New articles on Mathematical Physics

[1] 2402.18961

A new interacting Fock space, the Quon algebra with operator parameter and its Wick's theorem

Motivated by the creation-annihilation operators in a newly defined interacting Fock space, we initiate the introduction and the study of the Quon algebra. This algebra serves as an extension of the conventional quon algebra, where the traditional constant parameter $q$ found in the $q$--commutation relation is replaced by a specific operator. Importantly, our investigation aims to establish Wick's theorem in the Quon algebra, offering valuable insights into its properties and applications.

[2] 2402.18983

Free energy expansions of a conditional GinUE and large deviations of the smallest eigenvalue of the LUE

We consider a planar Coulomb gas ensemble of size $N$ with the inverse temperature $\beta=2$ and external potential $Q(z)=|z|^2-2c \log|z-a|$, where $c>0$ and $a \in \mathbb{C}$. Equivalently, this model can be realised as $N$ eigenvalues of the complex Ginibre matrix of size $(c+1) N \times (c+1) N$ conditioned to have deterministic eigenvalue $a$ with multiplicity $cN$. Depending on the values of $c$ and $a$, the droplet reveals a phase transition: it is doubly connected in the post-critical regime and simply connected in the pre-critical regime. In both regimes, we derive precise large-$N$ expansions of the free energy up to the $O(1)$ term, providing a non-radially symmetric example that confirms the Zabrodin-Wiegmann conjecture made for general planar Coulomb gas ensembles. As a consequence, our results provide asymptotic behaviours of moments of the characteristic polynomial of the complex Ginibre matrix, where the powers are of order $O(N)$. Furthermore, by combining with a duality formula, we obtain precise large deviation probabilities of the smallest eigenvalue of the Laguerre unitary ensemble. Our proof is based on a refined Riemann-Hilbert analysis for planar orthogonal polynomials using the partial Schlesinger transform.

[3] 2402.19050

The Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model: conditional symmetries, exact solutions and their properties

We study a simplification of the well-known Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model, which consists of two nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with cross-diffusion. A complete set of Q-conditional (nonclassical) symmetries is derived using an algorithm adopted for the construction of conditional symmetries. The symmetries obtained are applied for finding a wide range of exact solutions, possible biological interpretation of some of which being presented. Moreover, an alternative application of the simplified model related to the polymerisation process is suggested and exact solutions are found in this case as well.

[4] 2402.19098

Symmetries and exact solutions of the diffusive Holling-Tanner prey-predator model

We consider the classical Holling-Tanner model extended on 1D space by introducing the diffusion term. Making a reasonable simplification, the diffusive Holling-Tanner system is studied by means of symmetry based methods. Lie and Q-conditional (nonclassical) symmetries are identified. The symmetries obtained are applied for finding a wide range of exact solutions, their properties are studied and a possible biological interpretation is proposed. 3D plots of the most interesting solutions are drown as well.

[5] 2402.19201

Boom and bust cycles due to pseudospectra of matrices with unimodular spectra

We discuss dynamics obtained by increasing powers of non-normal matrices that are roots of the identity, and therefore have all eigenvalues on the unit circle. Naively, one would expect that the expectation value of such powers cannot grow as one increases the power. We demonstrate that, rather counterintuitively, a completely opposite behavior is possible. In the limit of infinitely large matrices one can have an exponential growth. For finite matrices this exponential growth is a part of repeating cycles of exponential growths followed by exponential decays. The effect can occur if the spectrum is different than the pseudospectrum, with the exponential growth rate being given by the pseudospectrum. We show that this effect appears in a class of transfer matrices appearing in studies of two-dimensional non-interacting systems, for a matrix describing the Ehrenfest urn, as well as in previously observed purity dynamics in a staircase random circuit.

[6] 2402.19219

Transition of the semiclassical resonance widths across a tangential crossing energy-level

We consider a 1D $2\times 2$ matrix-valued operator \eqref{System0} with two semiclassical Schr\"odinger operators on the diagonal entries and small interactions on the off-diagonal ones. When the two potentials cross at a turning point with contact order $n$, the corresponding two classical trajectories at the crossing level intersect at one point in the phase space with contact order $2n$. We compute the transfer matrix at this point between the incoming and outgoing microlocal solutions and apply it to the semiclassical distribution of resonances at the energy crossing level. It is described in terms of a generalized Airy function. This result generalizes \cite{FMW1} to the tangential crossing and \cite{AFH1} to the crossing at a turning point.

[7] 2402.19235

Measurement Schemes in AQFT, Contextuality and the Wigner's Friend Gedankenexperiment

Measurements have historically presented a problem for the consistent description of quantum theories, be it in non-relativistic quantum mechanics or in quantum field theory. Drawing on a recent surge of interest in the description of measurements in Algebraic Quantum Field theory, it was decided that this dissertation would be focused on trying to close the gap between the description of measurements proposed by K. Hepp in the 70's, considering decoherence of states in quasilocal algebras and the new framework of generally covariant measurement schemes proposed recently by C. Fewster and R. Verch. Another recent result that we shall also consider is the Frauchinger-Renner Gedankenexperiment, that has taken inspiration on Hepp's article about decoherence based measurements to arrive at a no-go result about the consistency of quantum descriptions of systems containing rational agents, we shall seek to provide a closure for the interpretation of this result. In doing so we naturally arrive at the study of the contextual properties of measurement setups.

[8] 2301.06836

Anisotropic solutions for $R^2$ gravity model with a scalar field

We study anisotropic solutions for the pure $R^2$ gravity model with a scalar field in the Bianchi I metric. The evolution equations have a singularity at zero value of the Ricci scalar $R$ for anisotropic solutions, whereas these equations are smooth for isotropic solutions. So, there is no anisotropic solution with the Ricci scalar smoothly changing its sign during evolution. We have found anisotropic solutions using the conformal transformation of the metric and the Einstein frame. The general solution in the Einstein frame has been found explicitly. The corresponding solution in the Jordan frame has been constructed in quadratures.

[9] 2402.18637

Infrared finite scattering theory: Amplitudes and soft theorems

Any non-trivial scattering with massless fields in four spacetime dimensions will generically produce an out-state with memory. Scattering with any massless fields violates the standard assumption of asymptotic completeness -- that all "in" and "out" states lie in the standard (zero memory) Fock space -- and therefore leads to infrared divergences in the standard $S$-matrix amplitudes. We define an infrared finite scattering theory valid for general quantum field theories and quantum gravity. The (infrared finite) "superscattering" map $\$$ is defined as a map between "in" and "out" states which does not require any a priori choice of a preferred Hilbert space. We define a "generalized asymptotic completeness" which accommodates states with memory in the space of asymptotic states. We define a complete basis of improper states on any memory Fock space (called "BMS particle" states) which are eigenstates of the energy-momentum -- or, more generally, the BMS supermomentum -- that generalize the usual $n$-particle momentum basis to account for states with memory. We then obtain infrared finite $\$$-amplitudes defined as matrix elements of $\$$ in the BMS particle basis. This formulation of the scattering theory is a key step towards analyzing fine-grained details of the infrared finite scattering theory. In quantum gravity, invariance of $\$$ under BMS supertranslations implies factorization of $\$$-amplitudes as the frequency of one of the BMS particles vanishes. This proves an infrared finite analog of the soft graviton theorem. Similarly, an infrared finite soft photon theorem in QED follows from invariance of $\$$ under large gauge transformations. We comment on how one must generalize this framework to consider $\$$-amplitudes for theories with collinear divergences (e.g., massless QED and Yang-Mills theories).

[10] 2402.18737

Localization of Random Surfaces with Monotone Potentials and an FKG-Gaussian Correlation Inequality

The seminal 1975 work of Brascamp-Lieb-Lebowitz initiated the rigorous study of Ginzberg-Landau random surface models. It was conjectured therein that fluctuations are localized on $\mathbb Z^d$ when $d\geq 3$ for very general potentials, matching the behavior of the Gaussian free field. We confirm this behavior for all even potentials $U:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ satisfying $U'(x)\geq \min(\varepsilon x,\frac{1+\varepsilon}{x})$ on $x\in \mathbb R^+$. Given correspondingly stronger growth conditions on $U$, we show power or stretched exponential tail bounds on all transient graphs, which determine the maximum field value up to constants in many cases. Further extensions include non-wired boundary conditions and iterated Laplacian analogs such as the membrane model. Our main tool is an FKG-based generalization of the Gaussian correlation inequality, which is used to dominate the finite-volume Gibbs measures by mixtures of centered Gaussian fields.

[11] 2402.18997

Motion of test particles in quasi anti-de Sitter regular black holes

We explore the characteristics of two novel regular spacetimes that exhibit a non-zero vacuum energy term, under the form of a (quasi) anti-de Sitter phase. Specifically, the first metric is spherical, while the second, derived by applying the generalized Newman-Janis algorithm to the first, is axisymmetric. We show that the equations of state of the effective fluids associated with the two metrics asymptotically tend to negative values, resembling quintessence. In addition, we study test particle motions, illustrating the main discrepancies among our models and more conventional metrics exhibiting non-vanishing anti-de Sitter phase.

[12] 2402.19030

A Faster Algorithm for the Free Energy in One-Dimensional Quantum Systems

We consider the problem of approximating the free energy density of a translation-invariant, one-dimensional quantum spin system with finite range. While the complexity of this problem is nontrivial due to its close connection to problems with known hardness results, a classical subpolynomial-time algorithm has recently been proposed [Fawzi et al., 2022]. Combining several algorithmic techniques previously used for related problems, we propose an algorithm outperforming this result asymptotically and give rigorous bounds on its runtime. Our main techniques are the use of Araki expansionals, known from results on the nonexistence of phase transitions, and a matrix product operator construction. We also review a related approach using the Quantum Belief Propagation [Kuwahara et al., 2018], which in combination with our findings yields an equivalent result.

[13] 2402.19053

Geometric approach for the identification of Hamiltonian systems of quasi-Painlevé type

Some new Hamiltonian systems of quasi-Painlev\'e type are presented and their Okamoto's space of initial conditions computed. Using the geometric approach that was introduced originally for the identification problem of Painlev\'e equations, comparing the irreducible components of the inaccessible divisors arising in the blow-up process, we find bi-rational, symplectic coordinate changes between some of these systems that give rise to the same global symplectic structure. This scheme thus gives a method for identifying Hamiltonian systems up to bi-rational symplectic maps, which is performed in this article for systems of quasi-Painlev\'e type having singularities that are either square-root type algebraic poles or ordinary poles.

[14] 2402.19096

Structural Stability Hypothesis of Dual Unitary Quantum Chaos

Having spectral correlations that, over small enough energy scales, are described by random matrix theory is regarded as the most general defining feature of quantum chaotic systems as it applies in the many-body setting and away from any semiclassical limit. Although this property is extremely difficult to prove analytically for generic many-body systems, a rigorous proof has been achieved for dual-unitary circuits -- a special class of local quantum circuits that remain unitary upon swapping space and time. Here we consider the fate of this property when moving from dual-unitary to generic quantum circuits focussing on the \emph{spectral form factor}, i.e., the Fourier transform of the two-point correlation. We begin with a numerical survey that, in agreement with previous studies, suggests that there exists a finite region in parameter space where dual-unitary physics is stable and spectral correlations are still described by random matrix theory, although up to a maximal quasienergy scale. To explain these findings, we develop a perturbative expansion: it recovers the random matrix theory predictions, provided the terms occurring in perturbation theory obey a relatively simple set of assumptions. We then provide numerical evidence and a heuristic analytical argument supporting these assumptions.

[15] 2402.19151

Approximations of symbolic substitution systems in one dimension

Periodic approximations of quasicrystals are a powerful tool in analyzing spectra of Schr\"odinger operators arising from quasicrystals, given the known theory for periodic crystals. Namely, we seek periodic operators whose spectra approximate the spectrum of the limiting operator (of the quasicrystal). This naturally leads to study the convergence of the underlying dynamical systems. We treat dynamical systems which are based on one-dimensional substitutions. We first find natural candidates of dynamical subsystems to approximate the substitution dynamical system. Subsequently, we offer a characterization of their convergence and provide estimates for the rate of convergence. We apply the proposed theory to some guiding examples.

[16] 2402.19191

An asymptotic-preserving method for the three-temperature radiative transfer model

We present an asymptotic-preserving (AP) numerical method for solving the three-temperature radiative transfer model, which holds significant importance in inertial confinement fusion. A carefully designedsplitting method is developed that can provide a general framework of extending AP schemes for the gray radiative transport equation to the more complex three-temperature radiative transfer model. The proposed scheme captures two important limiting models: the three-temperature radiation diffusion equation (3TRDE) when opacity approaches infinity and the two-temperature limit when the ion-electron coupling coefficient goes to infinity. We have rigorously demonstrated the AP property and energy conservation characteristics of the proposed scheme and its efficiency has been validated through a series of benchmark tests in the numerical part.

[17] 2402.19230

A Simple and Efficient Joint Measurement Strategy for Estimating Fermionic Observables and Hamiltonians

We propose a simple scheme to estimate fermionic observables and Hamiltonians relevant in quantum chemistry and correlated fermionic systems. Our approach is based on implementing a measurement that jointly measures noisy versions of any product of two or four Majorana operators in an $N$ mode fermionic system. To realize our measurement we use: (i) a randomization over a set of unitaries that realize products of Majorana fermion operators; (ii) a unitary, sampled at random from a constant-size set of suitably chosen fermionic Gaussian unitaries; (iii) a measurement of fermionic occupation numbers; (iv) suitable post-processing. Our scheme can estimate expectation values of all quadratic and quartic Majorana monomials to $\epsilon$ precision using $\mathcal{O}(N \log(N)/\epsilon^2)$ and $\mathcal{O}(N^2 \log(N)/\epsilon^2)$ measurement rounds respectively, matching the performance offered by fermionic shadow tomography. In certain settings, such as a rectangular lattice of qubits which encode an $N$ mode fermionic system via the Jordan-Wigner transformation, our scheme can be implemented in circuit depth $\mathcal{O}(N^{1/2})$ with $\mathcal{O}(N^{3/2})$ two-qubit gates, offering an improvement over fermionic and matchgate classical shadows that require depth $\mathcal{O}(N)$ and $\mathcal{O}(N^2)$ two-qubit gates. We also benchmark our method on molecular Hamiltonians and observe performances comparable to those offered by fermionic classical shadows.

[18] 2402.19247

Noisy intermediate-scale quantum simulation of the one-dimensional wave equation

We design and implement quantum circuits for the simulation of the one-dimensional wave equation on the Quantinuum H1-1 quantum computer. The circuit depth of our approach scales as $O(n^{2})$ for $n$ qubits representing the solution on $2^n$ grid points, and leads to infidelities of $O(2^{-4n} t^{2})$ for simulation time $t$ assuming smooth initial conditions. By varying the qubit count we study the interplay between the algorithmic and physical gate errors to identify the optimal working point of minimum total error. Our approach to simulating the wave equation can readily be adapted to other quantum processors and serve as an application-oriented benchmark.

[19] 2402.19297

Linear stability of cylindrical, multicomponent vesicles

Vesicles are important surrogate structures made up of multiple phospholipids and cholesterol distributed in the form of a lipid bilayer. Tubular vesicles can undergo pearling i.e., formation of beads on the liquid thread akin to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. Previous studies have inspected the effects of surface tension on the pearling instabilities of single-component vesicles. In this study, we perform a linear stability analysis on a multicomponent cylindrical vesicle. We solve the Stokes equations along with the Cahn-Hilliard equations to develop the linearized dynamic equations governing the vesicle shape and surface concentration fields. This helps us show that multicomponent vesicles can undergo pearling, buckling, and wrinkling even in the absence of surface tension, which is a significantly different result from studies on single-component vesicles. This behaviour arises due to the competition between the free energies of phase separation, line tension, and bending for this multi-phospholipid system. We determine the conditions under which axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes are dominant, and supplement our results with an energy analysis that shows the sources for these instabilities. We further show that these trends qualitatively match recent experiments.

[20] 2402.19310

Some Remarks on Wang-Yau Quasi-Local Mass

We review Wang-Yau quasi-local definitions along the line of gravitational Hamiltonian. This makes clear the connection and difference between Wang-Yau definition and Brown-York or even global ADM definition. We make a brief comment on admissibility condition in Wang-Yau quasi-lcoal mass. We extend the positivity proof for Wang-Yau quasi-local energy to allow possible presence of strictly stable apparent horizons through establishing solvability of Dirac equation in certain 3-manifolds that possess cylindrical ends, as in the case of Jang's graph blowing up at marginally outer trapped surfaces.

[21] 2402.19349

Optimal Fermionic Joint Measurements for Estimating Non-Commuting Majorana Observables

An important class of fermionic observables, relevant in tasks such as fermionic partial tomography and estimating energy levels of chemical Hamiltonians, are the binary measurements obtained from the product of anti-commuting Majorana operators. In this work, we investigate efficient estimation strategies of these observables based on a joint measurement which, after classical post-processing, yields all sufficiently unsharp (noisy) Majorana observables of even-degree. By exploiting the symmetry properties of the Majorana observables, as described by the braid group, we show that the incompatibility robustness, i.e., the minimal classical noise necessary for joint measurability, relates to the spectral properties of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model. In particular, we show that for an $n$ mode fermionic system, the incompatibility robustness of all degree--$2k$ Majorana observables satisfies $\Theta(n^{-k/2})$ for $k\leq 5$. Furthermore, we present a joint measurement scheme achieving the asymptotically optimal noise, implemented by a small number of fermionic Gaussian unitaries and sampling from the set of all Majorana monomials. Our joint measurement, which can be performed via a randomization over projective measurements, provides rigorous performance guarantees for estimating fermionic observables comparable with fermionic classical shadows.

[22] 2402.19362

Dark energy and dark matter configurations for wormholes and solitionic hierarchies of nonmetric Ricci flows and $F(R,T,Q,T_{m})$ gravity

We extend the anholonomic frame and connection deformation method, AFCDM, for constructing exact and parametric solutions in general relativity, GR, to geometric flow models and modified gravity theories, MGTs, with nontrivial torsion and nonmetricity fields. Following abstract geometric or variational methods, we can derive corresponding systems of nonmetric gravitational and matter field equations which consist of very sophisticated systems of coupled nonlinear PDEs. Using nonholonomic frames with dyadic spacetime splitting and applying the AFCDM, we prove that such systems of PDEs can be decoupled and integrated in general forms for generic off-diagonal metric structures and generalized affine connections. We generate new classes of quasi-stationary solutions (which do not depend on time like coordinates) and study the physical properties of some physically important examples. Such exact or parametric solutions are determined by nonmetric solitonic distributions and/or ellipsoidal deformations of wormhole hole configurations. It is not possible to describe the thermodynamic properties of such solutions in the framework of the Bekenstein-Hawking paradigm because such metrics do not involve, in general, certain horizons, duality, or holographic configurations. Nevertheless, we can always elaborate on associated Grigori Perelman thermodynamic models elaborated for nonmetric geometric flows. In explicit form, applying the AFCDM, we construct and study the physical implications of new classes of traversable wormhole solutions describing solitonic deformation and dissipation of non-Riemannian geometric objects. Such models with nontrivial gravitational off-diagonal vacuum are important for elaborating models of dark energy and dark matter involving wormhole configurations and solitonic-type structure formation.