We define a large new class of conformal primary operators in the ensemble of Brownian loops in two dimensions known as the ``Brownian loop soup,'' and compute their correlation functions analytically and in closed form. The loop soup is a conformally invariant statistical ensemble with central charge $c = 2 \lambda$, where $\lambda > 0$ is the intensity of the soup. Previous work identified exponentials of the layering operator $e^{i \beta N(z)}$ as primary operators. Each Brownian loop was assigned $\pm 1$ randomly, and $N(z)$ was defined to be the sum of these numbers over all loops that encircle the point $z$. These exponential operators then have conformal dimension ${\frac{\lambda}{10}}(1 - \cos \beta)$. Here we generalize this procedure by assigning a more general random value to each loop. The operator $e^{i \beta N(z)}$ remains primary with conformal dimension $\frac {\lambda}{10}(1 - \phi(\beta))$, where $\phi(\beta)$ is the characteristic function of the probability distribution used to assign random values to each loop. Using recent results we compute in closed form the exact two-point functions in the upper half-plane and four-point functions in the full plane of this very general class of operators. These correlation functions depend analytically on the parameters $\lambda, \beta_i, z_i$, and on the characteristic function $\phi(\beta)$. They satisfy the conformal Ward identities and are crossing symmetric. As in previous work, the conformal block expansion of the four-point function reveals the existence of additional and as-yet uncharacterized conformal primary operators.

The paper proves existence of renormalized solutions for a class of velocity-discrete coplanar stationary Boltzmann equations with given indata. The proof is based on the construction of a sequence of approximations with L1 compactness for an integrated collision frequency and gain term. The compactness is obtained using the Kolmogorov Riesz theorem.

It is declared that the aim of simplifying representations of coefficients of power series of classical statistical mechanics is to simplify a process of obtaining estimates of the coefficients using their simplified representations. The aim of the article is: to formulate criteria for the complexity (from the above point of view) of representations of coefficients of the power series of classical statistical mechanics and to demonstrate their application by examples of comparing the Ree-Hoover representations of virial coefficients (briefly -- the RH representations) with such representations of power series coefficients that are based on the conception of the frame classification of labeled graphs (the abbreviation -- FC). To solve these problems, mathematical notions were introduced (such as a basic product, a basic integral, a basic linear combination, a basic linear combination with coefficients of insignificant complexity(the abbreviation -- BLC with CIC) and the classification of representations of the coefficients of power series of classical statistical mechanics is proposed. In the classification, the class of BLC's with CIC is the most important. It includes all the above representations of the coefficients of power series of classical statistical mechanics. Three criteria are formulated for estimate the comparative complexity of BLC's with CIC. These criteria are ordered by their accuracy. Based on each of these criteria, a criterion for the comparative complexity of finite sets of BLC's with CIC is constructed. The constructed criteria are ordered by their accuracy. The application of all the constructed criteria is demonstrated by examples of comparing RH representations with the representations of the power series coefficients based on the concept FC. The obtained results are presented in the tables and commented.

We consider the operator $${\cal H} = {\cal H}' -\frac{\partial^2\ }{\partial x_d^2} \quad\text{on}\quad\omega\times\mathbb{R}$$ subject to the Dirichlet or Robin condition, where a domain $\omega\subseteq\mathbb{R}^{d-1}$ is bounded or unbounded. The symbol ${\cal H}'$ stands for a second order self-adjoint differential operator on $\omega$ such that the spectrum of the operator ${\cal H}'$ contains several discrete eigenvalues $\Lambda_{j}$, $j=1,\ldots, m$. These eigenvalues are thresholds in the essential spectrum of the operator ${\cal H}$. We study how these thresholds bifurcate once we add a small localized perturbation $\epsilon{\cal L}(\epsilon)$ to the operator ${\cal H}$, where $\epsilon$ is a small positive parameter and ${\cal L}(\epsilon)$ is an abstract, not necessarily symmetric operator. We show that these thresholds bifurcate into eigenvalues and resonances of the operator ${\cal H}$ in the vicinity of $\Lambda_j$ for sufficiently small $\epsilon$. We prove effective simple conditions determining the existence of these resonances and eigenvalues and find the leading terms of their asymptotic expansions. Our analysis applies to generic non-self-adjoint perturbations and, in particular, to perturbations characterized by the parity-time ($PT$) symmetry. Potential applications of our result embrace a broad class of physical systems governed by dispersive or diffractive effects. We use our findings to develop a scheme for a controllable generation of non-Hermitian optical states with normalizable power and real part of the complex-valued propagation constant lying in the continuum. The corresponding eigenfunctions can be interpreted as an optical generalization of bound states in the continuum. For a particular example, the persistence of asymptotic expansions is confirmed with direct numerical evaluation of the perturbed spectrum.

We study emergent behaviors of Cucker-Smale(CS) flocks on the hyperboloid $\mathbb{H}^d$ in any dimensions. In a recent work \cite{H-H-K-K-M}, a first-order aggregation model on the hyperboloid was proposed and its emergent dynamics was analyzed in terms of initial configuration and system parameters. In this paper, we are interested in the second-order modeling of Cucker-Smale flocks on the hyperboloid. For this, we derive our second-order model from the abstract CS model on complete and smooth Riemannian manifolds by explicitly calculating the geodesic and parallel transport. Velocity alignment has been shown by combining general {velocity alignment estimates} for the abstract CS model on manifolds and verifications of a priori estimate of second derivative of energy functional. For the two-dimensional case $\mathbb{H}^2$, similar to the recent result in \cite{A-H-S}, asymptotic flocking admits only two types of asymptotic scenarios, either convergence to a rest state or a state lying on the same plane (coplanar state). We also provide several numerical simulations to illustrate an aforementioned dichotomy on the asymptotic dynamics of the hyperboloid CS model on $\mathbb{H}^2$.

We give a solution of the Inverse Scattering Problem for integrable systems with a finite number degrees of freedom, admitting a Lax representation with spectral parameter on a Riemann surface. While conventional approaches deal with the systems with $GL(n)$ symmetry, we focus on the problems arising in the case of symmetry with respect to a semi-simple group. Our main results apply to Hitchin systems of the types $B_n$, $C_n$, $D_n$.

In this work, a classical/quantum correspondence for a pseudo-hermitian system with finite energy levels is proposed and analyzed. We show that the presence of a complex external field can be described by a pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian if there is a suitable canonical transformation that links it to a real field. We construct a covariant quantization scheme which maps canonically related pseudoclassical theories to unitarily equivalent quantum realizations, such that there is a unique metric-inducing isometry between the distinct Hilbert spaces. In this setting, the pseudo-hermiticity condition for the operators induces an involution which guarantees the reality of the corresponding symbols, even for the complex field case. We assign a physical meaning for the dynamics in the presence of a complex field by constructing a classical correspondence. As an application of our theoretical framework, we propose a damped version of the Rabi problem and determine the configuration of the parameters of the setup for which damping is completely suppressed.

We establish an asymptotic formula for the weighted quantum variance of dihedral Maass forms on $\Gamma_0(D) \backslash \mathbb H$ in the large eigenvalue limit, for certain fixed $D$. As predicted in the physics literature, the resulting quadratic form is related to the classical variance of the geodesic flow on $\Gamma_0(D) \backslash \mathbb H$, but also includes factors that are sensitive to underlying arithmetic of the number field $\mathbb Q(\sqrt{D})$.

We consider sets in $\mathbb R^N$ which minimise, for fixed volume, the sum of the perimeter and a non-local term given by the double integral of a kernel $g:\mathbb R^N\setminus\{0\}\to \mathbb R^+$. We establish some general existence and regularity results for minimisers. In the two-dimensional case we show that balls are the unique minimisers if the perimeter-dominated regime, for a wide class of functions $g$.

We advance here an algorithm of the synthesis of lossless electric circuits such that their evolution matrices have the prescribed Jordan canonical forms subject to natural constraints. Every synthesized circuit consists of a chain-like sequence of LC-loops coupled by gyrators. All involved capacitances, inductances and gyrator resistances are either positive or negative with values determined by explicit formulas. A circuit must have at least one negative capacitance or inductance for having a nontrivial Jordan block for the relevant matrix.

We consider the problem of understanding the basic features displayed by quantum systems described by parametric oscillators whose time-dependent frequency parameter $\omega(t)$ varies during evolution so to display either a non harmonic hole or barrier. To this scope we focus on the case where $\omega(t)^2$ behaves like a Morse potential, up to possible sign reversion and translations in the $(t,\omega^2)$ plane. We derive closed form solution for the time-dependent amplitude of quasi-normal modes, that is known to be the very fundamental dynamical object entering the description of both classical and quantum dynamics of time-dependent quadratic systems. Once such quantity is determined and its significant characteristics highlighted, we provide a more refined insight on the way quantum states evolve by paying attention on the position-momentum Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the statistical aspects implied by second-order correlation functions over number-type states.

In this paper we consider the interaction of electrons in bilayer graphene with a constant homogeneous magnetic field which is orthogonal to the bilayer surface. Departing from the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian, the corresponding coherent states will be constructed. For doing this, first we will determine appropriate creation and annihilation operators in order to subsequently derive the coherent states as eigenstates of the annihilation operator with complex eigenvalue. Then, we will calculate some physical quantities, as the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, the probabilities and current density as well as the mean energy value. Finally, we will explore the time evolution for these states and we will compare it with the corresponding evolution for monolayer graphene coherent states.

The Painlev\'e property for a (2+1)-dimensional Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) extension, the combined KP3 (Kadomtsev- Petviashvili) and KP4 (cKP3-4) is proved by using Kruskal's simplification. The truncated Painlev\'e expansion is used to find the Schwartz form, the B\"acklund/Levi transformations and the residual nonlocal symmetry. The residual symmetry is localized to find its finite B\"acklund transformation. The local point symmetries of the model constitute a centerless Kac-Moody-Virasoro algebra. The local point symmetries are used to find the related group invariant reductions including a new Lax integrable model with a fourth order spectral problem. The finite transformation theorem or the Lie point symmetry group is obtained by using a direct method.

In this article we study stability aspects for the determination of time-dependent vector and scalar potentials in relativistic Schr\"odinger equation from partial knowledge of boundary measurements. For space dimensions strictly greater than 2 we obtain log-log stability estimates for the determination of vector potentials (modulo gauge equivalence) and log-log-log stability estimates for the determination of scalar potentials from partial boundary data assuming suitable a-priori bounds on these potentials.

In this paper, we determine the star product representation of coherent path integrals. By employing the properties of generalized delta functions with complex arguments, the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function corresponding to a non-diagonal density operator is obtained. Then, we compute the Husimi-Kano Q-representation of the time evolution operator in terms of the normal star product. Finally, the optical equivalence theorem allows us to express the coherent state path integral as a star exponential of the Hamiltonian function for the normal product.

We provide the exact solution of several variants of simple models of the zipping transition of two bound polymers, such as occurs in DNA/RNA, in two and three dimensions using pairs of directed lattice paths. In three dimensions the solutions are written in terms of complete elliptic integrals. We analyse the phase transition associated with each model giving the scaling of the partition function. We also extend the models to include a pulling force between one end of the pair of paths, which competes with the attractive monomer-monomer interactions between the polymers.

In this paper, we construct for higher twists that arise from cohomotopy classes, the Chern character in higher twisted K-theory, that maps into higher twisted cohomology. We show that it gives rise to an isomorphism between higher twisted K-theory and higher twisted cohomology over the reals. Finally we compute spherical T-duality in higher twisted K-theory and higher twisted cohomology in very general cases.

In this paper, the Cauchy problem for a Friedrichs system on a globally hyperbolic manifold with a timelike boundary is investigated. By imposing admissible boundary conditions, the existence and the uniqueness of strong solutions are shown. Furthermore, if the Friedrichs system is hyperbolic, the Cauchy problem is proved to be well-posed in the sense of Hadamard. Finally, examples of Friedrichs systems with admissible boundary conditions are provided. Keywords: symmetric hyperbolic systems, symmetric positive systems, admissible boundary conditions, Dirac operator, normally hyperbolic operator, Klein-Gordon operator, heat operator, reaction-diffusion operator, globally hyperbolic manifolds with timelike boundary.

We propose an extension of the Ellipsoidal-Statistical BGK model to account for discrete levels of vibrational energy in a rarefied polyatomic gas. This model satisfies an H-theorem and contains parameters that allow to fit almost arbitrary values for the Prandtl number and the relaxation times of rotational and vibrational energies. With the reduced distribution technique , this model can be reduced to a three distribution system that could be used to simulate polyatomic gases with rotational and vibrational energy for a computational cost close to that of a simple monoatomic gas.