New articles on Mathematical Physics

[1] 2312.00317

New formula for the prepotentials associated with Hurwitz-Frobenius manifolds and generalized WDVV equations

We consider the Hurwitz spaces of ramified coverings of $\mathbb{P}^1$ with prescribed ramification profile over the point at infinity. By means of a particular symmetric bidifferential on a compact Riemann surface, we introduce quasi-homogeneous differentials. By following Dubrovin, we construct on Hurwitz spaces a family of Frobenius manifold structures associated with the quasi-homogeneous differentials. We explicitly derive new generating formulas for the corresponding prepotentials. This produces quasi-homogeneous solutions to the following generalized WDVV associativity equations: $F_i\eta^{-1}F_j=F_j\eta^{-1}F_i$, where the invertible constant matrix $\eta$ is a linear combination of the matrices $F_j$. In particular, our approach provides another look at Dubrovin's construction of semi-simple Hurwitz-Frobenius manifolds and establishes an alternative practical method to calculate their primary free energy functions. As applications, we use our formalism to obtain various explicit quasi-homogeneous solutions to the WDVV equations in genus zero and one and give a new proof of Ramanujan's differential equations for Eisenstein series.

[2] 2312.00369

A new approach for the implementation of contact line motion based on the phase-filed lattice Boltzmann method

This paper proposes a new strategy to implement the free-energy based wetting boundary condition within the phase-field lattice Boltzmann method. The greatest advantage of the proposed method is that the implementation of contact line motion can be significantly simplified while still maintaining good accuracy. For this purpose, the liquid-solid free energy is treated as a part of the chemical potential instead of the boundary condition, thus avoiding complicated interpolations with irregular geometries. Several numerical testing cases including the droplet spreading processes on the idea flat, inclined and curved boundaries are conducted, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method has good ability and satisfactory accuracy to simulate contact line motions.

[3] 2312.00541

Limit theorems for empirical measures of interacting quantum systems in Wasserstein space

We prove fundamental properties of empirical measures induced by measurements performed on quantum $N$-body systems. More precisely, we consider measurements performed on the ground state of an interacting, trapped Bose gase in the Gross--Pitaevskii regime, known to exhibit Bose--Einstein condensation. For the corresponding empirical measure, we prove a weak law of large numbers with limit induced by the condensate wave function and characterize the fluctuations around through an appropriate central limit theorem.

[4] 2312.00556

Secular growths and their relation to equilibrium states in perturbative QFT

In the perturbative treatment of interacting quantum field theories, if the interaction Lagrangian changes adiabatically in a finite interval of time, secular growths may appear in the truncated perturbative series also when the interaction Lagrangian density is returned to be constant. If this happens, the perturbative approach does not furnish reliable results in the evaluation of scattering amplitudes or expectation values. In this paper we show that these effects can be avoided for adiabatically switched-on interactions, if the spatial support of the interaction is compact and if the background state is suitably chosen. We start considering equilibrium background states and show that, when thermalisation occurs (interaction Lagrangian of spatial compact support), secular effects are avoided. Furthermore, no secular effects pop up if the limit where the Lagrangian is supported everywhere in space is taken after thermalisation (large time limit), in contrast to the reversed order. This result is generalized showing that if the interaction Lagrangian is spatially compact, secular growths are avoided for generic background states which are only invariant under time translation and to states whose explicit dependence of time is not too strong. Finally, as an example, we apply the presented theorems to study a complex scalar and a Dirac field in a classical external electromagnetic potential, on a background KMS state, to manifest that a spatially compact supported interaction does not give rise to secular growths.

[5] 2312.00056

Combinatorial decompositions for deformed or decorated classes of maps

The perturbative expansion of tensorial field theories in Feynman graphs can be interpreted as weighted generating series of some piecewise linear varieties. This simple fact establishes a link between two a priori distinct fields: the combinatorics of discrete manifolds on one hand and tensorial field theories on the other hand. In this thesis, we study different aspects revolving around this connection between combinatorics and field theory. First, we consider constellations model, which generalize maps and their algebraic properties. This makes them suited to probe the b-deformation, a deformation of the algebra of symmetric functions. We will study the constraints satisfied by the generating series of cubical b-deformed constellations. Second, we analyze the double scaling limit of particular tensor models of order 3. For tensor of order greater than two, the nature of the 1/N-expansion is qualitatively different from the matrix case of order 2. In particular, only the leading order graphs are fully characterized. Despite this fact, it is possible to identify graphs of subleading orders contributing to the double scaling limit by implementing the scheme decomposition for Feynman graphs of these theories. An analysis of the singularity of the schemes then allows us to give a complete characterization of the graphs contributing to the double scaling limit. Finally, we investigate a particular link between a tensor and a vector field theory which both admit a melonic limit. Namely, we will show that we can obtain the vectorial Amit-Roginski model by considering perturbations around a classical solution of the Boulatov model, a tensorial theory. We give sufficient conditions on the classical solution so that the effective action for the perturbation around this solution takes the form of the Amit-Roginski action.

[6] 2312.00064

Yang-Baxter integrable open quantum systems

This work is based on the author's PhD thesis. The main result of the thesis is the use of the boost operator to develop a systematic method to construct new integrable spin chains with nearest-neighbour interaction and characterized by an R-matrix of non-difference form. This method has the advantage of being more feasible than directly solving the Yang-Baxter equation. We applied this approach to various contexts, in particular, in the realm of open quantum systems, we achieved the first classification of integrable Lindbladians. These operators describe the dynamics of physical systems in contact with a Markovian environment. Within this classification, we discovered a novel deformation of the Hubbard model spanning three sites of the spin chain. Additionally, we applied our method to classify models with $\mathfrak{su}(2)\oplus \mathfrak{su}(2)$ symmetry and we recovered the matrix part of the S-matrix of $AdS_5 \times S^5$ derived by requiring centrally extended $\mathfrak{su}(2|2)$ symmetry. Furthermore, we focus on spin 1/2 chain on models of 8-Vertex type and we showed that the models of this class satisfy the free fermion condition. This enables us to express the transfer matrix associated to some of the models in a diagonal form, simplifying the computation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The thesis is based on the works: 2003.04332, 2010.11231, 2011.08217, 2101.08279, 2207.14193, 2301.01612, 2305.01922.

[7] 2312.00071

Studying Hopfield models via fully lifted random duality theory

Relying on a recent progress made in studying bilinearly indexed (bli) random processes in \cite{Stojnicnflgscompyx23,Stojnicsflgscompyx23}, the main foundational principles of fully lifted random duality theory (fl RDT) were established in \cite{Stojnicflrdt23}. We here study famous Hopfield models and show that their statistical behavior can be characterized via the fl RDT. Due to a nestedly lifted nature, the resulting characterizations and, therefore, the whole analytical machinery that produces them, become fully operational only if one can successfully conduct underlying numerical evaluations. After conducting such evaluations for both positive and negative Hopfield models, we observe a remarkably fast convergence of the fl RDT mechanism. Namely, for the so-called square case, the fourth decimal precision is achieved already on the third (second non-trivial) level of lifting (3-sfl RDT) for the positive and on the fourth (third non-trivial) level of lifting (4-sfl RDT) for the corresponding negative model. In particular, we obtain the scaled ground state free energy $\approx 1.7788$ for the positive and $\approx 0.3279$ for the negative model.

[8] 2312.00117

Symmetries of quantization of finite groupoids

This paper proves certain facts concerning the equivariance of quantization of pi-finite spaces. We argue that these facts establish an analogy between this quantization procedure and the geometric quantization of a symplectic vector space. Specifically, we observe that symmetries of a given polarization/Lagrangian always induce coherent symmetries of the quantization. On the other hand, symmetries of the entire phase space a priori only induce projective symmetries. For certain three-dimensional theories, this projectivity appears via a twice-categorified analogue of Blattner-Kostant-Sternberg kernels in geometric quantization and the associated integral transforms.

[9] 2312.00149

What a twist cell experiment tells about a quartic twist theory for chromonics

The elastic theory of chromonic liquid crystals is not completely established. We know, for example, that for anomalously low twist constants (needed for chromonics) the classical Oseen- Frank theory may entail paradoxical consequences when applied to describe the equilibrium shapes of droplets surrounded by an isotropic phase: contrary to experimental evidence, they are predicted to dissolve in a plethora of unstable smaller droplets. We proposed a quartic twist theory that prevents such an instability from happening. Here we apply this theory to the data of an experiment devised to measure the planar anchoring strength at the plates bounding a twist cell filled with a chromonic liquid crystal; these data had before been interpreted within the Oseen-Frank theory. We show that the quartic twist theory affords a slightly better agreement with the experimental data, while delivering a larger value for the anchoring strength.

[10] 2312.00161

A Pedestrian's Way to Baxter's Bethe Ansatz for the Periodic XYZ Chain

A chiral coordinate Bethe ansatz method is developed to study the periodic XYZ chain. We construct a set of chiral vectors with fixed number of kinks. All vectors are factorized and have simple structures. Under roots of unity conditions, the Hilbert space has an invariant subspace and our vectors form a basis of this subspace. We propose a Bethe ansatz solely based on the action of the Hamiltonian on the chiral vectors, avoiding the use of transfer matrix techniques. This allows to parameterize the expansion coefficients and derive the homogeneous Bethe ansatz equations whose solutions give the exact energies and eigenstates. Our analytic results agree with earlier approaches, notably by Baxter, and are supported by numerical calculations.

[11] 2312.00181

On two-dimensional Dirac operators with $δ$-shell interactions supported on unbounded curves with straight ends

In this paper we study the self-adjointness and spectral properties of two-dimensional Dirac operators with electrostatic, Lorentz scalar, and anomalous magnetic $\delta$-shell interactions with constant weights that are supported on a smooth unbounded curve that is straight outside a compact set and whose ends are rays that are not parallel to each other. For all possible combinations of interaction strengths we describe the self-adjoint realizations and compute their essential spectra. Moreover, we prove in different situations the existence of geometrically induced discrete eigenvalues.

[12] 2312.00366

Unbounded Donoho-Stark-Elad-Bruckstein-Ricaud-Torrésani Uncertainty Principles

Let $(\Omega, \mu)$, $(\Delta, \nu)$ be measure spaces and $p=1$ or $p=\infty$. Let $(\{f_\alpha\}_{\alpha\in \Omega}, \{\tau_\alpha\}_{\alpha\in \Omega})$ and $(\{g_\beta\}_{\beta\in \Delta}, \{\omega_\beta\}_{\beta\in \Delta})$ be unbounded continuous p-Schauder frames for a Banach space $\mathcal{X}$. Then for every $x \in ( \mathcal{D}(\theta_f) \cap\mathcal{D}(\theta_g))\setminus\{0\}$, we show that \begin{align}\label{UB} (1) \quad \quad \quad \quad \mu(\operatorname{supp}(\theta_f x))\nu(\operatorname{supp}(\theta_g x)) \geq \frac{1}{\left(\displaystyle\sup_{\alpha \in \Omega, \beta \in \Delta}|f_\alpha(\omega_\beta)|\right)\left(\displaystyle\sup_{\alpha \in \Omega , \beta \in \Delta}|g_\beta(\tau_\alpha)|\right)}, \end{align} where \begin{align*} &\theta_f:\mathcal{D}(\theta_f) \ni x \mapsto \theta_fx \in \mathcal{L}^p(\Omega, \mu); \quad \theta_fx: \Omega \ni \alpha \mapsto (\theta_fx) (\alpha):= f_\alpha (x) \in \mathbb{K},\\ &\theta_g: \mathcal{D}(\theta_g) \ni x \mapsto \theta_gx \in \mathcal{L}^p(\Delta, \nu); \quad \theta_gx: \Delta \ni \beta \mapsto (\theta_gx) (\beta):= g_\beta (x) \in \mathbb{K}. \end{align*} We call Inequality (1) as \textbf{Unbounded Donoho-Stark-Elad-Bruckstein-Ricaud-Torr\'{e}sani Uncertainty Principle}. Along with recent \textbf{Functional Continuous Uncertainty Principle} [arXiv:2308.00312], Inequality (1) also improves Ricaud-Torr\'{e}sani uncertainty principle [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 2013]. In particular, it improves Elad-Bruckstein uncertainty principle [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 2002] and Donoho-Stark uncertainty principle [SIAM J. Appl. Math., 1989].

[13] 2312.00431

Inertial (self-)collisions of viscoelastic solids with Lipschitz boundaries

We continue our study, started in arXiv:2212.00705, of (self-)collisions of viscoelastic solids in an inertial regime. We show existence of weak solutions with a corresponding contact force measure in the case of solids with only Lipschitz-regular boundaries. This necessitates a careful study of different concepts of tangent and normal cones and the role these play both in the proofs and in the formulation of the problem itself. Consistent with our previous approach, we study contact without resorting to penalization, i.e. by only relying on a strict non-interpenetration condition. Additionally, we improve the strategies of our previous proof, eliminating the need for regularization terms across all levels of approximation.

[14] 2312.00481

Glued lattices are better quantizers than $K_{12}$

40 years ago, Conway and Sloane proposed using the highly symmetrical Coxeter-Todd lattice $K_{12}$ for quantization, and estimated its second moment. Since then, all published lists identify $K_{12}$ as the best 12-dimensional lattice quantizer. Surprisingly, $K_{12}$ is not optimal: we construct two new 12-dimensional lattices with lower normalized second moments. The new lattices are obtained by gluing together 6-dimensional lattices.

[15] 2312.00495

Atiyah sequences of braided Lie algebras and their splittings

Associated with an equivariant noncommutative principal bundle we give an Atiyah sequence of braided derivations whose splittings give connections on the bundle. Vertical braided derivations act as infinitesimal gauge transformations on connections. For the $SU(2)$-principal bundle over the sphere $S^{4}_\theta$ an equivariant splitting of the Atiyah sequence recovers the instanton connection. An infinitesimal action of the braided conformal Lie algebra $so_\theta(5,1)$ yields a five parameter family of splittings. On the principal $SO_\theta(2n,\mathbb{R})$-bundle of orthonormal frames over the sphere $S^{2n}_\theta$, the splitting of the sequence leads to the Levi-Civita connection for the `round' metric on the $S^{2n}_\theta$. The corresponding Riemannian geometry of $S^{2n}_\theta$ is worked out.

[16] 2312.00523

Quantization of locally compact groups associated with essentially bijective $1$-cocycles

Given an extension $0\to V\to G\to Q\to1$ of locally compact groups, with $V$ abelian, and a compatible essentially bijective $1$-cocycle $\eta\colon Q\to\hat V$, we define a dual unitary $2$-cocycle on $G$ and show that the associated deformation of $\hat G$ is a cocycle bicrossed product defined by a matched pair of subgroups of $Q\ltimes\hat V$. We also discuss an interpretation of our construction from the point of view of Kac cohomology for matched pairs. Our setup generalizes that of Etingof and Gelaki for finite groups and its extension due to Ben David and Ginosar, as well as our earlier work on locally compact groups satisfying the dual orbit condition. In particular, we get a locally compact quantum group from every involutive nondegenerate set-theoretical solution of the Yang--Baxter equation, or more generally, from every brace structure. On the technical side, the key new points are constructions of an irreducible projective representation of $G$ on $L^2(Q)$ and a unitary quantization map $L^2(G)\to{\rm HS}(L^2(Q))$ of Kohn--Nirenberg type.

[17] 2312.00578

Two new non-equivalent three-qubit CHSH games

In this paper, we generalize to three players the well-known CHSH quantum game. To do so, we consider all possible 3 variables Boolean functions and search among them which ones correspond to a game scenario with a quantum advantage (for a given entangled state). In particular we provide two new three players quantum games where, in one case, the best quantum strategy is obtained when the players share a $GHZ$ state, while in the other one the players have a better advantage when they use a $W$ state as their quantum resource. To illustrate our findings we implement our game scenarios on an online quantum computer and prove experimentally the advantage of the corresponding quantum resource for each game.

[18] 2312.00599

Two Results in the Quantum Theory of Measurements

Two theorems with applications to the quantum theory of measurements are stated and proven. The first one clarifies and amends von Neumann's Measurement Postulate used in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The second one clarifies the relationship between ``events'' and ``measurements'' and the meaning of measurements in the $ETH$-Approach to quantum mechanics.

[19] 2312.00602

Polynomial tau-functions of the n-th Sawada-Kotera hierarchy

We find all polynomial tau-functions of the n-th reduced BKP hierarchy (=n-th Sawada-Kotera hierarchy). The name comes from the fact that for n=3 the simplest equation of the hierarchy is the famous Sawada-Kotera equation.

[20] 2312.00605

Edge modes, extended TQFT, and measurement based quantum computation

Quantum teleportation can be used to define a notion of parallel transport which characterizes the entanglement structure of a quantum state \cite{Czech:2018kvg}. This suggests one can formulate a gauge theory of entanglement. In \cite{Wong:2022mnv}, it was explained that measurement based quantum computation in one dimension can be understood in term of such a gauge theory (MBQC). In this work, we give an alternative formulation of this "entanglement gauge theory" as an extended topological field theory. This formulation gives a alternative perspective on the relation between the circuit model and MBQC. In addition, it provides an interpretation of MBQC in terms of the extended Hilbert space construction in gauge theories, in which the entanglement edge modes play the role of the logical qubit.

[21] 2312.00614

Stability for the logarithmic Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev Inequality with application to the Keller-Segel system

We apply a duality method to prove an optimal stability theorem for the logarithmic Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequality, and we apply it to the estimation of the rate of approach to equilibrium for the critical mass Keller-Segel system.

[22] 2312.00615

Phase Transitions, Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking, and Goldstone's Theorem

Some important rigorous results on phase transitions accompanied by the spontaneous breaking of symmetries in statistical mechanics and relativistic quantum field theory are reviewed. Basic ideas, mainly inspired by quantum field theory, underlying the proofs of some of these results are sketched. The Goldstone theorem is proven, and the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem concerning the absence of continuous symmetry breaking in one and two dimensions is recalled. Comments concerning rigorous results on the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the two-dimensional classical XY model are made.

[23] 2312.00618

Future of Bianchi I magnetic cosmologies with kinetic matter

We show under the assumption of small data that solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system with a pure magnetic field and Bianchi I symmetry isotropise and tend to dust solutions. We also obtain the decay rates for the main variables. This generalises part of the work [V.~G.~LeBlanc, Classical Quantum Gravity 14, 2281-2301 (1997)] concerning the future behaviour of orthogonal perfect fluids with a linear equation of state in the presence of a magnetic field to the Vlasov case.

[24] 2312.00624

On the structure of wave functions in complex Chern-Simons theory

We study the structure of wave functions in complex Chern-Simons theory on the complement of a hyperbolic knot, emphasizing the similarities with the topological string/spectral theory correspondence. We first conjecture a hidden integrality structure in the holomorphic blocks and show that this structure guarantees the cancellation of potential singularities in the full non-perturbative wave function at rational values of the coupling constant. We then develop various techniques to determine the wave function at such rational points. Finally, we illustrate our conjectures and obtain explicit results in the examples of the figure-eight and the three-twist knots. In the case of the figure-eight knot, we also perform a direct evaluation of the state integral in the rational case and observe that the resulting wave function has the features of the ground state for a quantum mirror curve.

[25] 2312.00675

Localisation of the Third Way Theory

The following is a master thesis centered around the concept of localisation and the Third Way Theory. This thesis discusses various aspects of supersymmetric localisation in one and three dimensions, and contains original results with regards to the Third Way Theory. It starts off with the Witten index for a one-dimensional supersymmetric system and derives various aspects through localisation. After this, the thesis moves on to the Third Way Theory. First, it offers a review of the Third Way Theory, a deformation of topologically massive Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions. Then it moves on to original results. These include a supersymmetrisation of the Third Way Theory and consequently a localisation of the Third Way Theory, which is to say, a method of deriving non-perturbative results.

[26] 2312.00711

Thick points of 4D critical branching Brownian motion

We study the thick points of branching Brownian motion and branching random walk with a critical branching mechanism, focusing on the critical dimension $d = 4$. We determine the exponent governing the probability to hit a small ball with an exceptionally high number of pioneers, showing that this has a second-order transition between an exponential phase and a stretched-exponential phase at an explicit value ($a = 2$) of the thickness parameter $a$. We apply the outputs of this analysis to prove that the associated set of thick points $\mathcal{T}(a)$ has dimension $(4-a)_+$, so that there is a change in behaviour at $a=4$ but not at $a = 2$ in this case. Along the way, we obtain related results for the nonpositive solutions of a boundary value problem associated to the semilinear PDE $\Delta v = v^2$ and develop a strong coupling between tree-indexed random walk and tree-indexed Brownian motion that allows us to deduce analogues of some of our results in the discrete case. We also obtain in each dimension $d\geq 1$ an infinite-order asymptotic expansion for the probability that critical branching Brownian motion hits a distant unit ball, finding that this expansion is convergent when $d\neq 4$ and divergent when $d=4$. This reveals a novel, dimension-dependent critical exponent governing the higher-order terms of the expansion, which we compute in every dimension.

[27] 2312.00712

Variational Loop Vertex Expansion

Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) was developed for the construction of QFT models with local and non-local interactions. Using LVE, one can prove the analyticity in the finite cardioid-like domain in the complex plain of the coupling constant of the free energies and cumulants of various vector, matrix, or tensor-type models. Here, applying the idea of choosing the initial approximation depending on the coupling constant, we construct the analytic continuation of the free energy of the quartic matrix model beyond the standard LVE cardioid over the branch cut and for arbitrary large couplings.

[28] 2312.00722

Convolution identities for divisor sums and modular forms

We prove exact identities for convolution sums of divisor functions of the form $\sum_{n_1 \in \mathbb{Z} \smallsetminus \{0,n\}}\varphi(n_1,n-n_1)\sigma_{2m_1}(n_1)\sigma_{2m_2}(n-n_1)$ where $\varphi(n_1,n_2)$ is a Laurent polynomial with logarithms for which the sum is absolutely convergent. Such identities are motivated by computations in string theory and prove and generalize a conjecture of Chester, Green, Pufu, Wang, and Wen from \cite{CGPWW}. Originally, it was suspected that such sums, suitably extended to $n_1\in\{0,n\}$ should vanish, but in this paper we find that in general they give Fourier coefficients of holomorphic cusp forms.

[29] 2312.00725

Algebra of Nonlocal Boxes and the Collapse of Communication Complexity

Communication complexity quantifies how difficult it is for two distant computers to evaluate a function $f(X,Y)$ where the strings $X$ and $Y$ are distributed to the first and second computer, respectively and under the constraint of exchanging as few bits as possible. Surprisingly, some nonlocal boxes, which are resources shared by the two computers, are so powerful that they allow to collapse communication complexity, in the sense that any Boolean function $f$ can be correctly estimated with the exchange of only one bit of communication. The Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) box is an example of such a collapsing resource, but a comprehensive description of the set of collapsing nonlocal boxes remains elusive. In this work, we carry out an algebraic study of the structure of wirings connecting nonlocal boxes, thus defining the notion of the "product of boxes" $\mathtt{P}\boxtimes\mathtt{Q}$, and we show related associativity and commutativity results. This gives rise to the notion of the "orbit of a box", unveiling surprising geometrical properties about the alignment and parallelism of distilled boxes. The power of this new framework is that it allows to prove previously-reported numerical intuitions concerning the best way to wire consecutive boxes, and to numerically and analytically recover recently-identified noisy PR boxes that collapse communication complexity for different types of noise models.