Neutrino self-interaction with a larger ``Fermi constant'' is often resorted to for understanding various puzzles of our universe. We point out that a light, neutrinophilic scalar particle $\phi$ through radiative correction leads to an energy-scale dependence in the neutrino-$Z$-boson gauge coupling. The driver behind this phenomenon is a large separation between the mass scales of $\phi$ and additional heavy particles needed for gauge invariance. This is a generic effect insensitive to details of the UV completion. We show that the running can change the $Z\nu\bar\nu$ coupling by several percent and affect the measurement of weak mixing angle through neutrino neutral-current processes. We discuss the interplay between the running of the $Z\nu\bar\nu$ coupling and $\sin^2\theta_W$ in various experimental observables. It is possible to disentangle the two effects with more than one precise measurement.

In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the nucleating scalar field during the first-order phase transitions by incorporating one-loop corrections of classical fluctuations. We assume that a high-temperature expansion is valid\te where the mass of the scalar field is significantly smaller than the temperature\te so that we can treat the bubble-wall dynamics in a regime where quantum fluctuations can be integrated out. We present a systematic framework for calculating classical loop corrections to the wall speed; contrast our results with traditional methods based on the derivative expansion; show that the latent heat can differ from the effective-potential result; and discuss general hydrodynamic corrections. Finally, we show an application of the presented framework for a simple scalar field model, finding that the one-loop improvement decreases the wall speed and that an effective-potential approximation underestimates full one-loop corrections by about a factor of two.

We discuss how the two existing approximate N$^3$LO (aN$^3$LO) sets of parton distributions (PDFs) from the MSHT20 and NNPDF4.0 series can be combined for LHC phenomenology, both in the pure QCD case and for the QCD$\otimes$QED sets that include the photon PDF. Using the resulting combinations, we present predictions for the total inclusive cross-section for Higgs production in gluon fusion, vector boson fusion, and associated production at the LHC Run-3. For the gluon fusion and vector boson fusion channels, the corrections that arise when using correctly matched aN$^3$LO PDFs with N$^3$LO cross section calculations, compared to using NNLO PDFs, are significant, in many cases larger than the PDF uncertainty, and generally larger than the differences between the two aN$^3$LO PDF sets entering the combination. The combined aN$^3$LO PDF sets, MSHT20xNNPDF40_an3lo and MSHT20xNNPDF40_an3lo_qed, are made publicly available in the LHAPDF format and can be readily used for LHC phenomenology.

This paper explores nucleon decay within the framework of a "fake Grand Unified Theory (GUT)" combined with the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism. In this fake GUT framework, quarks and leptons may have distinct high-energy origins but fit into complete $\mathrm{SU}(5)$ multiplets at low energies without requiring force unification, setting it apart from conventional GUTs. By introducing flavor symmetry through the FN mechanism, the model addresses the flavor puzzle of quark and lepton mass hierarchies and mixing patterns. Our analysis demonstrates that nucleon decay rates and branching fractions in the fake GUT are sensitive to flavor symmetry, providing a means to distinguish it from conventional GUT predictions. These findings underscore the importance of nucleon decay searches in probing both baryon number violation and the underlying flavor structure.

We explore the phenomenology of Weinberg's $Z_2\times Z_2$ symmetric three-Higgs-doublet potential, allowing for spontaneous violation of CP due to complex vacuum expectation values. An overview of all possible ways of satisfying the stationary-point conditions is given, with one, two or three non-vanishing vacuum expectation values, together with conditions for CP conservation in terms of basis invariants. All possible ways of satisfying the conditions for CP conservation are given. Scans of allowed parameter regions are given, together with measures of CP violation, in terms of the invariants. The light states identified in an earlier paper are further explored in terms of their CP-violating couplings. Loop-induced CP violation in $WWZ$ couplings, as well as charge-asymmetric scattering are also commented on.

In this paper we analyzed the exclusive photoproduction of $\eta_{c}\gamma$ pairs in the Color Glass Condensate framework. We found that the cross-section of this process is sensitive only to the forward dipole scattering amplitude, and thus could be used as a new tool for analysis of this fundamental nonperturbative object. Using the phenomenological parametrizations of this object, we estimated numerically the production cross-section and counting rates in the kinematics of the ongoing and forthcoming experiments at LHC and future Electron Ion Collider. We found that the cross-section is sufficiently large for dedicated experimental study. We also estimated the role of this process as a potential background to $\eta_{c}$ photoproduction, which is conventionally considered as a gateway for studies of odderons. We found that the contribution of $\eta_{c}\gamma$ (with undetected photon) is on par with expected contributions of odderons in the kinematics of small momentum transfer $|t|\lesssim1$ GeV$^{2}$, though decreases rapidly at larger $|t|$. Finally, we also calculated the feed-down contribution (from radiative decays of other charmonia) and found that a sizable correction comes from $J/\psi\to\eta_{c}\gamma$ decays. This contribution remains pronounced even at relatively large $|t|$ and potentially can impose constraint on detectability of odderons via $\eta_{c}$ photoproduction.

The far-from-equilibrium dynamics of spatial Polyakov loop correlations, which provide gauge-invariant observables akin to effective particle numbers for gluon plasmas, are investigated within real-time $\mathrm{SU}(N_c)$ lattice gauge theory at weak couplings and large gluon occupations. The momentum zero mode of these correlations reveals the dynamic formation of a condensate, while at nonzero momenta, energy is transported toward the ultraviolet. We demonstrate that the non-zero momentum dynamics is well described by a direct cascade in terms of gauge-invariant Polyakov loop excitations, exhibiting self-similar prescaling indicative of a nonthermal attractor. This behavior can be analytically understood through perturbation theory for the Polyakov loop correlations and the established dynamics of gauge field correlations. We perform simulations for both $\mathrm{SU}(2)$ and $\mathrm{SU}(3)$ gauge groups, providing further consistency checks on the $N_c$-dependence of perturbative expectations. No evidence of an inverse cascade toward lower momenta is found for momenta above the electric screening scale.

In this paper, we revisited the extension of the classical non-standard cosmological model in which dissipative processes are considered through a bulk viscous term in the new field $\phi$, which interacts with the radiation component during the early universe. Specifically, we consider an interaction term of the form $\Gamma_{\phi} \rho_{\phi}$, where $\Gamma_{\phi}$ represents the decay rate of the field and $\rho_{\phi}$ denotes its energy density, and a bulk viscosity described by $\xi=\xi_{0}\rho_{\phi}^{1/2}$, within the framework of Eckart's theory. This extended non-standard cosmology is employed to examine the parameter space for the production of Feebly Interacting Massive Particles (FIMPs) as Dark Matter candidates. In particular, for certain combinations of the model and Dark Matter parameters, namely ($T_\text{end}$,$\kappa$) and $(m_\chi,\langle\sigma v\rangle)$, we found large new regions in which it can establish the Dark Matter and reproduce the current observable relic density as compared with the $\Lambda$CDM and the classical non-standard cosmological scenarios.

We present results for single axial-vector and scalar meson pole contributions to the hadronic light-by-light scattering (HLbL) part of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment. In the dispersive approach to these quantities (in narrow width approximation) the central inputs are the corresponding space-like electromagnetic transition form factors. We determine these directly using a functional approach to QCD by Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations in the very same setup we used previously to determine pseudo-scalar meson exchange ($\pi$, $\eta$ and $\eta'$) as well as meson ($\pi$ and $K$) box contributions. Particular care is taken to preserve gauge invariance and to comply with short distance constraints in both the form factors and the HLbL tensor. Our result for the contributions from a tower of axial-vector states including short distance constraints is $a_\mu^{\text{HLbL}}[\text{AV-tower+SDC}] = 27.5 \,(3.2) \times 10^{-11}$. For the combined contributions from $f_0(980), a_0(980), f_0(1370)$ and $a_0(1450)$ we find $a_\mu^{\text{HLbL}}[\text{scalar}] = -1.6 \,(5) \times 10^{-11}$.

I give a theoretical overview of magnetic monopoles, focusing on the physical perspective of monopoles as hypothetical particles rather than as mathematical objects. I argue that monopoles are exceptionally interesting hypothetical particles and discuss the prospects of addressing the question of their existence, and possibly producing them, in particle physics experiments.

Low mass axion-like particles could be produced in abundance within the cores of hot, compact magnetic white dwarf (MWD) stars from electron bremsstrahlung and converted to detectable X-rays in the strong magnetic fields surrounding these systems. In this work, we constrain the existence of such axions from two dedicated Chandra X-ray observations of $\sim$40 ks each in the energy range $\sim$1 - 10 keV towards the magnetic white dwarfs (MWDs) WD 1859+148 and PG 0945+246. We find no evidence for axions, which constrains the axion-electron times axion-photon coupling to $|g_{a\gamma \gamma} g_{aee}| \lesssim 1.54 \times 10^{-25}$ ($3.54 \times 10^{-25}$) GeV$^{-1}$ for PG 0945+246 (WD 1859+148) at 95% confidence for axion masses $m_a \lesssim 10^{-6}$ eV. We find an excess of low-energy X-rays between 1 - 3 keV for WD 1859+148 but determine that the spectral morphology is too soft to arise from axions; instead, the soft X-rays may arise from non-thermal emission in the MWD magnetosphere.

Dark matter is a fundamental constituent of the universe, which is needed to explain a wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological observations. Although the existence of dark matter was first postulated nearly a century ago and its abundance is precisely measured, approximately five times larger than that of ordinary matter, its underlying identity remains a mystery. A leading hypothesis is that it is composed of new elementary particles, which are predicted to exist in many extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. In this article we review the basic evidence for dark matter and the role it plays in cosmology and astrophysics, and discuss experimental searches and potential candidates. Rather than targeting researchers in the field, we aim to provide an accessible and concise summary of the most important ideas and results, which can serve as a first entry point for advanced undergraduate students of physics or astronomy.

The origin of the binary black hole mergers observed by LIGO-Virgo-KAGRA (LVK) remains an open question. We calculate the merger rate from primordial black holes (PBHs) within the density spike around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the center of galaxies. We show that the merger rate within the spike is comparable to that within the wider dark matter halo. We also calculate the extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI) signal from PBHs hosted within the density spike spiralling into their host SMBHs due to GW emission. We predict that LISA may detect $\sim10^4$ of these EMRIs with signal-to-noise ratio of 5 within a 4-year observation run, if all dark matter is made up of PBHs. Uncertainties in our rates come from the uncertain mass fraction of PBHs within the dark matter spike, relative to the host central SMBHs, which defines the parameter space LISA can constrain.

We present a novel approach for loop integral reduction in the Feynman parametrization using intersection theory and relative cohomology. In this framework, Feynman integrals correspond to boundary-supported differential forms in the language of relative cohomology. The integral reduction can then be achieved by computing intersection numbers. We apply our method in several examples to demonstrate its correctness, and discuss the subtleties in certain degenerate limits.

Low-energy spectrum relevant to the lattice calculation of hadronic vacuum polarization contribution to muon anomalous magnetic moment a_\mu is dominantly given by two-pion states satisfying L\"uscher's finite-volume quantization condition. Finite-volume effects from those states may exhibit power-law dependence on the volume, contrary to an exponential suppression as suggested by chiral effective theory. Employing the finite-volume state decomposition of Euclidean correlators, we systematically investigate the volume dependence. Phenomenological inputs are used for \pi\pi phase shift and time-like pion form factor. Our estimate for the finite-volume effects on a_\mu is larger than previous works and has a different volume scaling. Numerical results are given for the ``window'' observables of a_\mu.

We investigate a relation between non-invertible symmetries and selection rules of topological solitons such as axionic domain walls and magnetic strings in the $(3+1)$-dimensional axion electrodynamics with a massive axion or a massive photon. In the low-energy limit of the phases where either the axion or the photon is massive, we identify non-invertible 0- or 1-form symmetry generators as axionic domain walls or magnetic strings, respectively. By non-invertible transformations on magnetic monopoles or axionic strings, we give constraints on possible configurations of topological solitons in the presence of the monopoles or axionic strings. Our results are consistent with a solution to the axionic domain wall problem by the magnetic monopole. Further, we give a new constraint on a linked configuration of the magnetic and axionic strings.

We advance the study of pure de Sitter supergravity by introducing a finite formulation of unimodular supergravity via the super-St\"uckelberg mechanism. Building on previous works, we construct a complete four-dimensional action of spontaneously broken ${\cal N}\!\!=\!\!1$ supergravity to all orders, which allows for de Sitter solutions. The introduction of finite supergravity transformations extends the super-St\"uckelberg procedure beyond the second order, offering a recursive solution to all orders in the goldstino sector. This work bridges the earlier perturbative approaches and the complete finite theory, opening new possibilities for de Sitter vacua in supergravity models and eventually string theory.