We consider KSVZ-type axion models that extend the Standard Model by one complex scalar field and one or more new heavy quarks, i.e. $N_\mathcal{Q} \geq 1$. We review previously suggested selection criteria as well as categorize and catalogue all possible models for $N_\mathcal{Q} \leq 9$. In particular, allowing for $N_\mathcal{Q} > 1$ can introduce models that spoil the axion solution of the Strong CP problem. Demanding that Landau poles do not appear below some energy scale limits the number of preferred models to a finite number. For our choice of criteria, we find that $N_\mathcal{Q} \leq 28$ and only 820 different anomaly ratios $E/N$ exist (443 when considering additive representations, 12 when all new quarks transform under the same representation). We analyze the ensuing $E/N$ distributions, which can be used to construct informative priors on the axion-photon coupling. The KSVZ axion model band may be defined as the central region of one of these distributions, and we show how the band for equally probable, preferred models compares to present and future experimental constraints.

Confining dark sectors with pseudo-conformal dynamics produce SUEP, or Soft Unclustered Energy Patterns, at colliders: isotropic dark hadrons with soft and democratic energies. We target the experimental nightmare scenario, SUEPs in exotic Higgs decays, where all dark hadrons decay promptly to SM hadrons. First, we identify three promising observables, the charged particle multiplicity, the event ring isotropy, and the matrix of geometric distances between charged tracks. Their patterns can be exploited through a cut-and-count search, supervised machine learning, or an unsupervised autoencoder. We find that the HL-LHC will probe exotic Higgs branching ratios at the per-cent level, even without a detailed knowledge of the signal features. Our techniques can be applied to other SUEP searches, especially the unsupervised strategy, which is independent of overly specific model assumptions and the corresponding precision simulations.

Pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGBs) are attractive dark matter (DM) candidates, since they couple to the Standard Model (SM) predominantly through derivative interactions. Thereby they naturally evade the strong existing limits inferred from DM direct detection experiments. Working in an effective field theory that includes both derivative and non-derivative DM-SM operators, we perform a detailed phenomenological study of the Large Hadron Collider reach for pNGB DM production in association with top quarks. Drawing on motivated benchmark scenarios as examples, we compare our results to other collider limits as well as the constraints imposed by DM (in)direct detection experiments and the relic abundance. We furthermore explore implications on the viable parameter space of pNGB DM. In particular, we demonstrate that DM direct detection experiments become sensitive to many pNGB DM realisations once loop-induced interactions are taken into account. The search strategies and pNGB DM benchmark models that we discuss can serve as a starting point for dedicated experimental analyses by the ATLAS and the CMS collaborations.

As an important step towards a complete next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD analysis of the ratio $\varepsilon'/\varepsilon$ within the Standard Model Effective Field Theory (SMEFT), we present for the first time the NLO master formula for the BSM part of this ratio expressed in terms of the Wilson coefficients of all contributing operators evaluated at the electroweak scale. To this end we use the common Weak Effective Theory (WET) basis (the so-called JMS basis) for which tree-level and one-loop matching to the SMEFT are already known. The relevant hadronic matrix elements of BSM operators at the electroweak scale are taken from Dual QCD approach and the SM ones from lattice QCD. It includes the renormalization group evolution and quark-flavour threshold effects at NLO in QCD from hadronic scales, at which these matrix elements have been calculated, to the electroweak scale.

Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) coupled with electrons would be produced in a Supernova (SN) via electron-proton bremsstrahlung and electron-positron fusion. We evaluate the ALP emissivity from these processes by taking into account the ALP mass and thermal effects on electrons in the strongly degenerate and relativistic SN plasma. Using a state-of-the-art SN simulation, we evaluate the SN 1987A cooling bound on ALPs for masses in the range $1-200$ MeV, which excludes currently unprobed regions down to $g_{ae}\sim 2.5\times 10^{-10}$ at $m_a\sim 120$ MeV.

We perform the first simultaneous global QCD extraction of the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions and the TMD fragmentation functions in nuclei. We have considered the world set of data from semi-inclusive electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan di-lepton production. In total, this data set consists of 126 data points from HERMES, Fermilab, RHIC and LHC. Working at next-to-leading order and next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, we achieve a $\chi^2/dof = 1.045$. In this analysis, we quantify the broadening of TMDs in nuclei comparing with those in free nucleons for the first time. We also make predictions for the ongoing JLab 12 GeV program and future EIC measurements.

Theories which provide a dynamical explanation for the large top-quark mass often include TeV-scale vector-like top-quark and bottom-quark partner states which can be potentially discovered at the LHC. These states are currently probed through model-independent searches for pair-production via gluon fusion, as well as through model-dependent complementary electroweak single production. In this paper we study the potential to extend those searches for the partners of the third-generation Standard Model quarks on the basis of their expected chromomagnetic interactions. We discuss how current searches for "excited" bottom-quarks produced via $b$-gluon fusion through chromomagnetic interactions are relevant, and provide significant constraints. We then explore the region of the parameter space in which the bottom-quark partner is heavier than the top-quark partner, in which case the top-partner can be primarily produced via the decay of the bottom-partner. Next, we probe the potential of the production of a single top-quark partner in association with an ordinary top-quark by gluon-fusion. Kinematically these two new processes are similar, and they yield the production of a heavy top partner and a lighter Standard Model state, a pattern which allows for the rejection of the associated dominant Standard Model backgrounds. We examine the sensitivity of these modes in the case where the top-partner subsequently decays to a Higgs boson and an ordinary top-quark, and we demonstrate that these new channels have the potential of extending and complementing the conventional strategies at LHC run III and at the high-luminosity phase of the LHC. In this last case, we find that partner masses that range up to about 3~TeV can be reached. This substantially expands the expected mass reach for these new states, including regions of parameter space that are inaccessible by traditional searches.

The flagship measurement of the JUNO experiment is the determination of the neutrino mass ordering. Here we revisit its prospects to make this determination by 2030, using the current global knowledge of the relevant neutrino parameters as well as current information on the reactor configuration and the critical parameters of the JUNO detector. We pay particular attention to the non-linear detector energy response. Using the measurement of $\theta_{13}$ from Daya Bay, but without information from other experiments, we estimate the probability of JUNO determining the neutrino mass ordering at $\ge$ 3$\sigma$ to be 31% by 2030. As this probability is particularly sensitive to the true values of the oscillation parameters, especially $\Delta m^2_{21}$, JUNO's improved measurements of $\sin^2 \theta_{12}$, $\Delta m^2_{21}$ and $|\Delta m^2_{ee}|$, obtained after a couple of years of operation, will allow an updated estimate of the probability that JUNO alone can determine the neutrino mass ordering by the end of the decade. Combining JUNO's measurement of $|\Delta m^2_{ee}|$ with other experiments in a global fit will most likely lead to an earlier determination of the mass ordering.

In this article, we explore the possibility of displaced Higgs production from the decays of the heavy fermions in the Type-III seesaw extension of the Standard Model at the LHC/FCC and the muon collider. The displaced heavy fermions and the Higgs boson can be traced back by measuring the displaced charged tracks of the charged leptons along with the $b$-jets. The prospects of the transverse and longitudinal displaced decay lengths are extensively studied in the context of the boost at the LHC/FCC. Due to the parton distribution function, the longitudinal boosts leads to larger displacement compared to the transverse one, which can reach MATHUSLA and beyond. Such measurements are indeed possible by the fully visible finalstate, which captures the complete information about the longitudinal momenta. The comparative studies are made at the LHC/FCC with the centre of mass energies of 14, 27 and 100 TeV, respectively. A futuristic study of the muon collider where the collision happen in the centre of mass frame is analysed for centre of mass energies of 3.5, 14 and 30 TeV. Contrary to LHC/FCC, here the transverse momentum diverges, however, the maximum reach in both the direction are identical due to the constant total momentum in each collision. The reach of the Yukawa couplings and fermion masses are appraised for both the colliders.

Yukawa couplings from the Lorentz- and $CPT$-violating Standard Model Extension induce quantum contributions to the magnetic and electric moments of quarks, which are calculated in the present paper. Then we take advantage of the high sensitivity measurements of the proton and neutron electromagnetic moments (EMM), suitable to search for tiny effects of new physics, to constrain coefficients parametrizing Lorentz violation, reaching bounds as restrictive as $10^{-23}$.

We present a $q_T$-resummed calculation of diphoton production at order N$^3$LL$^\prime$+NNLO. To reach the primed level of accuracy we have implemented the recently published three-loop $\mathcal{O}(\alpha_s^3)$ virtual corrections in the $q\bar{q}$ channel and the three-loop transverse momentum dependent beam functions and combined them with the existing infrastructure of CuTe-MCFM, a code performing resummation at order N$^3$LL. While the primed predictions are parametrically not more accurate, one typically observes that they are the dominant effect of the next order. We include in both the $q\bar{q}$ and loop-induced $gg$ channel the hard contributions consistently together at order $\alpha_s^3$ and find that the resummed $q\bar{q}$ channel without matching stabilizes indeed. Due to large matching corrections and large contributions and uncertainties from the $gg$ channel, the overall improvements are small though. We furthermore study the effect of hybrid-cone photon isolation and hard-scale choice on our fully matched results to describe the ATLAS 8 TeV data and find that the hybrid-cone isolation destroys agreement at small $q_T$.

The effect of the electroweak sphaleron transition in balance between baryon excess and and the excess of stable quarks of 4th generation is studied in this paper. Considering the non-violation of $SU(2)$ symmetry and the conservation of electroweak and new charges and quantum numbers of the new family, it makes possible sphaleron transitions between baryons, leptons and 4th family of leptons and quarks. In this paper, we have tried to established a possible definite relationship between the value and sign of the 4th family excess relative to baryon asymmetry. If $U$-type quarks are the lightest quarks of the 4th family and sphaleron transitions provide excessive $\bar U$ antiquarks, asymmetric dark matter in the form of dark atom bound state of ($\bar{U} \bar{U} \bar{U}$) with primordial He nuclei is balanced with baryon asymmetry.

We calculate the production of ultra-light axion-like particles (ALPs) in a nearby supernova progenitor. Once produced, ALPs escape from the star and a part of them is converted into photons during propagation in the Galactic magnetic field. It is found that the MeV photon flux that reaches Earth may be detectable by gamma ray telescopes for ALPs lighter than ~1 neV when Betelgeuse undergoes oxygen and silicon burning. (Non-)detection of gamma rays from a supernova progenitor with next-generation gamma ray telescopes just after pre-supernova neutrino alerts would lead to an independent constraint on ALP parameters as stringent as a SN 1987A limit.

Exclusive emissions of vector mesons in forward directions of rapidity offer us a faultless chance to probe the proton structure at small-$x$. A high-energy factorization formula is established within BFKL, given as the convolution of an impact factor depicting the forward-meson emission and of an unintegrated gluon distribution (UGD) driving the gluon evolution at small-$x$. As a nonperturbative quantity, the UGD is not well known and several models for it exist. We present recent progresses on the study of the exclusive forward $\rho$-meson leptoproduction at HERA and EIC energies, showing how osbervables sensitive to different polarization states of the $\rho$-particle act as discriminators for the existing UGD models.

As any e$^+$e$^-$ scattering process can be accompanied by a hard photon emission from the initial state radiation, the analysis of the energy spectrum and angular distributions of those photons can be used to search for hard processes with an invisible final state. Thus high energy e$^+$e$^-$ colliders offer a unique possibility for the most general search of Dark matter based on the mono-photon signature. We consider production of DM particles via a mediator at the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) experiments taking into account detector effects within the DELPHES fast simulation framework. Limits on the light DM production in a generic model are set for a wide range of mediator masses and widths. For mediator masses up to the centre-of-mass energy of the collider, results from the mono-photon analysis are more stringent than the limits expected from direct resonance searches in Standard Model decay channels.

We study the complementarity between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and future lepton colliders in probing electroweak baryogenesis induced by an additional bottom Yukawa coupling $\rho_{bb}$. The context is general two Higgs doublet model (g2HDM) where such additional bottom Yukawa coupling can account for the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe if $\mbox{Im}(\rho_{bb}) \gtrsim 0.058$. We find that LHC would probe the nominal $\mbox{Im}(\rho_{bb})$ required for baryogenesis to some extent via $bg \to bA \to bZh$ process if $300~\mbox{GeV}\lesssim m_A \lesssim 450$ GeV, where $A$ is the CP-odd scalar in g2HDM. We show that future electron positron collider such as International Linear Collider with $500$ GeV and 1 TeV collision energies may offer unique probe for the nominal $\mbox{Im}(\rho_{bb})$ via $e^+ e^- \to Z^*\to A H$ process followed by $A,H \to b \bar b$ decays in four $b$-jets signature. For complementarity we also study the resonant diHiggs productions, which may give an insight into strong first-order electroweak phase transition, via $e^+ e^- \to Z^*\to A H \to A h h$ process in six $b$-jets signature. We find that 1 TeV collision energy with $\mathcal{O}(1)~\text{ab}^{-1}$ integrated luminosity could offer an ideal environment for the discovery.

Possibility of a Right-Handed (RH) neutrino being a Goldstone fermion of a spontaneously broken global $U(1)$ symmetry in a supersymmetric theory is considered. This fermion obtains mass from the supergravity effects leading to a RH neutrino at the electroweak scale with a mass similar to the gravitino mass. A prototype model realizing this scenario contains just three gauge singlet superfields needed for the type I seesaw mechanism. Masses of the other two neutrinos are determined by the $U(1)$ breaking scale which too can be around the electroweak scale. Light neutrinos obtain their masses in this scenario through (a) mixing with the RH neutrinos (type I seesaw), (b) mixing with neutralinos ($R$-parity breaking), (c) indirectly through mixing of the RH neutrinos with neutralinos, and (d) radiative corrections. All these contributions are described by the same set of a small number of underlying parameters and provide a very constrained and predictive framework for the neutrino masses which is investigated in detail for various choices of $U(1)$ symmetries. It is found that flavour independent $U(1)$ symmetries cannot describe neutrino masses if the soft supersymmetry breaking terms are flavour universal and one needs to consider flavour dependent symmetries. Considering a particular example of $L_\mu - L_\tau$ symmetry, it is shown that viable neutrino masses and mixing can be obtained without introducing any flavour violation in the soft sector. The leptonic couplings of Majoron are worked out in the model and shown to be consistent with various laboratory, astrophysical and cosmological constraints. The neutrino data allows sizeable couplings between the RH neutrinos and Higgsinos which can be used to probe the pseudo-Goldstone fermion at colliders through its displaced decay vertex.

We study an inevitable cosmological consequence in PeV scale SUSY-breaking scenarios. We focus on the SUSY-breaking scale corresponding to the gravitino mass $m_{3/2}=100{\rm eV}-1{\rm keV}$. We argue that the presence of an early matter-dominated era and the resulting entropy production are requisite for the Universe with this gravitino mass. We infer the model-independent minimum amount of the entropy production $\Delta$ by requiring that the number of dwarf satellite galaxies $N_{\rm sat}$ in the Milky Way exceed the currently observed value, i.e. $N_{\rm sat}\gtrsim63$. This entropy production is inevitably imprinted on the primordial gravitational waves (pGWs) produced during the inflationary era. We study how the information on the value of $\Delta$ and the time of entropy production are encoded in the pGW spectrum $\Omega_{\rm GW}$. If the future GW surveys observe a suppression feature in the pGW spectrum for the frequency range $\mathcal{O}(10^{-10}){\rm Hz}\lesssim f_{\rm GW}\lesssim\mathcal{O}(10^{-5}){\rm Hz}$, it works as a smoking gun for PeV SUSY-breaking scenarios. Even if they do not, our study can be used to rule out all such scenarios.

String theory compactifications may generate a large number of light axion-like particles (ALPs) whose weak coupling to electromagnetism could be experimentally observable. In general, a large number of ALPs may exist, with a linear combination having a potentially observable coupling to electromagnetism. The basis in which only one ALP couples to electromagnetism is in general misaligned with the mass basis. This leads to mixing between the 'electromagnetic' ALP and a number of 'hidden' ALPs that do not interact directly with the photon. The process is analagous to neutrino oscillations. I will discuss the phenomenological consequences of this mixing, in particular showing that it may significantly reduce the predicted signal in experiments such as CAST.

The Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) recently announced confirmation of the Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) measurements of the $g-2$ of the muon that uncovered a discrepancy with the theoretically calculated Standard Model value. We suggest an explanation for the combined BNL+FNAL 4.2$\sigma$ deviation within the supersymmetric grand unification theory (GUT) model No-Scale $\cal{F}$-$SU(5)$ supplemented with a string derived TeV-scale extra $10+\overline{10}$ vector-like multiplet and charged vector-like singlet $(XE,XE^c)$, dubbed flippons. We introduced these vector-like particles into No-Scale Flipped $SU(5)$ many years ago, and as a result, the renormalization group equation (RGE) running was immediately shaped to produce a distinctive and rather beneficial two-stage gauge coupling unification process to avoid the Landau pole and lift unification to the string scale, in addition to contributing through 1-loop to the light Higgs boson mass. The flippons have long stood ready to tackle another challenge, and now do so yet again, where the charged vector-like "lepton"/singlet couples with the muon, the supersymmetric down-type Higgs $H_d$, and a singlet $S$, using a chirality flip to easily accommodate the muonic $g-2$ discrepancy in No-Scale $\cal{F}$-$SU(5)$. Considering the phenomenological success of this string derived model over the prior 11 years that remains accommodative of all presently available LHC limits plus all other experimental constraints, including no fine-tuning, and the fact that for the first time a Starobinsky-like inflationary model consistent with all cosmological data was derived from superstring theory in No-Scale Flipped $SU(5)$, we believe it is imperative to reconcile the BNL+FNAL developments within the model space.

The EW-$\nu_R$ model was constructed in order to provide a seesaw scenario operating at the Electroweak scale $\Lambda_{EW} \sim 246$ GeV, keeping the same SM gauge structure. In this model, right-handed neutrinos are non-sterile and have masses of the order of $\Lambda_{EW}$. They can be searched for at the LHC along with heavy mirror quarks and leptons, the lightest of which have large decay lengths. The seesaw mechanism requires the existence of a complex scalar which is singlet under the SM gauge group. The imaginary part of this complex scalar denoted by $A^{0}_s$ is proposed to be the sub-MeV dark matter candidate in this manuscript. We find that the sub-MeV scalar can serve as a viable non-thermal feebly interacting massive particle (FIMP)-DM candidate. This $A_s^0$ can be a naturally light sub-MeV DM candidate due to its nature as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (PNG) boson in the model. We show that the well-studied freeze out mechanism falls short in this particular framework producing DM overabundance. We identify that the freeze in mechanism produce the correct order of relic density for the sub-MeV DM candidate satisfying all applicable constraints. We then discuss the DM parameter space allowed by the current bounds from the direct and indirect searches for this sub-MeV DM. This model has a very rich scalar sector, consistent with various experimental constraints, predicts a $\sim 125$ GeV scalar with the SM Higgs characteristics satisfying the current LHC Higgs boson data.

Heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) are hypothetical particles, motivated in the first place by their ability to explain neutrino oscillations. Experimental searches for HNLs are typically conducted under the assumption of a single HNL mixing with a single neutrino flavor. However, the resulting exclusion limits may not directly constrain the corresponding mixing angles in realistic HNL models -- those which can explain neutrino oscillations. The reinterpretation of the results of these experimental searches turns out to be a non-trivial task, that requires significant knowledge of the details of the experiment. In this work, we perform a reinterpretation of the ATLAS search for promptly decaying HNLs to tri-lepton final states. We show that in realistic HNL models, the actual limits can vary by several orders of magnitude depending on the free parameters of the model. Marginalizing over the unknown model parameters leads to an exclusion limit on the total mixing angle which can be up to 3 orders of magnitude weaker than the limits reported in arXiv:1905.09787. This demonstrates that the reinterpretation of results from experimental searches is a necessary step to obtain meaningful limits on realistic models. We detail a few steps that can be taken by experimental collaborations in order to simplify the reuse of their results.

Following our earlier work we establish kinematic endpoint relations for baryon decays using the Wigner-Eckart theorem and apply them to $\frac{1}{2} \to \frac{1}{2}$ and $\frac{1}{2} \to \frac{3}{2}$ baryon transitions. We provide angular distributions at the kinematic endpoint which hold for the generic $d=6$ model-independent effective Hamiltonian. Moreover, we explicitly verify the endpoint relations using an explicit form factor parametrisation and clarify constraints on helicity based form factors to evidence endpoint relations. Our results provide guidance for phenomenological parameterisations, consistency checks for theory computations and experiment. Results are applicable to ongoing and future new physics searches at LHCb, BES III and Belle II with rare semileptonic-, dineutrino-and charged-modes, which include $\Lambda_b \to \Lambda^{(*)} \ell \ell, \Lambda_b \to \Lambda^{(*)} \nu \nu$, $\Omega_b \to \Omega \ell \ell$, $\Lambda_c \to p \ell \ell$, $\Sigma \to p \ell \ell$ and $\Lambda_b \to \Lambda_c^{(*)} \ell \nu$

We evaluate by means of lattice QCD calculations the low-energy constant $\ell_{7}$ which parametrizes strong isospin effects at NLO in $\rm{SU}(2)$ chiral perturbation theory. Among all low-energy constants at NLO, $\ell_{7}$ is the one known less precisely, and its uncertainty is currently larger than $50\%$. Our strategy is based on the RM123 approach in which the lattice path-integral is expanded in powers of the isospin breaking parameter $\Delta m= (m_{d}-m_{u})/2$. In order to evaluate the relevant lattice correlators we make use of the recently proposed rotated twisted-mass (RTM) scheme. Within the RM123 approach, it is possible to cleanly extract the value of $\ell_{7}$ from either the pion mass splitting $M_{\pi^{+}}-M_{\pi^{0}}$ induced by strong isospin breaking at order $\mathcal{O}\left((\Delta m)^{2}\right)$ (mass method), or from the coupling of the neutral pion $\pi^{0}$ to the isoscalar operator $\left(\bar{u}\gamma_{5}u + \bar{d}\gamma_{5} d\right)/\sqrt{2}$ at order $\mathcal{O}(\Delta m)$ (matrix element method). In this pilot study we limit the analysis to a single ensemble generated by the Extended Twisted Mass Collaboration (ETMC) with $N_{f}=2+1+1$ dynamical quark flavours, which corresponds to a lattice spacing $a\simeq 0.095~{\rm fm}$ and to a pion mass $M_{\pi}\simeq 260~{\rm MeV}$. We find that the matrix element method outperforms the mass method in terms of resulting statistical accuracy. Our determination, $\ell_{7} = 2.5(1.4)\times 10^{-3}$, is in agreement and improves previous calculations.

We derive four dimensional $\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric effective theory from ten dimensional non-Abelian Dirac-Born-Infeld action compactified on a six dimensional torus with magnetic fluxes on the D-branes. For the ten dimensional action, we use a symmetrized trace prescription and focus on the bosonic part up to $\mathcal{O}(F^4)$. In the presence of the supersymmetry, four dimensional chiral fermions can be obtained via index theorem. The matter K\"{a}hler metric depends on closed string moduli and the fluxes but is independent of flavor, and will be always positive definite if an induced RR charge of the D-branes on which matters are living are positive. We read the superpotential from an F-term scalar quartic interaction derived from the ten dimensional action and the contribution of the matter K\"{a}hler metric to the scalar potential which we derive turns out to be consistent with the supergravity formulation.

Dark matter interactions with electrons or protons during the early Universe leave imprints on the cosmic microwave background and the matter power spectrum, and can be probed through cosmological and astrophysical observations. We explore these interactions using a diverse suite of data: cosmic microwave background anisotropies, baryon acoustic oscillations, the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest, and the abundance of Milky-Way subhalos. We derive constraints using model-independent parameterizations of the dark matter--electron and dark matter--proton interaction cross sections and map these constraints onto concrete dark matter models. Our constraints are complementary to other probes of dark matter interactions with ordinary matter, such as direct detection, big bang nucleosynthesis, various astrophysical systems, and accelerator-based experiments.

We present new observational constraints on the elastic scattering of dark matter with electrons for dark matter masses between 10 keV and 1 TeV. We consider scenarios in which the momentum-transfer cross section has a power-law dependence on the relative particle velocity, with a power-law index $n \in \{-4,-2,0,2,4,6\}$. We search for evidence of dark matter scattering through its suppression of structure formation. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization, and lensing anisotropy from \textit{Planck} 2018 data and of the Milky Way satellite abundance measurements from the Dark Energy Survey and Pan-STARRS1 show no evidence of interactions. We use these data sets to obtain upper limits on the scattering cross section, comparing them with exclusion bounds from electronic recoil data in direct detection experiments. Our results provide the strongest bounds available for dark matter--electron scattering derived from the distribution of matter in the Universe, extending down to sub-MeV dark matter masses, where current direct detection experiments lose sensitivity.

X-ray binaries are long-standing source candidates of Galactic cosmic rays and neutrinos. The compact object in a binary system can be the site for cosmic-ray acceleration, while high-energy neutrinos can be produced by the interactions of cosmic rays in the jet of the compact object, the stellar wind, or the atmosphere of the companion star. We report a time-dependent study of high-energy neutrinos from X-ray binaries with IceCube using 7.5 years of muon neutrino data and X-ray observations. In the absence of significant correlation, we report upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from these sources and provide a comparison with theoretical predictions.

In type IIB Fibre Inflation models the inflaton is a Kaehler modulus which is kinetically coupled to the corresponding axion. In this setup the curvature of the field space induces tachyonic isocurvature perturbations normal to the background inflationary trajectory. However we argue that the associated instability is unphysical since it is due to the use of ill-defined entropy variables. In fact, upon using the correct relative entropy perturbation, we show that in Fibre Inflation axionic isocurvature perturbations decay during inflation and the dynamics is essentially single-field.

The interpretation of data from indirect detection experiments searching for dark matter annihilations requires computationally expensive simulations of cosmic-ray propagation. In this work we present a new method based on Recurrent Neural Networks that significantly accelerates simulations of secondary and dark matter Galactic cosmic ray antiprotons while achieving excellent accuracy. This approach allows for an efficient profiling or marginalisation over the nuisance parameters of a cosmic ray propagation model in order to perform parameter scans for a wide range of dark matter models. We identify importance sampling as particularly suitable for ensuring that the network is only evaluated in well-trained parameter regions. We present resulting constraints using the most recent AMS-02 antiproton data on several models of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. The fully trained networks are released as DarkRayNet together with this work and achieve a speed-up of the runtime by at least two orders of magnitude compared to conventional approaches.

Ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) of energies $\sim (10^{18}-10^{20})~{\rm eV}$, accelerated in violent astrophysical environments, interact with cosmic background radiation fields via photo-hadronic processes, leading to strong attenuation. Typically, the Universe would become `opaque' to UHE CRs after several tens of Mpc, setting the boundary of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) horizon. In this work, we investigate the contribution of sources beyond the conventional GZK horizon to the UHE CR flux observed on Earth, when photo-spallation of the heavy nuclear CRs is taken into account. We demonstrate this contribution is substantial, despite the strong attenuation of UHE CRs. A significant consequence is the emergence of an isotropic background component in the observed flux of UHE CRs, coexisting with the anisotropic foreground component that are associated with nearby sources. Multi-particle CR horizons, which evolve over redshift, are determined by the CR nuclear composition. Thus, they are dependent on the source populations and source evolutionary histories.

One of the important goals at the future e$^+$e$^-$ colliders is to measure the top-quark mass and width in a scan of the pair production threshold. Presented in this work is the most general approach to the top-quark mass determination from the threshold scan at CLIC, with all relevant model parameters and selected systematic uncertainties included in the fit procedure. In the baseline scan scenario the top-quark mass can be extracted with precision of the order of 30 to 40 MeV, already for 100 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at the threshold. We present the optimisation procedure based on the genetic algorithm with which the statistical uncertainty of the mass measurement can be reduced by about 20%.

In this paper we develop the formalism for the stochastic approach to inflation at all order in slow-roll parameters. This is done by including the momentum and Hamiltonian constraints into the stochastic equations. We then specialise to the widely used Starobinski approximation where interactions between IR and UV modes are neglected. We show that, whenever this approximation holds, no significant deviations are observed when comparing the two-point correlation functions (power spectrum) calculated with stochastic methods, to the ones calculated with the QFT approach to linear theory. As a byproduct, we argue that: a) the approaches based on the Starobinski approximation, generically, do not capture any loop effects of the quantum scalar-gravity system; b) correlations functions can only be calculated in the linear theory regimes, thus, no non-perturbative statistics can be extracted within this approximation, as commonly claimed.

Twist-3 partonic distributions contain important information that characterizes nucleon's structure. In this work, we show our lattice exploration of the twist-3 PDFs $g_T(x)$, and $h_L(x)$. We also present our preliminary results on the twist-3 GPD $\tilde{G}_2(x)$. We use the quasi-distribution approach to connect the lattice-extracted matrix elements, renormalized in the RI/MOM scheme, to light-cone distributions, applying the matching procedure that we developed in parallel. We also calculate the twist-2 counterparts of $g_T(x)$ and $h_L(x)$, i.e. $g_1(x)$, and $h_1(x)$, and test the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation.

At FCC-ee, about $1.7 \times 10^{11}$ \mbox{Z $\to$ \texttau$^+$\texttau$^-$} events will be produced. This high statistics in the clean e$^+$e$^-$ environment opens the possibility of much improved determinations of \texttau-lepton properties and, via the measurement of the \texttau\ polarisation, of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and $\tau$s. Improved measurements of \texttau-lepton properties -- lifetime, leptonic branching fractions, and mass -- allow important tests of lepton universality. The experimental challenge is to match as far as possible statistical uncertainties generally at the $10^{-5}$ level. This applies in particular to the lifetime measurement, which is derived from the \mbox{2.2-mm} \texttau\ average flight distance, and for the branching fraction and polarisation measurements, where the cross-channel contamination is of particular concern. These issues raise strict detector requirements, in particular, on the accuracy of the construction and alignment of the vertex detector and of the precise calorimetric separation and measurement of photons and \textpi$^0$s in the collimated \texttau\ decay topologies.

M-theory compactified on a $G_2$ manifold with resolved $E_8$ singularity is a promising candidate for a unified theory. The experimentally observed masses of quarks and charged leptons put a restriction on the moduli of the $G_2$ manifold. These moduli in turn uniquely determine the Dirac interactions of the neutrinos. In the paper, we explicitly compute the Dirac terms for neutrino mass matrix using the moduli from a localized model with resolved $E_8$ singularities on a $G_2$ manifold. This is a novel approach as the Dirac terms are not assumed but derived from the structure of quarks' and charged leptons' masses. Using known mass splittings and mixing angles of neutrinos, we show the acceptable region for Majorana terms. We also analyse the theoretical region for Majorana terms induced from the expectation values of right handed neutrinos through the Kolda-Martin mechanism. The intersection of the two regions indicates a restriction on neutrino masses. In particular, the lightest neutrino must have small but non-zero mass. Moreover, this also puts constraints on possible Majorana contributions from K\"ahler potential and superpotential, which can be traced down to a restriction on the geometry.We conclude that the masses of the two heavier light neutrinos are about $0.05 \text{ eV}$ and $0.009 \text{ eV}$ ($0.05 \text{ eV} $ and $0.05 \text{ eV} $)) for normal (inverted) hierarchy. In both hierarchies, we predict the light neutrinos are mostly Dirac type. Hence neutrino-less double-beta decay will be small. This is a testable result in a near future. Some bounds on heavy neutrinos are also derived.