Jet tagging is an essential categorization problem in high energy physics. In recent times, Deep Learning has not only risen to the challenge of jet tagging but also significantly improved its performance. In this article, we propose an idea of a new architecture, Particle Multi-Axis transformer (ParMAT) which is a modified version of Particle transformer (ParT). ParMAT contains local and global spatial interactions within a single unit which improves its ability to handle various input lengths. We trained our model on JETCLASS, a publicly available large dataset that contains 100M jets of 10 different classes of particles. By integrating a parallel attention mechanism and pairwise interactions of particles in the attention mechanism,ParMAT achieves robustness and higher accuracy over the ParT and ParticleNet. The scalability of the model to huge datasets and its ability to automatically extract essential features demonstrate its potential for enhancing jet tagging.

In recent years, energy correlators have emerged as a powerful tool to explore the field theoretic structure of strong interactions at particle colliders. In this Letter we initiate a novel study of the non-perturbative power corrections to the projected $N$-point energy correlators in the limit where the angle between the detectors is small. Using the light-ray operator product expansion (OPE) as a guiding principle, we derive the power corrections in terms of two non-perturbative quantities describing the fragmentation of quarks and gluons. In analogy with their perturbative leading-power counterpart, we show that power corrections obey a classical scaling behavior that is violated at the quantum level. This crucially results in a dependence on the hard scale $Q$ of the problem that is calculable in perturbation theory. Our analytic predictions are successfully tested against Monte Carlo simulations for both lepton and hadron colliders, marking a significant step forward in the understanding of these observables.

We study the effects of the one-loop renormalisation group running/mixing of the Wilson coefficients in the standard model effective field theory on the predictions for $Hj$, $t\bar tH$ and $HH$ production at the LHC. We focus on a subset of operators closed under QCD corrections and explore the differences between employing a fixed or dynamical scale on the SMEFT predictions for key observables such as the Higgs transverse momentum and the Higgs pair invariant mass. We then study the impact of consistently taking into account renormalisation group effects on the constraints that can be obtained on the Wilson coefficients through current and future measurements at the LHC.

We compute the effects due to the virtual exchange (or the soft emission) of a scalar particle with generic couplings to the top quark in $t\bar t$ pair production at the LHC. We apply the results to two cases of interest, extending and completing previous studies. First, we consider the indirect search for light ($m_S<2 m_t$) top-philic scalars with CP-even and/or CP-odd interactions. Second, we investigate how to set constraints on anomalous Yukawa couplings of the Higgs boson to the top quark. Our results show that the current precision of experimental data together with the accuracy of the SM predictions make such indirect determinations a powerful probe for new physics.

We study the effects on particle production of a Planck-suppressed coupling between the inflaton and a scalar dark matter candidate, $\chi$. In the absence of this coupling, the dominant source for the relic density of $\chi$ is the long wavelength modes produced from the scalar field fluctuations during inflation. In this case, there are strong constraints on the mass of the scalar and the reheating temperature after inflation from the present-day relic density of $\chi$ (assuming $\chi$ is stable). When a coupling $\sigma \phi^2 \chi^2$ is introduced, with $\sigma = {\tilde \sigma} m_\phi^2/ M_P^2 \sim 10^{-10} {\tilde \sigma}$, where $m_\phi$ is the inflaton mass, the allowed parameter space begins to open up considerably even for ${\tilde \sigma}$ as small as $\gtrsim 10^{-7}$. For ${\tilde \sigma} \gtrsim \frac{9}{16}$, particle production is dominated by the scattering of the inflaton condensate, either through single graviton exchange or the contact interaction between $\phi$ and $\chi$. In this regime, the range of allowed masses and reheating temperatures is maximal. For $0.004 < {\tilde \sigma} < 50$, constraints from isocurvature fluctuations are satisfied, and the production from parametric resonance can be neglected.

Neutrino-neutrino refraction leads to collective flavor evolution that can include fast flavor conversion, an ingredient still missing in numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We provide a theoretical framework for the linear regime of this phenomenon using the language of response theory. In analogy to electromagnetic waves, we introduce a flavor susceptibility as the linear response to an external flavor field. By requiring self-consistency, this approach leads to the usual dispersion relation for growing modes, but differs from the traditional treatment in that it predicts Landau damping of subluminal collective modes. The new dispersion relation has definite analyticity properties and can be expanded for small growth rates. This approach simplifies and intuitively explains Morinaga's proof of sufficiency for the occurrence of growing modes. We show that weakly growing modes arise as soon as an angular crossing is formed, due to their resonant interaction with individual neutrino modes. For longitudinal plasma waves, a similar resonance causes Landau damping or conversely, the two-stream instability.

The pseudoscalar and vector four-quark states $bb\overline{c}\overline{c}$ are studied in the context of the QCD sum rule method. We model $T_{\mathrm{ PS}} $ and $T_{\mathrm{V}}$ as structures built of diquarks $ b^{T}C\gamma_{5}b$, $\overline{c}C\overline{c}^{T}$ and $b^{T}C\gamma _{5}b$ , $\overline{c}C\gamma_{\mu}\gamma_{5}\overline{c}^{T}$, respectively, with $ C$ being the charge conjugation matrix. The spectroscopic parameters of the tetraquarks $T_{\mathrm{PS}}$ and $T_{\mathrm{V}}$, i.e., their masses and current couplings are calculated using QCD two-point sum rule method. We evaluate the full widths of $T_{\mathrm{PS}}$ and $T_{\mathrm{V}}$ by taking into account their kinematically allowed decay channels. In the case of the pseudoscalar particle they are processes $T_{\mathrm{PS}} \to B_{c}^{-}B_{c}^{\ast -}$, $B_{c}^{-}B_{c}^{-}(1^{3}P_{0})$ and $B_{c}^{\ast -}B_{c}^{-}(1^{1}P_{1})$. The vector state $T_{\mathrm{V}}$ can dissociate to meson pairs $2 B_{c}^{-}$, $2 B_{c}^{\ast -}$ and $ B_{c}^{-}B_{c}^{-}(1^{1}P_{1})$. Partial widths of these decays are determined by the strong couplings at relevant tetraquark-meson-meson vertices, which evaluated in the context of the three-point sum rule approach. Predictions obtained for the mass and full width of the pseudoscalar $m =(13.092\pm 0.095)~\mathrm{GeV}$, $\Gamma _{\mathrm{PS} }=(63.7\pm 9.4)~\mathrm{MeV}$ and vector $\widetilde{m} =(13.15\pm 0.10)~ \mathrm{GeV}$, $\Gamma_{\mathrm{V}}=(57.5.3\pm 8.6)~\mathrm{MeV}$ tetraquarks can be useful for analyses of different four-quark resonances.

The combination of relativistic kinematics together with Coulomb or Yukawa potentials is a common place in atomic, nuclear and meson mass phenomenology. In meson spectroscopy, linear and Coulomb-like potentials are the most commonly used potentials and decays rates are also calculated using the value of the wavefunction at the origin. But, it has been known for sometime that the use of relativistic kinematics together with Coulomb or Coulomb-like potentials produces wavefunction singularity at the origin for S-wave \cite{DuranFriarPolyzou}. Therefore, there is a need to address this problem somehow. In this letter, we show how to overcome this problem without destroying the phenomenological success of the use of relativistic kinematics in meson mass spectroscopy. Our method can be easily implemented for similar problems in atomic, nuclear and particle phenomenology.

Vortex states of photons, electrons, and other particles are freely propagating wave packets with helicoidal wave fronts winding around the axis of a phase vortex. A particle prepared in a vortex state possesses a non-zero orbital angular momentum projection on the propagation direction, a quantum number that has never been exploited in experimental particle and nuclear physics. Low-energy vortex photons, electrons, neutrons, and helium atoms have been demonstrated in experiment and found numerous applications, and there exist proposals of boosting them to higher energies. However, the verification that a high energy particle is indeed in a vortex state will be a major challenge, since the low energy techniques become impractical for highly energetic particles. Here, we propose a new diagnostic method based of the so-called superkick effect, which can unambiguously detect the presence of a phase vortex. A proof-of-principle experiment with vortex electrons can be done with the existing technology and will, at the same time, constitute the first observation of the superkick effect.

We discuss the potential of future proton decay experiments on the exploration of the flavour space of grand unification. We focus on an economical SU(5) grand unified model (GUT) with the fermion sector extended by including only one copy of 24-plet. Neutrino masses are generated via type-(I+III) seesaw mechanism with the lightest neutrino massless. Gauge unification requires masses of fermions in the 24-plet to be hierarchical, in particular, the electroweak singlet and triplet heavy leptons to be around the canonical seesaw scale and TeV scale, respectively. We address how extra parameters in the flavour space which cannot be touched in flavour measurements can be tested by a multi-channel analysis in future proton decay measurements.

A simple theory where the total lepton number is a local gauge symmetry is proposed. In this context, the gauge anomalies are cancelled with the minimal number of extra fermionic fields and one predicts that the neutrinos are Majorana fermions. The properties of the neutrino sector are discussed showing that this theory predicts a $3+2$ light neutrino sector. We show that using the same fermionic fields one can gauge the baryon number and define a simple theory where the lepton and baryon numbers can be spontaneously broken at the low scale in agreement with experiments.

We investigate the mass spectra of molecular-type hexaquark states in the dibaryon systems. These systems are composed of the charmed baryons $[\Sigma_c^{(\ast)}$, $\Xi_c^{(\prime,\ast)}]$, doubly charmed baryons $[\Xi_{cc}^{(\ast)}]$, and hyperons $[\Sigma^{(\ast)}$, $\Xi^{(\ast)}]$. We consider all possible combinations of particle-particle and particle-antiparticle pairs, including the S-wave spin multiplets in each combination. We establish the underlying connections among the molecular tetraquarks, pentaquarks, and hexaquarks with the effective quark-level interactions. We find that the existence of molecular states in $DD^\ast$, $D\bar{D}^\ast$, and $\Sigma_c\bar{D}^{(\ast)}$ systems leads to the emergence of a large number of deuteron-like hexaquarks in the heavy flavor sectors. Currently, there have been several experimental candidates for molecular tetraquarks and pentaquarks. The experimental search for near-threshold hexaquarks will further advance the establishment of the underlying dynamical picture of hadronic molecules and deepen our understanding of the role of spin-flavor symmetry in near-threshold residual strong interactions.

We adopt the effective Lagrangian approach to study the strong decays of the $1^-(0^{++})$ $D^\ast\bar{D}^\ast$ molecular state [denoted as $T_{\psi0}^a(4010)$ according to the LHCb naming convention] through triangle diagrams. The decay channels include the open-charm $D\bar{D}$, and the hidden-charm $\eta_c\pi$, $J/\psi\rho$, and $\chi_{c1}\pi$. The coupling between the $T_{\psi0}^a(4010)$ and its constituents $D^\ast\bar{D}^\ast$ is obtained by solving for the residue of the scattering T-matrix at the pole. Our calculation yields a total width of $(12.0$$-$$35.4)$ MeV for the $T_{\psi0}^a(4010)$ state, with its main decay channels being $\eta_c\pi$ and $\chi_{c1}\pi$. The $X(4100)$ and $X(4050)$ have similar masses and widths, with both masses being close to the $D^\ast\bar{D}^\ast$ threshold. Additionally, their decay final states are consistent with those of the $T_{\psi0}^a(4010)$. Therefore, it is likely that they represent the same state and both potentially correspond to the $T_{\psi0}^a(4010)$. We suggest that future experiments focus on searching for the $T_{\psi0}^a(4010)$ signal in the final states $\eta_c\pi^-$, $\chi_{c1}\pi^-$ and $D^0D^-$ of the $B^0\to\eta_c\pi^-K^+$, $\chi_{c1}\pi^- K^+$ and $D^0D^-K^+$ processes, respectively, as well as further investigating its resonance parameters with Flatt\'e-like formula.

We study the constraints on low-energy coefficients of the $\nu$SMEFT generalization of the Standard Model effective theory in the simple case of a $\text{U}(1)^\prime$ enlargement of the Standard Model gauge group. In particular, we analyse the constraints imposed by the requirement that the extended theory remains free of gauge anomalies. We present the cases of explicit realisations, showing the obtained correlations among the coefficients of $d=6$ operators.

We investigate the radiative QED corrections to the lepton ($L=e,~\mu$ and $\tau$) anomalous magnetic moment arising from vacuum polarization diagrams by four closed lepton loops. The method is based on the consecutive application of dispersion relations for the polarization operator and the Mellin--Barnes transform for the propagators of massive particles. This allows one to obtain, for the first time, exact analytical expressions for the radiative corrections to the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons from diagrams with insertions of four identical lepton loops all of the same type $\ell$ different from the external one, $L$. The result is expressed in terms of the mass ratio $r=m_\ell/m_L$. We investigate the behaviour of the exact analytical expressions at $r\to 0$ and $r\to \infty$ and compare with the corresponding asymptotic expansions known in the literature.

We propose a novel neutron interferometry setup to explore the potential existence of mirror neutrons, a candidate for dark matter. Our work demonstrates that if mirror neutrons exist, neutrons will acquire an observable geometric phase due to mixing with these mirror counterparts. This geometric phase, detectable through our interferometric setup, could serve as a direct probe for the presence of mirror matter particles. Additionally, this investigation could shed light on unresolved issues in particle physics, such as the neutron lifetime puzzle. We discuss the setup's versatility and limitations, showing its capability to explore a wide range of parameters in neutron interferometry and potentially uncover new physics.

Several extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of sub-GeV particles that can be copiously produced in the cores of supernovae. A broad family of these particles are dubbed feebly interacting particles (FIPs), which can have masses of up to a few hundreds of MeV. Here, we review the most recent and leading constraints on electrophilic FIPs, describing multimessenger techniques that allow us to probe the full phenomenology of the electron/positron emission produced by these FIPs; from their associated X-ray emission to the production of the $511$~keV line. Furthermore, the approach described here is independent of the specific particle model and can be translated to the coupling and other properties of a variety of different particles, such as axion-like particles, sterile neutrinos or dark photons

Recent years have seen an increasing body of work examining how quantum entanglement can be measured at high energy particle physics experiments, thereby complementing traditional table-top experiments. This begs the question of whether more concepts from quantum computation can be examined at colliders, and we here consider the property of magic, which distinguishes those quantum states which have a genuine computational advantage over classical states. We examine top anti-top pair production at the LHC, showing that nature chooses to produce magic tops, where the amount of magic varies with the kinematics of the final state. We compare results for individual partonic channels and at proton-level, showing that averaging over final states typically increases magic. This is in contrast to entanglement measures, such as the concurrence, which typically decrease. Our results create new links between the quantum information and particle physics literatures, providing practical insights for further study.

We present a theoretical framework within which both the real and imaginary parts of the complex, two-photon exchange amplitude contributing to $K_L\rightarrow\mu^+\mu^-$ decay can be calculated using lattice QCD. The real part of this two-photon amplitude is of approximately the same size as that coming from a second-order weak strangeness-changing neutral-current process. Thus a test of the standard model prediction for this second-order weak process depends on an accurate result of this two-photon amplitude. A limiting factor of our proposed method comes from low-energy three-particle $\pi\pi\gamma$ states. The contribution from these states will be significantly distorted by the finite volume of our calculation -- a distortion for which there is no available correction. However, a simple estimate of the contribution of these three-particle states suggests their contribution to be at most a few percent allowing their neglect in a lattice calculation with a 10% target accuracy.

Sterile neutrinos that couple to the Standard Model via the neutrino magnetic dipole portals have been extensively studied at various experiments. In this work, we scrutinize these interactions for sterile neutrinos in the mass range of $\unit[0.1]{}-\unit[50]{MeV}$ through the nuclear and electron recoils at various neutrino scattering experiments. For the $e$-flavor specific dipole portal, we demonstrate that Dresden-II can provide leading constraints for $m_N \lesssim \unit[0.5]{MeV}$, setting aside currently unresolved theoretical uncertainties. For the $\mu$-flavor case, we show that the COHERENT experiment can probe a unique parameter region for $m_N$ in the range of $\unit[10]{}-\unit[40]{MeV}$ with the full dataset collected by the CsI[Na] scintillation detector, including both the energy and timing structure of the neutrino beam. We also present limits on the parameter regions of the $\tau$-flavor dipole portal using measurements of the solar neutrino flux from dark matter direct detection experiments.

Spread complexity measures the minimized spread of quantum states over all choices of basis. It generalizes Krylov operator complexity to quantum states under continuous Hamiltonian evolution. In this paper, we study spread complexity in the context of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and propose a new flavor ratio based on complexity. Our findings indicate that our proposal might favor an initial ratio of fluxes as $\phi_{\nu_e}^0: \phi_{\nu_\mu}^0: \phi_{\nu_\tau}^0 = 1:0:0$ over a more generally expected ratio of $1:2:0$, when the IceCube neutrino observatory achieves its projected sensitivity to discriminate between flavors. Additionally, complexity-based definitions of flavor ratios exhibit a slight but nonzero sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, which traditional flavor ratios cannot capture.

We study the processes, $e^- e^+ \rightarrow \gamma^* \gamma^* \rightarrow J/\psi +J/\psi$, and $e^- e^+ \rightarrow \gamma^* \gamma^* \rightarrow \eta_c+ \eta_c$ at $\sqrt{s}=10.6$ GeV in the framework of $4\times 4$ Bethe-Salpeter equation. For $J/\psi+J/\psi$ production, the dominant contribution is through fragmentation process, while for $\eta_c+\eta_c$ production, the quark rearrangement diagrams contribute. Our results of cross section for $J/\psi+J/\psi$ and $\psi(2S)+\psi(2S)$ are compatible with the experimental upper limits set by Belle Collaboration, while in the absence of experimental data for $\eta_c(1S)+\eta_c(1S)$, and $\eta_c(2S)+\eta_c(2S)$ production, we have given theoretical prediction of their cross sections, and compared with NRQCD prediction.

A natural definition for instanton density operator in lattice QCD has been long desired. We show this problem is, and has to be, resolved by higher category theory. The problem is resolved by refining at a conceptual level the Yang-Mills theory on lattice, in order to recover the homotopy information in the continuum, which would have been lost if we put the theory on lattice in the traditional way. The refinement needed is a generalization -- through the lens of higher category theory -- of the familiar process of Villainization that captures winding in lattice XY model and Dirac quantization in lattice Maxwell theory. The apparent difference is that Villainization is in the end described by principal bundles, hence familiar, but more general topological operators can only be captured on the lattice by more flexible structures beyond the usual group theory and fibre bundles, hence the language of categories becomes natural and necessary. The key structure we need for our particular problem is called multiplicative bundle gerbe, based upon which we can construct suitable structures to naturally define the 2d Wess-Zumino-Witten term, 3d skyrmion density operator and 4d hedgehog defect for lattice $S^3$ (pion vacua) non-linear sigma model, and the 3d Chern-Simons term, 4d instanton density operator and 5d Yang monopole defect for lattice $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory. In a broader perspective, higher category theory enables us to rethink more systematically the relation between continuum quantum field theory and lattice quantum field theory. We sketch a proposal towards a general machinery that constructs the suitably refined lattice degrees of freedom for a given non-linear sigma model or gauge theory in the continuum, realizing the desired topological operators on the lattice.

Predicting the rate for $\mu\to e$ conversion in nuclei for a given set of effective operators mediating the violation of lepton flavor symmetry crucially depends on hadronic and nuclear matrix elements. In particular, the uncertainties inherent in this non-perturbative input limit the discriminating power that can be achieved among operators by studying different target isotopes. In order to quantify the associated uncertainties, as a first step, we go back to nuclear charge densities and propagate the uncertainties from electron scattering data for a range of isotopes relevant for $\mu\to e$ conversion in nuclei, including $^{40,48}$Ca, $^{48,50}$Ti, and $^{27}$Al. We provide as central results Fourier-Bessel expansions of the corresponding charge distributions with complete covariance matrices, accounting for Coulomb-distortion effects in a self-consistent manner throughout the calculation. As an application, we evaluate the overlap integrals for $\mu\to e$ conversion mediated by dipole operators. In combination with modern ab-initio methods, our results will allow for the evaluation of general $\mu\to e$ conversion rates with quantified uncertainties.

It has been shown that some Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories, such as those with higher-dimensional operators with negative coefficients, lead to superluminality on some classical backgrounds. While superluminality by itself is not logically inconsistent, these theories also predict the formation of closed time-like curves at the classical level, starting from initial conditions without such curves. This leads to the formation of a Cauchy Horizon which prevents a complete description of the time evolution of such systems. Inspired by the chronology protection arguments of General Relativity, we show that quantum mechanical effects from low energy quanta strongly backreact on such configurations, exciting unknown short-distance degrees of freedom and invalidating the classical predictions. Thus, there is no obvious low-energy obstruction to the existence of these operators.

In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of the Universe in the framework of a modified loop quantum cosmological model (mLQC-I) with various inflationary potentials, including chaotic, Starobinsky, generalized Starobinsky, polynomials of the first and second kinds, generalized T- models and natural inflation. In all these models, the big bang singularity is represented by a quantum bounce, and the evolution of the Universe both before and after the bounce is universal and weakly depends on the inflationary potentials, as long as the evolution is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the bounce. In particular, the evolution in the pre-bounce region can be universally divided into three different phases: pre-bouncing, pre-transition, and pre-de Sitter. The pre-bouncing phase occurs immediately before the quantum bounce, during which the evolution of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton. Thus, the equation of state of the inflaton is about one, w = 1. Soon, the inflation potential takes over, so w rapidly falls from one to negative one. This pre-transition phase is very short and quickly turns into the pre-de Sitter phase, whereby the effective cosmological constant with a Planck size takes over and dominates the rest of the contracting phase. In the entire pre-bounce regime, the evolution of the expansion factor and the inflaton can be approximated by analytical solutions, which are universal and independent of the inflation potentials.

It is shown that using Noether's Theorem explicitly employing gauge invariance for variations of the electromagnetic four-potential $A^\mu$ straightforwardly ensures that the resulting electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor is symmetric. The Belinfante symmetrization procedure is not necessary. The method is based on Bessel-Hagen's 1921 clarification of Noether's original procedure, suggesting that the symmetry problem arises from an incomplete implementation of Noether's Theorem.

The quantum kinetic equation for the gauge-invariant Wigner function, constructed from spinor fields that obey the Dirac equation modified by CPT and Lorentz symmetry-violating terms, is presented. The equations for the components of Wigner function in the Clifford algebra basis are accomplished. Focusing on the massless case, an extended semiclassical chiral kinetic theory in the presence of external electromagnetic fields is developed. We calculate the chiral currents and establish the anomalous magnetic and separation effects in a Lorentz-violating background. The chiral anomaly within the context of extended Quantum Electrodynamics is elucidated. Finally, we derive the semiclassical Lorentz-violating extended chiral transport equation.

The Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV), a proposed consequence of certain quantum gravity (QG) scenarios, could instigate an energy-dependent group velocity for ultra-relativistic particles. This energy dependence, although suppressed by the massive QG energy scale $E_\mathrm{QG}$, expected to be on the level of the Planck energy $1.22 \times 10^{19}$ GeV, is potentially detectable in astrophysical observations. In this scenario, the cosmological distances traversed by photons act as an amplifier for this effect. By leveraging the observation of a remarkable flare from the blazar Mrk\,421, recorded at energies above 100 GeV by the MAGIC telescopes on the night of April 25 to 26, 2014, we look for time delays scaling linearly and quadratically with the photon energies. Using for the first time in LIV studies a binned-likelihood approach we set constraints on the QG energy scale. For the linear scenario, we set $95\%$ lower limits $E_\mathrm{QG}>2.7\times10^{17}$ GeV for the subluminal case and $E_\mathrm{QG}> 3.6 \times10^{17}$ GeV for the superluminal case. For the quadratic scenario, the $95\%$ lower limits for the subluminal and superluminal cases are $E_\mathrm{QG}>2.6 \times10^{10}$ GeV and $E_\mathrm{QG}>2.5\times10^{10}$ GeV, respectively.

We perform a comparative analysis of quintessence and $k$-essence scalar field models in the data analysis perspective. We study the quintessence field with an exponential potential and the $k$-essence field with an inverse square potential in the present work. Before delving into data analysis, we provide a brief perspective on dynamical evolution on both of the models and obtain the stability constraints on the model parameters. We adopt Bayesian inference procedure to estimate the model parameters that best-fit the data. A comprehensive analysis utilizing Observational Hubble data (OHD) and Pantheon+ compilation of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) shows that $k$-essence model fits the data slightly better than the quintessence model while the evidence of these models in comparison with the $\Lambda$CDM model is weak. The value of the Hubble constant predicted by both the models is in close agreement with the value obtained by the Planck2018 collaboration assuming the $\Lambda$CDM model.

We extend an earlier calculation within lattice QCD of excited light meson resonances with $J^{PC}=1^{--}, 2^{--}, 3^{--}$ at the SU(3) flavor point in the singlet representation, by considering the octet representation. In this case the resonances appear in coupled-channel amplitudes, which we determine, establishing the relative strength of pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar to pseudoscalar-vector decays. Combining the new octet results with the prior results for the singlet, we perform a plausible extrapolation to the physical quark mass, and compare to experimental $\rho^\star_J, K^\star_J, \omega^\star_J$ and $\phi^\star_J$ resonances.

We evaluate the leading exchange corrections to the Helium-4 gravitational form factors (GFFs) upto momenta of the order of the nucleon mass. We use both the K-harmonic method with simple pair nucleon potential, and a Jastrow trial function using the Argonne $v_{14}$ potential, to evaluate the Helium-4 GFFs. The exchange current contributions include the pair interaction, plus the seagull and the pion exchange interactions, modulo the recoil corrections. To estimate the off-shellness of the pion nucleon coupling in this momenta range, we discuss the results using either the pseudo-scalar (PS) or pseudo-vector (PV) pion-nucleon couplings. When the PV coupling is used, the pair diagram contribution is higher order in the non relativistic expansion. The results for the Helium-4 A-GFF are comparable to those given by the impulse approximation, especially for the PS coupling using both the K-Harmonic method and variational method. The exchange current contributions with the PS coupling for the charge form factor of Helium-4, yield better agreement with the existing data over a broad range of momenta, especially when the Argonne $v_{14}$ potential including the D-wave admixture is used.

We investigate the cosmological implications of entropy-based approaches in the context of Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) and Gravity-Thermodynamics (GT) formalisms. We utilise the extended Barrow entropy form, with the index parameter $\Delta$, representing the fractal dimension of the horizon. We also test implementing different parameter ranges for $\Delta$, which can be extended to Tsallis' interpretation within the same formal cosmology. We perform a Bayesian analysis to constrain the cosmological parameters using the Pantheon+, more recent DESy5, DESI, and, as a supplement, Quasar datasets. We find that the HDE model within almost all data combinations performs extremely well in comparison to the GT approach, which is usually strongly disfavored. Using the combination of DESy5+DESI alone, we find that the GT approaches are disfavored at $|\log \mathcal{B}| \sim 5.8$ and $|\log \mathcal{B}| \sim 6.2$ for the Barrow and Tsallis limits on $\Delta$, respectively, wrt $\Lambda$CDM model. While the HDE approach is statistically equivalent to $\Lambda$CDM when comparing the Bayesian evidence. We also investigate the evolution of the dark energy equation of state and place limits on the same, consistent with quintessence-like behaviour in the HDE approaches.

The operation of the next generation of gamma-ray observatories will lead to a great advance in dark matter searches. In this paper, we use the hidden sectors hypothesis within the so-called secluded models to calculate the capabilities of the Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO) to detect gamma-ray signatures produced by dark matter particles concentrated in the Sun. We assume the dark matter particle annihilates into metastable mediators which decay into $\gamma\gamma$, $e^+e^-$, $\tau^+\tau^-$, and $\bar{b}b$ outside the Sun. We found that the SWGO will be able to probe a spin-dependent cross-section of about $10^{-46}$ cm$^2$ for dark matter masses smaller than 5 TeV. This result shows an unprecedented sensitivity surpassing the current instruments by more than one order of magnitude.

In any cosmological model where spacetime is described by a pseudo-Riemannian manifold, photons propagate along null geodesics, and their number is conserved, upcoming Gravitational Wave (GW) observations can be combined with measurements of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) angular scale to provide model-independent estimates of the sound horizon at the baryon-drag epoch. By focusing on the accuracy expected from forthcoming surveys such as LISA GW standard sirens and DESI or Euclid angular BAO measurements, we forecast a relative precision of $\sigma_{r_{\rm d}} /r_{\rm d} \sim 1.5\%$ within the redshift range $z \lesssim 1$. This approach will offer a unique model-independent measure of a fundamental scale characterizing the early universe, which is competitive with model-dependent values inferred within specific theoretical frameworks. These measurements can serve as a consistency test for $\Lambda$CDM, potentially clarifying the nature of the Hubble tension and confirming or ruling out new physics prior to recombination with a statistical significance of $\sim 4\sigma$.

The idea of a rapid sign-switching cosmological constant (mirror AdS-dS transition) in the late universe at $z\sim1.7$, known as the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM model, has significantly improved the fit to observational data and provides a promising scenario for alleviating major cosmological tensions, such as the $H_0$ and $S_8$ tensions. However, in the absence of a fully predictive model, implementing this fit required conjecturing that the dynamics of the linear perturbations are governed by general relativity. Recent work embedding the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM model with the Lagrangian of a type-II minimally modified gravity known as VCDM has propelled $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM to a fully predictive model, removing the uncertainty related to the aforementioned assumption; we call this new model $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM. In this work, we demonstrate that not only does $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM fit the data better than the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, but the new model, $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM, performs even better in alleviating cosmological tensions while also providing a better fit to the data, including CMB, BAO, SNe Ia, and Cosmic Shear measurements. Our findings highlight the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM framework, particularly the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM model, as a compelling alternative to the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, especially by successfully alleviating the $H_0$ tension. Additionally, these models predict higher values for $\sigma_8$, indicating enhanced structuring, albeit with lower present-day matter density parameter values and consequently reduced $S_8$ values, alleviating the $S_8$ tension as well. This demonstrates that the data are well fit by a combination of background and linear perturbations, both having dynamics differing from those of $\Lambda$CDM. This paves the way for further exploration of new ways for embedding the sign-switching cosmological constant into other models.

We perform fits to DESI, CMB and supernova data to understand the physical origin of the DESI hint for dynamical dark energy. We find that the linear parametrization of the equation of state $w$ may guide to misleading interpretations, such as the hint for a phantom Universe, which are not preferred by the data. Instead, physical quintessence models fit the data well. Model-independently, present observations prefer deviations from the constant dark energy, $w=-1$, only at very low redshifts, $z < \mathcal{O}(0.1)$. We find that this result is driven by low-$z$ supernova data. Therefore, either the fundamental properties of our Universe, characterised by the equation of state $w$ and the Hubble parameter $H$, underwent dramatic changes very recently or, alternatively, we do not fully understand the systematics of our local Universe in a radius of about $300\,h^{-1}\rm Mpc$.