Recently, the singly, doubly and fully charmed tetraquark candidates, $T_{c\bar{s}}(2900)$, $T^+_{cc}(3875)$ and $X(6900)$ are experimentally reported by the LHCb collaboration. Hence, it is quite necessary to implement a theoretical investigation on the triply heavy tetrquarks. In this study, the S-wave triply charm and bottom tetraquarks, $\bar{Q}Q\bar{q}Q$ $(q=u,\,d,\,s;\,Q=c,\,b)$, with spin-parity $J^P=0^+$, $1^+$ and $2^+$, isospin $I=0$ and $\frac{1}{2}$ are systematically studied in a constituent quark model. Particularly, a complete S-wave tetraquark configurations, which include the meson-meson, diquark-antidiquark and K-type arrangements of quarks, along with all allowed color structures, are comprehensively considered. A high accuracy and efficient computational approach, the Gaussian expansion method (GEM), in cooperation with a powerful complex-scaling method (CSM), which is quite ingenious in dealing with the bound and resonant state of a multiquark system simultaneously, are adopted in solving the complex scaled Schr\"odinger equation. This theoretical framework has already been successfully applied in various tetra- and penta-quark systems. Bound state of triply heavy tetraquark system is unavailable in our study, nevertheless, in a fully coupled-channel calculation by the CSM, several narrow resonances are found in each $I(J^P)$ quantum states of the charm and bottom sector. In particular, triply charm and bottom tetraquark resonances are obtained in $5.59-5.94$ GeV and $15.31-15.67$ GeV, respectively. Compositeness of exotic states, such as the inner quark distance, magnetic moment and dominant component, are also analyzed. These exotic hadrons in triply heavy sector are expected to be confirmed in future high energy experiments.

We present analytic results for three-loop fermionic corrections to the heavy-light form factors in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Specifically, we present all light quark contributions and contributions from two heavy quark loops. We use the method of differential equations to compute all relevant three-loop master integrals. The results for all these contributions are expressed in terms of harmonic polylogarithms and generalized harmonic polylogarithms.

We introduce a class of multi-Higgs doublet extensions of the Standard Model that solves the strong CP problem with profound consequences for the flavor sector. The Yukawa matrices are constrained to have many zero entries by a "Higgs-Flavor" symmetry, $G_{\rm HF}$, that acts on Higgs and quark fields. The violation of both CP and $G_{\rm HF}$ occurs in the Higgs mass matrix so that, for certain choices of $G_{\rm HF}$ charges, the strong CP parameter $\bar{\theta}$ is zero at tree-level. Radiative corrections to $\bar{\theta}$ are computed in this class of theories. They vanish in realistic two-Higgs doublet models with $G_{\rm HF} = \mathbb{Z}_3$. We also construct realistic three-Higgs models with $G_{\rm HF} = \rm U(1)$, where the one-loop results for $\bar{\theta}$ are model-dependent. Requiring $\bar{\theta}< 10^{-10}$ has important implications for the flavor problem by constraining the Yukawa coupling and Higgs mass matrices. Contributions to $\bar{\theta}$ from higher-dimension operators are computed at 1-loop and can also be sufficiently small, although the hierarchy problem of this class of theories is worse than in the Standard Model.

We study the All-Line Transverse (ALT) shift which we developed for on-shell recursion of amplitudes for particles of any mass. We discuss the validity of the shift for general theories of spin $\leq$ 1, and illustrate the connection between Ward identity and constructibility for massive spin-1 amplitude under the ALT shift. We apply the shift to the electroweak theory, and various four-point scattering amplitudes among electroweak gauge bosons and fermions are constructed. We show explicitly that the four-point gauge boson contact terms in massive electroweak theory automatically arise after recursive construction, independent of UV completion, and they automatically cancel the terms growing as (energy)$^4$ at high energy. We explore UV completion of the electroweak theory that cancels the remaining (energy)$^2$ terms and impose unitarity requirements to constrain additional couplings. The ALT shift framework allows consistent treatment in dealing with contact term ambiguities for renormalizable massive and massless theories, which we show can be useful in studying real-world amplitudes with massive spinors.

We consider a Bubble Expansion mechanism for the production of scalar dark matter during a first-order phase transition in the early Universe. Seeking for a dark matter energy density in agreement with observations, we study different non-renormalizable interactions between the dark matter species and the field undergoing the transition. The resulting relic abundance is shown to display a strong dependence on the Lorentz boost factor associated to the bubble wall motion, with this dependence becoming more significant the higher the dimension of the non-renormalizable interaction. This allows for observational compatibility across a wide range of dark matter masses and transition temperatures, typically excluded in renormalizable scenarios. For a transition around the electroweak scale, the associated gravitational wave spectrum is also within the reach of future detectors.

I review some aspects of antenna subtraction at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD and provide motivation for its extension to N$^3$LO. Next, I introduce the antenna functions required for the construction of infrared counterterms for final-state radiation at this order. Lastly, I describe the evaluation of the antenna functions and their phase-space integration, first presented in [1-3], and I elaborate on their application to precision observables in jet production at lepton colliders.

Electronic excitations in atomic, molecular, and crystal targets are at the forefront of the ongoing search for light, sub-GeV dark matter (DM). In many light DM-electron interactions the energy and momentum deposited is much smaller than the electron mass, motivating a non-relativistic (NR) description of the electron. Thus, for any target, light DM-electron phenomenology relies on understanding the interactions between the DM and electron in the NR limit. In this work we derive the NR effective field theory (EFT) of general DM-electron interactions from a top-down perspective, starting from general high-energy DM-electron interaction Lagrangians. This provides an explicit connection between high-energy theories and their low-energy phenomenology in electron excitation based experiments. Furthermore, we derive Feynman rules for the DM-electron NR EFT, allowing observables to be computed diagrammatically, which can systematically explain the presence of in-medium screening effects in general DM models. We use these Feynman rules to compute absorption, scattering, and dark Thomson scattering rates for a wide variety of high-energy DM models.

We analyse the impact of dark matter density spike around the Milky Way's supermassive black hole (SMBH), Sgr A$^*$, in probing the Bino-dominated neutralino dark matter (DM) $\tilde \chi_1^0$ within the MSSM, which typically produces relatively faint signals in the conventional DM halos. In particular, we explore the indirect search prospects of sub-TeV Bino-Higgsino and Bino-Wino-Higgsino DM in the MSSM, consistent with the supersymmetric predictions required to explain the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Typical over-abundance of Bino DM is ameliorated with slepton and/or Wino coannihilations. The lightest neutralino, thus, may be associated with a compressed supersymmetric particle spectrum, which, in general, is difficult to probe at conventional LHC searches. Similarly, for a rather tiny Higgsino mixing, $\tilde \chi_1^0$ does not offer much prospect to assess its predictions at dark matter direct detection searches. Accommodating the inclusive effects of density spike, here, we present the requisite boost factor to facilitate $\gamma-$ray searches of Bino-dominated DM in the MSSM, especially focusing on the Fermi-LAT and HESS observations.

A critical element of the LHC physics program is the search for an additional source of CP violation. This is largely unexplored in the context of non-linear Higgs physics, which is naturally described in Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT). Relevant new higher-dimensional operators modify the production rate and branching ratios of the Higgs boson, de-correlating different Higgs multiplicities. In this work, we consider single Higgs and Higgs pair production via weak boson fusion from the perspective of gauge-Higgs CP violation through the lens of Higgs non-linearity. This generalizes existing rate-based searches and analyses by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Particular focus is given to the phenomenological differences in the expected BSM sensitivity pattern when comparing HEFT constraints with Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT) limits.

Fixed-target proton-beam experiments produce a multitude of charged pions that rescatter in the beam dump. These charged pion scattering events can be an additional irreducible source of exotic particles which couple to photons or hadrons. We analyze the sensitivity of the DUNE Near Detector complex to millicharged particles (MCPs) and heavy axion-like particles (ALPs) with low-energy couplings to gluons. Using the framework of chiral perturbation theory, we demonstrate regimes of parameter space where the charged pion production channel dominates over previously-considered production mechanisms for both MCPs and ALPs, thereby improving the sensitivity of DUNE to these new particles compared to previous studies.

Heavy meson decays with missing energy in the final state offer interesting avenues to search for light invisible new physics such as dark matter (DM). In this context, we show that such NP interactions also affect lifetime difference in neutral meson-antimeson mixing. We consider general dimension-six effective quark interactions involving a pair of DM particles and calculate their contributions to lifetime difference in beauty and charm meson systems. We use the latest data on mixing observables to constrain the relevant effective operators. We find that lifetime differences provide novel and complementary flavor constraints compared to those obtained from heavy meson decays.

Precise information on the Higgs boson self-couplings provides the foundation for unveiling the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism. Due to the scarcity of Higgs boson pair events at the LHC, only loose limits have been obtained. This is based on the assumption that the cross section is a quadratic function of the trilinear Higgs self-coupling in the $\kappa$ framework. However, if higher-order corrections of virtual Higgs bosons are included, the function form would dramatically change. In particular, new quartic and cubic power dependence on the trilinear Higgs self-coupling would appear. To get this new function form, we have performed a specialized renormalization procedure suitable for tracking all the Higgs self-couplings in each calculation step. Moreover, we introduce renormalization of the scaling parameter in the $\kappa$ framework to ensure the cancellation of all ultraviolet divergences. With the new function forms of the cross sections in both the gluon-gluon fusion and vector boson fusion channels, the upper limit of $\kappa_{\lambda_3}=\lambda_{\rm 3H}/\lambda_{\rm 3H}^{\rm SM}$ by the ATLAS (CMS) collaboration is reduced from 6.6 (6.49) to 5.4 (5.37). However, it is still hard to extract a meaningful constraint on the quartic Higgs self-coupling $\lambda_{\rm 4H}$ from Higgs boson pair production data. We also present the invariant mass distributions of the Higgs boson pair at different values of $\kappa_{\lambda}$, which could help to set optimal cuts in the experimental analysis.

Recently, the experimental values of the muon $(g-2)_\mu$ and of the $W$ boson mass $m_{_W}$ have both indicated significant deviations from the SM predictions, motivating the exploration of extensions with extra particles and symmetries. We revisit a lepton portal model with $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry where an extra Higgs doublet, a scalar singlet and one $SU(2)_L$ singlet vector-like fermion are introduced. In this model, $(g-2)_\mu$ can be explained by extra one-loop contributions from the vector-like lepton and the $Z'$ boson, whereas $m_{_W}$ can be increased by a tree-level mixing between the $Z$ and $Z'$. Setting the $Z'$ and lepton couplings at low energies to account for the SM anomalies, we perform a Renormalization Group analysis to investigate on the high-energy behaviour of the model, in particular on the issue of vacuum stability. We find that in the alignment limit for the two Higgs doublets, the Landau pole and the scale where perturbativity is lost are of order $10-100\,{\rm TeV}$, not far from the scales experimentally reached so far, and sensibly lower than the stability scale. We show how the Landau pole can be increased up to $\sim10^9\,{\rm GeV}$ in a misaligned scenario where the experimental anomalies are still accommodated and a positive shift of the Higgs quartic coupling to improve stability can be achieved.

The holographic Schwinger effect is investigated in systems with Nf = 0, Nf = 2, and Nf = 2+1 using the Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton (EMD) model, incorporating equation of state and baryon number susceptibility information from lattice QCD. It is found that the critical electric field is smallest for Nf = 0, indicating that the Schwinger effect is more likely to occur than in systems with Nf = 2 and Nf = 2+ 1. The critical electric field decreases with increasing chemical potential and temperature across all systems. Additionally, potential analysis confirms that the maximum total potential energy increases with the number of flavors, suggesting that existing particles may reduce the probability of particle pair production.

The searches for an underlying pattern in neutrino masses have motivated different proposals for textures in the neutrino mass matrix, which is also related to particular arranges of the mixing matrix. The current precise determinations of neutrino mixings have discarded some of the most studied proposals, such as the one involving a $\mu-\tau$ exchange symmetry. In this work, we investigate the relation of a still allowed $\mu-\tau$ reflection symmetry with the constraints of a magic pattern in the neutrino mass matrix. We show that both conditions cannot be fulfilled simultaneously in an exact but rather in an approximate way. Such considerations are used to restrict the values of CP-violating phases and some observables, like the neutrinoless double beta decay amplitude and the solar angle, that can be explored with forthcoming results.

Gell-Mann-Low functions can be calculated by means of perturbation theory and expressed as truncated series in powers of asymptotically small coupling parameters. However, it is necessary to know there behavior at finite values of the parameter and, moreover, their behavior at asymptotically large coupling parameters is also important. The problem of extrapolation of weak-coupling expansions to the region of finite and even infinite coupling parameters is considered. A method is suggested allowing for such an extrapolation. The basics of the method are described and illustrations of its applications are given for the examples where its accuracy and convergence can be checked. It is shown that in some cases the method allows for the exact reconstruction of the whole functions from their weak-coupling asymptotic expansions. Gell-Mann-Low functions in multicomponent field theory, quantum electrodynamics, and quantum chromodynamics are extrapolated to their strong-coupling limits.

Parameters of the heavy four-quark scalar meson $T_{\mathrm{2bc}}=bc \overline{b}\overline{c}$ are calculated by means of the sum rule method. This structure is considered as a diquark-antidiquark state built of scalar diquark and antidiquark components. The mass and current coupling of $T_{ \mathrm{2bc}}$ are evaluated in the context of the two-point sum rule approach. The full width of this tetraquark is estimated by taking into account two types of its possible strong decay channels. First class includes dissociation of $T_{\mathrm{2bc}}$ to mesons $\eta_c\eta_{b}$, $ B_{c}^{+}B_{c}^{-}$, $B_{c}^{\ast +}B_{c}^{\ast -}$ and $ B_{c}^{+}(1^3P_{0})B_{c}^{\ast-}$. Another type of processes are generated by annihilations $\overline{b}b \to \overline{q}q$ of constituent $b$-quarks which produces the final-state charmed meson pairs $D^{+}D^{-}$, $D^{0} \overline{D}^{0}$, $D^{*+}D^{*-}$, and $D^{*0}\overline{D}^{*0}$. Partial width all of these decays are found using the three-point sum rule method which is required to calculate strong couplings at corresponding meson-meson-tetraquark vertices. Predictions obtained for the mass $m=(12697 \pm 90)~\mathrm{MeV}$ and width $\Gamma[T_{\mathrm{2bc}}]=(142.4 \pm 16.9)~ \mathrm{MeV}$ of the state $T_{\mathrm{2bc}}$ are compared with alternative results, and are useful for further experimental investigations of fully heavy resonances.

Axion-like particles (ALPs) and heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) are two well-motivated classes of particles beyond the Standard Model. It is intriguing to explore the new detection opportunities that may arise if both particle types coexist. Part of the authors already investigated this scenario in a previous publication, within a simplified model containing an ALP and a single HNL, identifying particularly promising processes that could be searched for at the LHC. In this paper, we first consider the same setup with a broader range of both production processes and final states, both at the High-Luminosity LHC and at a future muon collider. Subsequently, we expand it to the more realistic scenario with at least two HNLs, necessary to describe the active neutrino masses. Different phenomenological signals are expected and we examine the complexities that emerge in this setup. This study paves the way for dedicated analysis at (forthcoming) colliders, potentially pinpointing the dynamics of ALPs and HNLs.

We consider the Z5 two-component dark matter model within the framework of the Type-II seesaw mechanism. Due to the new annihilation processes related to triplets, the light component cannot necessarily be dominant in the dark matter relic density, which is different from the Z5 two-component dark matter model in the SM. The model is considered to explain the excess of electron-positron flux measured by the AMS-02 Collaborations in this work, which is encouraged by the decay of the triplets arising from dark matter annihilations in the Galactic halo. We discuss the cases of the light and heavy components determining dark matter density within a viable parameter space satisfying relic density and direct detection constraints, and by fitting the antiproton spectrum observed in the PAMELA and AMS experiments, we find that the parameter space is flexible and the electron-positron flux excess can be obtained in both cases with the mass of two dark matter particles being larger than that of the triplets'.

Attractor, supposed to be one of the possible answer for the early applicability of hydrodynamics in the evolution with different initial conditions, has attracted great attention to the fast decreasing of degrees of freedom in heavy ion collision. We found attractor behaviors for 1+1D viscous hydrodynamics with general rapidity distribution based on MIS theory. Meanwhile, we also observe that a rapid expansion in the fluid velocity is essential for a rapid early time attractor.

Tests of quantum properties of fundamental particles in high energy colliders are starting to appear. However, such experiments may suffer from the locality loophole. We argue for criteria that take into account the space-like separation between measurements for the case of spin correlations in top quark pairs produced at the LHC. We derive bounds considering three different definitions of what constitutes the quantum measurement - the decay of top quarks, the decay of W bosons, and the stable decay products contacting a macroscopic device.

We have calculated the one-loop scattering amplitude of an electron by an external Coulomb potential in QED free of infrared divergences. This feature is achieved by applying the Faddeev-Kulish formalism, which implies a redefinition of both the asymptotic electronic states and of the $S$ matrix. Additionally, we have also derived the infrared-finite one-loop partial-wave amplitudes for this process by applying a recent method in the literature. Next, these partial-wave amplitudes are unitarized based on analyticity and unitarity by employing three different methods of unitarization: the algebraic $N/D$ method, the Inverse Amplitude Method and the first iterated $N/D$ method. Then, we have studied several partial waves both for physical momentum and for complex ones to look for bound-state poles. The binding momentum for the fundamental bound state in $S$ wave is discussed with special detail. This is a wide-ranging method for calculating nonperturbative partial-wave amplitudes for infinite-range interactions that could be applied to many other systems.

We have studied the deep inelastic scattering of polarized charged leptons from polarized nucleon targets and evaluated the polarized structure functions $g_{1,2}(x,Q^2)$ for protons and neutrons as well as the nucleon asymmetries $A_{1p}(x,Q^2)$ and $A_{2p}(x,Q^2)$ for protons. The higher order perturbative corrections up to the next-to-next-to-the-leading order (NNLO) using the parameterization of LSS05 polarized parton distribution functions in the 3-flavor MSbar scheme and the nonperturbative corrections viz. the twist-3 corrections and target mass corrections (TMC) have been included in the calculations. The numerical results for the polarized nucleon structure functions and the proton asymmetries are presented and compared with the experimental results. The sum rule integrals of the nucleon structure functions corresponding to the Ellis-Jaffe, Bjorken, Gottfried and Burkhardt-Cottingham sum rules have been evaluated numerically and are compared with the experimental results.

Fermi balls (FBs) and primordial black holes (PBHs) can be copiously produced during a dark first-order phase transition (FOPT). The radius distribution of false vacuum bubbles causes FBs and PBHs to have extended mass distributions. We show how gravitational wave (GW), microlensing and Hawking evaporation signals deviate from the case of monochromatic distributions. The peak of the GW spectrum is shifted to lower frequencies and the spectrum is broadened at frequencies below the peak frequency. Thus, the radius distribution of true vacuum bubbles introduces another uncertainty in the evaluation of the GW spectrum from a FOPT. The extragalactic gamma-ray signal at AMEGO-X/e-ASTROGAM from PBH evaporation may evince a break in the power-law spectrum between 5~MeV and 10~MeV for an extended PBH mass distribution. Optical microlensing surveys may observe PBHs lighter than $10^{-10}M_\odot$, which is not possible for monochromatic mass distributions. This expands the FOPT parameter space that can be explored with microlensing.

Recently, the LHCb Collaboration provided updated measurements for the lepton flavour ratios $R_K$ and $R_{K^*}$. The currently observed values align with the predictions of the standard model. In light of these recent updates, our investigation delves into the repercussions of new physics characterized by universal couplings to electrons and muons. We specifically focus on their impact on various observables within the $B\to K_2^*(1430)(\to K\pi)\mu^+ \mu^-$ decay. These observables include the differential branching ratio, forward-backward asymmetry ($A_{FB}$), longitudinal polarization asymmetry ($F_L$), and a set of optimized observables ($P_i$). Our findings indicate that the branching ratio of $B\to K_2^*(\to K\pi)\mu^+ \mu^-$ decay can be suppressed up to $25\%$ for various new physics solutions. Furthermore, all permissible new physics scenarios demonstrate finite enhancement in the muon forward-backward asymmetry $(A_{FB})$ as well as an increase in the value of the optimized angular observable $P_2$. Moreover, in the presence of new physics zero crossing points for $A_{FB}$ and $P_2$ shift towards higher $q^2$. The current data have a mild deviation from SM predictions in $P_5'$ observable in the low-$q^2$ bin. We also explored massive $Z'$ models, which can generate universal 1D new physics scenarios, characterized by $C_9^{NP}<0$, $C_9^{NP}=-C_{10}^{NP}$, and $C_9^{NP}=-C_9'$. Using additional constraints coming from $B_s-\overline{B_s}$ mixing and neutrino trident process, we find that the conclusions of the model-independent analysis remain valid.

Confining QCD-like theories close to the conformal window have a ``walking'' coupling. This is believed to lead to a light singlet scalar meson in the low-energy spectrum, a dilaton, which is the pseudo Nambu--Goldstone boson for the approximate scale symmetry. Extending chiral perturbation theory to include the dilaton requires a new small parameter to control the dilaton mass and its interactions. In our previous work we derived a systematic power counting for the dilaton couplings by matching the effective low-energy theory to the underlying theory using mild assumptions. In this paper we examine two alternative power countings which were proposed in the literature based on a phenomenological picture for the conformal transition. We find that one of these power countings fails, in fact, to generate a systematic expansion; the other coincides with the power counting we derived. We also point out that the so-called $\Delta$-potential coincides with the tree-level potential of the former, invalid, power counting.

After decoupling, relic neutrinos traverse the evolving gravitational imhomogeneities along their trajectories. Once they turn non-relativistic, this results in a significant amplification of the anisotropies in the cosmic neutrino background (C$\nu$B). Past studies have reconstructed the phase-space distribution of relic neutrinos from the local distribution of matter (accounting for the Milky Way halo and the surrounding large-scale structures), but have neglected the C$\nu$B anisotropies in the initial conditions of neutrino trajectories. Using our previously developed N-1-body simulation framework, we show that including these primordial fluctuations in the initial conditions can be important, as it produces similar effects on the abundance and anisotropies of the C$\nu$B as the inclusion of large-scale structures beyond the Milky Way halo. Interpretability of data from future C$\nu$B observatories like PTOLEMY therefore depends on correctly modelling these effects.

We leverage gravitational wave observations to explore physics beyond the Standard Model, focusing on axion-like particles (ALPs). This study investigates the resonant effects of ALPs with binary black hole systems, where their oscillatory nature induces time-dependent forces on the black holes. By employing a detailed Fisher matrix analysis, we not only probe a new parameter space for ALPs, characterized by their mass and decay constants, but also assess how these parameters affect gravitational waveforms during black hole mergers. Our approach is distinct as it does not assume interactions of ALPs with photons or nucleons. We demonstrate that as binary black holes spiral inward and lose energy, their orbital frequencies may resonate with those of ALPs, producing distinct oscillatory patterns in gravitational waves detectable by upcoming experiments such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). This work broadens the potential of gravitational wave astronomy as a tool for dark matter searches, offering a promising avenue for studying elusive components of the universe.

The recent results from the first year baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data released by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and type Ia supernova (SN) data, have shown a detection of significant deviation from a cosmological constant for dark energy. In this work, we utilize the latest DESI BAO data in combination with the SN data from the full five-year observations of the Dark Energy Survey and the CMB data from the Planck satellite to explore potential interactions between dark energy and dark matter. We consider four typical forms of the interaction term $Q$. Our findings suggest that interacting dark energy (IDE) models with $Q \propto \rho_{\rm de}$ support the presence of an interaction where dark energy decays into dark matter. Specifically, the deviation from $\Lambda$CDM for the IDE model with $Q=\beta H_0\rho_{\rm de}$ reaches the $3\sigma$ level. These models yield a lower value of Akaike information criterion than the $\Lambda$CDM model, indicating a preference for these IDE models based on the current observational data. For IDE models with $Q\propto\rho_{\rm c}$, the existence of interaction depends on the form of the proportionality coefficient $\Gamma$. The IDE model with $Q=\beta H\rho_{\rm c}$ yields $\beta=0.0003\pm 0.0011$, which essentially does not support the presence of the interaction. In general, whether the observational data support the existence of interaction is closely related to the model. Our analysis helps to elucidate which type of IDE model can better explain the current observational data.

We introduce the concept of emergent electric field. This is distinguished from the fundamental one in that the emergent electric field directly appears in observations through the Lorentz force, while the latter enters the phase space as the canonical momentum of the electromagnetic field. In Hamiltonian classical electromagnetism this concept naturally appears after introducing the topological $\theta$ term. Furthermore, we show that in the spherically symmetric model the concept of emergent electric field allows us to formulate a modified theory of electromagnetism that is otherwise impossible. The relation between the fundamental and the emergent electric fields is derived from the imposition of general covariance of the electromagnetic strength tensor, which is a nontrivial task in the canonical formulation the modified theory is based on. We couple this theory to emergent modified gravity, where a similar distinction between spacetime and gravity is made such that the spacetime, which defines the observable geometry, is an emergent field composed of the fundamental gravitational field. In this more encompassing emergent field theory coupling gravity and electromagnetism, we show that the spherically symmetric model contains a nonsingular black hole solution where not only modified gravity but also modified electromagnetism is crucial for a robust singularity resolution and to avoid the existence of (super)extermal black holes.

Nuclei having $4n$ number of nucleons are theorized to possess clusters of $\alpha$ particles ($^4$He nucleus). The Oxygen nucleus ($^{16}$O) is a doubly magic nucleus, where the presence of an $\alpha$-clustered nuclear structure grants additional nuclear stability. In this study, we exploit the anisotropic flow coefficients to discern the effects of an $\alpha$-clustered nuclear geometry w.r.t. a Woods-Saxon nuclear distribution in O--O collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=7$ TeV using a hybrid of IP-Glasma + MUSIC + iSS + UrQMD models. In addition, we use the multi-particle cumulants method to measure anisotropic flow coefficients, such as elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) and triangular flow ($v_{3}$), as a function of collision centrality. Anisotropic flow fluctuations, which are expected to be larger in small collision systems, are also studied for the first time in O--O collisions. It is found that an $\alpha$-clustered nuclear distribution gives rise to an enhanced value of $v_{2}$ and $v_3$ towards the highest multiplicity classes. Consequently, a rise in $v_3/v_2$ is also observed for the (0-10)\% centrality class. Further, for $\alpha$-clustered O--O collisions, fluctuations of $v_{2}$ are larger for the most central collisions, which decrease towards the mid-central collisions. In contrast, for a Woods-Saxon $^{16}$O nucleus, $v_{2}$ fluctuations show an opposite behavior with centrality. This study, when confronted with experimental data may reveal the importance of nuclear density profile on the discussed observables.

Symmetric teleparallel $f(Q)$-gravity allows for the presence of a perfect fluid with a tilted velocity in the Kantowski-Sachs geometry. In this dipole model, we consider an ideal gas and we investigate the evolution of the physical parameters. The tilt parameter is constrained by the nonlinear function $f(Q)$ through the non-diagonal equations of the field equations. We find that the dynamics always reduce to the vacuum solutions of STEGR. This includes the Kasner universe, when no cosmological term is introduced by the $f(Q)$ function, and the isotropic de Sitter universe, where $f\left( Q\right) $ plays the role of the cosmological constant. In the extreme tilt limit, the universe is consistently anisotropic and accelerated. However, the final solution matches that of STEGR.

We investigate the possibility that primordial black holes (PBHs) can be formed from large curvature perturbations generated during the waterfall phase transition in a supersymmetric scenario where sneutrino is the inflaton in a hybrid inflationary framework. We obtain a spectral index ($n_s \simeq 0.966$), and a tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r\simeq 0.0056-10^{-11}$), consistent with the current Planck data satisfying PBH as dark matter (DM) and detectable Gravitational Wave (GW) signal. Our findings show that the mass of PBH and the peak in the GW spectrum is correlated with the right-handed (s)neutrino mass. We identify parameter space where PBHs can be the entire DM candidate of the universe (with mass $10^{-13}\, M_\odot$) or a fraction of it. This could be tested via second-order GW signals in future observatories, for instance, with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW}h^2$ $\sim 10^{-9}$ and peak frequency $f\sim 0.1$ Hz in LISA and $\Omega_{\rm GW}h^2 \sim 10^{-11}$ and peak frequency of $\sim 10$ Hz in ET. %. for sneutrino mass $m_{\phi} \sim 2\times 10^{12}$ GeV, $\beta \sim 5.4\times 10^{15}$ GeV. We study two models of sneutrino inflation: Model$-1$ involves canonical sneutrino kinetic term which predicts the sub-Planckian mass parameter $M$, while the coupling between a gauge singlet and the waterfall field, $\beta$, needs to be quite large whereas, for the model$-2$ involving $\alpha-$attractor canonical sneutrino kinetic term, $\beta$ can take a natural value. Estimating explicitly, we show that both models have mild fine-tuning. We also derive an analytical expression for the power spectrum in terms of the microphysics parameters of the model like (s)neutrino mass, etc. that fits well with the numerical results. The typical reheat temperature for both the models is around $10^{7}-10^{8}$~GeV suitable for non-thermal leptogenesis.

Recently, DESI has released baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data, and DES has also published its five-year supernova (SN) data. These observations, combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, support a dynamically evolving dark energy at a high confidence level. When using cosmological observations to weigh neutrinos, the results of weighing neutrinos will be significantly affected by the measurement of dark energy due to the degeneracy between neutrino mass and the dark-energy equation of state. Therefore, we need to understand how the dynamical evolution of dark energy in the current situation will affect the measurement of neutrino mass. In this work, we utilize these latest observations and other additional distance measurements to discuss the mutual influence between neutrinos and dark energy, then calculate the Bayes factor to compare models. We consider three neutrino mass hierarchies including degenerate hierarchy (DH), normal hierarchy (NH), and inverted hierarchy (IH), as well as three dark energy models including $\Lambda \rm CDM$, $w\rm CDM$, and $w_0w_a \rm CDM$ models. Cosmological data combined with the prior of particle physics experiments can provide strong to decisive evidence favoring the $w_0w_a {\rm CDM}+\sum m_\nu$ model with NH. In the $w_0w_a \rm CDM$ model, using the CMB+DESI+DESY5 data, we obtain constraints on the total neutrino mass, $\sum m_\nu<0.171\ \rm eV,\ 0.204\ \rm eV,\ 0.220\ \rm eV$, for DH, NH, and IH, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the neutrino hierarchy or incorporating additional distance measurements results in a more pronounced deviation from the $\Lambda$CDM model for dark energy. The latter, particularly, exhibits a deviation at a confidence level that surpasses $4\sigma$.

We present extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN) 2023wrk at a distance of about 40 Mpc. The earliest detection of this SN can be traced back to a few hours after the explosion. Within the first few days the light curve shows a bump feature, while the B - V color is blue and remains nearly constant. The overall spectral evolution is similar to that of an SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like SN Ia, while the C II $\lambda6580$ absorption line appears to be unusually strong in the first spectrum taken at $t \approx -$15.4 days after the maximum light. This carbon feature disappears quickly in subsequent evolution but it reappears at around the time of peak brightness. The complex evolution of the carbon line and the possible detection of Ni III absorption around 4700 {\AA} and 5300 {\AA} in the earliest spectra indicate macroscopic mixing of fuel and ash. The strong carbon lines is likely related to collision of SN ejecta with unbound carbon, consistent with the predictions of pulsational delayed-detonation or carbon-rich circumstellar-matter interaction models. Among those carbon-rich SNe Ia with strong C II $\lambda6580$ absorption at very early times, the line-strength ratio of C II to Si II and the B-V color evolution are found to exhibit large diversity, which may be attributed to different properties of unbound carbon and outward-mixing $^{56}$Ni.