New articles on High Energy Physics - Theory

[1] 2208.07372

On the Entropy of Strings and Branes

We show that the entropy of strings that wind around the Euclidean time circle is proportional to the Noether charge associated with translations along the T-dual time direction. We consider an effective target-space field theory which includes a large class of terms in the action with various modes, interactions and $\alpha'$ corrections. The entropy and the Noether charge are shown to depend only on the values of fields at the boundary of space. The classical entropy, which is proportional to the inverse of Newton's constant, is then calculated by evaluating the appropriate boundary term for various geometries with and without a horizon. We verify, in our framework, that for higher-curvature pure gravity theories, the Wald entropy of static neutral black hole solutions is equal to the entropy derived from the Gibbons-Hawking boundary term. We then proceed to discuss horizonless geometries which contain, due to the back-reaction of the strings and branes, a second boundary in addition to the asymptotic boundary. Near this ``punctured'' boundary, the time-time component of the metric and the derivatives of its logarithm approach zero. Assuming that there are such non-singular solutions, we identify the entropy of the strings and branes in this geometry with the entropy of the solution to all orders in $\alpha'$. If the asymptotic region of an $\alpha'$-corrected neutral black hole is connected through the bulk to a puncture, then the black hole entropy is equal to the entropy of the strings and branes. Later, we discuss configurations similar to the charged black p-brane solutions of Horowitz and Strominger, with the second boundary, and show that, to leading order in the $\alpha'$ expansion, the classical entropy of the strings and branes is equal exactly to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This result is extended to a configuration that asymptotes to AdS.

[2] 2208.07373

Non-Invertible Symmetries from Holography and Branes

We propose a systematic approach to deriving symmetry generators of Quantum Field Theories in holography. Central to this are the Gauss law constraints in the Hamiltonian quantization of Symmetry Topological Field Theories (SymTFTs), which are obtained from supergravity. In turn we realize the symmetry generators from world-volume theories of D-branes in holography. Our main focus is on non-invertible symmetries, which have emerged in the past year as a new type of symmetry in $d\geq 4$ QFTs. We exemplify our proposal in the holographic confinement setup, dual to 4d $\mathcal{N}=1$ Super-Yang Mills. In the brane-picture, the fusion of non-invertible symmetries naturally arises from the Myers effect on D-branes. In turn, their action on line defects is modeled by the Hanany-Witten effect.

[3] 2208.07383

Local Neumann semitransparent layers: resummation, pair production and duality

We consider local semitransparent Neumann boundary conditions for a quantum scalar field as imposed by a quadratic coupling to a source localized on a flat codimension-one surface. Upon a proper regularization to give meaning to the interaction, we interpret the effective action as a theory in a first-quantized phase space. We compute the relevant heat-kernel to all order in a homogeneous background and to quadratic order in perturbations, giving a closed expression for the corresponding effective action in $D=4$. In the dynamical case, we analyze the pair production caused by a harmonic perturbation and by a Sauter pulse. Notably, we prove the existence of a strong/weak duality that links this Neumann field theory to the analogue Dirichlet one.

[4] 2208.07385

Infrared finite semi-inclusive cross section in two dimensional type 0B string theory

D-instanton induced S-matrix in type 0B string theory in two dimensions suffers from infrared divergences. This can be traced to the fact that these processes produce low energy rolling tachyon states that cannot be regarded as linear combination of a finite number of closed string states. We compute semi-inclusive cross sections in this theory where we allow in the final state a fixed set of closed strings carrying given energies and any number of other closed string states carrying the rest of the energy. The result is infrared finite and agrees with the results in the dual matrix model, described by non-relativistic fermions moving in an inverted harmonic oscillator potential. In the matrix model the role of `any number of other closed string states' is played by a fermion hole pair on opposite sides of the potential barrier.

[5] 2208.07387

Exploring uberholography

In this paper, we study the holographic quantum error correcting code properties in different boundary fractal-like structures. We construct and explore different examples of the uberholographic bulk reconstruction corresponding to these structures in higher dimensions for Cantor-like sets, thermal states and $T\overline{T}$-deformed conformal field theories. We show how the growth of the system dimension emphasizes the role of the Cantor set, due to the special bound naturally arising in this context.

[6] 2208.07409

Universal lifting in the D1-D5 CFT

We consider D1-D5-P states in the untwisted sector of the D1-D5 orbifold CFT where one copy of the seed CFT has been excited with a left-moving superconformal primary. Despite being BPS at the orbifold point, such states can `lift' as the theory is deformed away from this point in moduli space. We compute this lifting at second order in the deformation parameter for arbitrary left-moving dimension $h$ of this class of states. This result displays an interesting universality since the lifting does not depend on the details of the superconformal primary; it depends only on the dimension. In the large-dimension limit the lift scales as $\sqrt{h}\,$; it is observed that such scaling appears to be a universal property of the lift of D1-D5-P states.

[7] 2208.07508

Branes and Non-Invertible Symmetries

$\mathcal{N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with algebra $\mathfrak{so}(4N)$ and appropriate choices of global structure can have non-invertible symmetries. We identify the branes holographically dual to the non-invertible symmetries, and derive the fusion rules for the symmetries from the worldvolume dynamics on the branes.

[8] 2208.07575

Holographic Lorentz and Carroll Frames

Relaxing the Bondi gauge, the solution space of three-dimensional gravity in the metric formulation has been shown to contain an additional free function that promotes the boundary metric to a Lorentz or Carroll frame, in asymptotically AdS or flat spacetimes. We pursue this analysis and show that the solution space also admits a finite symplectic structure, obtained taking advantage of the built-in ambiguities. The smoothness of the flat limit of the AdS symplectic structure selects a prescription in which the holographic anomaly appears in the boundary Lorentz symmetry, that rotates the frame. This anomaly turns out to be cohomologically equivalent to the standard holographic Weyl anomaly and survives in the flat limit, thus predicting the existence of quantum anomalies in conformal Carrollian field theories. We also revisit these results in the Chern--Simons formulation, where the prescription for the symplectic structure admitting a smooth flat limit follows from the variational principle, and we compute the charge algebra in the boundary conformal gauge.

[9] 2208.07611

Particle dynamics on torsional galilean spacetimes

We study free particle motion on homogeneous kinematical spacetimes of galilean type. The three well-known cases of Galilei and (A)dS--Galilei spacetimes are included in our analysis, but our focus will be on the previously unexplored torsional galilean spacetimes. We show how in well-chosen coordinates free particle motion becomes equivalent to the dynamics of a damped harmonic oscillator, with the damping set by the torsion. The realization of the kinematical symmetry algebra in terms of conserved charges is subtle and comes with some interesting surprises, such as a homothetic version of hamiltonian vector fields and a corresponding generalization of the Poisson bracket. We show that the Bargmann extension is universal to all galilean kinematical symmetries, but also that it is no longer central for nonzero torsion. We also present a geometric interpretation of this fact through the Eisenhart lift of the dynamics.

[10] 2208.07627

From pp-waves to galilean spacetimes

We exhibit all spatially isotropic homogeneous galilean spacetimes of dimension $(n+1) \geq 4$, including the novel torsional ones, as null reductions of homogeneous pp-wave spacetimes. We also show that the pp-waves are sourced by pure radiation fields and analyse their global properties.

[11] 2208.07636

Schwinger, ltd: Loop-tree duality in the parametric representation

We derive a variant of the loop-tree duality for Feynman integrals in the Schwinger parametric representation. This is achieved by decomposing the integration domain into a disjoint union of cells, one for each spanning tree of the graph under consideration. Each of these cells is the total space of a fiber bundle with contractible fibers over a cube. Loop-tree duality emerges then as the result of first decomposing the integration domain, then integrating along the fibers of each fiber bundle. As a byproduct we obtain a new proof that the moduli space of graphs is homotopy equivalent to its spine.

[12] 2208.07748

Restricted phased space thermodynamics for black holes in higher dimensions and higher curvature gravities

The recently proposed restricted phase space thermodynamics is shown to be applicable to a large class of higher dimensional higher curvature gravity models coupled to Maxwell field, which are known as black hole scan models and are labeled by the spacetime dimension $d$ and the highest order $k$ of the Lanczos-Lovelock densities appearing in the action. Three typical example cases with $(d,k)=(5,1), (5,2)$ and $(6,2)$ are chosen as example cases and studied in some detail. These cases are representatives of Einstein-Hilbert, Chern-Simons and Born-Infield like gravity models. Our study indicates that the Einstein-Hilbert and Born-Infield like gravity models have similar thermodynamic behaviors, e.g. the existence of isocharge $T-S$ phase transitions with the same critical exponents, the existence of isovoltage $T-S$ transitions and the Hawking-Page like transitions, and the similar high temperature asymptotic behaviors for the isocharge heat capacities, etc. However, the Chern-Simons like $(5,2)$-model behaves quite differently. Neither isocharge nor isovoltage $T-S$ transitions could occur and no Hawking-Page like transition is allowed. This seems to indicate that the Einstein-Hilbert and Born-Infield like models belong to the same universality class while the Chern-Simons like models do not.

[13] 2208.07783

Conformal interactions between matter and higher-spin (super)fields

In four spacetime dimensions, the interacting bosonic conformal higher-spin (CHS) theory can be realised as an induced action. The main ingredient in this definition is the model $\mathcal{S}[\varphi,h]$ describing a complex scalar field $\varphi$ coupled to an infinite set of background CHS fields $h$, with $\mathcal{S}[\varphi,h]$ possessing a non-abelian gauge symmetry. Two characteristic features of the constructions for $\mathcal{S}[\varphi , h]$ given in the literature are: (i) the background spacetime is flat; and (ii) conformal invariance is hidden. In the present paper we provide a new derivation of this action such that (i) $\mathcal{S}[\varphi , h]$ is defined on an arbitrary conformally-flat background; and (ii) the conformal symmetry is manifestly realised. Next, our results are extended to the $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric case. Specifically, we construct, for the first time, a model $\mathcal{S}[\Phi, H]$ for a conformal scalar/chiral multiplet $\Phi$ coupled to an infinite set of background higher-spin superfields $H$. Our action possesses a non-abelian gauge symmetry which naturally generalises the linearised gauge transformations of conformal superspin-$(s+\frac{1}{2})$ multiplets. The other fundamental features of this model are: (i) $\mathcal{S}[\Phi, H]$ is defined on an arbitrary conformally-flat superspace background; and (ii) the $\mathcal{N}=1$ superconformal symmetry is manifest. Making use of $\mathcal[\Phi, H]$, an interacting superconformal higher-spin theory can be defined as an induced action.

[14] 2208.07842

Chiral Gauge Dynamics: Candidates for Non-Supersymmetric Dualities

We study the dynamics of chiral SU(N) gauge theories. These contain Weyl fermions in the symmetric or anti-symmetric representation of the gauge group, together with further fermions in the fundamental and anti-fundamental. We revisit an old proposal of Bars and Yankielowicz who match the 't Hooft anomalies of this theory to free fermions. We show that there are novel and, in some cases, quite powerful constraints on the dynamics in the large N limit. In addition, we study these SU(N) theories with an extra Weyl fermion transforming in the adjoint representation. Here we show that all 21 't Hooft anomalies for global symmetries are matched with those of a Spin(8) gauge theory. This suggests a non-supersymmetric extension of the duality of Pouliot and Strassler. Finally, we also discuss some non-supersymmetric dualities with vector-like matter content for SO(N) and Sp(N) gauge theories and the constraints imposed by Weingarten inequalities.

[15] 2208.07856

Entropy Current and Fluid-Gravity Duality in Gauss-Bonnet theory

Working within the approximation of small amplitude expansion, recently an entropy current has been constructed on the horizons of dynamical black hole solution in any higher derivative theory of gravity. In this note, we have dualized this horizon entropy current to a boundary entropy current in an asymptotically AdS black hole metric with a dual description in terms of dynamical fluids living on the AdS boundary. This boundary entropy current is constructed using a set of mapping functions relating each point on the horizon to a point on the boundary. We have applied our construction to black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. We have seen that up to the first order in derivative expansion, Gauss-Bonnet terms do not add any extra corrections to fluid entropy as expected. However, at the second order in derivative expansion, the boundary current will non-trivially depend on how we choose our horizon to boundary map, which need not be expressible entirely in terms of fluid variables. So generically, the boundary entropy current generated by dualizing the horizon current will not admit a fluid dynamical description.

[16] 2208.03330

Have Pulsar Timing Arrays detected the Hot Big Bang? Gravitational Waves from Strong First Order Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

The origins of matter and radiation in the universe lie in a Hot Big Bang. We present a number of well-motivated cosmologies in which the Big Bang occurs through a strong first order phase transition -- either at the end of inflation, after a period of kination ("Kination-Induced Big Bang"), or after a second period of vacuum-domination in the early universe ("Supercooled Big Bang"); we also propose a "Dark Big Bang" where only the dark matter in the Universe is created in a first-order phase transition much after inflation. In all of these scenarios, the resulting gravitational radiation can explain the tentative signals reported by the NANOGrav, Parkes and European Pulsar Timing Array experiments if the reheating temperature of the Hot Big Bang, and correspondingly the energy scale of the false vacuum, falls in the range $T_* \sim \rho_{{\rm vac}}^{1/4} $= MeV--100 GeV. All the same models at higher reheating temperatures will be of interest to upcoming ground- and space-based interferometer searches for gravitational waves at larger frequency.

[17] 2208.07374

Nonlinear effects in black hole ringdown

We report evidence for nonlinear modes in the ringdown stage of the gravitational waveform produced by the merger of two comparable-mass black holes. We consider both the coalescence of black hole binaries in quasicircular orbits and high-energy, head-on black hole collisions. The presence of nonlinear modes in the numerical simulations confirms that general-relativistic nonlinearities are important and must be considered in gravitational-wave data analysis.

[18] 2208.07379

Generation and propagation of nonlinear quasi-normal modes of a Schwarzschild black hole

In the analysis of a binary black hole coalescence, it is necessary to include gravitational self-interactions in order to describe the transition of the gravitational wave signal from the merger to the ringdown stage. In this paper we study the phenomenology of the generation and propagation of nonlinearities in the ringdown of a Schwarzschild black hole, using second-order perturbation theory. Following earlier work, we show that the Green's function and its causal structure determines how both first-order and second-order perturbations are generated, and hence highlight that both of these solutions inherit analogous properties. In particular, we discuss the sense in which both linear and quadratic quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are generated in the vicinity of the peak of the gravitational potential barrier (loosely referred to as the light ring). Among the second-order perturbations, there are solutions with linear QNM frequencies (whose amplitudes are thus renormalized from their linear values), as well as quadratic QNM frequencies with a distinct spectrum. Moreover, we show using a WKB analysis that, in the eikonal limit, waves generated inside the light ring propagate towards the black hole horizon, and only waves generated outside propagate towards an asymptotic observer. These results might be relevant for recent discussions on the validity of perturbation theory close to the merger. Finally, we argue that even if nonlinearities are small, quadratic QNMs may be detectable and would likely be useful for improving ringdown models of higher angular harmonics and future tests of gravity.

[19] 2208.07380

Nonlinearities in black hole ringdowns

The gravitational wave strain emitted by a perturbed black hole (BH) ringing down is typically modeled analytically using first-order BH perturbation theory. In this Letter we show that second-order effects are necessary for modeling ringdowns from BH merger simulations. Focusing on the strain's $(\ell,m)=(4,4)$ angular harmonic, we show the presence of a quadratic effect across a range of binary BH mass ratios that agrees with theoretical expectations. We find that the quadratic $(4,4)$ mode amplitude exhibits quadratic scaling with the fundamental $(2,2)$ mode -- its parent mode. The nonlinear mode's amplitude is comparable to or even larger than that of the linear $(4,4)$ modes. Therefore correctly modeling ringdown -- improving mismatches by an order of magnitude -- requires the inclusion of nonlinear effects.

[20] 2208.07420

3d spectral networks and classical Chern-Simons theory

We define the notion of spectral network on manifolds of dimension $\le 3$. For a manifold $X$ equipped with a spectral network, we construct equivalences between Chern-Simons invariants of flat ${\mathrm {SL}}(2,{\mathbb C})$-bundles over $X$ and Chern-Simons invariants of flat ${\mathbb C}^\times$-bundles over ramified double covers $\widetilde X$. Applications include a new viewpoint on dilogarithmic formulas for Chern-Simons invariants of flat ${\mathrm {SL}}(2,{\mathbb C})$-bundles over triangulated 3-manifolds, and an explicit description of Chern-Simons lines of flat ${\mathrm {SL}}(2,{\mathbb C})$-bundles over triangulated surfaces. Our constructions heavily exploit the locality of Chern-Simons invariants, expressed in the language of extended (invertible) topological field theory.

[21] 2208.07504

Stationary Vacuum Bubble in a Kerr-de Sitter Spacetime

We study false vacuum decay in a black hole (BH) spacetime with an angular momentum. Considering the false vacuum region described by a Kerr-de Sitter geometry, under the thin wall approximation, we can obtain the stationary configuration of the vacuum bubble seen from the outside false vacuum region without specifying the geometry inside the domain wall. Then, assuming the true vacuum region is described by a Kerr geometry, we can fix the mass and the spin parameter for the Kerr geometry by imposing the 1st junction conditions and conservation of the angular momentum. Although the assumption of the Kerr geometry inside the domain wall cannot be fully consistent with the 2nd junction conditions, we can roughly evaluate the error associated with this inconsistency by calculating the Brown-York quasi-local energy on the domain wall. Then the decay rate can be estimated by using the obtained parameters for the inside Kerr geometry and the Brown-York quasi-local energy. Our results support the statement that the BH spin suppresses the false vacuum decay in a BH spacetime.

[22] 2208.07568

A note on the (non-)conservation of curvature perturbation

In this note, we compare two different definitions for the cosmological perturbation $\zeta$ which is conserved on large scales and study their non-conservation on small scales. We derive an equation for the time evolution of the curvature perturbation on a uniform density slice through a calculation solely in longitudinal (conformal-Newtonian) gauge. The result is concise and compatible with that obtained via local conservation of energy-momentum tensor.

[23] 2208.07631

Cascading Dark Energy

The standard cosmological model is in the midst of a stress test, thanks to the tension between supernovae-based measurements of the Hubble constant $H_{0}$ and inferences of its values from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. Numerous explanations for the present-day cosmic acceleration require the presence of a new fundamental scalar field, as do Early Dark Energy (EDE) solutions to the Hubble tension. This raises the possibility that \textit{multiple} fields cooperatively contribute to the dark energy component in bursts throughout cosmic time due to distinct initial conditions and couplings. Here, this Cascading Dark Energy (CDE) scenario is illustrated through a realization that effectively reduces to a two-field model, with two epochs in which dark energy is cosmologically significant. The model is compared to measurements of the CMB, baryon acoustic oscillations, and observations of Type-Ia supernovae. It is found that this scenario ameliorates the Hubble tension, improving over purely late-time models of dark energy, and improves agreement between the related Rock `n' Roll EDE scenario and galaxy survey measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations.

[24] 2208.07661

Spin-orbit contribution of 2D Dirac-Weyl fermions: Beyond ordinary quantum regime

The spin-orbit interaction, which describes the coupling of the spin dynamics of an electron with its orbital motion, could result in peculiar properties for the associated energy dispersion under some special situations. In this letter, we study the spin-orbit coupling of Dirac-Weyl fermions in graphene subject to a magnetic field with Rashba contribution in the minimal length situation. The exact solution for the energy dispersion of Dirac-like charge carriers coupled to the magnetic moments in a (2+1)-dimension is obtained by the use of the momentum space representation. Moreover, as it comes to applications for 2D Dirac-like quasiparticles, we also extend our theory and results in some special cases, showing that the emerging energy spectrum at the high energy limit becomes independent of the Rashba coupling, $\lambda_{R}$, and the band index of Landau levels.

[25] 2208.07663

Quantum and higher curvature corrections to the anti-de Sitter black hole

It was recently discovered that black holes have pressure coming from the nonlocal quantum gravity correction. This result is based on the fact that the black hole horizon does not receive a correction from the local and nonlocal action up to second order in curvature. We investigate this nonlocal correction for black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime and its dual boundary field theory. We show that the second order curvature and the nonlocal actions do not change the metric and, correspondingly, the black hole horizon. Thus, the interpretation of quantum pressure holds in the bulk for AdS black hole. We then show that the leading correction comes from the third order in curvature and explicitly calculate the corrections to the metric and to the horizon. For applications to AdS/CFT, we derived the explicit Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term along with the necessary counter terms to cancel the ultraviolet divergence of the bulk action. We then calculate the thermodynamic quantities in the bulk.

[26] 2208.07721

Light beam interacting with electron medium. Exact solutions of the model and their possible applications to photon entanglement problem

We consider a model for describing a QED system consisting of a photon beam interacting with quantized charged spinless particles. We restrict ourselves by a photon beam that consists of photons with two different momenta moving in the same direction. Photons with each moment may have two possible linear polarizations. The exact solutions correspond to two independent subsystems, one of which corresponds to the electron medium and another one is described by vectors in the photon Hilbert subspace and is representing a set of some quasi-photons that do not interact with each other. In addition, we find exact solution of the model that correspond to the same system placed in a constant magnetic field. As an example, of possible applications, we use the solutions of the model for calculating entanglement of the photon beam by quantized electron medium and by a constant magnetic field. Thus, we calculate the entanglement measures (the information and the Schmidt ones) of the photon beam as functions of the applied magnetic field and parameters of the electron medium.

[27] 2208.07865

String Condensations in 3+1D and Lagrangian Algebras

We present three Lagrangian algebras in the modular 2-category associated to the 3+1D $\mathbb{Z}_2$ topological order and discuss their physical interpretations, connecting algebras with gapped boundary conditions, and interestingly, maps (braided autoequivalences) exchanging algebras with bulk domain walls. A Lagrangian algebra, together with its modules and local modules, encapsulates detailed physical data of strings condensing at a gapped boundary. In particular, the condensed strings can terminate at boundaries in non-trivial ways. This phenomenon has no lower dimensional analogue and corresponds to novel mathematical structures associated to higher algebras. We provide a layered construction and also explicit lattice realizations of these boundaries and illustrate the correspondence between physics and mathematics of these boundary conditions. This is a first detailed study of the mathematics of Lagrangian algebras in modular 2-categories and their corresponding physics, that brings together rich phenomena of string condensations, gapped boundaries and domain walls in 3+1D topological orders.