New articles on High Energy Physics - Theory

[1] 2405.15846

On multipoint Ward identities for superconformal line defects

Superconformal Ward identities are revisited in the context of superconformal line defects. Multipoint correlators of topological operators inserted on superconformal lines are studied. In particular, it is known that protected operators preserving enough of the supersymmetry become topological after performing a topological twist. By definition, such a correlator is constant in the topological limit. By analysing the topological constraint on the OPE of such operators, the correlator is further constrained away from this limit. The constraints on multipoint correlators match the known superconformal Ward identities in the case of 4-point functions. This allows for an simple and universal derivation of the superconformal Ward identities governing the multipoint correlation functions of such operators. This concept is illustrated by 1/2-BPS operators with an $su(2)$ R-symmetry and further explored in the case of the displacement multiplet on the 1/2-BPS Wilson line in 4d $\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory supporting the conjectured multipoint Ward identities in the literature.

[2] 2405.15849

Complementarity for a Dynamical Black Hole

Black hole complementarity posits that the interior of a black hole is not independent from its Hawking radiation. This leads to an apparent violation of causality: the interior can be acausally affected by operators acting solely on the radiation. We argue that this perspective is misleading and that the black hole interior must be viewed as existing in the causal past of the Hawking radiation, despite the fact that they are spacelike separated in the semiclassical description. Consequently, no operation on the Hawking radiation -- no matter how complex -- can affect the experience of an infalling observer. The black hole interior and the radiation only appear spacelike separated in the semiclassical description because an infalling observer's ability to access complex information is limited; the chaotic dynamics on the horizon, as viewed from the exterior, then converts any effect caused by such an observer to information in the Hawking radiation which cannot be accessed at the semiclassical level. We arrive at the picture described above by considering a unitary exterior description in which the flow of information is strictly causal, which we extend to apply throughout the entire history of black hole evolution, including its formation. This description uses the stretched event horizon as an inner edge of spacetime, on which the information inside is holographically encoded. We argue that the global spacetime picture arises from coarse-graining over black hole microstates, and discuss its relationship with the exterior description.

[3] 2405.15873

Ramp from Replica Trick

We compute the spectral form factor of the modular Hamiltonian $K=-\ln\rho_A$ associated to the reduced density matrix of a Haar random state. A ramp is demonstrated and we find an analytic expression for its slope. Our method involves an application of the replica trick, where we first calculate the correlator $<\text{tr}\rho_A^n\;\text{tr}\rho_A^m>$ at large bond dimension and then analytically continue the indices $n,m$ from integers to arbitrary complex numbers. We use steepest descent methods at large modular times to extract the ramp. The large bond dimension limit of the replicated partition function is dominated by a sum over \emph{annular non-crossing permutations}. We explored the similarity between our results and calculations of the spectral form factor in low dimensional gravitational theories where the ramp is determined by the double trumpet geometry. We find there is an underlying resemblance in the two calculations, when we interpret the annular non-crossing permutations as representing a discretized version of the double trumpet. Similar results are found for an equilibrated pure state in place of the Haar random state.

[4] 2405.15937

On 5D Black Brane Stabilities from M-theory on Three Parameter Calabi-Yau Threefolds

In this work, we reconsider the study of 5D black branes in M-theory compactifications by means of $N=2$ supergravity formalism. Precisely, we provide a model relaying on a three parameter Calabi-Yau manifold in the $\mathbb{P}^{1}\times\mathbb{P}^{1}\times\mathbb{P}^{2}$ projective space factorization, referred to as economical model. First, we investigate the stability of 5D BPS and non-BPS black holes obtained from wrapped M2-branes on non-holomorphic two-cycles in such a Calabi-Yau manifold. Then, we approach the stability of 5D black strings derived from wrapped M5-branes on non-holomorphic four-cycles. Among others, we find various stable and unstable black brane solutions depending on the charge regions of the involved moduli space.

[5] 2405.15946

Taub-NUT Instanton as the Self-dual Analog of Kerr

It was recently conjectured that a certain vacuum Kerr-Schild spacetime, which may be regarded as a self-dual analog of the Kerr metric, is equivalent to the self-dual Taub-NUT instanton. We confirm this conjecture by applying the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm to each metric and showing that for suitable choices of null tetrad, the algorithm leads to the same invariants and linear isotropy groups for both, establishing their equivalence. While it is well-known that the Taub-NUT solution and its self-dual version admit a double Kerr-Schild form, the observation that the self-dual Taub-NUT instanton admits a single Kerr-Schild form has only been made very recently. The two metrics we compare may be regarded as either complex metrics with Lorentzian (1,3) signature or real metrics with Kleinian (2,2) signature; here we take the latter view. Significant simplifications occur when the null tetrads are chosen to consist of two pairs of complex conjugate null vectors rather than four real independent ones. As a bonus, our work provides the first example of applying the Cartan-Karlhede algorithm using a null tetrad of this type.

[6] 2405.16017

On the measurements in Quantum Gravity

In this essay, we argue that certain aspects of the measurement require revision in Quantum Gravity. Using entropic arguments, we propose that the number of measurement outcomes and the accuracy (or the range) of the measurement are limited by the entropy of the black hole associated with the observer scale. This also implies the necessity of modifying the algebra of commutation relationships to ensure a finite representation of observables, changing the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in this manner.

[7] 2405.16190

Confinement Phenomena in Topological Stars

Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the fundamental theory describing the strong nuclear force and the interactions among quarks and gluons. Topological stars, characterized by extreme density conditions, offer a unique environment where QCD phenomena play a crucial role due to the confinement of fundamental particles. Understanding these phenomena is essential for unraveling the behavior and properties of these celestial bodies. In this study, we explore the implications of QCD within extreme density regimes, focusing on its contribution to the energy-momentum tensor ($T^{\mu\nu}_{\text{QCD}}$) within the framework of Quantum Chromodynamics. Our analysis sheds light on how these QCD effects influence the fabric of spacetime in the vicinity of topological stars, providing valuable insights into their underlying physics.

[8] 2405.16324

Localization of $q$-form field on squared curvature gravity domain wall brane coupling with gravity and background scalar

In this paper, we investigate a $q$-form field, represented as $\displaystyle X_{M_1M_2...M_q}$, where $\displaystyle q$ indicates the number of indices, with special cases $\displaystyle q = 0, 1, 2$ corresponding to the scalar fields, vector fields, and Kalb-Ramond fields, respectively. Unlike the duality observed between scalar and vector fields in four-dimensional spacetime, $q$-form fields in higher dimensions correspond to a wider array of particles. We propose a novel localized Kaluza-Klein decomposition approach for the $q$-form field in a five-dimensional spacetime, considering its coupling with gravity and background scalar fields. This methodology enables the successful localization of the $q$-form field on a domain wall brane, leading to the derivation of zero modes, Schr\"{o}dinger-like equations, and a four-dimensional effective action. Additionally, in order to stand for the coupling of the $q$-form field with gravity and scalar fields of the background spacetime, we propose a new coupling function $F(R,\varphi)$. Our analysis highlights the significance of the parameters $\displaystyle C_2$ and $\displaystyle t$ in the localization process.

[9] 2405.16377

Non-hyperbolic 3-manifolds and 3D field theories for 2D Virasoro minimal models

Using 3D-3D correspondence, we construct 3D dual bulk field theories for general Virasoro minimal models $M(P,Q)$. These theories correspond to Seifert fiber spaces $S^2 ((P,R-P),(Q,-S),(3,1))$ with two integers $(R,S)$ satisfying $PS-QR =1$. In the unitary case, where $|P-Q|=1$, the bulk theory has a mass gap and flows to a unitary topological field theory (TQFT) in the IR, which is expected to support the chiral Virasoro minimal model at the boundary under an appropriate boundary condition. For the non-unitary case, where $|P-Q|>1$, the bulk theory flows to a 3D $\mathcal{N}=4$ rank-0 superconformal field theory, whose topologically twisted theory supports the chiral minimal model at the boundary. We also provide a concrete field theory description of the 3D bulk theory using $T[SU(2)]$ theories. Our proposals are supported by various consistency checks using 3D-3D relations and direct computations of various partition functions.

[10] 2405.16497

Doubly $κ$-deformed Yang models, Born-selfdual $κ$-deformed quantum phase spaces and two generalizations of Yang models

Recently it was shown that by using two different realizations of $\hat{o}(1,4)$ Lie algebra one can describe one-parameter standard Snyder model and two-parameter $\kappa$-deformed Snyder model. In this paper, by using the generalized Born duality and Jacobi identities we obtain from the $\kappa$-deformed Snyder model the doubly $\kappa$-deformed Yang model which provides the new class of quantum relativistic phase spaces. These phase spaces contain as subalgebras the $\kappa$-deformed Minkowski space-time as well as quantum $\tilde{\kappa}$-deformed fourmomenta and are depending on five independent parameters. Such a large class of quantum phase spaces can be described in $D=4$ by particular realizations of $\hat{o}(1,5)$ algebra, what illustrates the property that in noncommutative geometry different $D=4$ physical models may be described by various realizations of the same algebraic structure. Finally, in the last Section we propose two new ways of generalizing Yang models: by introducing $\hat o(1,3+2N)$ algebras ($N=1,2\ldots$) we provide internal symmetries $O(N)$ symmetries in Kaluza-Klein extended Yang model, and by replacing the classical $\hat{o}(1,5)$ algebras which describe the algebraic structure of Yang models by $\hat o(1,5)$ quantum groups with suitably chosen nonprimitive coproducts.

[11] 2405.16706

Gravitational higher-form symmetries and the origin of hidden symmetries in Kaluza-Klein compactifications

We show that, in presence of isometries and non-trivial topology, the Einstein--Hilbert action is invariant under certain transformations of the metric which are not diffeomorphisms. These transformations are similar to the higher-form symmetries of field theories with $p$-form fields. In the context of toroidal Kaluza--Klein compactifications, we show that these symmetries give rise to some of the ``hidden symmetries'' (dualities) of the dimensionally-reduced theories.

[12] 2405.16782

Quantum equivalence of the Freedman-Townsend model and the principal chiral $σ$-model

The Freedman-Townsend model is quantized using the Batalin-Vilkovisky approach to Lagrangian quantization of gauge theories with linearly dependent generators. Path integral arguments are then applied to demonstrate the quantum equivalence of the Freedman-Townsend model to the principal chiral $\sigma$-model.

[13] 2405.16832

Bulk Reconstruction in De Sitter Spacetime

The bulk reconstruction program involves expressing local bulk fields as non-local operators on the boundary. It was initiated in the context of AdS/CFT correspondence. Attempts to extend it to de Sitter have been successful for heavy(principal series) scalar fields. For other fields, the construction ran into issues. In particular, divergences were found to appear for higher spin fields. In this paper, we resolve these issues and obtain boundary representations for scalars of all masses as well as higher spin fields. We trace the origin of the previously discovered divergences and show that the smearing function becomes distributional for certain values of mass, spin and dimension. We also extend the construction from Bunch-Davies vacuum to all $\alpha$-vacua.

[14] 2405.16920

Thin-wall vacuum decay in the presence of a compact dimension

We study the problem of false vacuum decay in arbitrary dimensions, in the presence of gravity, and compute the transition probability within the thin-wall approximation, generalising the results of Coleman and de Luccia. In the particular case of one compact dimension, we present explicit formulae for the Euclidean Bounce configuration that drives the transition from a de Sitter to Minkowski or from a Minkowski to anti-de Sitter vacua.

[15] 2405.17056

Massive twistor worldline in electromagnetic fields

We study the (ambi-)twistor model for spinning particles interacting via electromagnetic field, as a toy model for studying classical dynamics of gravitating bodies including effects of both spins to all orders. We compute the momentum kick and spin kick up to one-loop order and show precisely how they are encoded in the classical eikonal. The all-orders-in-spin effects are encoded as a dynamical implementation of the Newman-Janis shift, and we find that the expansion in both spins can be resummed to simple expressions in special kinematic configurations, at least up to one-loop order. We confirm that the classical eikonal can be understood as the generator of canonical transformations that map the in-states of a scattering process to the out-states. We also show that cut contributions for converting worldline propagators from time-symmetric to retarded amount to the iterated action of the leading eikonal at one-loop order.

[16] 2405.17092

Hydrodynamic modes in holographic multiple-axion model

In this paper we investigate the shear viscoelasticity and the hydrodynamic modes in a holographic solid model with several sets of axions that all break the translations spontaneously on boundary. Comparing with the single-axion model, the shear modulus is enhanced at high temperatures and the shear viscosity is always suppressed in the presence of additional axions. However, the different sets of axions exhibit competitive relationship in determining the shear modulus at low temperatures. Furthermore, by calculating the black hole quasi-normal modes, it is found that adding more axions only increases the amount of diffusive modes. The number of the sound modes always remains unchanged.

[17] 2405.17169

Janus and RG-flow interfaces from matter-coupled F(4) gauged supergravity

We study supersymmetric Janus solutions from matter-coupled $F(4)$ gauged supergravity coupled to three vector multiplets and $SO(4)\sim SO(3)\times SO(3)$ gauge group. There are two supersymmetric $AdS_6$ vacua preserving all supersymmetries with $SO(3)\times SO(3)$ and $SO(3)_{\textrm{diag}}$ symmetries dual to $N=2$ SCFTs in five dimensions. We consider a truncation to $SO(2)_{\textrm{diag}}\subset SO(3)_{\textrm{diag}}$ singlet scalars and find a number of new supersymmetric Janus solutions preserving eight supercharges. These solutions holographcally describe conformal interfaces within $N=2$ five-dimensional SCFTs involving deformations by source terms and vacuum expectation values of relevant and irrelevant operators. Apart from the Janus solutions interpolating between $SO(3)\times SO(3)$ $AdS_6$ vacua, some of the solutions have $SO(3)_{\textrm{diag}}$ $AdS_6$ vacua generated by holographic RG flows from the $SO(3)\times SO(3)$ phases on both sides. We also provide an evidence for solutions describing RG-flow interfaces with $SO(3)\times SO(3)$ $AdS_6$ vacuum on one side and $SO(3)_{\textrm{diag}}$ $AdS_6$ vacuum on the other side. The solutions also provide first examples of Janus solutions involving more than one $AdS_6$ vacuum in six-dimensional gauged supergravity.

[18] 2405.17177

Unorientable topological gravity and orthogonal random matrix universality

The duality of Jackiw-Teitelboim (JT) gravity and a double scaled matrix integral has led to studies of the canonical spectral form factor (SFF) in the so called $\tau-$scaled limit of large times, $t \to \infty$, and fixed temperature in order to demonstrate agreement with universal random matrix theory (RMT). Though this has been established for the unitary case, extensions to other symmetry classes requires the inclusion of unorientable manifolds in the sum over geometries, necessary to address time reversal invariance, and regularization of the corresponding prime geometrical objects, the Weil-Petersson (WP) volumes. We report here how universal signatures of quantum chaos, witnessed by the fidelity to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, emerge for the low-energy limit of unorientable JT gravity, i.e. the Airy model/topological gravity. To this end, we implement the loop equations for the corresponding dual (double-scaled) matrix model and find the generic form of the Airy WP volumes, supported by calculations using unorientable Kontsevich graphs. In an apparent violation of the gravity/chaos duality, the $\tau-$scaled SFF on the gravity side acquires both logarithmic and power law contributions in $t$, not manifestly present on the RMT side. We show the expressions can be made to agree by means of bootstrapping-like relations hidden in the asymptotic expansions of generalized hypergeometric functions. Thus, we are able to establish strong evidence of the quantum chaotic nature of unorientable topological gravity.

[19] 2405.17255

Classifying post-Minkowskian geometries for gravitational waves via loop-by-loop Baikov

We use the loop-by-loop Baikov representation to investigate the geometries in Feynman integrals contributing to the classical dynamics of a black-hole two-body system in the post-Minkowskian expansion of general relativity. These geometries determine the spaces of functions to which the corresponding Feynman diagrams evaluate. As a proof of principle, we provide a full classification of the geometries appearing up to three loops, i.e. fourth post-Minkowskian order, for all diagrams relevant to the conservative as well as the dissipative dynamics, finding full agreement with the literature. Moreover, we show that the non-planar top topology at four loops, which is the most complicated sector with respect to integration-byparts identities, has an algebraic leading singularity and thus can only depend on non-trivial geometries through its subsectors.

[20] 2405.17406

Deep Learning Calabi-Yau four folds with hybrid and recurrent neural network architectures

In this work, we report the results of applying deep learning based on hybrid convolutional-recurrent and purely recurrent neural network architectures to the dataset of almost one million complete intersection Calabi-Yau four-folds (CICY4) to machine-learn their four Hodge numbers $h^{1,1}, h^{2,1}, h^{3,1}, h^{2,2}$. In particular, we explored and experimented with twelve different neural network models, nine of which are convolutional-recurrent (CNN-RNN) hybrids with the RNN unit being either GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit) or Long Short Term Memory (LSTM). The remaining four models are purely recurrent neural networks based on LSTM. In terms of the $h^{1,1}, h^{2,1}, h^{3,1}, h^{2,2}$ prediction accuracies, at 72% training ratio, our best performing individual model is CNN-LSTM-400, a hybrid CNN-LSTM with the LSTM hidden size of 400, which obtained 99.74%, 98.07%, 95.19%, 81.01%, our second best performing individual model is LSTM-448, an LSTM-based model with the hidden size of 448, which obtained 99.74%, 97.51%, 94.24%, and 78.63%. These results were improved by forming ensembles of the top two, three or even four models. Our best ensemble, consisting of the top three models, achieved the accuracies of 99.80%, 98.40%, 95.80%, 83.02%. At 80% training ratio, the top two performing models LSTM-448 and LSTM-424 are both LSTM-based with the hidden sizes of 448 and 424. Compared with the 72% training ratio, there is a significant improvement of accuracies, which reached 99.85%, 98.66%, 96.26%, 84.77% for the best individual model and 99.88%, 98.91%, 96.96%, 86.78% for the best ensemble.

[21] 2405.14692

Necessity of Quantizable Geometry for Quantum Gravity

In this paper, Dirac Quantization of $3D$ gravity in the first-order formalism is attempted where instead of quantizing the connection and triad fields, the connection and the triad 1-forms themselves are quantized. The exterior derivative operator on the space of differential forms is treated as the `time' derivative to compute the momenta conjugate to these 1-forms. This manner of quantization allows one to compute the transition amplitude in $3D$ gravity which has a close, but not exact, match with the transition amplitude computed via LQG techniques. This inconsistency is interpreted as being due to the non-quantizable nature of differential geometry.

[22] 2405.15796

Demystifying Arrow of Time

Scientific discussions of the arrow of time often get quite confusing due to highly complex systems they deal with. Popular literature then often coveys messages that tend to get lost in translation. The purpose of this note is to demystify the arrow of time by stripping off the unnecessary complexities and thereby simplifying the discussion. We do this by providing examples that are exactly solvable and make it easy to see the root cause of the apparent "time-irreversibility". We also discuss "time-reversal" solutions, where the initial state evolves such that it reaches the state which is the same as the initial state moving backward in time. These solutions are simple enough to be comprehensible to a highschooler. We discuss the arrow of time both in the classical and quantum settings, including in the cosmological context.

[23] 2405.15798

Holographic dark energy with Granda-Oliveros cutoff and ansatz based approach: An extended look

Holographic dark energy models have proven to be a very interesting way to study various aspects of late-time acceleration of the universe. In this work we extensively study HDE models with the Granda-Oliveros cutoff with an ansatz based approach. We consider the Tsallis, Barrow and PLEC HDE models in this regard and consdier simple power law, emergent universe, intermediate and logamediate forms of for the universe. Studying various cosmologically interesting parameters alongside the thermodynamical aspects in these models, we show that the Logamediate models are the best fit out of the other possibilites, followed by the emergent universe model, intermediate model and the simple power law models at the very last in terms of feasibility.

[24] 2405.15848

Integrable models on Rydberg atom chains

We initiate a systematic study of integrable models for spin chains with constrained Hilbert spaces; we focus on spin-1/2 chains with the Rydberg constraint. We extend earlier results for medium-range spin chains to the constrained Hilbert space, and formulate an integrability condition. This enables us to construct new integrable models with fixed interaction ranges. We classify all time- and space-reflection symmetric integrable Rydberg-constrained Hamiltonians of range 3 and 4. At range 3, we find a single family of integrable Hamiltonians: the so-called RSOS quantum chains, which are related to the well-known RSOS models of Andrews, Baxter, and Forrester. At range 4 we find two families of models, the first of which is the constrained XXZ model. We also find a new family of models depending on a single coupling $z$. We provide evidence of two critical points related to the golden ratio $\phi$, at $z=\phi^{-1/2}$ and $z=\phi^{3/2}$. We also perform a partial classification of integrable Hamiltonians for range 5.

[25] 2405.15853

Anomaly inflow for CSS and fractonic lattice models and dualities via cluster state measurement

Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes are a class of quantum error correction codes that contains the toric code and fracton models. A procedure called foliation defines a cluster state for a given CSS code. We use the CSS chain complex and its tensor product with other chain complexes to describe the topological structure in the foliated cluster state, and argue that it has a symmetry-protected topological order protected by generalized global symmetries supported on cycles in the foliated CSS chain complex. We demonstrate the so-called anomaly inflow between CSS codes and corresponding foliated cluster states by explicitly showing the equality of the gauge transformations of the bulk and boundary partition functions defined as functionals of defect world-volumes. We show that the bulk and boundary defects are related via measurement of the bulk system. Further, we provide a procedure to obtain statistical models associated with general CSS codes via the foliated cluster state, and derive a generalization of the Kramers-Wannier-Wegner duality for such statistical models with insertion of twist defects. We also study the measurement-assisted gauging method with cluster-state entanglers for CSS/fracton models based on recent proposals in the literature, and demonstrate a non-invertible fusion of duality operators. Using the cluster-state entanglers, we construct the so-called strange correlator for general CSS/fracton models. Finally, we introduce a new family of subsystem-symmetric quantum models each of which is self-dual under the generalized Kramers-Wannier-Wegner duality transformation, which becomes a non-invertible symmetry.

[26] 2405.15906

Vavilov-Čerenkov radiation for parallel motion in three-dimensional topological insulators

Our study delves into the modifications observed in Vavilov-\v{C}erenkov radiation when its generating charged particle moves parallel to an interface formed by two generic magnetoelectric media, focusing on topological insulators. We compute the electromagnetic field through the Green's function. Applying the far-field approximation and the steepest descent method, we derive analytical expressions for the electric field, revealing contributions from spherical and lateral waves with topological origins. Subsequently, we analyze the angular distribution of the radiation, particularly focusing on parallel motions in close proximity to the interface. Our findings indicate that the radiation along the Vavilov-\v{C}erenkov cone is inhomogeneous and asymmetric. We analyze the radiated energy at both sides of the interface. Finally, we discuss the particle's retarding force, which is notably enhanced in the ultrarelativistic regime. We illustrate these results for the topological insulator TlBiSe$_2$ and the magnetoelectric TbPO$_4$.

[27] 2405.15951

Non-invertible SPT, gauging and symmetry fractionalization

We explicitly realize the Rep($Q_8$) non-invertible symmetry-protected topological (SPT) state as a 1+1d cluster state on a tensor product Hilbert space of qubits. Using the Kramers-Wannier operator, we construct the lattice models for the phases of all the symmetries in the Rep($Q_8$) duality web. We further show that we can construct a class of lattice models with Rep($G$) symmetry including non-invertible SPT phases if they have a dual anomalous abelian symmetry. Upon dualizing, there is a rich interplay between onsite symmetries, non-onsite symmetries, non-abelian symmetries, and non-invertible symmetries. We show that these interplay can be explained using the symmetry fractionalization in the 2+1d bulk SET.

[28] 2405.16070

Exact Spin Correlators of Integrable Quantum Circuits from Algebraic Geometry

We calculate the correlation functions of strings of spin operators for integrable quantum circuits exactly. These observables can be used for calibration of quantum simulation platforms. We use algebraic Bethe Ansatz, in combination with computational algebraic geometry to obtain analytic results for medium-size (around 10-20 qubits) quantum circuits. The results are rational functions of the quantum circuit parameters. We obtain analytic results for such correlation functions both in the real space and Fourier space. In the real space, we analyze the short time and long time limit of the correlation functions. In Fourier space, we obtain analytic results in different parameter regimes, which exhibit qualitatively different behaviors. Using these analytic results, one can easily generate numerical data to arbitrary precision.

[29] 2405.16163

Gravitational waves in $f(Q)$ non-metric gravity without gauge fixing

We investigate the polarization modes of gravitational waves in $f(Q)$ non-metric gravity without gauge fixing. The main result of this study is that no further scalar mode appears more than the two standard plus and cross transverse polarizations of massless tensor gravitational radiation, typical of General Relativity. This is because the first-order perturbation of connection does not modify the linearized field equations in vacuum which remain gauge invariant. Then, the world line equations of free point particles, as well as the equations of their deviations, are obtained using only the symmetric teleparallel connection. In $f(Q)$ gravity, test masses follow timelike geodesics and not autoparallel curves. In the proper reference frame, thanks to the geodesic deviation equation of the structure-less bodies in free fall, we prove that, in any gauge, only the metric perturbations $h_{\mu\nu}$, related to tensor modes, survive by exploiting the gauge invariance. Besides, scalar modes disappear. This allows us to conclude that only two degrees of freedom of linearized $f(Q)$ non-metric gravity propagate as in General Relativity and in $f(T)$ teleparallel gravity. The situation is different with respect to $f(R)$ gravity (with $f(R)\neq R$) where a further scalar mode is found.

[30] 2405.16165

General Discussions on the SU(2) Vector Boson Dark Matter Model with a Single Higgs Multiplet -- Lagrangian, Discrete Subgroups, and Scalar Classifications

The vector boson dark matter particles which stem from some broken gauge symmetries usually requires some unbroken symmetries to keep themselves stable. In the previous literature, some simplest cases have been discussed, in which the unbroken symmetry is provided by a remnant subgroup of the gauge group. It would be interesting to ask whether all the possible remnant subgroups as well as all the possible coupling forms can be enumerated. Classifying all the Higgs components into different mass degenerate representations to simplify the diagonalization processes is also necessary. Rather than the ambitious target of providing a general solution to all kinds of gauge groups configured with all forms of the Higgs multiplets, in this paper, we concentrate on the case of $\text{SU(2)}_{\text{D}}$ gauge group together with a single Higgs multiplet. We enumerate all possible discrete subgroups that can survive up to $n=21$, where $n$ is the dimension of the Higgs multiplet. We also provide the general algorithms to enumerate all possible renormalizable operators, to write down the general forms of the vacuum expectation value (VEV) configurations, and to give the detailed results of all the mass degenerate irreducible representations embedded in the Higgs multiplet.

[31] 2405.16182

Spread complexity and quantum chaos for periodically driven spin-chains

The complexity of quantum states under dynamical evolution can be investigated by studying the spread with time of the state over a pre-defined basis. It is known that this complexity is minimised by choosing the Krylov basis, thus defining the spread complexity. We study the dynamics of spread complexity for quantum maps using the Arnoldi iterative procedure. The main illustrative quantum many-body model we use is the periodically kicked Ising spin-chain with non-integrable deformations, a chaotic system where we look at both local and non-local interactions. In the various cases we find distinctive behaviour of the Arnoldi coefficients and spread complexity for regular vs. chaotic dynamics: suppressed fluctuations in the Arnoldi coefficients as well as larger saturation value in spread complexity in the chaotic case. We compare the behaviour of the Krylov measures with that of standard spectral diagnostics of chaos. We also study the effect of changing the driving frequency on the complexity saturation.

[32] 2405.16269

Pion gravitational form factors in the QCD instanton vacuum II

We revisit the hard QCD contributions to the pion gravitational form factors (GFFs), in terms of the twist-2,3 pion distribution amplitudes (DA), including novel semi-hard contributions from the instantons. The pion DAs are evaluated in the QCD instanton vacuum, and then properly evolved to higher resolution. The results are compared to our recent results from the QCD instanton vacuum, as well as Bethe-Salpeter calculations and recent lattice data. The interpolated hard and soft contributions to the pion D-form-factor, are used to derive the (gravitational) pressure and shear within the pion, with a clear delineation of their range.

[33] 2405.16477

Toffoli gates solve the tetrahedron equations

The circuit model of quantum computation can be interpreted as a scattering process. In particular, factorised scattering operators result in integrable quantum circuits that provide universal quantum computation and are potentially less noisy. These are realized through Yang-Baxter or 2-simplex operators. A natural question is to extend this construction to higher qubit gates, like the Toffoli gates, which also lead to universal quantum computation but with shallower circuits. We show that unitary families of such operators are constructed by the 3-dimensional generalizations of the Yang-Baxter operators known as tetrahedron or 3-simplex operators. The latter satisfy a spectral parameter-dependent tetrahedron equation. This construction goes through for $n$-Toffoli gates realized using $n$-simplex operators.

[34] 2405.16525

Entanglement and Bell inequality violation in vector diboson systems produced in decays of spin-0 particles

We discuss entanglement and the violation of the CGLMP inequality in a system of two vector bosons produced in the decay of a spin-0 particle. We assume the most general CPT conserving, Lorentz-invariant coupling of the spin-0 particle with the daughter bosons. We compute the most general two-boson density matrix obtained by averaging over kinematical configurations with an appropriate probability distribution (which can be obtained when both bosons subsequently decay into fermion-antifermion). We show that the two-boson state is entangled and violates the CGLMP inequality for all values of the (anomalous) coupling constants and that in this case the state is entangled iff it can violate the CGLMP inequality. As an exemplary process of this kind we use the decay $H\to ZZ$ with anomalous coupling.

[35] 2405.16569

On deformation quantization of the space of connections on a two manifold and Chern Simons Gauge Theory

We use recent progress on Chern-Simons gauge theory in three dimensions [18] to give explicit, closed form formulas for the star product on some functions on the affine space ${\mathcal A}(\Sigma)$ of (smooth) connections on the trivialized principal $G$-bundle on a compact, oriented two manifold $\Sigma.$ These formulas give a close relation between knot invariants, such as the Kauffman bracket polynomial, and the Jones and HOMFLY polynomials, arising in Chern Simons gauge theory, and deformation quantization of ${\mathcal A}(\Sigma).$ This relation echoes the relation between the manifold invariants of Witten [20] and Reshetikhin-Turaev [16] and {\em geometric} quantization of this space (or its symplectic quotient by the action of the gauge group). In our case this relation arises from explicit algebraic formulas arising from the (mathematically well-defined) functional integrals of [18].

[36] 2405.16650

Bounding Dark Energy from the SPARC rotation curves: Data driven probe for galaxy virialization

Dark Energy (DE) acts as a repulsive force that opposes gravitational attraction. Assuming galaxies maintain a steady state over extended periods, the estimated upper bound on DE studies its resistance to the attractive gravitational force from dark matter. Using the SPARC dataset, we fit the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) and Hernquist models to identify the most suitable galaxies for these models. Introducing the presence of DE in these galaxies helps establish the upper limit on its repulsive force. This upper bound on DE sits around $\rho_{\left(<\Lambda\right)} \sim 10^{-25}$~kg/m$^3$, only two orders of magnitude higher than the one measured by Planck. We discuss the conditions for detecting DE in different systems and show the consistency of the upper bound from galaxies to other systems. The upper bound is of the same order of magnitude as $\rho_{200} = 200 \rho_c$ for both dark matter profiles. We also address the implications for future measurements on that upper bound and the condition for detecting the impact of $\Lambda$ on galactic scales.

[37] 2405.16775

The Chern-Simons Functional Integral, Kauffman's Bracket Polynomial, and other link invariants

We study Chern-Simons Gauge Theory in axial gauge on ${\mathbb R}^3.$ This theory has a quadratic Lagrangian and therefore expectations can be computed nonperturbatively by explicit formulas, giving an (unbounded) linear functional on a space of polynomial functions in the gauge fields, as a mathematically well-defined avatar of the formal functional integral. We use differential-geometric methods to extend the definition of this linear functional to expectations of products of Wilson loops corresponding to oriented links in ${\mathbb R}^3,$ and derive skein relations for them. In the case $G=SU(2)$ we show that these skein relations are closely related to those of the Kauffman bracket polynomial, which is closely related to the Jones polynomial. We also study the case of groups of higher rank. We note that in the absence of a cubic term in the action, there is no quantization condition on the coupling $\lambda,$ which can be any complex number. This is in line with the fact that the Jones polynomial, in contrast to the manifold invariants of Witten and Reshetikhin-Turaev, is defined for any value of the coupling. The appearance of the parameter $e^{\frac1{2\lambda}}$ in the expectations and skein relations is also natural. Likewise, the extension of the theory to noncompact groups presents no difficulties. Finally we show how computations similar to ours, but for gauge fields in two dimensions, yield the Goldman bracket.

[38] 2405.16941

Energy extraction via magnetic reconnection in magnetized black holes

The Comisso-Asenjo mechanism is a novel mechanism proposed recently to extract energy from black holes through magnetic reconnection of the surrounding charged plasma, in which the magnetic field plays a crucial role. In this work, we revisit this process by taking into account the backreaction of the magnetic field on the black hole's geometry. We employ the Kerr-Melvin metric to describe the local near-horizon geometry of the magnetized black hole. By analyzing the circular orbits in the equatorial plane, the energy extraction conditions, the power and efficiency of the energy extraction, we found that while a stronger magnetic field can enhance plasma magnetization and aid energy extraction, its backreaction on the spacetime may hinder the process, with a larger magnetic field posing a greater obstacle. Balancing these effects, an optimal moderate magnetic field strength is found to be most conducive for energy extraction. Moreover, there is a maximum limit to the magnetic field strength associated with the black hole's spin, beyond which circular orbits in the equatorial plane are prohibited, thereby impeding energy extraction in the current scenario.

[39] 2405.16986

Analysis of scalar fields with series convolution

Wave equations for some curved spacetimes may involve functions that prevent a solution in a closed form. In some cases, these functions can be eliminated by transformations and the solutions can be found analytically. In the cases where such transformations are not available, the infinite series expansions of these functions can be convoluted with the power series solution ansatz. We study such an example where the solution is based on a special function.

[40] 2405.17273

A Derivation of Geometric Quantization via Feynman's Path Integral on Phase Space

We derive the geometric quantization program of symplectic manifolds, in the sense of both Kostant-Souriau and Weinstein, from Feynman's path integral formulation on phase space. The state space we use contains states with negative norm and polarized sections determine a Hilbert space. We discuss ambiguities in the definition of path integrals arising from the distinct Riemann sum prescriptions and its consequence on the quantization of symplectomorphisms.

[41] 2405.17332

Moduli spaces in positive geometry

These are lecture notes for five lectures given at MPI Leipzig in May 2024. We study the moduli space M_{0,n} of n distinct points on P^1 as a positive geometry and a binary geometry. We develop mathematical formalism to study Cachazo-He-Yuan's scattering equations and the associated scalar and Yang-Mills amplitudes. We discuss open superstring amplitudes and relations to tropical geometry.

[42] 2405.17335

Thermodynamic Potential of the Polyakov Loop in SU(3) Quenched Lattice QCD

Using SU(3) lattice QCD, we study the effective potential of the Polyakov loop $\langle P \rangle$ at finite temperature, i.e., the thermodynamic potential, in the field-theoretical manner for the first time. In the framework of the reweighting method in lattice QCD, we express the effective potential $V_{\rm eff}(\langle P \rangle)$ using the expectation value with no source term. In particular, we deal with the most difficult and interesting case of vacuum coexistence at the critical temperature $T_c$. We adopt SU(3) quenched lattice QCD on $48^3 \times 6$ at $\beta$= 5.89379, just corresponding to the critical temperature $T_c$ of the deconfinement phase transition, and use 200,000 Monte Carlo configurations. After categorizing the gauge configurations into each of $Z_3$-symmetric and three $Z_3$-broken vacua, we perform a vacuum-associated reweighting method where gauge configurations around each vacuum are separately used. We eventually obtain the Polyakov-loop effective potential, which is well depicted around the $Z_3$-symmetric and $Z_3$-broken vacua.

[43] 2405.17350

Non commutative classical and Quantum fractionary Cosmology: Anisotropic Bianchi Type I case

In this work, we will explore the effects of non-commutativity in fractional classical and quantum schemes using the anisotropicc Bianchi Type I cosmological model coupled to a scalar field in the K-essence formalism. We introduce non-commutative variables considering that all minisuperspace variables $q^i_{nc}$ do not commute, so the symplectic structure was modified, resulting in some changes with respect to the traditional formalism. In the quantum regime, the probability density presents a new structure in the scalar field corresponding to the value of the non-commutative parameter.

[44] 2405.17379

Classifying 2D topological phases: mapping ground states to string-nets

We prove the conjectured classification of topological phases in two spatial dimensions with gappable boundary, in a simplified setting. Two gapped ground states of lattice Hamiltonians are in the same quantum phase of matter, or topological phase, if they can be connected by a constant-depth quantum circuit. It is conjectured that the Levin-Wen string-net models exhaust all possible gapped phases with gappable boundary, and these phases are labeled by unitary modular tensor categories. We prove this under the assumption that every phase has a representative state with zero correlation length satisfying the entanglement bootstrap axioms, or a strict form of area law. Our main technical development is to transform these states into string-net states using constant-depth quantum circuits.

[45] 2405.17411

A universal constraint on axion non-Abelian dynamics during inflation

Inflationary models equipped with Chern-Simons coupling between their axion and gauge sectors exhibit an array of interesting signals including a testable chiral gravitational wave spectrum. The energy injection in the gauge sector triggered by the rolling axion leads to a well-studied enhancement of gauge field fluctuations. These may in turn affect observables such as the scalar and tensor spectra and also account for non-linear corrections to field propagators. In this work, we focus on non-Abelian gauge sectors. We show that gauge field self-interactions and axion-gauge field non-linear couplings significantly renormalize the gauge field mode function. Operating within the regime of validity of the perturbative treatment places strong constraints on the accessible parameter space of this class of models. We calculate corrections to the gauge field propagator that are universally present in these scenarios. Enforcing perturbativity on such propagators leads to bounds that are competitive with those stemming from analytical estimates on the onset of the strong backreaction regime.

[46] 2405.17431

Crystalline invariants of fractional Chern insulators

In the presence of crystalline symmetry, topologically ordered states can acquire a host of symmetry-protected invariants. These determine the patterns of crystalline symmetry fractionalization of the anyons in addition to fractionally quantized responses to lattice defects. Here we show how ground state expectation values of partial rotations centered at high symmetry points can be used to extract crystalline invariants. Using methods from conformal field theory and G-crossed braided tensor categories, we develop a theory of invariants obtained from partial rotations, which apply to both Abelian and non-Abelian topological orders. We then perform numerical Monte Carlo calculations for projected parton wave functions of fractional Chern insulators, demonstrating remarkable agreement between theory and numerics. For the topological orders we consider, we show that the Hall conductivity, filling fraction, and partial rotation invariants fully characterize the crystalline invariants of the system. Our results also yield invariants of continuum fractional quantum Hall states protected by spatial rotational symmetry.