In this review, we outline the main features of the non-local gauge, named the contour gauge. The contour gauge belongs to the axial type of gauges and extends the local gauge used in the most of approaches. The geometry of gluon fields and the path-dependent formalism are the essential tools for the description of non-local gauges. The principle feature of the contour gauge is that there are no the residual gauges which are left in the finite domain of space. In the review, we present the useful correspondence between the contour gauge conception and the Hamiltonian (Lagrangian) formalism. The Hamiltonian formalism is turned out to be a very convenient framework for the understanding of contour gauges. The comprehensive comparison analysis of the local and non-local gauges advocates the advantage of the contour gauge use. We show that the appropriate use the contour gauge leads to the existence of extra diagram contributions. These additional contributions, first, restore the gauge invariance of the hadron tensor and, second, give the important terms for the observable quantities. We also demonstrate the significant role of the additional diagrams to form the relevant contour in the Wilson path-ordered exponential. Ultimately, it leads to the spurious singularity fixing. Moreover, in the present review, we discuss in detail the problem of spin and orbital angular momentum separation. We show that in $SU(3)$ gauge theories the gluon decomposition on the physical and pure gauge components has a strong mathematical evidence provided the contour gauge conception has been used. In addition, we prove that the contour gauge possesses the special kind of residual gauge that manifests at the boundary of space. Besides, the boundary field configurations can be associated with the pure gauge fields.

The identification of a hadron in the final state of hadron-collider events that feature a leptonically decaying vector boson can provide essential information on the parton content of the colliding protons. Moreover, the study of hadrons inside jets can provide deeper insights into the fragmentation dynamics. We provide theoretical predictions for specific observables involving either the production of a $Z$ boson in association with light charged hadrons inside a jet or the production of a $W$ boson together with a charmed hadron. We present results for various fragmentation functions and compare our predictions with measurements by LHCb and ATLAS at $\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. Our predictions are obtained using the antenna subtraction formalism which has been extended to cope with infrared singularities associated to the fragmentation processes in a hadron-collider environment at NLO accuracy.

"Attractor" solutions for the pre-hydrodynamic, far-from-equilibrium, evolution of the matter produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions have emerged as crucial descriptors of the rapid hydrodynamization of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Adiabatic Hydrodynamization (AH) has been proposed as a framework with which to describe, explain, and predict attractor behavior that draws upon an analogy to the adiabatic approximation in quantum mechanics. In this work, we systematize the description of pre-hydrodynamic attractors in kinetic theory by showing how to use the AH framework to identify these long-lived solutions to which varied initial conditions rapidly evolve, demonstrating the robustness of this framework. In a simplified QCD kinetic theory in the small-angle scattering limit, we use AH to explain both the early- and late-time scaling behavior of a longitudinally expanding gluon gas in a unified framework. In this context, we show that AH provides a unified description of, and intuition for, all the stages of what in QCD would be bottom-up thermalization, starting from a pre-hydrodynamic attractor and ending with hydrodynamization. We additionally discuss the connection between the notions of scaling behavior and adiabaticity and the crucial role of time-dependent coordinate redefinitions in identifying the degrees of freedom of kinetic theories that give rise to attractor solutions. The tools we present open a path to the intuitive explanation of how attractor behavior arises and how the attractor evolves in all stages of the hydrodynamization of QGP in heavy ion collisions.

Sub-GeV dark matter (DM) particles produced via thermal freeze-out evade many of the strong constraints on heavier DM candidates but at the same time face a multitude of new constraints from laboratory experiments, astrophysical observations and cosmological data. In this work we combine all of these constraints in order to perform frequentist and Bayesian global analyses of fermionic and scalar sub-GeV DM coupled to a dark photon with kinetic mixing. For fermionic DM, we find viable parameter regions close to the dark photon resonance, which expand significantly when including a particle-antiparticle asymmetry. For scalar DM, the velocity-dependent annihilation cross section evades the strongest constraints even in the symmetric case. Using Bayesian model comparison, we show that both asymmetric fermionic DM and symmetric scalar DM are preferred over symmetric fermionic DM due to the reduced fine-tuning penalty. Finally, we explore the discovery prospects of near-future experiments both in the full parameter space and for specific benchmark points. We find that the most commonly used benchmark scenarios are already in tension with existing constraints and propose a new benchmark point that can be targeted with future searches.

We analyze $B^0 \to K^0 \bar{\ell} \ell$ long-distance contributions induced by the rescattering of a pair of charmed and charmed-strange mesons. We present an explicit estimate of these contributions using an effective description in terms of hadronic degrees of freedom, supplemented by data on the $B^0 \to D^*D_s (D^*_sD)$ transition in order to reproduce the corresponding discontinuity in the $B^0 \to K^0 \bar{\ell}\ell$ amplitude. The $D^* D_s(D^*_s D) K$ vertex is estimated using heavy-hadron chiral perturbation theory, obtaining an accurate description of the whole rescattering process in the low-recoil (or high-$q^2$) limit. We also present an extrapolation to the whole kinematical region introducing appropriate form factors. The explicit estimate of the leading $D^*D_s (D^*_sD)$ intermediate state leads to a long-distance amplitude which does not exceed a few percent relative to the short-distance one. The consequences of this result for the extraction of the short-distance coefficient $C_9$ are discussed.

We propose a novel scenario where thermally under-abundant dark matter (DM) can be revived with a first-order phase transition (FOPT). In the absence of FOPT, thermal DM abundance remains suppressed due to efficient annihilation via mediators. A FOPT brings sharp change to the mass of the mediator at the nucleation temperature such that the final DM relic agrees with observations. We implement this idea in a scenario where DM interacts via a mediator whose initial mass is of same order as DM mass keeping DM annihilation either in allowed or forbidden ballpark. As the mediator mass decreases sharply at the nucleation temperature of the FOPT, the frozen out DM suffers further depletion while keeping final relic within observed limits. DM with sizeable interactions with a light mediator can also give rise to the required self-interactions necessary to solve the small scale structure issues of cold dark matter. While the mechanism is generic to any thermal DM mass, choosing it in the GeV ballpark forces the FOPT to MeV scale which predicts stochastic gravitational waves with nano-Hz frequencies within reach of pulsar timing array (PTA) based experiments like NANOGrav. The existence of light scalar mediator and its mixing with the Higgs keep the scenario verifiable at different particle physics experiments.

We examine how the existence of a population of primordial black holes (PBHs) influences cosmological gravitational particle production (CGPP) for spin-0 and spin-1 particles. In addition to the known effects of particle production and entropy dilution resulting from PBH evaporation, we find that the generation of dark matter (DM) through CGPP is profoundly influenced by a possible era of PBH matter domination. This early matter dominated era results in an enhancement of the particle spectrum from CGPP. Specifically, it amplifies the peak comoving momentum $k_\star$ for spin-1 DM, while enhancing the plateau of the spectrum for minimally coupled spin-0 particles for low comoving momenta. At the same time, the large entropy dilution may partially or completely compensate for the increase of the spectrum and strongly mitigates the DM abundance produced by CGPP. Our results show that, in the computation of the final abundance, CGPP and PBH evaporation cannot be disentangled, but the parameters of both sectors must be considered together to obtain the final result. Furthermore, we explore the potential formation of PBHs from density fluctuations arising from CGPP and the associated challenges in such a scenario.

We analyze the unique capability of the DarkQuest proton beam-dump experiment at Fermilab to discover new light resonances decaying into photons. As an example model, we focus on muon-philic scalar particles that decay to photons. This is one of the few minimal models that can address the $(g-2)_\mu$ anomaly at low mass. These scalars can be copiously produced by meson decays and muon bremsstrahlung. We point out that thanks to DarkQuest's compact geometry, muons can propagate through the dump and efficiently produce dark scalars near the end of the dump. This mechanism enables DarkQuest to be sensitive to both long-lived and prompt scalars. At the same time, di-photon signatures are generically not background free, and we discuss in detail the different sources of background and strategies to mitigate them. We find that the backgrounds can be sufficiently reduced for DarkQuest to test currently-viable $(g-2)_\mu$ parameter space.

A reaction model for $\gamma + p \to J/\psi + p$ photoproduction, which exposes the $c \bar c$ content of the photon in making the transition $\gamma\to c\bar c + \mathbb P \to J/\psi$ and couples the intermediate $c \bar c$ system to the proton's valence quarks via Pomeron ($\mathbb P $) exchange, is used to deliver a description of available data, viz. both differential and total cross sections from near threshold, where data has newly been acquired, to invariant mass $W \approx 300\,$GeV. The study suggests that it is premature to link existing $\gamma + p \to J/\psi + p$ data with, for instance, in-proton gluon distributions, the quantum chromodynamics trace anomaly, or pentaquark production. Further developments in reaction theory and higher precision data are necessary before the validity of any such connections can be assessed.

We confront measurable neutrino degrees of freedom $N_{\rm eff}$ and summed neutrino mass in the early universe to particle physics at the energy scale beyond the standard model (BSM), in particular including the issue of neutrino mass type distinction. The Majorana-type of massive neutrino is perfectly acceptable by Planck observations, while the Dirac-type neutrino may survive in a restricted class of models that suppresses extra right-handed contribution to $\Delta N_{\rm eff} = N_{\rm eff} - 3$ at a nearly indistinguishable level from the Majorana case. There is a chance that supersymmetry energy scale may be identified in supersymmetric extension of left-right symmetric model if improved $N_{\rm eff}$ measurements discover a finite value. Combined analysis of this quantity with the summed neutrino mass helps to determine the neutrino mass ordering pattern, if measurement accuracy of order, $60 \sim 80\,$meV, is achieved, as in CMB-S4.

Antiquark nuggets are hypothetical compact composite objects conjectured to account for a significant fraction of dark matter in the Universe. In contrast to quark nuggets, these objects consist of antimatter. They may remain undetected if they possess a sufficiently small cross section relative to their mass. In this paper, we investigate the allowed region in the parameter space of this model that is consistent with the observed neutrino flux from the Sun and the Earth, and the non-observation of seismic events with specific signatures of dark matter particles. We found the allowed values of the antibaryon charge number in this model to be in the interval $2\times 10^{24}<A<8\times 10^{25}$, while the probability of nucleon annihilation upon collisions with the antiquark core is constrained by $0.1\lesssim \kappa<0.25$. Although very large values of the antibaryon charge, $A>10^{33}$, are not fully excluded by the present study, we show that they conflict with the non-observation of rare catastrophic explosion-like events on the Earth.

A flavor-dependent model (FDM) is proposed in this work. The model extends the Standard Model by an extra $U(1)_F$ local gauge group, two scalar doublets, one scalar singlet and two right-handed neutrinos, where the additional $U(1)_F$ charges are related to the particles' flavor. The new fermion sector in the FDM can explain the flavor mixings puzzle and the mass hierarchy puzzle simultaneously, and the nonzero Majorana neutrino masses can be obtained naturally by the Type I see-saw mechanism. In addition, the $B$ meson rare decay processes $\bar B \to X_s\gamma$, $B_s^0 \to \mu^+\mu^-$, the top quark rare decay processes $t\to ch$, $t\to uh$ and the $\tau$ lepton flavor violation processes $\tau\to 3e$, $\tau\to 3\mu$, $\mu\to 3e$ predicted in the FDM are analyzed.

The nature of dark matter remains one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in elementary particle physics. It might well be that the dark matter particle belongs to a dark sector completely secluded or extremely weakly coupled to the visible sector. We demonstrate that gravitational waves arising from first order phase transitions in the early Universe can be used to look for signatures of such dark sector models connected to neutron physics. This introduces a new connection between gravitational wave physics and nuclear physics experiments. Focusing on two particular extensions of the Standard Model with dark U(1) and SU(2) gauge groups constructed to address the neutron lifetime puzzle, we show how those signatures can be searched for in future gravitational wave and astrometry experiments.

Using tremendous photon statistics gained with the stray light aperture of the NuSTAR telescope over 11 years of operation, we set strong limits on the emission of close to monochromatic photons from the radiative decays of putative dark matter sterile neutrinos in the Milky Way. In the energy range of 3-20 keV covered by the NuSTAR, the obtained limits reach the edge of theoretical predictions of realistic models leaving only a small room left to explore.

We discuss degenerate vector dark matter and dark photon that are induced from hidden $SU(2)_H$ gauge sector where it is spontaneously broken by vacuum expectation value of $SU(2)_H$ doublet. Kinetic mixing between $SU(2)_H$ and $U(1)_Y$ gauge fields can be generated by introducing dimension six operator realizing dark photon interactions. In estimating relic density we focus on the process in which dark matter annihilates into dark photons, and search for the region of dark matter mass and gauge coupling realizing observed relic density. We then discuss constraints from dark photon physics, thermalization of dark sector and direct detection of dark matter. It is then found that constraints from direct detection experiments give us the strongest upper limits on the dark photon interactions.

In this work, we revisit the one-loop renormalization group equations (RGEs) among non-degenerate seesaw scales, i.e., threshold effects in the canonical seesaw mechanism, which have been obtained for more than two decades. We find some contributions from the Weinberg operator to its Wilson coefficient, the neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix, and the Higgs quartic coupling absent in the previous calculations. Based on the updated one-loop RGEs, we derive the RGE of the effective neutrino mass matrix's determinant without any approximation. Then, for the first time, we provide a strict proof that the one-loop RG running effects among non-degenerate seesaw scales can not generate a non-zero mass for the initial massless neutrino in the minimal type-I seesaw mechanism or in the canonical one with a rank-degenerate neutrino Yukawa coupling matrix. One has to include two- or higher-loop corrections to achieve a non-zero mass for the massless neutrino.

We calculate the cross sections of associated $J/\psi + \psi^\prime$ and $J/\psi + J/\psi$ production in $pp$ collisions at $\sqrt s = 13$ TeV in the forward kinematic region. The High Energy Factorization ($k_T$-factorization) framework supplemented with the Catani-Ciafaloni-Fiorani-Marchesini evolution of gluon densities in a proton is applied. We demonstrate that latest data on $J/\psi + J/\psi$ production and first experimental data on $J/\psi + \psi^\prime$ events taken very recently by the LHCb Collaboration can be described well by the color singlet terms and contributions from the double parton scattering (DPS) with the standard choice for $\sigma_{\rm eff}$ parameter. The relative production rate $\sigma(J/\psi + \psi^\prime)/\sigma(J/\psi + J/\psi)$ is found to be sensitive to the DPS terms as well as to feeddown contributions.

We give an overview of recent developments in the computation of the anomalous dimension matrix of composite operators in non-forward kinematics. The elements of this matrix determine the scale dependence of non-perturbative parton distributions, such as GPDs, and hence constitute important input for phenomenological studies of exclusive processes like deeply-virtual Compton scattering. Particular emphasis will be put on a recently developed method that exploits consistency relations for the anomalous dimension matrix which follow from the renormalization structure of the operators.

We study B+- -- > K+-K+K- decays using the QCD factorization model with final state interactions between K+ and K- mesons taken into account. The parameters of the model are fitted to the data of the BABAR and LHCb collaborations. We describe the K Kbar effective mass distributions and examine the CP-violating asymmetry effects in the full range of the Dalitz plot.

The axion-gluon coupling can be constrained directly through hard exclusive processes at the LHC. Specifically, we study the associated production of a long-lived axion with a $\rho^0$ meson in ultra-peripheral $AA$ collisions and in $pp$ collisions. With the axion escaped from the detector, the final state is characterized by a mono-hadron signature. The main background in our analysis originates from the $\rho^0+\pi^0$ process, where the photons from the $\pi^0$ decay are undetected due to limited detector performance. Our analysis yields an exclusion limit of the axion-gluon coupling that is comparable to the limit obtained from the mono-jet process at the LHC.

Motivated by the null results of current dark matter searches and the small-scale problems, we study a dark sector charged by a spontaneous broken gauge $U(1)'$. To explore the parameter space of this model, in addition to the consideration of the small-scale data, we also consider the theoretical bounds on the dark Higgs mass, with the upper bound coming from the tree-level perturbative unitarity and the lower bound from the one-loop Linde-Weinberg bound. We deeply examine the dependence of the Linde-Weinberg bound on gauge choice and energy scale. Combining the theoretical and observational constraints, we obtain the following ranges for the parameter space: the dark matter mass is 10-500 GeV, the mediator (dark photon) mass is 0.5-5 MeV, the dark Higgs mass is 0.05-50 MeV, the dark fine-structure constant is 0.001-0.5. We conclude that the dark Higgs in this model cannot be ignored in the phenomenological study of the dark sector.

Motivated by the recent experimental results of branching fractions for D_((s))^+ arrows {\eta}^((')) l^+ {\nu}_l decays, which deviate from their SM predictions, we have investigated these decays in W' model and scalar leptoquark model to find possible signatures of new physics (NP) in semileptonic charm decays induced by c arrow(s,d)l {nu}_l transitions. Using recent experimental results of branching fractions for semileptonic D meson decays, new coupling parameters are predicted for the above NP models. Branching fraction, forward-backward asymmetry and lepton polarization asymmetry are studied taking the predicted NP coupling parameters. Results of branching fractions in scalar leptoquark model are found very close to the experimental results and exist around the range 1{sigma} deviation. We have presented a comparative study of the NP models to check their sensitivity on these decays. We anticipate that further research on these decays will significantly support our findings.

We report on a recent calculation of next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD and electroweak corrections to like-sign W-boson scattering at the Large Hadron Collider, including all partonic channels and W-boson decays in the process $pp \to e^+ \nu_e \mu^+ \nu_\mu jj + X$. The calculation is implemented in the Monte Carlo integrator Bonsay and comprises the full tower of NLO contributions of the orders $\alpha_s^3\alpha^4$, $\alpha_s^2\alpha^5$, $\alpha_s\alpha^6$, and $\alpha^7$. Our numerical results confirm and extend previous results, in particular the occurrence of large purely electroweak corrections of the order of $\sim-12\%$ for integrated cross sections, which get even larger in distributions. We construct a "VBS approximation" for the NLO prediction based on partonic channels and gauge-invariant (sub)matrix elements potentially containing the vector-boson scattering (VBS) subprocess and on resonance expansions of the Wdecays. The VBS approximation reproduces the full NLO predictions within $\sim1.5\%$ in the most important regions of phase space. Moreover, we discuss results from different versions of "effective vector-boson approximations" at leading order, based on the collinear emission of W bosons of incoming (anti)quarks. However, owing to the only mild collinear enhancement and the design of VBS analysis cuts, the quality of this approximation turns out to be only qualitative at the LHC.

We study the connection between collider and dark matter phenomenology in the singlet extension of the Georgi-Machacek model. In this framework, the singlet scalar serves as a suitable thermal dark matter (DM) candidate. Our focus lies on the region $v_{\chi}<1$ GeV, where $v_{\chi}$ is the common vacuum expectation value of the neutral components of the scalar triplets of the model. Setting bounds on the model parameters from theoretical, electroweak precision and LHC experimental constraints, we find that the BSM Higgs sector is highly constrained. Allowed values for the masses of the custodial fiveplets, triplets and singlet are restricted to the range $140~ {\rm GeV }< M_{H_5} < 350~ {\rm GeV }$, $150~ {\rm GeV }< M_{H_3} < 270 ~{\rm GeV }$ and $145~ {\rm GeV }< M_{H} < 300~ {\rm GeV }$. The extended scalar sector provides new channels for DM annihilation into BSM scalars that allow to satisfy the observed relic density constraint while being consistent with direct DM detection limits. The allowed region of the parameter space of the model can be explored in the upcoming DM detection experiments, both direct and indirect. In particular, the possible high values of BR$(H^0_5\to\gamma\gamma)$ can lead to an indirect DM signal within the reach of CTA. The same feature also provides the possibility of exploring the model at the High-Luminosity run of the LHC. In a simple cut-based analysis, we find that a signal of about $4\sigma$ significance can be achieved in final states with at least two photons for one of our benchmark points.

We complete the perturbative program for equilibrium thermodynamics of cosmological first-order phase transitions by determining the finite-temperature effective potential of gauge-Higgs theories at next-to-next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order (N$^4$LO). The computation of the three-loop effective potential required to reach this order is extended to generic models in dimensionally reduced effective theories in a companion article. Our N$^4$LO result is the last perturbative order before confinement renders electroweak gauge-Higgs theories non-perturbative at four loops. By contrasting our analysis with non-perturbative lattice results, we find a remarkable agreement. As a direct application for predictions of gravitational waves produced by a first-order transition, our computation provides the final fully perturbative results for the phase transition strength and speed of sound.

We establish a new tool for studying strongly coupled matter: an effective theory of black holes in gravity, which maps to a hydrodynamic description of field theories via the gauge-gravity duality. Our approach is inspired by previously known effective theories found in the limit of high number of dimensions. We argue that the new approach can accurately describe phase transitions in a wide class of theories, such as the Yang-Mills and other nearly critical field theories. As an application, we analyze the interface between confining and deconfining phases in holographic Yang-Mills theory.

Over the past decade, neutrino astronomy has emerged as a new window into the extreme and hidden universe. Current generation experiments have detected high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin and identified the first sources, opening the field to discovery. Looking ahead, the authors of this Perspective identify seven major open questions in neutrino astrophysics and particle physics that could lead to transformative discoveries over the next 20 years. These multi-disciplinary questions range from understanding the vicinity of a black hole to unveiling the nature of neutrino mass, among other topics. Additionally, we critically review the current experimental capabilities and their limitations and, from there, discuss the interplay between different proposed neutrino telescope technologies and analysis techniques. The authors firmly believe that achieving the immense discovery potential over the next two decades demands a model of global partnership and complementary specialized detectors. This collaborative neutrino telescope network will pave the way for a thriving multi-messenger era, transforming our understanding of neutrino physics, astrophysics, and the extreme universe. \end{abstract}

We explore the bound neutrons decay into invisible particles (e.g., $n\rightarrow 3 \nu$ or $nn \rightarrow 2 \nu$) in the JUNO liquid scintillator detector. The invisible decay includes two decay modes: $ n \rightarrow { inv} $ and $ nn \rightarrow { inv} $. The invisible decays of $s$-shell neutrons in $^{12}{\rm C}$ will leave a highly excited residual nucleus. Subsequently, some de-excitation modes of the excited residual nuclei can produce a time- and space-correlated triple coincidence signal in the JUNO detector. Based on a full Monte Carlo simulation informed with the latest available data, we estimate all backgrounds, including inverse beta decay events of the reactor antineutrino $\bar{\nu}_e$, natural radioactivity, cosmogenic isotopes and neutral current interactions of atmospheric neutrinos. Pulse shape discrimination and multivariate analysis techniques are employed to further suppress backgrounds. With two years of exposure, JUNO is expected to give an order of magnitude improvement compared to the current best limits. After 10 years of data taking, the JUNO expected sensitivities at a 90% confidence level are $\tau/B( n \rightarrow { inv} ) > 5.0 \times 10^{31} \, {\rm yr}$ and $\tau/B( nn \rightarrow { inv} ) > 1.4 \times 10^{32} \, {\rm yr}$.

We present a pipeline to infer the equation of state of neutron stars from observations based on deep neural networks. In particular, using the standard (deterministic), as well as Bayesian (probabilistic) deep networks, we explore how one can infer the interior speed of sound of the star given a set of mock observations of total stellar mass, stellar radius and tidal deformability. We discuss in detail the construction of our simulated dataset of stellar observables starting from the solution of the gravitational equations, as well as the relevant architectures for the deep networks, along with their performance and accuracy. We further explain how our pipeline is capable to detect a possible QCD phase transition in the stellar core. Our results show that deep networks offer a promising tool towards solving the inverse problem of neutron stars, and the accurate inference of their interior from future stellar observations.

Quantum field theory predicts a nonlinear response of the vacuum to strong electromagnetic fields of macroscopic extent. This fundamental tenet has remained experimentally challenging and is yet to be tested in the laboratory. A particularly distinct signature of the resulting optical activity of the quantum vacuum is vacuum birefringence. This offers an excellent opportunity for a precision test of nonlinear quantum electrodynamics in an uncharted parameter regime. Recently, the operation of the high-intensity laser ReLaX provided by the Helmholtz International Beamline for Extreme Fields (HIBEF) has been inaugurated at the High Energy Density (HED) scientific instrument of the European XFEL. We make the case that this worldwide unique combination of an x-ray free-electron laser and an ultra-intense near-infrared laser together with recent advances in high-precision x-ray polarimetry, refinements of prospective discovery scenarios, and progress in their accurate theoretical modelling have set the stage for performing an actual discovery experiment of quantum vacuum nonlinearity.

A new measurement of inclusive jet production in deep inelastic scattering was recently published by the ZEUS Collaboration. This contribution presents a detailed discussion of the treatment of higher-order QED effects in this measurement. A comprehensive treatment of these effects is crucial for a more direct comparison between ever more precise measurements and theoretical calculations. The present analysis is the only measurement of jet production in deep inelastic scattering that can be compared to full NNLO QCD + NLO electroweak predictions.

We present a prescription for choosing orthogonal bases of differential $n$-forms belonging to quadratic twisted period integrals, with respect to the intersection number inner product. To evaluate these inner products, we additionally propose a new closed formula for intersection numbers beyond $\mathrm{d} \log$ forms. These findings allow us to systematically construct orthonormal bases between twisted period integrals of this type. In the context of Feynman integrals, this represents all diagrams at one-loop.

We study cold strange quark stars employing an enhanced version of the quark-mass density-dependent model which incorporates excluded volume effects to address non-perturbative QCD repulsive interactions. We provide a comparative analysis of our mass formula parametrization with previous models from the literature. We identify the regions within the parameter space where three-flavor quark matter is more stable than the most tightly bound atomic nucleus (stability window). Specifically, we show that excluded volume effects do not change the Gibbs free energy per baryon at zero pressure, rendering the stability window unaffected. The curves of pressure versus energy density exhibit various shapes -- convex upward, concave downward, or nearly linear -- depending on the mass parametrization. This behavior results in different patterns of increase, decrease, or constancy in the speed of sound as a function of baryon number density. We analyze the mass-radius relationship of strange quark stars, revealing a significant increase in maximum gravitational mass and a shift in the curves towards larger radii as the excluded volume effect intensifies. Excluded volume effects render our models compatible with all modern astrophysical constraints, including the properties of the recently observed low-mass compact object HESSJ1731.

In heavy-ion phenomenology, the nucleon density distribution in colliding nuclei is commonly described by a two-parameter Woods-Saxon (WS) distribution. However, this approach omits the detailed radial structure in the density distribution that arises from quantal filling patterns of neutrons and protons. These fine structures, as estimated by the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock density functional, cause small deviations in heavy-ion observables from the WS baseline, which cannot be captured by simply readjusting the WS parameters. These deviations are dependent on centrality and observable but often exhibit similar shapes for different nuclei. Such fine structures may introduce up to a 25% uncertainty in the measured differences in heavy-ion observables between the $^{96}$Ru+$^{96}$Ru and $^{96}$Zr+$^{96}$Zr mid-central collisions from the STAR Collaboration.