New articles on High Energy Physics - Theory

[1] 2406.06681

Wrong Signs are Alright

It has been shown that some Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories, such as those with higher-dimensional operators with negative coefficients, lead to superluminality on some classical backgrounds. While superluminality by itself is not logically inconsistent, these theories also predict the formation of closed time-like curves at the classical level, starting from initial conditions without such curves. This leads to the formation of a Cauchy Horizon which prevents a complete description of the time evolution of such systems. Inspired by the chronology protection arguments of General Relativity, we show that quantum mechanical effects from low energy quanta strongly backreact on such configurations, exciting unknown short-distance degrees of freedom and invalidating the classical predictions. Thus, there is no obvious low-energy obstruction to the existence of these operators.

[2] 2406.06685

Transient dynamics of quasinormal mode sums

Quasinormal modes of spacetimes with event horizons are typically governed by a non-normal operator. This gives rise to spectral instabilities, a topic of recent interest in the black hole pseudospectrum programme. In this work we show that non-normality leads to the existence of arbitrarily long-lived sums of short-lived quasinormal modes, corresponding to localising packets of energy near the future horizon. There exist sums of $M$ quasinormal modes whose lifetimes scale as $\log{M}$. This transient behaviour results from large cancellations between non-orthogonal quasinormal modes. We provide simple closed-form examples for a massive scalar field in the static patch of dS$_{d+1}$ and the BTZ black hole. We also provide numerical examples for scalar perturbations of Schwarzschild-AdS$_{d+1}$, and gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild in asymptotically flat spacetime, using hyperboloidal foliations. The existence of these perturbations is linked to certain properties of black hole pseudospectra. We comment on implications for thermalisation times in holographic plasmas.

[3] 2406.06686

Anomalies in Covariant Fracton Theories

Covariant (Lorentz invariant) fracton matter, minimally coupled and charged under a symmetric rank two gauge tensor, is considered. The gauge transformations correspond to linearised longitudinal diffeomorphisms. Consistent anomalies are computed using the BRST cohomological method. They depend only on the gauge field, treated as a background field, and on the gauge parameter, promoted to an anticommuting scalar ghost field. The problem is phrased in terms of polyforms, whose total degree is the sum of the form degree and of the ghost number. The most general anomaly in two dimensions and in four dimensions is computed and an anomaly in arbitrary dimension is individuated. In conclusion, it is shown that a simple higher-derivative scalar field theory is an example of covariant fracton matter. The model enjoys a global symmetry, which can be anomalous.

[4] 2406.06690

Boundary operators in asymptotically flat space-time

In arXiv:2311.03443 the authors have proposed an interesting framework for studying holography in flat space-time. In this note we explore the relationship between their proposal and the Celestial Holography. In particular, we find that in both the massive and in the massless cases the asymptotic boundary limit of the bulk time-ordered Green's function $G$ is related to the Celestial amplitudes by an integral transformation. In the massless case the integral transformation reduces to the well known \textit{shadow transformation} of the celestial amplitude. Now the relation between the asymptotic limit of $G$ and the celestial amplitudes suggests that in asymptotically flat space-time if the scattering states are described by the conformal primary basis (and it's analytic continuation in dimension $\Delta$) then the boundary operators holographically dual to the (massless) bulk fields are given by the \underline{shadow transformation} of the conformal primary operators living on the celestial sphere. In other words, conformal primary operators themselves are not boundary operators but their shadows are. This is consistent with the fact that in celestial holography the boundary stress tensor is given by the shadow transformation of the subleading soft graviton.

[5] 2406.06704

Exploring new constraints on Kahler moduli space of 6d N = 1 Supergravity

We propose new constraints for 6d (1, 0) supergravity theories based on consistency conditions on the Kahler moduli spaces of their 5d reductions. The requirement that both the metric and the BPS string tensions in the Kahler moduli space are positive imposes specific restrictions on the Chern-Simons coefficients in the 5d effective Lagrangians that are derived from the Kaluza-Klein reductions of 6d theories. Moreover, the emergence of local interacting 5d CFTs when the moduli space metric degenerates introduces additional constraints coming from the analysis of 5d SCFTs. Focusing on the moduli spaces of 6d supergravity theories without a tensor multiplet and their Higgsings, we show that these constraints require the presence of certain primary states in the 2d worldvolume CFTs on 1/2 BPS strings. We specifically analyze a class of SU(2) models and infinite families of U(1) models using these constraints, and demonstrate that the theories featuring a 1-form symmetry in their massless spectra, unless the 1-form symmetry is gauged, fail to satisfy the constraints and therefore belong to the Swampland.

[6] 2406.06862

Dispersive interaction between two atoms in Proca Quantum Electrodynamics

We analyze the influence of a massive photon in the dispersive interaction between two atoms in their fundamental states. We work in the context of Proca Quantum Electrodynamics. The photon mass not only introduces a new length scale but also gives rise to a longitudinal polarization for the electromagnetic field. We obtain explicitly the interaction energy between the atoms for any distance regime and consider several particular cases. We show that, for a given interatomic distance, the greater the photon mass the better it is the non-retarded approximation.

[7] 2406.06875

Random Disks of Constant Curvature: the Lattice Story

We lay the groundwork for a UV-complete formulation of the Euclidean Jackiw-Teitelboim two-dimensional models of quantum gravity when the boundary lengths are finite, emphasizing the discretized approach. The picture that emerges is qualitatively new. For the disk topology, the problem reduces to counting so-called self-overlapping curves, that are closed loops that bound a distorted disk, with an appropriate multiplicity. We build a matrix model that does the correct counting. The theories in negative, zero and positive curvatures have the same UV description but drastically different macroscopic properties. The Schwarzian theory emerges in the limit of very large and negative cosmological constant in the negative curvature model, as an effective theory valid on distance scales much larger than the curvature length scale. In positive curvature, we argue that large geometries are ubiquitous and that the theory exists only for positive cosmological constant. Our discussion is pedagogical and includes a review of several relevant topics.

[8] 2406.06923

Starobinsky inflation and Swampland conjectures

This paper is devoted to memory of late Professor V. G. Bagrov, who was my first teacher in theoretical physics. About 45 years later, theoretical physics has changed and me too. The subject of this paper relates some old ideas in cosmology with some recent ideas, as is reflected in the title. The current status of Starobinsky inflation is reviewed and compared to three main conjectures in the Swampland program. It is argued that the Starobinsky inflation model is not in conflict with those Swampland conjectures in their basic versions.

[9] 2406.06961

Non-Hermitian spacetime and generalized thermofield double formalism

In this paper, we explore the non-Hermitian transition matrix and its gravity dual. States in quantum field theories or gravity theories are typically prepared using Euclidean path integrals. We demonstrate that it is both natural and necessary to introduce non-Hermitian transitions to describe the state when employing different inner products in Euclidean quantum field theories. Transition matrices that are $\eta$-pseudo-Hermitian, with $\eta$ being positive-definite, play the same role as density matrices, where the operator $\eta$ is closely related to the definition of the inner product. Moreover, there exists a one-to-one correspondence between these transition matrices and density matrices. In the context of AdS/CFT correspondence, the Euclidean path integral in the boundary field theory can be translated to the bulk gravitational path integral. We provide an overview of the construction and interpretation of non-Hermitian spacetime. Specifically, we demonstrate the crucial role of the non-Hermitian transition matrix in realizing the thermofield concept in general cases and in understanding the gravity states dual to the eternal black hole. In this context, the pseudoentropy of the transition matrix can also be interpreted as black hole entropy. Finally, we highlight the strong subadditivity property of pseudoentropy, and the connection between non-Hermitian transition matrices and complex metrics.

[10] 2406.06996

Lorentz-violating extension of Wigner function formalism and chiral kinetic theory

The quantum kinetic equation for the gauge-invariant Wigner function, constructed from spinor fields that obey the Dirac equation modified by CPT and Lorentz symmetry-violating terms, is presented. The equations for the components of Wigner function in the Clifford algebra basis are accomplished. Focusing on the massless case, an extended semiclassical chiral kinetic theory in the presence of external electromagnetic fields is developed. We calculate the chiral currents and establish the anomalous magnetic and separation effects in a Lorentz-violating background. The chiral anomaly within the context of extended Quantum Electrodynamics is elucidated. Finally, we derive the semiclassical Lorentz-violating extended chiral transport equation.

[11] 2406.07101

Quantum Corner Symmetry: Representations and Gluing

The corner symmetry algebra organises the physical charges induced by gravity on codimension-$2$ corners of a manifold. In this letter, we initiate a study of the quantum properties of this group. We first describe the central extensions and how the quantum corner symmetry group arises. We then classify the Casimirs and the induced unitary irreducible representation. We finally discuss the gluing of corners, achieved identifying the maximal commuting sub-algebra. This is a concrete implementation of the gravitational constraints at the quantum level, via the entangling product.

[12] 2406.07134

Categories of Line Defects and Cohomological Hall Algebras

Any four-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Field Theory with eight supercharges can be associated to a monoidal category of BPS line defects. Any Coulomb vacuum of such a theory can be conjecturally associated to an "algebra of BPS particles'', exemplified by certain Cohomological Hall Algebras. We conjecture the existence of a monoidal functor from the category of line defects to a certain category of bimodules for the BPS Algebra in any Coulomb vacuum. We describe images of simple objects under the conjectural functor and study their monoidal structure in examples. As we vary the choice of vacuum, we expect the collection of functors associated to any given theory to capture the full information of the original monoidal category of lines.

[13] 2406.07334

Fractonic solids

Fractons are exotic quasiparticles whose mobility in space is restricted by symmetries. In potential real-world realisations, fractons are likely lodged to a physical material rather than absolute space. Motivated by this, we propose and explore a new symmetry principle that restricts the motion of fractons relative to a physical solid. Unlike models with restricted mobility in absolute space, these fractonic solids admit gauge-invariant momentum density, are compatible with boost symmetry, and can consistently be coupled to gravity. We also propose a holographic model for fractonic solids.

[14] 2406.07395

Holographic reconstruction of black hole spacetime: machine learning and entanglement entropy

We investigate the bulk reconstruction of AdS black hole spacetime emergent from quantum entanglement within a machine learning framework. Utilizing neural ordinary differential equations alongside Monte-Carlo integration, we develop a method tailored for continuous training functions to extract the general isotropic bulk metric from entanglement entropy data. To validate our approach, we first apply our machine learning algorithm to holographic entanglement entropy data derived from the Gubser-Rocha and superconductor models, which serve as representative models of strongly coupled matters in holography. Our algorithm successfully extracts the corresponding bulk metrics from these data. Additionally, we extend our methodology to many-body systems by employing entanglement entropy data from a fermionic tight-binding chain at half filling, exemplifying critical one-dimensional systems, and derive the associated bulk metric. We find that the metrics for a tight-binding chain and the Gubser-Rocha model are similar. We speculate this similarity is due to the metallic property of these models.

[15] 2406.07434

RE-algebras, quasi-determinants and the full Toda system

In 1991, Gelfand and Retakh embodied the idea of a noncommutative Dieudonne determinant in the case of RTT algebra, namely, they found a representation of the quantum determinant of RTT algebra in the form of a product of principal quasi-determinants. In this note we construct an analogue of the above statement for the RE-algebra corresponding to the Drinfeld R-matrix for the order $n=2,3$. Namely, we have found a family of quasi-determinants that are principal with respect to the antidiagonal, commuting among themselves, whose product turns out to be the quantum determinant of this algebra. This family generalizes the construction of integrals of the full Toda system due to Deift et al. for the quantum case of RE-algebras. In our opinion, this result also clarifies the role of RE-algebras as a quantum homogeneous spaces and can be used to construct effective quantum field theories with a boundary.

[16] 2406.07458

Resummation of Multi-Stress Tensors in Higher Dimensions

In the context of holographic conformal field theories (CFTs), a system of linear partial differential equations was recently proposed to be the higher-dimensional analogs of the null-state equations in $d=2$ CFTs at large central charge. Solving these equations in a near-lightcone expansion yields solutions that match the minimal-twist multi-stress tensor contributions to a heavy-light four-point correlator (or a thermal two-point correlator) computed using holography, the conformal bootstrap, and other methods. This note explores the exact solutions to these equations. We begin by observing that, in an expansion in terms of the ratio between the heavy operator's dimension and the central charge, the $d=2$ correlator involving the level-two degenerate scalars at each order can be represented as a Bessel function; the resummation yields the Virasoro vacuum block. We next observe a relation between the $d=2$ correlator and the $d=4$ near-lightcone correlator involving light scalars with the same conformal dimension. The resummed $d=4$ correlator takes a simple form in the complex frequency domain. Unlike the Virasoro vacuum block, the resummation in $d=4$ leads to essential singularities. Similar expressions are also obtained when the light scalar's dimension takes other finite values. These CFT results correspond to a holographic computation with a spherical black hole. In addition, using the differential equations, we demonstrate that the correlators can be reconstructed via certain modes. In $d=2$, these modes are related to the Virasoro algebra.

[17] 2405.21002

The Renormalization Group for Large-Scale Structure: Primordial non-Gaussianities

The renormalization group for large-scale structure (RG-LSS) describes the evolution of galaxy bias and stochastic parameters as a function of the cutoff $\Lambda$. In this work, we introduce interaction vertices that describe primordial non-Gaussianity into the Wilson-Polchinski framework, thereby extending the free theory to the interacting case. The presence of these interactions forces us to include new operators and bias coefficients to the bias expansion to ensure closure under renormalization. We recover the previously-derived ``scale-dependent bias'' contributions, as well as a new (subdominant) stochastic contribution. We derive the renormalization group equations governing the RG-LSS for a large class of interactions which account for vertices at linear order in $f_{\rm NL}$ that parametrize interacting scalar and massive spinning fields during inflation. Solving the RG equations, we show the evolution of the non-Gaussian contributions to galaxy clustering as a function of scale.

[18] 2406.06673

Instanton Density Operator in Lattice QCD from Higher Category Theory

A natural definition for instanton density operator in lattice QCD has been long desired. We show this problem is, and has to be, resolved by higher category theory. The problem is resolved by refining at a conceptual level the Yang-Mills theory on lattice, in order to recover the homotopy information in the continuum, which would have been lost if we put the theory on lattice in the traditional way. The refinement needed is a generalization -- through the lens of higher category theory -- of the familiar process of Villainization that captures winding in lattice XY model and Dirac quantization in lattice Maxwell theory. The apparent difference is that Villainization is in the end described by principal bundles, hence familiar, but more general topological operators can only be captured on the lattice by more flexible structures beyond the usual group theory and fibre bundles, hence the language of categories becomes natural and necessary. The key structure we need for our particular problem is called multiplicative bundle gerbe, based upon which we can construct suitable structures to naturally define the 2d Wess-Zumino-Witten term, 3d skyrmion density operator and 4d hedgehog defect for lattice $S^3$ (pion vacua) non-linear sigma model, and the 3d Chern-Simons term, 4d instanton density operator and 5d Yang monopole defect for lattice $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory. In a broader perspective, higher category theory enables us to rethink more systematically the relation between continuum quantum field theory and lattice quantum field theory. We sketch a proposal towards a general machinery that constructs the suitably refined lattice degrees of freedom for a given non-linear sigma model or gauge theory in the continuum, realizing the desired topological operators on the lattice.

[19] 2406.06695

On the Equivalence of Generalized Ricci Curvatures

We prove the equivalence between the several notions of generalized Ricci curvature found in the literature. As an application, we characterize when the total generalized Ricci tensor is symmetric.

[20] 2406.06696

Inflaton Production of Scalar Dark Matter through Fluctuations and Scattering

We study the effects on particle production of a Planck-suppressed coupling between the inflaton and a scalar dark matter candidate, $\chi$. In the absence of this coupling, the dominant source for the relic density of $\chi$ is the long wavelength modes produced from the scalar field fluctuations during inflation. In this case, there are strong constraints on the mass of the scalar and the reheating temperature after inflation from the present-day relic density of $\chi$ (assuming $\chi$ is stable). When a coupling $\sigma \phi^2 \chi^2$ is introduced, with $\sigma = {\tilde \sigma} m_\phi^2/ M_P^2 \sim 10^{-10} {\tilde \sigma}$, where $m_\phi$ is the inflaton mass, the allowed parameter space begins to open up considerably even for ${\tilde \sigma}$ as small as $\gtrsim 10^{-7}$. For ${\tilde \sigma} \gtrsim \frac{9}{16}$, particle production is dominated by the scattering of the inflaton condensate, either through single graviton exchange or the contact interaction between $\phi$ and $\chi$. In this regime, the range of allowed masses and reheating temperatures is maximal. For $0.004 < {\tilde \sigma} < 50$, constraints from isocurvature fluctuations are satisfied, and the production from parametric resonance can be neglected.

[21] 2406.06698

Ferromagnets, a New Anomaly, Instantons, and (noninvertible) Continuous Translations

We discuss a large class of classical field theories with continuous translation symmetry. In the quantum theory, a new anomaly explicitly breaks this translation symmetry to a discrete symmetry. Furthermore, this discrete translation symmetry is extended by a d-2-form global symmetry. All these theories can be described as U(1) gauge theories where Gauss law states that the system has nonzero charge density. Special cases of such systems can be phrased as theories with a compact phase space. Examples are ferromagnets and lattices in the lowest Landau level. In some cases, the broken continuous translation symmetry can be resurrected as a noninvertible symmetry. We clarify the relation between the discrete translation symmetry of the continuum theory and the discrete translation symmetry of an underlying lattice model. Our treatment unifies, clarifies, and extends earlier works on the same subject.

[22] 2406.06745

Universal properties of the evolution of the Universe in modified loop quantum cosmology

In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of the Universe in the framework of a modified loop quantum cosmological model (mLQC-I) with various inflationary potentials, including chaotic, Starobinsky, generalized Starobinsky, polynomials of the first and second kinds, generalized T- models and natural inflation. In all these models, the big bang singularity is represented by a quantum bounce, and the evolution of the Universe both before and after the bounce is universal and weakly depends on the inflationary potentials, as long as the evolution is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the bounce. In particular, the evolution in the pre-bounce region can be universally divided into three different phases: pre-bouncing, pre-transition, and pre-de Sitter. The pre-bouncing phase occurs immediately before the quantum bounce, during which the evolution of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton. Thus, the equation of state of the inflaton is about one, w = 1. Soon, the inflation potential takes over, so w rapidly falls from one to negative one. This pre-transition phase is very short and quickly turns into the pre-de Sitter phase, whereby the effective cosmological constant with a Planck size takes over and dominates the rest of the contracting phase. In the entire pre-bounce regime, the evolution of the expansion factor and the inflaton can be approximated by analytical solutions, which are universal and independent of the inflation potentials.

[23] 2406.06758

Vacuum polarization and Wichmann-Kroll correction in the finite basis set approximation

The finite basis set method is commonly used to calculate atomic spectra, including QED contributions such as bound-electron self-energy. Still, it remains problematic and underexplored for vacuum-polarization calculations. We fill this gap by trying this approach in its application to the calculation of the vacuum-polarization charge density and the Wichmann-Kroll correction to the electron binding energy in a hydrogen-like ion. We study the convergence of the method with different types and sizes of basis sets. We cross-check our results for the Wichmann-Kroll correction by direct integration of the Green's function. As a relevant example, we consider several heavy hydrogen-like ions and evaluate the vacuum polarization correction for $S$ and $P$ electron orbitals.

[24] 2406.07106

Displacement versus velocity memory effects from a gravitational plane wave

This article demonstrates that additionally to the well-known velocity memory effect, a vacuum gravitational plane wave can also induce a displacement memory on a couple of test particles. A complete classification of the conditions under which a velocity or a displacement memory effect occur is established. These conditions depend both the initial conditions of the relative motion and on the wave profile. The two cases where the wave admits a pulse or a step profile are treated. Our analytical expressions are then compared to numerical integrations to exhibit either a velocity or a displacement memory, in the case of these two families of profiles. Additionally to this classification, the existence of a new symmetry of polarized vacuum gravitational plane wave under M\"{o}bius reparametrization of the null time is demonstrated. Finally, we discuss the resolution of the geodesic deviation equation by means of the underlying symmetries of vacuum gravitational plane wave.

[25] 2406.07128

Rigidity of the extremal Kerr-Newman horizon

We prove that the intrinsic geometry of compact cross-sections of an extremal horizon in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory must admit a Killing vector field or is static. This implies that any such horizon must be an extremal Kerr-Newman horizon and completes the classification of the associated near-horizon geometries. The same results hold with a cosmological constant.

[26] 2406.07211

Contributions of QED diagrams with vacuum polarization insertions to the lepton anomaly within the Mellin--Barnes representation

We investigate the radiative QED corrections to the lepton ($L=e,~\mu$ and $\tau$) anomalous magnetic moment arising from vacuum polarization diagrams by four closed lepton loops. The method is based on the consecutive application of dispersion relations for the polarization operator and the Mellin--Barnes transform for the propagators of massive particles. This allows one to obtain, for the first time, exact analytical expressions for the radiative corrections to the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons from diagrams with insertions of four identical lepton loops all of the same type $\ell$ different from the external one, $L$. The result is expressed in terms of the mass ratio $r=m_\ell/m_L$. We investigate the behaviour of the exact analytical expressions at $r\to 0$ and $r\to \infty$ and compare with the corresponding asymptotic expansions known in the literature.

[27] 2406.07321

The magic of entangled top quarks

Recent years have seen an increasing body of work examining how quantum entanglement can be measured at high energy particle physics experiments, thereby complementing traditional table-top experiments. This begs the question of whether more concepts from quantum computation can be examined at colliders, and we here consider the property of magic, which distinguishes those quantum states which have a genuine computational advantage over classical states. We examine top anti-top pair production at the LHC, showing that nature chooses to produce magic tops, where the amount of magic varies with the kinematics of the final state. We compare results for individual partonic channels and at proton-level, showing that averaging over final states typically increases magic. This is in contrast to entanglement measures, such as the concurrence, which typically decrease. Our results create new links between the quantum information and particle physics literatures, providing practical insights for further study.

[28] 2406.07391

Any topological recursion on a rational spectral curve is KP integrable

We prove that for any initial data on a genus zero spectral curve the corresponding correlation differentials of topological recursion are KP integrable. As an application we prove KP integrability of partition functions associated via ELSV-type formulas to the $r$-th roots of the twisted powers of the log canonical bundles.

[29] 2406.07526

Cosmological constraints on $Λ_{\rm s}$CDM scenario in a type II minimally modified gravity

The idea of a rapid sign-switching cosmological constant (mirror AdS-dS transition) in the late universe at $z\sim1.7$, known as the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM model, has significantly improved the fit to observational data and provides a promising scenario for alleviating major cosmological tensions, such as the $H_0$ and $S_8$ tensions. However, in the absence of a fully predictive model, implementing this fit required conjecturing that the dynamics of the linear perturbations are governed by general relativity. Recent work embedding the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM model with the Lagrangian of a type-II minimally modified gravity known as VCDM has propelled $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM to a fully predictive model, removing the uncertainty related to the aforementioned assumption; we call this new model $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM. In this work, we demonstrate that not only does $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM fit the data better than the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, but the new model, $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM, performs even better in alleviating cosmological tensions while also providing a better fit to the data, including CMB, BAO, SNe Ia, and Cosmic Shear measurements. Our findings highlight the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM framework, particularly the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM model, as a compelling alternative to the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, especially by successfully alleviating the $H_0$ tension. Additionally, these models predict higher values for $\sigma_8$, indicating enhanced structuring, albeit with lower present-day matter density parameter values and consequently reduced $S_8$ values, alleviating the $S_8$ tension as well. This demonstrates that the data are well fit by a combination of background and linear perturbations, both having dynamics differing from those of $\Lambda$CDM. This paves the way for further exploration of new ways for embedding the sign-switching cosmological constant into other models.