We propose a method for testing the Dirac neutrino hypothesis by combining data from terrestrial neutrino experiments, such as tritium beta decay, with data from cosmological observations, such as the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure surveys. If the neutrinos are Dirac particles, and if the active neutrinos' sterile partners were once thermalized in the early universe, then this new cosmological relic would simultaneously contribute to the effective number of relativistic species, $N_\text{eff}$, and also lead to a mismatch between the cosmologically-measured effective neutrino mass sum $\Sigma m_\nu$ and the terrestrially-measured active neutrino mass sum $\Sigma_i m_i$. We point out that specifically correlated deviations in $N_\text{eff} \gtrsim 3$ and $\Sigma m_\nu \gtrsim \Sigma_i m_i$ above their standard predictions could be the harbinger revealing the Dirac nature of neutrinos. We provide several benchmark examples, including Dirac leptogenesis, that predict a thermal relic population of the sterile partners, and we discuss the relevant observational prospects with current and near-future experiments. This work provides a novel approach to probe an important possibility of the origin of neutrino mass.

Multiply-interacting massive particles (MIMPs) are heavy (>10^10 GeV/c^2) dark matter particles that interact strongly with regular matter, but may have evaded detection due to the low number density required to make up the local dark matter halo. These particles could leave track-like signatures in current experiments, similar to lightly-ionizing particles. We show that previously calculated limits from the MAJORANA Demonstrator on the flux of lightly-ionizing particles can be used to exclude MIMP dark matter parameter space up to a mass of 10^15 GeV/c^2. We also calculate limits from the standard XENON1T analysis in this high-mass regime, properly taking into account flux limitations and multi-scatter effects. Finally, we show that a dedicated MIMP analysis using the XENON1T dark matter search could probe unexplored parameter space up to masses of 10^18 GeV/c^2.

Taking into account only the quark part of the energy-momentum tensor, the gravitational form-factors of the $ \pi $ and $ K $ mesons are calculated within the light-cone sum rules method using the distribution amplitudes of these pseudoscalar mesons. The $ Q^2 $-dependence of the relevant form-factors are obtained. Moreover, the mean square mass radii of $ \pi $ and $ K $ mesons are calculated and we find that $ \sqrt{\langle r_{\pi}^2 \rangle} = 0.31 {\rm\ fm} $ and $ \sqrt{\langle r_{K}^2 \rangle} = 0.24 {\rm\ fm} $, respectively. We compare our results for gravitational form-factors with the existing literature results. We obtain that our results on $ \sqrt{\langle r_\pi^2 \rangle} $ are in good agreement with the predictions of NJL model, AdS/QCD model, and other models as well as with the existing experimental data.

We extend the auxiliary-mass-flow (AMF) method originally developed for Feynman loop integration to calculate integrals involving also phase-space integration. Flow of the auxiliary mass from the boundary ($\infty$) to the physical point ($0^+$) is obtained by numerically solving differential equations with respective to the auxiliary mass. For problems with two or more kinematical invariants, the AMF method can be combined with traditional differential equation method by providing systematical boundary conditions and highly nontrivial self-consistent check. The method is described in detail with a pedagogical example of $e^+e^-\rightarrow \gamma^* \rightarrow t\bar{t}+X$ at NNLO. We show that the AMF method can systematically and efficiently calculate integrals to high precision.

We demonstrate that electron electric dipole moment experiments with molecules in paramagnetic state are sensitive to $P,T$-violating nuclear forces and other $CP$-violating parameters in the hadronic sector. These experiments, in particular, measure the coupling constant $C_{SP}$ of the $CP$-odd contact semileptonic interaction. We establish relations between $C_{SP}$ and different $CP$-violating hadronic parameters including strength constants of the $CP$-odd nuclear potentials, $CP$-odd pion-nucleon interactions, quark-chromo EDM and QCD vacuum angle. These relations allow us to find limits on various $CP$-odd hadronic parameters.

We propose an idea of the constrained Feynman amplitude for the scattering of the charged lepton and the virtual W-boson, $l_{\beta} + W_{\rho} \rightarrow l_{\alpha} + W_{\lambda}$, from which the conventional Pontecorvo oscillation formula of relativistic neutrinos is readily obtained using plane waves for all the particles involved. In a path integral picture, the neutrino propagates forward in time between the production and detection vertices, which are constrained respectively on the 3-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces separated by a macroscopic positive time $\tau$. The covariant Feynman amplitude is formally recovered if one sums over all possible values of $\tau$ (including negative $\tau$).

Coherent forward scattering processes by neutrino-scalar non-standard interactions (SNSI) induce an effective neutrino mass. In the Early Universe, a large neutrino effective mass restricts the production of neutrinos. The SNSI effect is modulated by two effective couplings, these account for the coupling between neutrinos and electrons/positrons, $G_{\rm eff}$, and the neutrino self-interaction, $G_{\rm S}$. These parameters are directly related to the effective number of relativistic species and non-zero values imply a smaller than expected $N_{\rm eff}$. We employ big bang nucleosynthesis to constraint the SNSI effect. We find that $ G_{\rm eff }< 3.8$ MeV$^{-2}$ and $ G_{\rm S }< 6.2 \times 10^{7}$ MeV$^{-2}$ at 95\% CL. For a scalar mass in the range $10^{-15} {\rm eV}\lesssim m_{\phi}\lesssim 10^{-5}{\rm eV}$, our neutrino-scalar coupling constraint is more restrictive than any previous result.

The current paper presents a determination of $K^0_S$ and $\Lambda/\bar{\Lambda}$ fragmentation functions (FFs) from QCD analysis of single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation process (SIA). Our FFs determinations are performed at next-to-leading order (NLO), and for the first time, at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) accuracy in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD) which is designated as {\tt SAK20} FFs. Each of these FFs is accompanied by their uncertainties which are determined using the `Hessian' method. Considering the hadron mass corrections, we clearly investigate the reliability of our results upon the inclusion of higher-order QCD correction. We provide comparisons of {\tt SAK20} FFs set with the available analysis from another group, finding in general a reasonable agreement, and also considerable differences. In order to judge the fit quality, our theoretical predictions are compared with the analyzed SIA datasets. {\tt SAK20} FFs at NLO and NNLO accuracy along with their uncertainties are made available in the standard {\tt LHAPDF} format in order to use for predictions of present and future measurements in high-energy collisions such as LHC and RHIC.

In this work, the two-photon-exchange (TPE) effects in $e^+e^- \rightarrow \pi^+ \pi^-$ at small $\sqrt{s}$ are discussed within a hadronic model. In the limit $m_e\rightarrow 0$, the TPE contribution to the amplitude can be described by one scalar function $\overline{c}_{1}^{(2\gamma)}$. The ratio between this function and the corresponding contribution in one-photon exchange $c_{1}^{(1\gamma)}$ reflects all the information of the TPE corrections. The numerical results on this ratio are presented and an artificial function is used to fit the numerical results. The latter can be used conveniently in the further experimental data analysis. The numerical results show the asymmetry of the differential cross sections in $e^+e^- \rightarrow \pi^+ \pi^-$ is about $-4\%$ at $\sqrt{s}\sim 0.7$ GeV.

We study the inclusive J/psi production at large transverse momenta at lepton-hadron colliders in the limit when the exchange photon is quasi real, also referred to as photoproduction. Our computation includes the leading-P_T leading-v next-to-leading alpha_s corrections. In particular, we consider the contribution from J/psi plus another charm quark, by employing for the first time in quarkonium photoproduction the variable-flavour-number scheme. We also include a QED-induced contribution via an off-shell photon which remained ignored in the literature and which we show to be the leading contribution at high P_T within the reach of the EIC. In turn, we use our computation of J/psi+charm to demonstrate its observability at the future EIC and the EIC sensitivity to probe the non-perturbative charm content of the proton at high x.

We consider the two Higgs doublet model (2HDM) along with a generation of vector-like lepton doublet and singlet to explain the observed discrepancies in the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moments. The type-X (lepton-specific) 2HDM can allow a light pseudo-scalar which is known to explain the muon anomalous magnetic moment at two-loop. Such a light particle induces a sizable negative contribution to the electron anomalous magnetic moment at one-loop in the presence of vector-like leptons evading all the experimental constraints.

We present a phenomenology study on central exclusive production of $W^+W^-$ boson pairs in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider at 14 TeV using the forward proton detectors, such as the ATLAS Forward Proton or the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer detectors. Final states where at least one of the $W$ bosons decay hadronically in a large-radius jet are considered. The latter extends previous efforts that consider solely leptonic final states. A measurement of exclusive $W^+W^-$ also allows us to further constrain anomalous quartic gauge boson interactions between photons and $W$ bosons. Expected limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings $a_{0,C}^W$ associated to dimension-six effective operators are derived for the hadronic, semi-leptonic, and leptonic final states. It is found that the couplings can be probed down to one-dimensional values of $a_{0}^W = 3.7\times 10^{-7}$ GeV$^{-2}$ and $a_{C}^W = 9.2 \times 10^{-7}$ GeV$^{-2}$ at $95\%$ CL at an integrated luminosity of 300 fb$^{-1}$ by combining all final states, compared to values of about $a_{0}^W = 4\times 10^{-6}$ GeV$^{-2}$ and $a_{C}^W = 1\times 10^{-5}$ GeV$^{-2}$ at 95\% CL expected for the leptonic channel alone.

The photoproduction of the $J/\psi$ off the proton is believed to deepen our understanding of various physics issues. On the one hand, it is proposed to provide access to the origin of the proton mass, based on the QCD multipole expansion. On the other hand, it can be employed in a study of pentaquark states. The process is usually assumed to proceed through vector-meson dominance, that is the photon couples to a $J/\psi$ which rescatters with the proton to give the $J/\psi p$ final state. In this Letter, we provide a compelling hint for and propose measurements necessary to confirm a novel production mechanism via the $\Lambda_c \bar D^{(*)}$ intermediate states. In particular, there must be cusp structures at the $\Lambda_c \bar D^{(*)}$ thresholds in the energy dependence of the $J/\psi$ photoproduction cross section. The same mechanism also implies the $J/\psi$-nucleon scattering lengths of order 1 mfm. Given this, one expects only a minor contribution of charm quarks to the nucleon mass.

We propose an {\it{ab initio}} method to explore the nature of the newly discovered particle $X$(6900). We find that there should exist another state near the resonance at around 6.9 $\mathrm{GeV}$, and the ratio of production cross sections of $X$(6900) to the undiscovered state is very sensitive to the nature of $X$(6900), whereas is almost independent of the transverse momentum and rapidity. This behavior is unlikely changed by higher order corrections. Therefore, the nature of $X$(6900) can be uncovered by experimental facts in the near future. If there is another state near $X$(6900) with cross section larger than half of that of $X$(6900), $X$(6900) should be a tetraquark state. Otherwise, it should be a molecule-like state.

The $X(6900)$ resonance, very recently discovered in the double-$J/\psi$ channel at LHCb experiment, has spurred intensive interest in unravelling the nature of the fully charmed tetraquark state. The aim of this paper is to present a model-independent theoretical framework to study the inclusive production of this novel species of exotic hadrons, the resonances composed of four heavy quark (commonly referred to as $T_{4c}$), at large $p_T$ in hadron collision experiments. Appealing to asymptotic freedom and the fact $m_c\gg \Lambda_{\rm QCD}$, we propose that the nonpertubative yet universal gluon-to-$T_{4c}$ fragmentation function, can be decomposed into the product of the perturbatively calculable short-distance coefficient and the long-distance NRQCD matrix elements. We compute the short-distance coefficient at lowest-order in $\alpha_s$ and velocity expansion. Adopting the diquark ansatz to roughly estimate those not-yet-known NRQCD matrix elements, together with the standard QCD factorization theorem, we predict the differential production rates for the $T_{4c/4b}(0^{++})$ and $T_{4c/4b}(2^{++})$ at large $p_T$ in $pp$ collision, which eagerly awaits the confrontation with the future LHC experiments.

There has been a renewed interest in the description of dressed asymptotic states a la Faddeev-Kulish. In this regard, a worldline representation for asymptotic states dressed by radiation at subleading power in the soft expansion, known as the Generalized Wilson Line (GWL) in the literature, has been available for some time, and it recently found applications in the derivation of factorization theorems for scattering processes of phenomenological relevance. In this paper we revisit the derivation of the GWL in the light of the well-known supersymmetric wordline formalism for the relativistic spinning particle. In particular, we discuss the importance of wordline supersymmetry to understand the contribution of the soft background field to the asymptotic dynamics. We also provide a derivation of the GWL for the gluon case, which was not previously available in the literature, thus extending the exponentiation of next-to-soft gauge boson corrections to Yang-Mills theory. Finally, we comment about possible applications in the current research about asymptotic states in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories and their classical limit.

We study scattering of short Gaussian pulses of axial gravitational waves by a black hole that has swallowed one or more global monopoles. We show how the response of the black hole to the impinging pulses depends both on the number of monopoles the black hole has swallowed and on the symmetry breaking scale of the model which gave rise to the monopoles. We determine the corresponding quasinormal modes that get excited by the impinging pulses and that get imprinted in the black hole's response to the pulses. These modes are also expected to show up in various other dynamical processes such as the ringdown phase of a binary black hole merger in case at least one of the companion black holes of the binary has swallowed one or more global monopoles.

The NANOGrav Collaboration has recently published a strong evidence for a stochastic common-spectrum process that may be interpreted as a stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that such a signal can be explained by second-order gravitational waves produced during the formation of primordial black holes from the collapse of sizeable scalar perturbations generated during inflation. This possibility has two predictions: $i$) the primordial black holes may comprise the totality of the dark matter with the dominant contribution to their mass function falling in the range $(10^{-15}\div 10^{-11}) M_\odot$ and $ii$) the gravitational wave stochastic background will be seen as well by the LISA experiment.

In this paper, we re-examine charged Q-clouds around spherically symmetric, static black holes. In particular, we demonstrate that for fixed coupling constants two different branches of charged scalar clouds exist around Schwarzschild black holes. This had not been noticed previously. We find that the new solutions possess a "hard wall" at maximal possible gauge coupling. This wall separates the interior (containing the black hole horizon), in which the scalar field is trapped in the "false vacuum", from the "true vacuum" exterior. When taking back-reaction onto the space-time into account, we find that at maximal possible back reaction, the black hole solutions corresponding to these two branches either become extremal black holes with diverging scalar field derivative on the horizon or inflating black holes with a second, "cosmological" horizon which - outside this second horizon - correspond to extremal Reissner-Nordstr\"om black holes.

We present a critical assessment of the calculation and uncertainty of the $^{214}$Pb $\to$ $^{214}$Bi ground state to ground state $\beta$ decay, the dominant source of background in liquid Xenon dark matter detectors, down to below 1 keV. We consider contributions from atomic exchange effects, nuclear structure and radiative corrections. For each of these, we find changes much larger than previously estimated uncertainties and discuss shortcomings of the original calculation. Specifically, through the use of a self-consistent Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater calculation, we find that the atomic exchange effect increases the predicted flux by $10(3)\%$ at 1 keV relative to previous exchange calculations. Further, using a shell model calculation of the nuclear structure contribution to the shape factor, we find a strong disagreement with the allowed shape factor and discuss several sources of uncertainty. In the 1-200 keV window, the predicted flux is up to 20$\%$ lower. Finally, we discuss omissions and detector effects in previously used QED radiative corrections, and find small changes in the slope at the $\gtrsim 1\%$ MeV$^{-1}$ level, up to $3\%$ in magnitude due to omissions in $\mathcal{O}(Z\alpha^2, Z^2\alpha^3)$ corrections and $3.5\%$ uncertainty from the neglect of as of yet unavailable higher-order contributions. Combined, these give rise to an increase of at least a factor 2 of the uncertainty in the 1-200 keV window. We comment on possible experimental schemes of measuring this and related transitions.