New articles on High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

[1] 2303.12847

Scalar decay into pions via Higgs portal

In extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics a light scalar from a hidden sector can interact with known particles via mixing with the SM Higgs boson. If the scalar mass is of GeV scale, this coupling induces the scalar decay into light hadrons, that saturates the scalar width. Searches for the light scalars are performed in many ongoing experiments and planned for the next generation projects. Applying dispersion relations changes the leading order estimate of the scalar decay rate into pions by a factor of about a hundred indicating the strong final state interaction. This subtlety for about thirty years prevented any reliable inference of the model parameters from experimental data. In this letter we use the gravitational form factor for neutral pion extracted from analysis of $\gamma^*\gamma\to\pi^0\pi^0$ processes to estimate the quark contribution to scalar decay into two pions. We find a factor of two uncertainty in this estimate and argue that the possible gluon contribution is of the same order. The decay rate to pions smoothly matches that to gluons dominating for heavier scalars. With this finding we refine sensitivities of future projects to the scalar-Higgs mixing. The accuracy in the calculations can be further improved by performing similar analysis of $\gamma^*\gamma\to K K$ and $\gamma^*\gamma\to\eta\eta$ processes and possibly decays like $J/\psi\to\gamma+\pi\pi$.

[2] 2303.12902

On a Relativistic Quark Model Description via the Fractional Nikiforov-Uvarov Method

The Dirac equation plays an essential role in the relativistic quantum systems, which is reduced to a form similar to Schrodinger equation when a certain potential's type is selected as the Cornell potential. By choosing the generalized fractional derivative, the fractional Nikiforov-Uvarov method is applied as a good efficient tool. The energy eigenvalues and corresponding wave functions are obtained in the sense of fractional forms by solving Dirac equation analytically. The special case is obtained, which is compatible with the classical model. Solving the fractional Dirac equation will open a new path to solve and improve results in the classical relativistic quantum systems.

[3] 2303.12932

Baryogenesis from Higgs Inflation

If the inflaton field is coupled to the hypercharge Chern-Simons density $F\tilde F$, an explosive production of helical gauge fields when inflation ends can trigger baryogenesis at the electroweak phase transition. Besides, Higgs inflation identifies the inflaton with the Higgs field $\mathcal H$, thus relating cosmological observables to properties of electroweak physics. In this paper we merge both approaches: the helical gauge fields are produced at the end of Higgs inflation from the coupling $|\mathcal H|^2 F\tilde F$. In the metric formulation of gravity we found a window in the parameter space for electroweak baryogenesis consistent with all experimental observations. Conversely, for the Palatini formalism the non-gaussianity bounds strongly constrain the helicity produced at the end of inflation, forbidding an efficient baryogenesis.

[4] 2303.12941

Strong-field QED in Furry-picture momentum-space formulation: Ward identities and Feynman diagrams

The impact of a strong electromagnetic background field on otherwise perturbative QED processes is studied in the momentum-space formulation. The univariate background field is assumed to have finite support in time, thus being suitable to provide a model for a strong laser pulse in plane-wave approximation. The usually employed Furry picture in position space must be equipped with some non-obvious terms to ensure the Ward identity. In contrast, the momentum space formulation allows for an easy and systematic account of these terms, both globally and order-by-order in the weak-field expansion. In the limit of an infinitely long-acting (monochromatic) background field, these terms become gradually suppressed, and the standard perturbative QED Feynman diagrams are recovered in the leading-order weak-field limit. A few examples of three- and four-point amplitudes are considered to demonstrate the application of our Feynman rules employ free Dirac spinors, the free photon propagator and the free Fermion propagator, while the external field impact is solely encoded in the Fermion-Fermion-photon vertex function. The appearance of on-/off-shell contributions, singular structures and Oleinik resonances are pointed out.

[5] 2303.12969

Vacuum polarization in Yang-Mills theories with Lorentz violation

The renormalizable extension of a pure Yang-Mills theory with Lorentz violation is characterized by the CPT-Even $(k_F)_{\mu \nu \lambda \rho}$ and the CPT-Odd $(k_{AF})_\mu$ constant Lorentz coefficients. In this paper, the one-loop structure of the theory up to second order in these Lorentz violating coefficients is studied using the BFM-gauge. Results for the diverse beta functions are derived and contrasted with those given in the literature at first order in these parameters. Special emphasis is putted on the beta function $\beta(g)$, which is studied in both mass-independent and mass-dependent renormalization schemes. It is found that in a mass-independent scheme the $(k_{AF})_\mu$ Lorentz coefficient does not contribute to the $\beta(g)$ function, but it does in a mass-dependent scheme with contributions that are gauge-dependent and IR divergent.

[6] 2303.12983

Lepton Flavor Portal Matter

The paradigm of portal matter represents a well-motivated extension to models with kinetic mixing/vector portal dark matter. In previous work, we constructed a simple leptonic portal matter model in which the portal matter fields could mediate a new physics correction to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon consistent with the observed discrepancy between the measured value for this quantity and the SM prediction. Here, we present a version of this mechanism by constructing a model with an extended dark gauge sector in which SM and portal matter fields exist as members of the same dark gauge multiplets, which provides a natural extension of simple portal matter models. We find a rich phenomenology in this extended model, including nontrivial novel characteristics that do not appear in our earlier minimal construction, and discuss current experimental constraints and future prospects for this model. We find that a multi-TeV muon collider has excellent prospects for constraining or measuring the crucial parameters of this model.

[7] 2303.13008

On the oscillations of the inflaton field of the simplest $α$-attractor T-model

In this work, we consider homogeneous oscillations of the inflaton field after inflation. In particular, we obtain an analytical result for the (average) equation of state for the oscillating inflaton field for the simplest $\alpha$-attractor T-model. The result is useful for the study of its post-inflationary evolution. The most dramatic possibility is that during inflaton field oscillation, the (average) equation of state is that of a cosmological constant. This implies the end of slow-roll inflation in this model could be the beginning of oscillating inflation.

[8] 2303.13088

Upper limit on scalar field dark matter from LIGO-Virgo third observation run

If dark matter is a light scalar field weakly interacting with elementary particles, such a field induces oscillations of the physical constants, which results in time-varying force acting on macroscopic objects. In this paper, we report on a search for such a signal in the data of the two LIGO detectors during their third observing run (O3). We focus on the mass of the scalar field in the range of $10^{-13}-10^{-11}~{\rm eV}$ for which the signal falls within the detectors' sensitivity band. We first formulate the cross-correlation statistics that can be readily compared with publically available data. It is found that inclusion of the anisotropies of the velocity distribution of dark matter caused by the motion of the solar system in the Milky Way Galaxy enhances the signal by a factor of $\sim 2$ except for the narrow mass range around $\simeq 3\times 10^{-13}~{\rm eV}$ for which the correlation between the interferometer at Livingston and the one at Hanford is suppressed. From the non-detection of the signal, we derive the upper limits on the coupling constants between the elementary particles and the scalar field for five representative cases. For all the cases where the weak equivalence principle is not satisfied, tests of the violation of the weak equivalence principle provide the tightest upper limit on the coupling constants. Upper limits from the fifth-force experiment are always stronger than the ones from LIGO, but the difference is less than a factor of $\sim 5$ at large-mass range. Our study demonstrates that gravitational-wave experiments are starting to bring us meaningful information about the nature of dark matter. The formulation provided in this paper may be applied to the data of upcoming experiments as well and is expected to probe much wider parameter range of the model.

[9] 2303.13128

Color Reconnection Effects in $J/ψ$ Hadroproduction

We investigate production of $J/\psi$ mesons in hadron-hadron collisions, defined as low invariant mass $c\bar{c}$ singlets produced in a mixture of perturbative and nonperturbative mechanisms provided by the PYTHIA Monte Carlo. We find that in this model the color reconnection mechanism, which breaks the factorization, is essential to reasonably describe the experimental data.

[10] 2303.13198

Light double-gluon hybrid states with the exotic quantum numbers $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ and $3^{-+}$

We apply the QCD sum rule method to study the double-gluon hybrid states with the quark-gluon contents $\bar q q gg$ ($q=u/d$) and $\bar s s gg$. We construct twenty-eight double-gluon hybrid currents, eleven of which are found to be zero due to some internal symmetries between the two gluons fields. We concentrate on the non-vanishing currents with the exotic quantum numbers $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ and $3^{-+}$. Their masses are calculated to be $M_{|\bar q q gg;1^{-+}\rangle} = 4.35^{+0.26}_{-0.30}$ GeV, $M_{|\bar s s gg;1^{-+}\rangle} = 4.49^{+0.25}_{-0.30}$ GeV, $M_{|\bar q q gg;3^{-+}\rangle} = 3.02^{+0.24}_{-0.31}$ GeV, and $M_{|\bar s s gg;3^{-+}\rangle} = 3.16^{+0.22}_{-0.28}$ GeV. The decay behaviors of the $J^{PC} = 3^{-+}$ states are studied, and we propose to search for them in the $\pi a_1(1260)/\rho \omega/\phi \phi$ channels in future particle experiments.

[11] 2303.13206

The isospin-3 three-particle $K$-matrix at NLO in ChPT

The three-particle $K$-matrix, $\mathcal{K}_{\mathrm{df},3}$, is a scheme-dependent quantity that parametrizes short-range three-particle interactions in the relativistic-field-theory three-particle finite-volume formalism. In this work, we compute its value for systems of three pions at maximal isospin through next-to-leading order (NLO) in Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). We compare the values to existing lattice QCD results and find that the agreement between lattice QCD data and ChPT in the first two coefficients of the threshold expansion of $\mathcal{K}_{\mathrm{df},3}$ is significantly improved with respect to leading order once NLO effects are incorporated.

[12] 2303.13329

Predictions for feed-down enhancements at the $Λ_c \bar{D}$ and $Λ_c \bar{D}^*$ thresholds via the triangle and box singularities

We demonstrate that triangle singularity (TS) and box singularity (BS) mechanisms can produce unique narrow enhancements at the $\Lambda_c\bar{D}$ and $\Lambda_c\bar{D}^*$ thresholds in the invariant mass spectra of $J/\psi p$ and $J/\psi p\pi$, respectively. Taking into account that such mechanisms only depend on the initial $\Sigma_c^{(*)}\bar{D}^{(*)}$ interactions near threshold within the TS or BS kinematic regimes, the $\Lambda_c\bar{D}$ and $\Lambda_c\bar{D}^*$ threshold enhancements can be regarded as a feed-down phenomenon originated from both the heavier pentaquark decays and the $\Sigma_c^{(*)}\bar{D}^{(*)}$ scatterings from the continuum. A search for these structures in the $J/\psi p$ and $J/\psi p\pi$ spectra in both exclusive and semi-inclusive processes will provide a smoking-gun evidence for the hadronic molecule nature of those observed pentaquarks and clarify the role played by the TS and BS in the near-threshold dynamics.

[13] 2303.13343

Observation of the dead cone effect in charm and bottom quark jets and its QCD explanation

The production of a heavy quark is accompanied by gluon bremsstrahlung which is suppressed at small angles $\Theta\lesssim M_Q/E$ for mass $M_Q$ and high energy $E$ according to perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) (``dead cone effect''). As particles at small angles typically have large momenta, the heavy quark mass also causes a suppression of high momentum particles. In this paper, we studied this effect in c- and b-quark events using data from Z boson decays in $e^+e^-$ annihilation. The heavy quark fragmentation function for charged particles is reconstructed in the momentum fraction variable $x$ or $\xi=\ln(1/x)$ by removing the decays of the heavy quark hadrons. Indeed, we find an increasing suppression of particles with rising $x$ down to a fraction of $\lesssim 1/10$ for particles with $x\gtrsim0.2$ in b-quark and $x\gtrsim0.4$ in c-quark jets in comparison to light quark fragmentation. The sensitivity to the dead cone effect in the present momentum analysis is considerably increased in comparison to the recently presented angular analysis. This amount of suppression and the differences between c- and b-quark fragmentation are in good quantitative agreement with the expectations based on perturbative QCD within the Modified Leading Logarithmic Approximation (MLLA) in the central kinematic region. The data also support a two parameter description in the MLLA of these phenomena (``Limiting Spectrum''). The sensitivity of these measurements to the heavy quark mass is investigated.

[14] 2303.13353

Flavor Probes of Axion Dark Matter

Standard Model extensions with light axions are well-motivated by the observed Dark Matter abundance and the Peccei-Quinn solution to the Strong CP Problem. In general such axions can have large flavor-violating couplings to SM fermions, which naturally arise in scenarios where the Peccei-Quinn symmetry also explains the hierarchical pattern of fermion masses and mixings. I will discuss how these couplings allow for efficient axion production from the decays of SM particles, giving the opportunity to probe flavored axion Dark Matter with precision flavor experiments, astrophysics and cosmology.

[15] 2303.13383

Zee-model predictions for lepton flavor violation

The Zee model provides a simple model for one-loop Majorana neutrino masses. The new scalars can furthermore explain the long-standing deviation in the muon's magnetic moment and the recent CDF measurement of the $W$-boson mass. Together, these observations yield predictions for lepton flavor violating processes that are almost entirely testable in the near future. The remaining parameter space makes testable predictions for neutrino masses.

[16] 2303.13438

Flavor-changing top quark rare decays in the Bestest Little Higgs model

In this paper, we study the effects of the parameters of the Bestest Little Higgs (BLH) model on the flavor-changing top quark rare decays. We include new terms of flavor mixing between Standard Model (SM) light quarks and heavy fermions and bosons of the BLH model. We calculate the one-loop contributions of heavy quarks $(B)$, new bosons $(W^{\prime\pm})$ and new scalars $(H^{\pm},\phi^{\pm})$, and we show that the decays $t\to qV$ and $t\to qh^0$, where $q=c,u$ and $V=\gamma, Z, g $, are improved respect to its relatives in the SM, except for the gluon. Of the processes analyzed, the ones that show the best sensitivity are $Br(t\to cZ)\sim 10^{-5}$, $Br(t\to c\gamma)\sim 10^{-6}$ and $Br(t \to ch^0) \sim 10^{-8}$, in the appropriate parameter space of the BLH model. Our study complements others studies on the flavor-changing top quark rare decays.

[17] 2303.13503

LiteBIRD and CMB-S4 Sensitivities to Reheating in Plateau Models of Inflation

We study the sensitivity of LiteBIRD and CMB-S4 to the reheating temperature and the inflaton coupling in three types of plateau-potential models of inflation, namely mutated hilltop inflation, radion gauge inflation, and $\alpha$-attractor T models. We first study the relations between model parameters and CMB observables in all models analytically. We then perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain based forecasts to quantify the information gain on the reheating temperature, the inflaton coupling, and the scale of inflation that can be achieved with LiteBIRD and CMB-S4. We compare the results of the forecasts to those obtained from a recently proposed simple analytic method. We find that both LiteBIRD and CMB-S4 can simultaneously constrain the scale of inflation and the reheating temperature in all three types of models. They can for the first time obtain both an upper and lower bound on the latter, comprising the first ever measurement. In the mutated hilltop inflation and radion gauge inflation models this can be translated into a measurement of the inflaton coupling in parts of the parameter space. Constraining this microphysical parameter will help to understand how these models of inflation may be embedded into a more fundamental theory of particle physics.

[18] 2205.15249

Composite pseudo Nambu Goldstone Quintessence

A pseudo-Nambu Goldstone Boson (pNGB) arising from the breaking of a global symmetry ($G\rightarrow H$) can be one of the most promising candidates for the quintessence model, to explain the late-time acceleration of our universe. Motivated from the Composite Higgs scenario, we have investigated the case where the pNGB associated with $SO(N)/ SO(N-1)$ develops a potential through its couplings with the particles that do not form the complete representations of $G$. The Coleman Weinberg (CW) potential is generated via the external particles in the loop which are linked with the strongly interacting dynamics and can be computed predicatively. The model of Dark Energy (DE) is tested against several latest cosmological observations such as supernovae data of Pantheon, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO), Redshift-space distortion (RSD) data, etc. We have found that the fit prefers the sub-Planckian value of the pNGB field decay constant. Moreover, we have found that the model predicts cosmological parameters well within the allowed range of the observation and thus gives a well-motivated model of quintessence.

[19] 2303.13068

Effects of magnetic field on the evolution of energy density fluctuations

We study the effects of a static and uniform magnetic field on the evolution of energy density fluctuations present in a medium. By numerically solving the relativistic Boltzmann-Vlasov equation within the relaxation time approximation, we explicitly show that magnetic field can affect the characteristics of energy density fluctuations at the timescale the system achieves local thermodynamic equilibrium. A detailed momentum mode analysis of fluctuations reveals that magnetic field increases the damping of mode oscillations, especially for the low momentum modes. This leads to a reduction in the ultraviolet (high momentum) cutoff of fluctuations and also slows down the dissipation of relatively low momentum fluctuation modes. We discuss the phenomenological implications of our study on various sources of fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

[20] 2303.13425

A flashing beacon in axion inflation: recurring bursts of gravitational waves in the strong backreaction regime

The coupling between a pseudo-scalar inflaton and a gauge field leads to an amount of additional density perturbations and gravitational waves (GWs) that is strongly sensitive to the inflaton speed. This naturally results in enhanced GWs at (relatively) small scales that exited the horizon well after the CMB ones, and that can be probed by a variety of GW observatories (from pulsar timing arrays, to astrometry, to space-borne and ground-based interferometers). This production occurs in a regime in which the gauge field significantly backreacts on the inflaton motion. Contrary to earlier assumptions, it has been recently shown that this regime is characterized by an oscillatory behavior of the inflaton speed, with a period of~${\rm O } \left( 5 \right)$ e-folds. Bursts of GWs are produced at the maxima of the speed, imprinting nearly periodic bumps in the frequency-dependent spectrum of GWs produced during inflation. This can potentially generate correlated peaks appearing in the same or in different GWs experiments.