New articles on hep-th

[1] 2007.01879

Gravitational Waves, Holography, and Black Hole Microstates

Gravitational wave observations of the near-horizon region of black holes lend insight into the quantum nature of gravity. In particular, gravitational wave echoes have been identified as a potential signature of quantum gravity-inspired structure near the horizon. In this paper, we connect such observables to the language of black hole microstates in string theory and holography. To that end, we propose a toy model describing the AdS$_3$ near-horizon region of five-dimensional black holes, inspired by earlier work of Solodukhin. This model captures key features of recently constructed microstate geometries, and allows us to make three observations. First, we relate the language of AdS/CFT, in particular the holographic retarded two-point correlator, to effective parameters modeling the structure that are used in flat space gravitational wave literature. Second, we find that for a typical microstate, the `cap' of the microstructure is exponentially close to the horizon, making it an effective sub-Planckian correction to the black hole geometry, although the microstate geometry itself is classical. Third, using a microcanonical ensemble average over geometries, we find support for the claim that the gravitational wave echo amplitude in a typical quantum microstate of the black hole is exponentially suppressed by the black hole entropy.

[2] 2007.01886

Nonrelativistic Open String and Yang-Mills Theory

The classical and quantum worldsheet theory describing nonrelativistic open string theory in an arbitrary nonrelativistic open and closed string background is constructed. We show that the low energy dynamics of open strings ending on n coincident D-branes in flat spacetime is described by a Galilean invariant U(n) Yang-Mills theory. We also study nonrelativistic open string excitations with winding number and demonstrate that their dynamics can be encoded into a local gauge theory in one higher dimension. By demanding conformal invariance of the boundary couplings, the nonlinear equations of motion that govern the consistent open string backgrounds coupled to an arbitrary closed background (described by a string Newton-Cartan geometry, Kalb-Ramond, and dilaton field) are derived and shown to emerge from a Galilean invariant Dirac-Born-Infeld type action.

[3] 2007.02077

Soft Radiation from Scattering Amplitudes Revisited

We apply the recently developed formalism by Kosower, Maybee and O'Connell (KMO) to analyse the soft electromagnetic and soft gravitational radiation emitted by particles without spin in Four and higher dimensions. We use this formalism in conjunction with quantum soft theorems to derive radiative electro-magnetic and gravitational fields in low frequency expansion and to next to leading order in the coupling. We show that in all dimensions, the classical limit of sub-leading soft (photon and graviton) theorems is consistent with the classical soft theorems proved by Sen et al in a series of papers. In particular Saha, Sahoo and Sen proved classical soft theorems for electro-magnetic and gravitational radiation in Four dimensions. For the class of scattering processes that can be analyzed using KMO formalism, we show that the classical limit of quantum soft theorems is consistent with these classical soft theorems, paving the way for their proof from scattering amplitudes.

[4] 2007.02121

Conserved vector current in QCD-like theories and the gradient flow

We present analytical results for the Euclidean 2-point correlator of the flavor-singlet vector current evolved by the gradient flow at next-to-leading order ($O(g^2)$) in perturbatively massless QCD-like theories. We show that the evolved 2-point correlator requires multiplicative renormalization, in contrast to the nonevolved case, and confirm, in agreement with other results in the literature, that such renormalization ought to be identified with a universal renormalization of the evolved elementary fermion field in all evolved fermion-bilinear currents, whereas the gauge coupling renormalizes as usual. We explicitly derive the asymptotic solution of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the connected 2-point correlators of these evolved currents in the limit of small gradient-flow time $\sqrt{t}$, at fixed separation $|x-y|$. Incidentally, this computation determines the leading coefficient of the operator-product expansion (OPE) in the small $t$ limit for the evolved currents in terms of their local nonevolved counterpart. Our computation also implies that, in the evolved case, conservation of the vector current, hence transversality of the corresponding 2-point correlator, is no longer related to the nonrenormalization, in contrast to the nonevolved case. Indeed, for small flow time the evolved vector current is conserved up to $O(t)$ softly violating effects, despite its $t$-dependent nonvanishing anomalous dimension.

[5] 2007.02299

Penrose limit for holographic duals of $ J\bar{T} $ deformations

We explore bosonic string sigma models on warped $ BTZ\times S^3 $ both in the plane wave as well as beyond plane wave limit. Using the light cone gauge, we obtain the corresponding Hamiltonian and therefore the spectrum associated with the pp wave strings. Our analysis reveals a constant shift in the spectrum arising as a result of TsT transformations along the isometries of the target space manifold. Imposing the energy positivity constraint on the CFT$ _2 $ spectrum, we estimate an upper bound on the shift. We also estimate corrections as we go beyond the plane wave limit. Finally, we perform calculations using conformal gauge which reveals identical spectrum for the pp wave strings and thereby shows the equivalence between the two approaches.

[6] 2007.02353

Topological defects and SUSY RG flow

We study the effect of bulk perturbations of N=(2,2) superconformal minimal models on topological defects. In particular, symmetries and more general topological defects which survive the flow to the IR are identified. Our method is to consider the topological subsector and make use of the Landau-Ginzburg formulation to describe RG flows and topological defects in terms of matrix factorizations.

[7] 2007.02356

Quantum magnetic monopole condensate

Despite the decades-long efforts, magnetic monopoles were never found as elementary particles. Monopoles and associated currents were directly measured in experiments and identified as topological quasiparticle excitations in emergent condensed matter systems. These monopoles and the related electric-magnetic symmetry were restricted to classical electrodynamics, with monopoles behaving as classical particles. Here we show that the electric-magnetic symmetry is most fundamental and extends to full quantum behavior. We demonstrate that at low temperatures magnetic monopoles can form a quantum Bose condensate dual to the charge Cooper pair condensate in superconductors. The monopole Bose condensate manifests as a superinsulating state with infinite resistance, dual to superconductivity. The monopole supercurrents result in the electric analog of the Meissner effect and lead to linear confinement of the Cooper pairs by Polyakov electric strings in analogy to quarks in hadrons.

[8] 2007.02412

Bound-state spectra of field theories through separation of external and internal dynamics

A general strategy is formulated for computing bound state spectra in the framework of functional renormalisation group (FRG). Dynamical "coordinates" characterising bound states are introduced as coupling parameters in the $n$-point functions of effective fields representing the bound states in an extended effective action functional. Their scale dependence is computed with functional renormalisation group equations. In the infrared an interaction potential among the constituting fields is extracted as smooth function of the coupling parameters. Eventually quantised bound state solutions are found by solving the Schr\"odinger eigenvalue problem formulated for the coupling parameters transmuted into coordinates. The proposed strategy is exemplified through the analysis of a recently published FRG study of the one-flavor chiral Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model.

[9] 2007.02518

Dressed-Asymptotic States From S-matrix and QED Large Gauge Symmetry

In order to solve the problem of the infrared (IR) divergence in the quantum field theory, the formalism proposed by Kulish and Faddeev (KF) is well-known. In the formalism, when the IR divergences appear, there remains non-trivial interaction even in the infinitely far past and future, and the asymptotic states cannot be the free particle states but the asymptotic states are dressed by infinite numbers of soft particles. Although the KF formalism is based on the Schr\"odinger picture, we construct the asymptotic states by using S-matrix keeping the asymptotic interaction that remains in far past and future as in the KF formalism. As a result, some conditions imposed by Kulish and Faddeev become unnecessary or naturally appear in our formulation. Furthermore, our asymptotic states satisfy the conditions for the gauge invariance proposed by Hirai and Sugishita based on the BRS symmetry. We also explicitly show that the IR divergences in the S-matrix of the quantum electrodynamics can be removed by using our formulation and clarify that the degrees of freedom in the gauge transformation of the asymptotic states are related to the asymptotic symmetry of the $S$-matrix. Therefore, the construction of the asymptotic states and the S-matrix in our formulation may give a new insight into the IR physics in various kinds of theories.

[10] 2007.02840

N=2 Conformal SYM theories at large N

We consider a class of N=2 conformal SU(N) SYM theories in four dimensions with matter in the fundamental, two-index symmetric and anti-symmetric representations, and study the corresponding matrix model provided by localization on a sphere S4, which also encodes information on flat-space observables involving chiral operators and circular BPS Wilson loops. We review and improve known techniques for studying the matrix model in the large-N limit, deriving explicit expressions in perturbation theory for these observables. We exploit both recursive methods in the so-called full Lie algebra approach and the more standard Cartan sub-algebra approach based on the eigenvalue distribution. The sub-class of conformal theories for which the number of fundamental hypermultiplets does not scale with N differs in the planar limit from the N=4 SYM theory only in observables involving chiral operators of odd dimension. In this case we are able to derive compact expressions which allow to push the small 't Hooft coupling expansion to very high orders. We argue that the perturbative series have a finite radius of convergence and extrapolate them numerically to intermediate couplings. This is preliminary to an analytic investigation of the strong coupling behavior, which would be very interesting given that for such theories holographic duals have been proposed.

[11] 2007.02843

The renormalization structure of $6D$, ${\cal N}=(1,0)$ supersymmetric higher-derivative gauge theory

We consider the harmonic superspace formulation of higher-derivative $6D$, ${\cal N}=(1,0)$ supersymmetric gauge theory and its minimal coupling to a hypermultiplet. In components, the kinetic term for the gauge field in such a theory involves four space-time derivatives.The theory is quantized in the framework of the superfield background method ensuring manifest $6D$, ${\cal N}=(1,0)$ supersymmetry and the classical gauge invariance of the quantum effective action. We evaluate the superficial degree of divergence and prove it to be independent of the number of loops. Using the regularization by dimensional reduction, we find possible counterterms and show that they can be removed by the coupling constant renormalization for any number of loops, while the divergences in the hypermultiplet sector are absent at all. Assuming that the deviation of the gauge-fixing term from that in the Feynman gauge is small, we explicitly calculate the divergent part of the one-loop effective action in the lowest order in this deviation. In the approximation considered, the result is independent of the gauge-fixing parameter and agrees with the earlier calculation for the theory without a hypermultiplet.

[12] 2007.02851

BMS Symmetry via AdS/CFT

With a view to understanding extended-BMS symmetries in the framework of the $AdS_4/CFT_3$ correspondence, asymptotically AdS geometries are constructed with null impulsive shockwaves involving a discontinuity in superrotation parameters. The holographic dual is proposed to be a two-dimensional Euclidean defect conformal field localized on a particular timeslice in a three-dimensional conformal field theory on de Sitter spacetime. The defect conformal field theory generates a natural action of the Virasoro algebra. The large radius of curvature limit $\ell\to\infty$ yields spacetimes with nontrivial extended-BMS charges.

[13] 2007.02858

The quantum kinetic equation and dynamical mass generation in 2+1 Dimensions

In this work, we study the relativistic quantum kinetic equations in 2+1 dimensions from Wigner function formalism by carrying out a systematic semi-classical expansion up to $\hbar$ order. The derived equations allow us to explore interesting transport phenomena in 2+1 dimensions. Within this framework, the parity-odd transport current induced by the external electromagnetic field is self-consistently derived. We also examine the dynamical mass generation by implementing four-fermion interaction with mean-field approximation. In this case, a new kind of transport current is found to be induced by the gradient of the mean-field condensate. Finally, we also utilize this framework to study the dynamical mass generation in an external magnetic field for the 2+1 dimensional system under equilibrium.

[14] 2007.02875

DGLA Dg and BV formalism

Differrential Graded Lie Algebra Dg was previously introduced in the context of current algebras. We show that under some conditions, the problem of constructing equivariantly closed form from closed invariant form is reduces to construction of a representation of Dg. This includes equivariant BV formalism. In particular, an analogue of intertwiner between Weil and Cartan models allows to clarify the general relation between integrated and unintegrated vertex operators in string worldsheet theory.

[15] 2007.01869

New Recipes for Brownian Loop Soups

We define a large new class of conformal primary operators in the ensemble of Brownian loops in two dimensions known as the ``Brownian loop soup,'' and compute their correlation functions analytically and in closed form. The loop soup is a conformally invariant statistical ensemble with central charge $c = 2 \lambda$, where $\lambda > 0$ is the intensity of the soup. Previous work identified exponentials of the layering operator $e^{i \beta N(z)}$ as primary operators. Each Brownian loop was assigned $\pm 1$ randomly, and $N(z)$ was defined to be the sum of these numbers over all loops that encircle the point $z$. These exponential operators then have conformal dimension ${\frac{\lambda}{10}}(1 - \cos \beta)$. Here we generalize this procedure by assigning a more general random value to each loop. The operator $e^{i \beta N(z)}$ remains primary with conformal dimension $\frac {\lambda}{10}(1 - \phi(\beta))$, where $\phi(\beta)$ is the characteristic function of the probability distribution used to assign random values to each loop. Using recent results we compute in closed form the exact two-point functions in the upper half-plane and four-point functions in the full plane of this very general class of operators. These correlation functions depend analytically on the parameters $\lambda, \beta_i, z_i$, and on the characteristic function $\phi(\beta)$. They satisfy the conformal Ward identities and are crossing symmetric. As in previous work, the conformal block expansion of the four-point function reveals the existence of additional and as-yet uncharacterized conformal primary operators.

[16] 2007.01881

Classical/quantum correspondence for pseudo-hermitian systems

In this work, a classical/quantum correspondence for a pseudo-hermitian system with finite energy levels is proposed and analyzed. We show that the presence of a complex external field can be described by a pseudo-hermitian Hamiltonian if there is a suitable canonical transformation that links it to a real field. We construct a covariant quantization scheme which maps canonically related pseudoclassical theories to unitarily equivalent quantum realizations, such that there is a unique metric-inducing isometry between the distinct Hilbert spaces. In this setting, the pseudo-hermiticity condition for the operators induces an involution which guarantees the reality of the corresponding symbols, even for the complex field case. We assign a physical meaning for the dynamics in the presence of a complex field by constructing a classical correspondence. As an application of our theoretical framework, we propose a damped version of the Rabi problem and determine the configuration of the parameters of the setup for which damping is completely suppressed.

[17] 2007.01912

Flag manifold sigma models from SU($n$) chains

One dimensional SU($n$) chains with the same irreducible representation $\mathcal{R}$ at each site are considered. We determine which $\mathcal{R}$ admit low-energy mappings to a $\text{SU}(n)/[\text{U}(1)]^{n-1}$ flag manifold sigma model, and calculate the topological angles for such theories. Generically, these models will have fields with both linear and quadratic dispersion relations; for each $\mathcal{R}$, we determine how many fields of each dispersion type there are. Finally, for purely linearly-dispersing theories, we list the irreducible representations that also possess a $\mathbb{Z}_n$ symmetry that acts transitively on the $\text{SU}(n)/[\text{U}(1)]^{n-1}$ fields. Such SU($n$) chains have an 't Hooft anomaly in certain cases, allowing for a generalization of Haldane's conjecture to these novel representations. In particular, for even $n$ and for representations whose Young tableaux have two rows, of lengths $p_1$ and $p_2$ satisfying $p_1\not=p_2$, we predict a gapless ground state when $p_1+p_2$ is coprime with $n$. Otherwise, we predict a gapped ground state that necessarily has spontaneously broken symmetry if $p_1+p_2$ is not a multiple of $n$.

[18] 2007.01945

Rastall's theory of gravity: Spherically symmetric solutions and the stability problem

We study the stability of static, spherically symmetric solutions of Rastall's theory in the presence of a scalar field with respect to spherically symmetric perturbations. It is shown that the stability analysis is inconsistent in the sense that linear time-dependent perturbations cannot exist, and we can conclude that these solutions are stable. Possible reasons for this inconsistency are discussed.

[19] 2007.01998

Numerical computations of next-to-leading order corrections in spinfoam large-$j$ asymptotics

The next-to-leading order correction is studied numerically in the large-$j$ expansion of the Lorentzian Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) 4-simplex amplitude. We perform large-$j$ expansions of Lorentzian EPRL 4-simplex amplitudes with two different types of boundary states: coherent intertwiners and the coherent spin-network, and we compute numerically leading order and next-to-leading $O(1/j)$ contributions of these amplitudes. Dependences of their $O(1/j)$ corrections on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter $\gamma$ are studied, and we show that they, as functions of $\gamma$, stabilize to finite real constants as $\gamma\to\infty$. In addition, we obtain quantum corrections to the Regge action from the $O(1/j)$ contribution of the spinfoam amplitude.

[20] 2007.02229

Bilayer graphene coherent states

In this paper we consider the interaction of electrons in bilayer graphene with a constant homogeneous magnetic field which is orthogonal to the bilayer surface. Departing from the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian, the corresponding coherent states will be constructed. For doing this, first we will determine appropriate creation and annihilation operators in order to subsequently derive the coherent states as eigenstates of the annihilation operator with complex eigenvalue. Then, we will calculate some physical quantities, as the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, the probabilities and current density as well as the mean energy value. Finally, we will explore the time evolution for these states and we will compare it with the corresponding evolution for monolayer graphene coherent states.

[21] 2007.02309

Non-Minimally Coupled Einstein Gauss Bonnet Inflation Phenomenology in View of GW170817

We study the inflationary phenomenology of a non-minimally coupled Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory, in the presence of a scalar potential, under the condition that the gravitational wave speed of the primordial gravitational waves is equal to unity, that is $c_T^2=1$, in natural units. The equations of motion, which are derived directly from the gravitational action, form a system of differential equations with respect to Hubble's parameter and the inflaton field which are very complicated and cannot be solved analytically, even in the minimal coupling case. In this paper, we present a variety of different approximations which could be used, along with the constraint $c_T^2=1$, in order to produce an inflationary phenomenology compatible with recent observations. All the different approaches are able to lead to viable results if the model coupling functions obey simple relations, however, different approaches contain different approximations which must be obeyed during the first horizon crossing, in order for the model to be rendered correct. Models which may lead to a non-viable phenomenology are presented as well in order to understand better the inner framework of this theory. Furthermore, since the velocity of the gravitational waves is set equal to $c_T^2=1$, as stated by the striking event of GW170817 recently, the non-minimal coupling function, the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupling and the scalar potential are related to each other. Here, we shall assume no particular form of the scalar potential and we choose freely the scalar functions coupled to the Ricci scalar and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Certain models are also studied in order to assess the phenomenological validity of the theory, but we need to note that all approximations must hold true in order for a particular model to be valid.

[22] 2007.02369

Interplay between Swampland and Bayesian Machine Learning in constraining cosmological models

Constraints on a dark energy dominated Universe are obtained from an interplay between Bayesian Machine Learning and string Swampland criteria. The approach here differs from previous studies, since in the generative process Swampland criteria are used and, only later, the results of the fit are validated, by using observational data-sets. A generative process based Bayesian Learning approach is applied to two models and the results are validated by means of available $H(z)$ data. For the first model, a parametrization of the Hubble constant is considered and, for the second, a parametrization of the deceleration parameter. This study is motivated by a recent work, where constraints on string Swampland criteria have been obtained from a Gaussian Process and $H(z)$ data. However, the results obtained here are fully independent of the observational data and allow to estimate how the high-redshift behavior of the Universe will affect the low-redshift one. Moreover, both parameterizations in the generative process, for the Hubble and for the deceleration parameters, are independent of the dark energy model. The outcome, both data- and dark energy model-independent, may highlight, in the future, the borders of the Swampland for the low-redshift Universe and help to develop new string-theory motivated dark-energy models. The string Swampland criteria considered might be in tension with recent observations indicating that phantom dark energy cannot be in the Swampland. Finally, a spontaneous sign switch in the dark energy equation of state parameter is observed when the field traverses are in the $z\in[0,5]$ redshift range, a remarkable phenomenon requiring further analysis.

[23] 2007.02395

Gravitational Particle Production in Loop Quantum Cosmology

We investigate the gravitational particle production in the bounce phase of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). We perform both analytical and numerical analysis of the particle production process in a LQC scenario with Bunch-Davies vacuum initial condition in the contracting phase. We obtain that if we extend the validity of the dressed metric approach beyond the limit of small backreaction in which it is well justified, this process would lead to a radiation dominated phase in the pre-inflationary phase of LQC. Our results indicate that the test field approximation, which is required in the truncation scheme used in the dressed metric approach, might not be a valid assumption in a LQC scenario with such initial conditions.

[24] 2007.02436

Modeling Dark Matter Halos with Nonlinear Field Theories

In the present work, we adopt a nonlinear scalar field theory coupled to the gravity sector to model galactic dark matter. We found analytical solutions for the scalar field coupled to gravity in the Newtonian limit, assuming an isotropic spacetime and a field potential, with a position dependent form of the superpotential, which entails the nonlinear dynamics of the model with self-interactions. The model introduces a position dependent enhancement of the self-interaction of the scalar fields towards the galaxy center, and while going towards the galaxy border the interaction tends to vanish building a non self-interacting DM scenario. The developed approach is able to provide a reasonable analytical description of the rotation curves in both dwarf and low surface brightness late-type galaxies, with parameters associated with the dynamics of the scalar field.

[25] 2007.02507

On the Chern character in Higher Twisted K-theory and spherical T-duality

In this paper, we construct for higher twists that arise from cohomotopy classes, the Chern character in higher twisted K-theory, that maps into higher twisted cohomology. We show that it gives rise to an isomorphism between higher twisted K-theory and higher twisted cohomology over the reals. Finally we compute spherical T-duality in higher twisted K-theory and higher twisted cohomology in very general cases.

[26] 2007.02655

U(1) mixing and the Weak Gravity Conjecture

Tiny values for gauge couplings of dark photons allow to suppress their kinetic mixing with ordinary photons. We point out that the Weak Gravity Conjecture predicts consequently low ultraviolet cut-offs where new degrees of freedom might appear. In particular, a mixing angle of $\mathcal{O}(10^{-15})$, required in order to fit the excess reported by XENON1T, corresponds to new physics below $\mathcal{O}(100)$ TeV, thus accessible at a Future Circular Collider. We show that possible realizations are provided by compactifications with six large extra dimensions and a string scale of order $\mathcal{O}(100)$ TeV.

[27] 2007.02828

Long range enhanced mutual information from inflation

The quantum origin of cosmological primordial perturbations is a cornerstone framework in the interplay between gravity and quantum physics. In this paper we study the mutual information between two spatial regions in a radiation-dominated universe filled by a curvature perturbation field in a squeezed state. We find an enhancement with respect to the usual mutual information of the Minkowski vacuum due to momentum modes affected by particle production during inflation. This result supports our previous claim of the existence of quantum entanglement between Primordial Black Holes (PBH) at formation during the radiation era.

[28] 2007.02887

Probing the Post-Minkowskian Approximation using Recursive Addition of Self-Interactions

We address the problem of deriving the post-Minkowskian approximation, widely used in current gravitational wave literature by investigating a possible deduction out of the recursive N\"other coupling approach, from the Pauli-Fierz spin 2 theory in flat spacetime. We find that this approach yields the post-Minkowskian approximation correctly to the first three orders, without invoking any weak-field limit of general relativity. This connection thus establishes that the post-Minkowskian approximation has a connotation independent of a weak-field expansion of general relativity, which is the manner it is usually presented in the literature. As a consequence, a link manifests between the recursive N\"other coupling approach to deriving general relativity from a linear spin 2 theory in flat spacetime, and theoretical analyses of recent detection of gravitational wave events.