+1}$ points, or $N$ points in each of $D+1$ dimensions. We demonstrate on several notoriously challenging PDEs the speed and accuracy with which WSINDy_PDE recovers the correct models from datasets with surprisingly large levels noise (often with levels of noise much greater than 10%).

[217] 2007.02859

Weight Distribution of Classical Codes Influences Robust Quantum Metrology

Quantum metrology (QM) is expected to be a prominent use-case of quantum technologies. However, noise easily degrades these quantum probe states, and negates the quantum advantage they would have offered in a noiseless setting. Although quantum error correction (QEC) can help tackle noise, fault-tolerant methods are too resource intensive for near-term use. Hence, a strategy for (near-term) robust QM that is easily adaptable to future QEC-based QM is desirable. Here, we propose such an architecture by studying the performance of quantum probe states that are constructed from $[n,k,d]$ binary block codes of minimum distance $d \geq t+1$. Such states can be interpreted as a logical state of a CSS code whose logical $X$ group is defined by the aforesaid binary code. When a constant, $t$, number of qubits of the quantum probe state are erased, using the quantum Fisher information (QFI) we show that the resultant noisy probe can give an estimate of the magnetic field with a precision that scales inversely with the variances of the weight distributions of the corresponding $2^t$ shortened codes. If $C$ is any code concatenated with inner repetition codes of length linear in $n$, a quantum advantage in QM is possible. Hence, given any CSS code of constant length, concatenation with repetition codes of length linear in $n$ is asymptotically optimal for QM with a constant number of erasure errors. We also explicitly construct an observable that when measured on such noisy code-inspired probe states, yields a precision on the magnetic field strength that also exhibits a quantum advantage in the limit of vanishing magnetic field strength. We emphasize that, despite the use of coding-theoretic methods, our results do not involve syndrome measurements or error correction. We complement our results with examples of probe states constructed from Reed-Muller codes.

[218] 2007.02862

Deterministic coloring of the sequence of complexes

This is the second paper devoted to construction of finitely presented infinite nil semigroup with identity $x^9=0$. This construction answers to the problem of Lev Shevrin and Mark Sapir. In the first part we constructed the sequence of complexes with some set of properties. Namely, all these complexes are uniform elliptic: any two points $A$ and $B$ with distance $d$ can be connected with a system of shortest paths forming a disk of width $ \lambda \cdot D $ for some global constant $ \lambda> 0 $. In the second part of the proof, a finite system of colors with determinism is introduced: for each minimum square that the complex consists of, the color of the three angles determines the color of the fourth corner. The present paper is devoted to the second part of the proof.

[219] 2007.02864

An introduction to geodesics: the shortest distance between two points

We give an accessible introduction and elaboration on the methods used in obtaining a geodesic, which is the curve of shortest length connecting two points lying on the surface of a function. This is found through computing what's known as the variation of a functional, a ``function of functions'' of sorts. Geodesics are of great importance with wide applications, e.g. dictating the path followed by aircraft (great-circles), how light travels through space, assist in the process of mapping a 2D image to a 3D surface, and robot motion planning.

[220] 2007.02868

Graphop Mean-Field Limits for Kuramoto-Type Models

Originally arising in the context of interacting particle systems in statistical physics, dynamical systems and differential equations on networks/graphs have permeated into a broad number of mathematical areas as well as into many applications. One central problem in the field is to find suitable approximations of the dynamics as the number of nodes/vertices tends to infinity, i.e., in the large graph limit. A cornerstone in this context are Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equations (VFPEs) describing a particle density on a mean-field level. For all-to-all coupled systems, it is quite classical to prove the rigorous approximation by VFPEs for many classes of particle systems. For dense graphs converging to graphon limits, one also knows that mean-field approximation holds for certain classes of models, e.g., for the Kuramoto model on graphs. Yet, the space of intermediate density and sparse graphs is clearly extremely relevant. Here we prove that the Kuramoto model can be be approximated in the mean-field limit by far more general graph limits than graphons. In particular, our contributions are as follows. (I) We show, how to introduce operator theory more abstractly into VFPEs by considering graphops. Graphops have recently been proposed as a unifying approach to graph limit theory, and here we show that they can be used for differential equations on graphs. (II) For the Kuramoto model on graphs we rigorously prove that there is a VFPE equation approximating it in the mean-field sense. (III) This mean-field VFPE involves a graphop, and we prove the existence, uniqueness, and continuous graphop-dependence of weak solutions. (IV) On a technical level, our results rely on designing a new suitable metric of graphop convergence and on employing Fourier analysis on compact abelian groups to approximate graphops using summability kernels.

[221] 2007.02869

Symmetric Toeplitz determinants associated with Ma-Minda classes of starlike and convex functions

A starlike function $f$ is characterized by the quantity $zf'(z)/f(z)$ lying in the right half-plane. This paper deals with sharp bounds for certain symmetric Toeplitz determinants whose entries are the coefficients of the functions $f$ for which the quantity $zf'(z)/f(z)$ takes values in certain specific subset in the right half-plane. The results obtained include several new special cases and some known results.

[222] 2007.02877

Sufficient conditions for strong starlikeness

Let $p$ be an analytic function defined on the open unit disc $\mathbb{D}$ with $p(0)=1$ and $0< \alpha \leq 1$. The conditions on complex valued functions $C$, $D$ and $E$ are obtained for $p$ to be subordinate to $((1+z)/(1-z))^{\alpha}$ when $C(z) z^{2}p''(z)+D(z)zp'(z) + E(z)p(z)=0$. Sufficient conditions for confluent (Kummer) hypergeometric function and generalized and normalized Bessel function of the first kind of complex order to be subordinate to $((1+z)/(1-z))^{\alpha}$ are obtained as applications. The conditions on $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are derived for $p$ to be subordinate to $((1+z)/(1-z))^{\alpha}$ when $1+\beta zp'(z)/p^{n}(z)$ with $n=1,2$ is subordinate to $1+4z/3+2z^{2}/3=:\varphi_{CAR}(z)$. Similar problems were investigated for $\RE p(z)>0$ when the functions $p(z)+\beta zp'(z)/p^{n}(z)$ with $n=0,2$ is subordinate to $\varphi_{CAR}(z)$. The condition on $\beta$ is determined for $p$ to be subordinate to $((1+z)/(1-z))^{\alpha}$ when $p(z)+\beta zp'(z)/p^{n}(z)$ with $n=0,1,2$ is subordinate to $((1+z)/(1-z))^{\alpha}$.

[223] 2007.02891

Hamiltonicity of random subgraphs of the hypercube

We study Hamiltonicity in random subgraphs of the hypercube $\mathcal{Q}^n$. Our first main theorem is an optimal hitting time result. Consider the random process which includes the edges of $\mathcal{Q}^n$ according to a uniformly chosen random ordering. Then, with high probability, as soon as the graph produced by this process has minimum degree $2k$, it contains $k$ edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, for any fixed $k\in\mathbb{N}$. Secondly, we obtain a perturbation result: if $H\subseteq\mathcal{Q}^n$ satisfies $\delta(H)\geq\alpha n$ with $\alpha>0$ fixed and we consider a random binomial subgraph $\mathcal{Q}^n_p$ of $\mathcal{Q}^n$ with $p\in(0,1]$ fixed, then with high probability $H\cup\mathcal{Q}^n_p$ contains $k$ edge-disjoint Hamilton cycles, for any fixed $k\in\mathbb{N}$. In particular, both results resolve a long standing conjecture, posed e.g. by Bollob\'as, that the threshold probability for Hamiltonicity in the random binomial subgraph of the hypercube equals $1/2$. Our techniques also show that, with high probability, for all fixed $p\in(0,1]$ the graph $\mathcal{Q}^n_p$ contains an almost spanning cycle. Our methods involve branching processes, the R\"odl nibble, and absorption.

[224] 2007.02892

Uniqueness and nonuniqueness of fronts for degenerate diffusion-convection-reaction equations

We consider a scalar parabolic equation in one spatial dimension. The equation is constituted by a convective term, a reaction term with one or two equilibria, and a positive diffusivity which can however vanish. We prove the existence and several properties of traveling-wave solutions to such an equation. In particular, we provide a sharp estimate for the minimal speed of the profiles; for wavefronts, we improve previous results about their regularity; we discover a new family of semi-wavefronts.

[225] 2007.02900

An interpretation of dependent type theory in a model category of locally cartesian closed categories

Locally cartesian closed (lcc) categories are natural categorical models of extensional dependent type theory. This paper introduces the "gros" semantics in the category of lcc categories: Instead of constructing an interpretation in a given individual lcc category, we show that also the category of all lcc categories can be endowed with the structure of a model of dependent type theory. The original interpretation in an individual lcc category can then be recovered by slicing. As in the original interpretation, we face the issue of coherence: Categorical structure is usually preserved by functors only up to isomorphism, whereas syntactic substitution commutes strictly with all type theoretic structure. Our solution involves a suitable presentation of the higher category of lcc categories as model category. To that end, we construct a model category of lcc sketches, from which we obtain by the formalism of algebraically (co)fibrant objects model categories of strict lcc categories and then algebraically cofibrant strict lcc categories. The latter is our model of dependent type theory.

[226] 2007.02904

On the minmax regret for statistical manifolds: the role of curvature

Model complexity plays an essential role in its selection, namely, by choosing a model that fits the data and is also succinct. Two-part codes and the minimum description length have been successful in delivering procedures to single out the best models, avoiding overfitting. In this work, we pursue this approach and complement it by performing further assumptions in the parameter space. Concretely, we assume that the parameter space is a smooth manifold, and by using tools of Riemannian geometry, we derive a sharper expression than the standard one given by the stochastic complexity, where the scalar curvature of the Fisher information metric plays a dominant role. Furthermore, we derive the minmax regret for general statistical manifolds and apply our results to derive optimal dimensional reduction in the context of principal component analysis.

[227] 2007.02910

A Weighted Randomized Kaczmarz Method for Solving Linear Systems

The Kaczmarz method for solving a linear system $Ax = b$ interprets such a system as a collection of equations $\left\langle a_i, x\right\rangle = b_i$, where $a_i$ is the $i-$th row of $A$, then picks such an equation and corrects $x_{k+1} = x_k + \lambda a_i$ where $\lambda$ is chosen so that the $i-$th equation is satisfied. Convergence rates are difficult to establish. Assuming the rows to be normalized, $\|a_i\|_{\ell^2}=1$, Strohmer \& Vershynin established that if the order of equations is chosen at random, $\mathbb{E}~ \|x_k - x\|_{\ell^2}$ converges exponentially. We prove that if the $i-$th row is selected with likelihood proportional to $\left|\left\langle a_i, x_k \right\rangle - b_i\right|^{p}$, where $0<p<\infty$, then $\mathbb{E}~\|x_k - x\|_{\ell^2}$ converges faster than the purely random method. As $p \rightarrow \infty$, the method de-randomizes and explains, among other things, why the maximal correction method works well. We empirically observe that the method computes approximations of small singular vectors of $A$ as a byproduct.

[228] 2007.02913

Determinantal expressions in multi-species TASEP

Consider an inhomogeneous multi-species TASEP with drift to the left, and define a height function which equals the maximum species number to the left of a lattice site. For each fixed time, the multi-point distributions of these height functions have a determinantal structure. In the homogeneous case and for certain initial conditions, the fluctuations of the height function converge to Gaussian random variables in the large-time limit. The proof utilizes a coupling between the multi-species TASEP and a coalescing random walk, and previously known results for coalescing random walks.

[229] 2007.02916

Quantifying the asymptotic linear convergence speed of Anderson Acceleration applied to ADMM

We discuss a method for estimating the convergence speed of Anderson Acceleration (AA) applied to the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM), for the case where ADMM by itself converges linearly. It has been observed empirically that AA may speed up asymptotic ADMM convergence by a large amount for various applications in data science and machine learning, but there are no known convergence bounds for AA with finite window size that would allow quantification of this improvement in asymptotic convergence speed. We discuss an approach to quantify the improved linear asymptotic convergence factor that is based on computing the optimal asymptotic convergence factor for a stationary version of AA applied to ADMM. Numerical tests show that this allows us to estimate the asymptotic linear convergence factor of AA with finite window size applied to ADMM. The numerical results also explain how and by how much nonlinear acceleration methods like AA can accelerate ADMM, in terms of the spectral properties of the Jacobians of ADMM and stationary AA evaluated at the fixed point.

[230] 2007.02917

Furstenberg systems of Hardy field sequences and applications

We study measure preserving systems, called Furstenberg systems, that model the statistical behavior of sequences defined by smooth functions with at most polynomial growth. Typical examples are the sequences $(n^\frac{3}{2})$, $(n\log{n})$, and $([n^\frac{3}{2}]\alpha)$, $\alpha\in \mathbb{R}\setminus\mathbb{Q}$, where the entries are taken $\mod{1}$. We show that their Furstenberg systems arise from unipotent transformations on finite dimensional tori with some invariant measure that is absolutely continuous with respect to the Haar measure and deduce that they are disjoint from every ergodic system. We also study similar problems for sequences of the form $(g(S^{[n^{\frac{3}{2}}]} y))$, where $S$ is a measure preserving transformation on the probability space $(Y,\nu)$, $g\in L^\infty(\nu)$, and $y$ is a typical point in $Y$. We prove that the corresponding Furstenberg systems are strongly stationary and deduce from this a multiple ergodic theorem and a multiple recurrence result for measure preserving transformations of zero entropy that do not satisfy any commutativity conditions.

[231] 2007.02922

Ranks Based on Fraisse Classes

In this paper, we introduce the notion of K-rank, where K is an algebraically trivial Fraisse class. Roughly speaking, the K-rank of a partial type is the number of independent "copies" of K that can be "coded" inside of the type. We study K-rank for specific examples of K, including linear orders, equivalence relations, and graphs. We discuss the relationship of K-rank to other well-studied ranks in model theory, including dp-rank and op-dimension.

[232] 1912.00752

Deep Learning for Optimal Deployment of UAVs with Visible Light Communications

In this paper, the problem of optimizing the deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with visible light communication (VLC) capabilities is studied. In the studied model, the UAVs can predict the illumination distribution of a given service area and determine the user association with the UAVs to simultaneously provide communications and illumination. However, ambient illumination increases the interference over VLC links while reducing the illumination threshold of the UAVs. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the illumination distribution of the target area for UAV deployment optimization. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem, which jointly optimizes UAV deployment, user association, and power efficiency while meeting the illumination and communication requirements of users. To solve this problem, an algorithm that combines the machine learning framework of gated recurrent units (GRUs) with convolutional neural networks (CNNs) is proposed. Using GRUs and CNNs, the UAVs can model the long-term historical illumination distribution and predict the future illumination distribution. Based on the prediction of illumination distribution, the optimization problem becomes nonconvex and is then solved using a low-complexity, iterative physical relaxation algorithm. The proposed algorithm can find the optimal UAV deployment and user association to minimize the total transmit power. Simulation results using real data from the Earth observations group (EOG) at NOAA/NCEI show that the proposed approach can achieve up to 64.6% reduction in total transmit power compared to a conventional optimal UAV deployment that does not consider the illumination distribution and user association. The results also show that UAVs must hover at areas having strong illumination, thus providing useful guidelines on the deployment of VLC-enabled UAVs.

[233] 2005.02125

Cluster-based dual evolution for multivariate time series: analyzing COVID-19

This paper proposes a cluster-based method to analyze the evolution of multivariate time series and applies this to the COVID-19 pandemic. On each day, we partition countries into clusters according to both their case and death counts. The total number of clusters and individual countries' cluster memberships are algorithmically determined. We study the change in both quantities over time, demonstrating a close similarity in the evolution of cases and deaths. The changing number of clusters of the case counts precedes that of the death counts by 32 days. On the other hand, there is an optimal offset of 16 days with respect to the greatest consistency between cluster groupings, determined by a new method of comparing affinity matrices. With this offset in mind, we identify anomalous countries in the progression from COVID-19 cases to deaths. This analysis can aid in highlighting the most and least significant public policies in minimizing a country's COVID-19 mortality rate.

[234] 2007.01859

Improved flat-back 3D gadgets in origami extrusions completely downward compatible with the conventional pyramid-supported 3D gadgets

An origami extrusion is a folding of a 3D object in the middle of a flat piece of paper, using 3D gadgets which create faces with solid angles. In this paper we focus on 3D gadgets which create a top face parallel to the ambient paper and two side faces sharing a ridge, with two outgoing simple pleats, where a simple pleat is a pair of a mountain fold and a valley fold. There are two such types of 3D gadgets. One is the conventional type of 3D gadgets with a triangular pyramid supporting the two side faces from inside. The other is the newer type of 3D gadgets presented in our previous paper, which improve the conventional ones in several respects: They have flat back sides above the ambient paper and no gap between the side faces; they are less interfering with adjacent gadgets so that we can make the extrusion higher at one time; they are downward compatible with conventional ones if constructible; they have a modified flat-back gadget used for repetition which does not interfere with adjacent gadgets; the angles of their outgoing pleats can be changed under certain conditions. However, there are cases where we can apply the conventional gadgets while we cannot our previous ones. The purpose of this paper is to improve our previous 3D gadgets to be completely downward compatible with the conventional ones, in the sense that any conventional gadget can be replaced by our improved one with the same outgoing pleats, but the converse is not always possible. To be more precise, we prove that for any given conventional 3D gadget there are an infinite number of improved 3D gadgets which are compatible with it, and the conventional 3D gadget can be replaced with any of these 3D gadgets without affecting any other conventional 3D gadget. Also, we see that our improved 3D gadget keep all of the above advantages over the conventional ones.

[235] 2007.01881

Classical/quantum correspondence for pseudo-hermitian systems

In this work, a classical/quantum correspondence for a pseudo-hermitian system with finite energy levels is proposed and analyzed. We show that the presence of a complex external field can be described by a pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian if there is a suitable canonical transformation that links it to a real field. We construct a covariant quantization scheme which maps canonically related pseudoclassical theories to unitarily equivalent quantum realizations, such that there is a unique metric-inducing isometry between the distinct Hilbert spaces. In this setting, the pseudo-hermiticity condition for the operators induces an involution which guarantees the reality of the corresponding symbols, even for the complex field case. We assign a physical meaning for the dynamics in the presence of a complex field by constructing a classical correspondence. As an application of our theoretical framework, we propose a damped version of the Rabi problem and determine the configuration of the parameters of the setup for which damping is completely suppressed.

[236] 2007.01941

Multigrid for Bundle Adjustment

Bundle adjustment is an important global optimization step in many structure from motion pipelines. Performance is dependent on the speed of the linear solver used to compute steps towards the optimum. For large problems, the current state of the art scales superlinearly with the number of cameras in the problem. We investigate the conditioning of global bundle adjustment problems as the number of images increases in different regimes and fundamental consequences in terms of superlinear scaling of the current state of the art methods. We present an unsmoothed aggregation multigrid preconditioner that accurately represents the global modes that underlie poor scaling of existing methods and demonstrate solves of up to 13 times faster than the state of the art on large, challenging problem sets.

[237] 2007.01952

Binary Relations in Mathematical Economics: On the Continuity, Additivity and Monotonicity Postulates in Eilenberg, Villegas and DeGroot

This chapter examines how positivity and order play out in two important questions in mathematical economics, and in so doing, subjects the postulates of continuity, additivity and monotonicity to closer scrutiny. Two sets of results are offered: the first departs from Eilenberg's (1941) necessary and sufficient conditions on the topology under which an anti-symmetric, complete, transitive and continuous binary relation exists on a topologically connected space; and the second, from DeGroot's (1970) result concerning an additivity postulate that ensures a complete binary relation on a {\sigma}-algebra to be transitive. These results are framed in the registers of order, topology, algebra and measure-theory; and also beyond mathematics in economics: the exploitation of Villegas' notion of monotonic continuity by Arrow-Chichilnisky in the context of Savage's theorem in decision theory, and the extension of Diamond's impossibility result in social choice theory by Basu-Mitra. As such, this chapter has a synthetic and expository motivation, and can be read as a plea for inter-disciplinary conversations, connections and collaboration.

[238] 2007.01953

The $P^*$ rule in the stochastic Holt-Lawton model of apparent competition

In $1993$, Holt and Lawton introduced a stochastic model of two host species parasitized by a common parasitoid species. We introduce and analyze a generalization of these stochastic difference equations with any number of host species, stochastically varying parasitism rates, stochastically varying host intrinsic fitnesses, and stochastic immigration of parasitoids. Despite the lack of direct, host density-dependence, we show that this system is dissipative i.e. enters a compact set in finite time for all initial conditions. When there is a single host species, stochastic persistence and extinction of the host is characterized using external Lyapunpov exponents corresponding to the average per-capita growth rates of the host when rare. When a single host persists, say species $i$, a explicit expression is derived for the average density, $P_i^*$, of the parasitoid at the stationary distributions supporting both species. When there are multiple host species, we prove that the host species with the largest $P_i^*$ value stochastically persists, while the other host species are asymptotically driven to extinction. A review of the main mathematical methods used to prove the results and future challenges are given.

[239] 2007.01990

Accelerating Nonconvex Learning via Replica Exchange Langevin Diffusion

Langevin diffusion is a powerful method for nonconvex optimization, which enables the escape from local minima by injecting noise into the gradient. In particular, the temperature parameter controlling the noise level gives rise to a tradeoff between ``global exploration'' and ``local exploitation'', which correspond to high and low temperatures. To attain the advantages of both regimes, we propose to use replica exchange, which swaps between two Langevin diffusions with different temperatures. We theoretically analyze the acceleration effect of replica exchange from two perspectives: (i) the convergence in \chi^2-divergence, and (ii) the large deviation principle. Such an acceleration effect allows us to faster approach the global minima. Furthermore, by discretizing the replica exchange Langevin diffusion, we obtain a discrete-time algorithm. For such an algorithm, we quantify its discretization error in theory and demonstrate its acceleration effect in practice.

[240] 2007.02010

DessiLBI: Exploring Structural Sparsity of Deep Networks via Differential Inclusion Paths

Over-parameterization is ubiquitous nowadays in training neural networks to benefit both optimization in seeking global optima and generalization in reducing prediction error. However, compressive networks are desired in many real world applications and direct training of small networks may be trapped in local optima. In this paper, instead of pruning or distilling over-parameterized models to compressive ones, we propose a new approach based on differential inclusions of inverse scale spaces. Specifically, it generates a family of models from simple to complex ones that couples a pair of parameters to simultaneously train over-parameterized deep models and structural sparsity on weights of fully connected and convolutional layers. Such a differential inclusion scheme has a simple discretization, proposed as Deep structurally splitting Linearized Bregman Iteration (DessiLBI), whose global convergence analysis in deep learning is established that from any initializations, algorithmic iterations converge to a critical point of empirical risks. Experimental evidence shows that DessiLBI achieve comparable and even better performance than the competitive optimizers in exploring the structural sparsity of several widely used backbones on the benchmark datasets. Remarkably, with early stopping, DessiLBI unveils "winning tickets" in early epochs: the effective sparse structure with comparable test accuracy to fully trained over-parameterized models.

[241] 2007.02143

Synthesis of lossless electric circuits based on prescribed Jordan forms

We advance here an algorithm of the synthesis of lossless electric circuits such that their evolution matrices have the prescribed Jordan canonical forms subject to natural constraints. Every synthesized circuit consists of a chain-like sequence of LC-loops coupled by gyrators. All involved capacitances, inductances and gyrator resistances are either positive or negative with values determined by explicit formulas. A circuit must have at least one negative capacitance or inductance for having a nontrivial Jordan block for the relevant matrix.

[242] 2007.02150

Classical and quantum analysis of the parametric oscillator with Morse-like time-dependent frequency

We consider the problem of understanding the basic features displayed by quantum systems described by parametric oscillators whose time-dependent frequency parameter $\omega(t)$ varies during evolution so to display either a non harmonic hole or barrier. To this scope we focus on the case where $\omega(t)^2$ behaves like a Morse potential, up to possible sign reversion and translations in the $(t,\omega^2)$ plane. We derive closed form solution for the time-dependent amplitude of quasi-normal modes, that is known to be the very fundamental dynamical object entering the description of both classical and quantum dynamics of time-dependent quadratic systems. Once such quantity is determined and its significant characteristics highlighted, we provide a more refined insight on the way quantum states evolve by paying attention on the position-momentum Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the statistical aspects implied by second-order correlation functions over number-type states.

[243] 2007.02156

On identifying unobserved heterogeneity in stochastic blockmodel graphs with vertex covariates

Both observed and unobserved vertex heterogeneity can influence block structure in graphs. To assess these effects on block recovery, we present a comparative analysis of two model-based spectral algorithms for clustering vertices in stochastic blockmodel graphs with vertex covariates. The first algorithm directly estimates the induced block assignments by investigating the estimated block connectivity probability matrix including the vertex covariate effect. The second algorithm estimates the vertex covariate effect and then estimates the induced block assignments after accounting for this effect. We employ Chernoff information to analytically compare the algorithms' performance and derive the Chernoff ratio formula for some special models of interest. Analytic results and simulations suggest that, in general, the second algorithm is preferred: we can better estimate the induced block assignments by first estimating the vertex covariate effect. In addition, real data experiments on a diffusion MRI connectome data set indicate that the second algorithm has the advantages of revealing underlying block structure and taking observed vertex heterogeneity into account in real applications. Our findings emphasize the importance of distinguishing between observed and unobserved factors that can affect block structure in graphs.

[244] 2007.02169

Effective behavior of cooperative and nonidentical molecular motors

Analytical formulas for effective drift, diffusivity, run times, and run lengths are derived for an intracellular transport system consisting of a cargo attached to two cooperative but not identical molecular motors (for example, kinesin-1 and kinesin-2) which can each attach and detach from a microtubule. The dynamics of the motor and cargo in each phase are governed by stochastic differential equations, and the switching rates depend on the spatial configuration of the motor and cargo. This system is analyzed in a limit where the detached motors have faster dynamics than the cargo, which in turn has faster dynamics than the attached motors. The attachment and detachment rates are also taken to be slow relative to the spatial dynamics. Through an application of iterated stochastic averaging to this system, and the use of renewal-reward theory to stitch together the progress within each switching phase, we obtain explicit analytical expressions for the effective drift, diffusivity, and processivity of the motor-cargo system. Our approach accounts in particular for jumps in motor-cargo position that occur during attachment and detachment events, as the cargo tracking variable makes a rapid adjustment due to the averaged fast scales. The asymptotic formulas are in generally good agreement with direct stochastic simulations of the detailed model based on experimental parameters for various pairings of kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 under assisting, hindering, or no load.

[245] 2007.02229

Bilayer graphene coherent states

In this paper we consider the interaction of electrons in bilayer graphene with a constant homogeneous magnetic field which is orthogonal to the bilayer surface. Departing from the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian, the corresponding coherent states will be constructed. For doing this, first we will determine appropriate creation and annihilation operators in order to subsequently derive the coherent states as eigenstates of the annihilation operator with complex eigenvalue. Then, we will calculate some physical quantities, as the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, the probabilities and current density as well as the mean energy value. Finally, we will explore the time evolution for these states and we will compare it with the corresponding evolution for monolayer graphene coherent states.

[246] 2007.02296

Painlevé property, local and nonlocal symmetries and symmetry reductions for a (2+1)-dimensional integrable KdV equation

The Painlev\'e property for a (2+1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) extension, the combined KP3 (Kadomtsev- Petviashvili) and KP4 (cKP3-4) is proved by using Kruskal's simplification. The truncated Painlev\'e expansion is used to find the Schwartz form, the B\"acklund/Levi transformations and the residual nonlocal symmetry. The residual symmetry is localized to find its finite B\"acklund transformation. The local point symmetries of the model constitute a centerless Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra. The local point symmetries are used to find the related group invariant reductions including a new Lax integrable model with a fourth order spectral problem. The finite transformation theorem or the Lie point symmetry group is obtained by using a direct method.

[247] 2007.02323

Numerical Scheme for Game Options in Local Volatility models

In this paper we introduce a numerical method for optimal stopping in the framework of one dimensional diffusion. We use the Skorokhod embedding in order to construct recombining tree approximations for diffusions with general coefficients. This technique allows us to determine convergence rates and construct nearly optimal stopping times which are optimal at the same rate. Finally, we demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme with several examples of game options.

[248] 2007.02392

Efficient Parameter Estimation of Truncated Boolean Product Distributions

We study the problem of estimating the parameters of a Boolean product distribution in $d$ dimensions, when the samples are truncated by a set $S \subset \{0, 1\}^d$ accessible through a membership oracle. This is the first time that the computational and statistical complexity of learning from truncated samples is considered in a discrete setting. We introduce a natural notion of fatness of the truncation set $S$, under which truncated samples reveal enough information about the true distribution. We show that if the truncation set is sufficiently fat, samples from the true distribution can be generated from truncated samples. A stunning consequence is that virtually any statistical task (e.g., learning in total variation distance, parameter estimation, uniformity or identity testing) that can be performed efficiently for Boolean product distributions, can also be performed from truncated samples, with a small increase in sample complexity. We generalize our approach to ranking distributions over $d$ alternatives, where we show how fatness implies efficient parameter estimation of Mallows models from truncated samples. Exploring the limits of learning discrete models from truncated samples, we identify three natural conditions that are necessary for efficient identifiability: (i) the truncation set $S$ should be rich enough; (ii) $S$ should be accessible through membership queries; and (iii) the truncation by $S$ should leave enough randomness in all directions. By carefully adapting the Stochastic Gradient Descent approach of (Daskalakis et al., FOCS 2018), we show that these conditions are also sufficient for efficient learning of truncated Boolean product distributions.

[249] 2007.02413

Elimination distance to bounded degree on planar graphs

We study the graph parameter elimination distance to bounded degree, which was introduced by Bulian and Dawar in their study of the parameterized complexity of the graph isomorphism problem. We prove that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable on planar graphs, that is, there exists an algorithm that given a planar graph $G$ and integers $d$ and $k$ decides in time $f(k,d)\cdot n^c$ for a computable function~$f$ and constant $c$ whether the elimination distance of $G$ to the class of degree $d$ graphs is at most $k$.

[250] 2007.02449

Momentum Accelerates Evolutionary Dynamics

We combine momentum from machine learning with evolutionary dynamics, where momentum can be viewed as a simple mechanism of intergenerational memory. Using information divergences as Lyapunov functions, we show that momentum accelerates the convergence of evolutionary dynamics including the replicator equation and Euclidean gradient descent on populations. When evolutionarily stable states are present, these methods prove convergence for small learning rates or small momentum, and yield an analytic determination of the relative decrease in time to converge that agrees well with computations. The main results apply even when the evolutionary dynamic is not a gradient flow. We also show that momentum can alter the convergence properties of these dynamics, for example by breaking the cycling associated to the rock-paper-scissors landscape, leading to either convergence to the ordinarily non-absorbing equilibrium, or divergence, depending on the value and mechanism of momentum.

[251] 2007.02483

Star product representation of coherent state path integrals

In this paper, we determine the star product representation of coherent path integrals. By employing the properties of generalized delta functions with complex arguments, the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function corresponding to a non-diagonal density operator is obtained. Then, we compute the Husimi-Kano Q-representation of the time evolution operator in terms of the normal star product. Finally, the optical equivalence theorem allows us to express the coherent state path integral as a star exponential of the Hamiltonian function for the normal product.

[252] 2007.02495

Exact solutions of directed walk models of polymeric zipping with pulling in two and three dimensions

We provide the exact solution of several variants of simple models of the zipping transition of two bound polymers, such as occurs in DNA/RNA, in two and three dimensions using pairs of directed lattice paths. In three dimensions the solutions are written in terms of complete elliptic integrals. We analyse the phase transition associated with each model giving the scaling of the partition function. We also extend the models to include a pulling force between one end of the pair of paths, which competes with the attractive monomer-monomer interactions between the polymers.

[253] 2007.02509

On the weight and density bounds of polynomial threshold functions

In this report, we show that all n-variable Boolean function can be represented as polynomial threshold functions (PTF) with at most $0.75 \times 2^n$ non-zero integer coefficients and give an upper bound on the absolute value of these coefficients. To our knowledge this provides the best known bound on both the PTF density (number of monomials) and weight (sum of the coefficient magnitudes) of general Boolean functions. The special case of Bent functions is also analyzed and shown that any n-variable Bent function can be represented with integer coefficients less than $2^n$ while also obeying the aforementioned density bound. Finally, sparse Boolean functions, which are almost constant except for $m << 2^n$ number of variable assignments, are shown to have small weight PTFs with density at most $m+2^{n-1}$.

[254] 2007.02514

Treatment effect bias from sample snooping: blinding outcomes is neither necessary nor sufficient

Popular guidance on observational data analysis states that outcomes should be blinded when determining matching criteria or propensity scores. Such a blinding is informally said to maintain the "objectivity" of the analysis (Rubin et al., 2008). To explore these issues, we begin by proposing a definition of objectivity based on the worst-case bias that can occur without blinding, which we call "added variable bias." This bias is indeed severe, and can diverge towards infinity as the sample size grows. However, we also show that bias of the same order of magnitude can occur even without a delineated, blinded design stage, so long as some prior knowledge is available that links covariates to outcomes. Finally, we outline an alternative sample partitioning procedure for estimating the average treatment effect on the controls, or the average treatment effect on the treated, while avoiding added variable bias. This procedure allows for the analysis to not be fully prespecified; uses all of the the outcome data from all partitions in the final analysis step; and does not require blinding. Together, these results illustrate that outcome blinding is neither necessary nor sufficient for preventing added variable bias, and should not be considered a requirement when evaluating novel causal inference methods.

[255] 2007.02541

Second-order matrix extension of Beta distribution and its high order moments

In this article, we consider a second-order matrix extension of Beta distribution. That is a distribution on second-order random matrix. We will give the analytical formula for its high order moments, which is superior over general numerical integration method.

[256] 2007.02605

Geometric variational approach to the dynamics of porous media filled with incompressible fluid

We derive the equations of motion for the dynamics of a porous media filled with an incompressible fluid. We use a variational approach with a Lagrangian written as the sum of terms representing the kinetic and potential energy of the elastic matrix, and the kinetic energy of the fluid, coupled through the constraint of incompressibility. As an illustration of the method, the equations of motion for both the elastic matrix and the fluid are derived in the spatial (Eulerian) frame. Such an approach is of relevance e.g. for biological problems, such as sponges in water, where the elastic porous media is highly flexible and the motion of the fluid has a 'primary' role in the motion of the whole system. We then analyze the linearized equations of motion describing the propagation of waves through the media. In particular, we derive the propagation of S-waves and P-waves in an isotropic media. We also analyze the stability criteria for the wave equations and show that they are equivalent to the physicality conditions of the elastic matrix. Finally, we show that the celebrated Biot's equations for waves in porous media are obtained for certain values of parameters in our models.

[257] 2007.02717

Joint separable numerical range and bipartite entanglement witness

In 2017 an idea considering a pair of Hermitian operators of product form was published, which is called ultrafine entanglement witnessing. In 2018 some rigorous results were given. Here we improve their work. First we point this idea can be directly derived from an earlier concept named joint separable numerical range and explain how it works as a series of witnesses. Second by a simple method we present a sufficient condition for an effective pair. Finally we prove this condition is necessary for optimization.

[258] 2007.02727

An ES-BGK model for vibrational polyatomic gases

We propose an extension of the Ellipsoidal-Statistical BGK model to account for discrete levels of vibrational energy in a rarefied polyatomic gas. This model satisfies an H-theorem and contains parameters that allow to fit almost arbitrary values for the Prandtl number and the relaxation times of rotational and vibrational energies. With the reduced distribution technique , this model can be reduced to a three distribution system that could be used to simulate polyatomic gases with rotational and vibrational energy for a computational cost close to that of a simple monoatomic gas.

[259] 2007.02730

Refined Analysis of the Asymptotic Complexity of the Number Field Sieve

The classical heuristic complexity of the Number Field Sieve (NFS) is the solution of an optimization problem that involves an unknown function, usually noted $o(1)$ and called $\xi(N)$ throughout this paper, which tends to zero as the entry $N$ grows. The aim of this paper is to find optimal asymptotic choices of the parameters of NFS as $N$ grows, in order to minimize its heuristic asymptotic computational cost. This amounts to minimizing a function of the parameters of NFS bound together by a non-linear constraint. We provide precise asymptotic estimates of the minimizers of this optimization problem, which yield refined formulas for the asymptotic complexity of NFS. One of the main outcomes of this analysis is that $\xi(N)$ has a very slow rate of convergence: We prove that it is equivalent to $4{\log}{\log}{\log}\,N/(3{\log}{\log}\,N)$. Moreover, $\xi(N)$ has an unpredictable behavior for practical estimates of the complexity. Indeed, we provide an asymptotic series expansion of $\xi$ and numerical experiments indicate that this series starts converging only for $N>\exp(\exp(25))$, far beyond the practical range of NFS. This raises doubts on the relevance of NFS running time estimates that are based on setting $\xi=0$ in the asymptotic formula.

[260] 2007.02755

On $B_1$-EPG and EPT graphs

This research contains as a main result the prove that every Chordal $B_1$-EPG graph is simultaneously in the graph classes VPT and EPT. In addition, we describe structures that must be present in any $B_1$-EPG graph which does not admit a Helly-$B_1$-EPG representation. In particular, this paper presents some features of non-trivial families of graphs properly contained in Helly-$B_1$ EPG, namely Bipartite, Block, Cactus and Line of Bipartite graphs.

[261] 2007.02782

Synchronous linear constraint system games

Synchronous linear constraint system games are nonlocal games that verify whether or not two players share a solution to a given system of equations. Two algebraic objects associated to these games encode information about the existence of perfect strategies. They are called the game algebra and the solution group. Here we show that these objects are essentially the same, i.e., that the game algebra is a suitable quotient of the group algebra of the solution group. We also demonstrate that linear constraint system games are equivalent to graph isomorphism games on a pair of graphs parameterized by the linear system.

[262] 2007.02834

Non-separating spanning trees and out-branchings in digraphsof independence number 2

A subgraph H= (V, F) of a graph G= (V,E) is non-separating if G-F, that is, the graph obtained from G by deleting the edges in F, is connected. Analogously we say that a subdigraph X= (V,B) of a digraph D= (V,A) is non-separating if D-B is strongly connected. We study non-separating spanning trees and out-branchings in digraphs of independence number 2. Our main results are that every 2-arc-strong digraph D of independence number alpha(D) = 2 and minimum in-degree at least 5 and every 2-arc-strong oriented graph with alpha(D) = 2 and minimum in-degree at least 3 has a non-separating out-branching and minimum in-degree 2 is not enough. We also prove a number of other results, including that every 2-arc-strong digraph D with alpha(D)<=2 and at least 14 vertices has a non-separating spanning tree and that every graph G with delta(G)>=4 and alpha(G) = 2 has a non-separating hamiltonian path.

[263] 2007.02857

Stochastic Stein Discrepancies

Stein discrepancies (SDs) monitor convergence and non-convergence in approximate inference when exact integration and sampling are intractable. However, the computation of a Stein discrepancy can be prohibitive if the Stein operator - often a sum over likelihood terms or potentials - is expensive to evaluate. To address this deficiency, we show that stochastic Stein discrepancies (SSDs) based on subsampled approximations of the Stein operator inherit the convergence control properties of standard SDs with probability 1. In our experiments with biased Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) hyperparameter tuning, approximate MCMC sampler selection, and stochastic Stein variational gradient descent, SSDs deliver comparable inferences to standard SDs with orders of magnitude fewer likelihood evaluations.

[264] 2007.02874

Fuzzy Integral = Contextual Linear Order Statistic

The fuzzy integral is a powerful parametric nonlin-ear function with utility in a wide range of applications, from information fusion to classification, regression, decision making,interpolation, metrics, morphology, and beyond. While the fuzzy integral is in general a nonlinear operator, herein we show that it can be represented by a set of contextual linear order statistics(LOS). These operators can be obtained via sampling the fuzzy measure and clustering is used to produce a partitioning of the underlying space of linear convex sums. Benefits of our approach include scalability, improved integral/measure acquisition, generalizability, and explainable/interpretable models. Our methods are both demonstrated on controlled synthetic experiments, and also analyzed and validated with real-world benchmark data sets.

[265] 2007.02896

Multi-Objective DNN-based Precoder for MIMO Communications

This paper introduces a unified deep neural network (DNN)-based precoder for two-user multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) networks with five objectives: data transmission, energy harvesting, simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, physical layer (PHY) security, and multicasting. First, a rotation-based precoding is developed to solve the above problems independently. Rotation-based precoding is new precoding and power allocation that beats existing solutions in PHY security and multicasting and is reliable in different antenna settings. Next, a DNN-based precoder is designed to unify the solution for all objectives. The proposed DNN concurrently learns the solutions given by conventional methods, i.e., analytical or rotation-based solutions. A binary vector is designed as an input feature to distinguish the objectives. Numerical results demonstrate that, compared to the conventional solutions, the proposed DNN-based precoder reduces on-the-fly computational complexity more than an order of magnitude while reaching near-optimal performance (99.45\% of the averaged optimal solutions). The new precoder is also more robust to the variations of the numbers of antennas at the receivers.