New articles on High Energy Physics - Phenomenology

[1] 2106.09031

An effective field theory of the Delta-resonance

We present an effective field theory of the $\Delta$-resonance as an interacting Weinberg's $(3/2,0)\oplus (0,3/2)$ field in the multi-spinor formalism. We derive its interactions with nucleons $N$, pions $\pi$ and photons $\gamma$, and compute the $\Delta$-resonance cross-sections in pion-nucleon scattering and pion photo-production. The theory contains only the physical spin-3/2 degrees of freedom. Thus, it is intrinsically consistent at the Hamiltonian level and, unlike the commonly used Rarita-Schwinger framework, does not require any additional ad hoc manipulation of couplings or propagators. The symmetries of hadronic physics select a unique operator for each coupling $N\pi\Delta$ and $\gamma\pi\Delta$. The proposed framework can be extended to also describe other higher-spin hadronic resonances.

[2] 2106.09033

Stellar Shocks From Dark Matter

Macroscopic dark matter is almost unconstrained over a wide "asteroid-like" mass range, where it could scatter on baryonic matter with geometric cross section. We show that when such an object travels through a star, it produces shock waves which reach the stellar surface, leading to a distinctive transient optical, UV and X-ray emission. This signature can be searched for on a variety of stellar types and locations. In a dense globular cluster, such events occur far more often than flare backgrounds, and an existing UV telescope could probe orders of magnitude in dark matter mass in one week of dedicated observation.

[3] 2106.09038

Vacuum stability with radiative Yukawa couplings

We explore the electroweak vacuum stability in the framework of a recently proposed paradigm for the origin of Yukawa couplings. These arise as low energy effective couplings radiatively generated by portal interactions with a hidden, or dark, sector at the one-loop level. Possible tree-level Yukawa couplings are forbidden by a new underlying symmetry, assumed to be spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation value of a new scalar field above the electroweak scale. As a consequence, the top Yukawa interaction ceases to behave as a local operator at energies above the new sector scale and, therefore, cannot contribute to the running of the quartic Higgs coupling at higher energies. By studying two complementary scenarios, we explicitly show that the framework can achieve the stability of the electroweak vacuum without particular tuning of parameters. The proposed mechanism requires the existence of a dark sector and new portal messenger scalar interactions that, connecting the Standard Model to the dark sector fields, could be tested at the LHC and future collider experiments.

[4] 2106.09041

Cannibalism's lingering imprint on the matter power spectrum

The early universe may have contained internally thermalized dark sectors that were decoupled from the Standard Model. In such scenarios, the relic dark thermal bath, composed of the lightest particle in the dark sector, can give rise to an epoch of early matter domination prior to Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, which has a potentially observable impact on the smallest dark matter structures. This lightest dark particle can easily and generically have number-changing self-interactions that give rise to "cannibal'' behavior. We consider cosmologies where an initially sub-dominant cannibal species comes to temporarily drive the expansion of the universe, and we provide a simple map between the particle properties of the cannibal species and the key features of the enhanced dark matter perturbation growth in such cosmologies. We further demonstrate that cannibal self-interactions can determine the small-scale cutoff in the matter power spectrum even when the cannibal self-interactions freeze out prior to cannibal domination.

[5] 2106.09108

Super-Soft Strong CP Violation

Solutions of the Strong CP Problem based on the spontaneous breaking of CP must feature a non-generic structure and simultaneously explain a coincidence between a priori unrelated CP-even and CP-odd mass scales. We show that these properties can emerge from gauge invariance and a CP-conserving, but otherwise generic, physics at the Planck scale. In our scenarios no fundamental scalar is introduced beyond the Standard Model Higgs doublet, and CP is broken at naturally small scales by a confining non-abelian dynamics. This approach is remarkably predictive: robustness against uncontrollable UV corrections to the QCD topological angle requires one or more families of vector-like quarks below a few $10$'s of TeV, hence potentially accessible at colliders. Because CP violation is communicated to the SM at these super-soft scales, our solution of the Strong CP Problem is not spoiled by the presence of heavy new states motivated by other puzzles in physics beyond the Standard Model. In addition, these models generically predict a dark sector that may lead to interesting cosmological signatures.

[6] 2106.09185

Dispersion relation analysis of the radiative corrections to $g_A$ in the neutron $β$-decay

We present the first and complete dispersion relation analysis of the inner radiative corrections to the axial coupling constant $g_A$ in the neutron $\beta$-decay. Using experimental inputs from the elastic form factors and the spin-dependent structure function $g_1$, we determine the contribution from the $\gamma W$-box diagram to a precision better than $10^{-4}$. Our calculation indicates that the inner radiative corrections to the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller matrix element in the neutron $\beta$-decay are almost identical, i.e. the ratio $\lambda=g_A/g_V$ is almost unrenormalized. With this result, we predict the bare axial coupling constant to be {$\mathring{g}_A=-1.2754(13)_\mathrm{exp}(2)_\mathrm{RC}$} based on the PDG average $\lambda=-1.2756(13)$

[7] 2106.09210

Comagnetometer probes of dark matter and new physics

We discuss the use of comagnetometry in studying new physics that couples to fermionic spin. Modern comagnetometry is -- in absolute energy units -- the most sensitive experimental technique for measuring the energy difference between quantum states, reaching sensitivities in the $10^{-26}\,$eV range. The technique suppresses the magnetic interactions of the spins, making searches for non-standard-model interactions possible. Many implementations have been developed and optimized for various uses. New physics scenarios which can be probed with comagnetometers include: EDMs, violations of Lorentz invariance, Goldstone bosons of new high-energy symmetries, CP-violating long-range forces, and axionic dark matter. We consider the prospects for improvements in the technique, and show -- based purely on signal-to-noise ratio with existing technology -- that there is room for several orders of magnitude in further improvement. We also evaluate several sources of systematic error and instability that may limit improvements.

[8] 2106.09381

Recent highlights from GENIE v3

The release of GENIE v3.0.0 was a major milestone in the long history of the GENIE project, delivering several alternative comprehensive neutrino interaction models, improved charged-lepton scattering simulations, a range of beyond the Standard Model simulation capabilities, improved experimental interfaces, expanded core framework capabilities, and advanced new frameworks for the global analysis of neutrino scattering data and tuning of neutrino interaction models. Steady progress continued following the release of GENIE v3.0.0. New tools and a large number of new physics models, comprehensive model configurations, and tunes have been made publicly available and planned for release in v3.2.0. This article highlights some of the most recent technical and physics developments in the GENIE v3 series.

[9] 2106.09417

Inclusive Production of Heavy Quarkonia in pNRQCD

We develop a formalism for computing inclusive production cross sections of heavy quarkonia based on the nonrelativistic QCD and the potential nonrelativistic QCD effective field theories. Our formalism applies to strongly coupled quarkonia, which include excited charmonium and bottomonium states. Analogously to heavy quarkonium decay processes, we express nonrelativistic QCD long-distance matrix elements in terms of quarkonium wavefunctions at the origin and universal gluonic correlators. Our expressions for the long-distance matrix elements are valid up to corrections of order $1/N_c^2$. These expressions enhance the predictive power of the nonrelativistic effective field theory approach to inclusive production processes by reducing the number of nonperturbative unknowns, and make possible first-principle determinations of long-distance matrix elements once the gluonic correlators are known. Based on this formalism, we compute the production cross sections of $P$-wave charmonia and bottomonia at the LHC, and find good agreement with measurements.

[10] 2106.09439

Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering in Improved Holographic QCD

We present our current progress in the holographic computation of the scattering amplitude for Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) processe, as a function of the Mandelstam invariant $t$. We show that it is possible to describe simultaneously the differential cross-section and total cross-section of DVCS data with a single holographic model for the pomeron. Using data from H1-ZEUS we obtained a $\chi^2_{dof} \sim 1.5$ for the best fit to the data.

[11] 2106.09463

Lepton mass effects in exclusive semileptonic $B_c$-meson decays

In this work, we discuss exclusive semileptonic $B_c$-meson decays: $B_c\to \eta_c(J/\psi)l\nu$ and $B_c\to D(D^*)l\nu$ in the framework of the relativistic independent quark(RIQ) model based on an average flavor independent confining potential in equally mixed scalar-vector harmonic form. We calculate the invariant form factors representing decay amplitudes from the overlapping integrals of meson wave functions derivable in the RIQ model. To evaluate the lepton mass effects in the semileptonic decays, we first study the $q^2$-dependence of the form factors in the accessible kinematic range of $q^2$ involved in the decay process in its $e^-$ and $\tau^-$ mode separately. Similar studies on helicity amplitudes, $q^2-$spectra for different helicity contributions, and total $q^2$-spectra for each decay process are carried out separately in their $e^-$ and $\tau^-$ modes. We predict the decay rates/ branching fractions, forward-backward asymmetry, and the asymmetry parameter in reasonable agreement with other model predictions, which can hopefully be tested in future experiments at the Tevatron and LHC. We also predict the observable $'R'$ which corresponds to the ratio of branching fractions for the decay process in its $e^-$ mode to its corresponding value in the $\tau^-$ mode. Our results are comparable to another standard model(SM) predictions which highlight the failure of the lepton flavor universality hinting at new physics beyond SM for the explanation of the observed deviation of observable $'R'$ value from the corresponding SM predictions.

[12] 2106.09474

Optimising simulations for diphoton production at hadron colliders using amplitude neural networks

Machine learning technology has the potential to dramatically optimise event generation and simulations. We continue to investigate the use of neural networks to approximate matrix elements for high-multiplicity scattering processes. We focus on the case of loop-induced diphoton production through gluon fusion and develop a realistic simulation method that can be applied to hadron collider observables. Neural networks are trained using the one-loop amplitudes implemented in the NJet C++ library and interfaced to the Sherpa Monte Carlo event generator where we perform a detailed study for $2\to3$ and $2\to4$ scattering problems. We also consider how the trained networks perform when varying the kinematic cuts effecting the phase space and the reliability of the neural network simulations.

[13] 2106.09562

A Model of Gravitational Leptogenesis

Gravitational leptogenesis is an elegant way of explaining the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe. This paper is a review of the recently proposed mechanism of radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis (RIGL), in which loop effects in QFT in curved spacetime automatically generate an asymmetry between leptons and antileptons in thermal quasi-equilibrium in the early universe. The mechanism is illustrated in a simple see-saw BSM model of neutrinos, where the lepton-number violating interactions required by the Sakharov conditions are mediated by right-handed neutrinos with Majorana masses of O(10^10) GeV. The Boltzmann equations are extended to include new, loop-induced gravitational effects and solved to describe the evolution of the lepton number asymmetry in the early universe. With natural choices of neutrino parameters, the RIGL mechanism is able to generate the observed baryon-to-photon ratio in the universe today.

[14] 2106.09598

Analytical Green's Functions for Continuum Spectra

Green's functions with continuum spectra are a way of avoiding the strong bounds on new physics from the absence of new narrow resonances in experimental data. We model such a situation with a five-dimensional model with two branes along the extra dimension $z$, the ultraviolet (UV) and the infrared (IR) one, such that the metric between the UV and the IR brane is AdS$_5$, thus solving the hierarchy problem, and beyond the IR brane the metric is that of a linear dilaton model, which extends to $z\to\infty$. This simplified metric, which can be considered as an approximation of a more complicated (and smooth) one, leads to analytical Green's functions (with a mass gap $m_g = \rho/2$ and a continuum for $s > m_g^2$) which could then be easily incorporated in the experimental codes. The theory contains Standard Model gauge bosons in the bulk with Neumann boundary conditions in the UV brane. To cope with electroweak observables the theory is also endowed with an extra custodial gauge symmetry in the bulk, with gauge bosons with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the UV brane, and without zero (massless) modes. All Green's functions have analytical expressions and exhibit poles in the second Riemann sheet of the complex plane at $s=M_n^2-i M_n\Gamma_n$, denoting a discrete (infinite) set of broad resonances with masses $(M_n)$ and widths $(\Gamma_n)$. For gauge bosons with Neumann or Dirichlet boundary conditions, the mass and widths of resonances satisfy the (approximate) equation $s=-\mathcal W_n^2[\pm (1+i)/4]\rho^2$, where $\mathcal W_n$ is the $n$-th branch of the Lambert function.

[15] 2106.09610

The Forward-Backward Asymmetry in $B\to D^{*}\ellν$: One more hint for Scalar Leptoquarks?

In recent years, intriguing hints for the violation of lepton flavour universality have accumulated. In particular, deviations from the Standard-Model (SM) predictions in $B\to D^{(*)}\tau\nu/B\to D^{(*)}\ell\nu$, in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon and {in} $b\to s\ell^+\ell^-$ data were observed with a significance of $\!>3\,\sigma$, $>\!4\,\sigma$ and $>\!5\,\sigma$, respectively. Furthermore, in a recent re-analysis of 2018 Belle data, it was found that the forward-backward asymmetry of $\bar B \to D^{*}\mu\bar \nu$ vs $\bar B\to D^{*}e\bar \nu$ disagrees with the SM prediction by $\approx\!\!4\,\sigma$ which would be an additional sign of lepton flavour universality violation. Since one naturally expects muon-related new effects to also emerge at some point in $b \to c\mu\nu$ decays, the above putative deviation might share a common origin with the other flavour anomalies. We show that a tensor operator is necessary to significantly improve the global fit w.r.t. the SM, which can only be induced (at tree-level in a renormalizable model) by a scalar leptoquark. Interestingly, among the two possible representations, the $SU(2)_L$-singlet $S_1$ and the doublet $S_2$, which can both also account for the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, only $S_1$ can provide a good fit as it naturally gives rise to the scenario $C_{VL}, C_{SL}=-4 C_T$. While the constraints from (differences of) other angular observables prefer a smaller value $\Delta A_{\rm FB}$, this scenario is significantly preferred ($\approx 3 \sigma$) over the SM hypothesis and compatible with constraints such as $B\to K^*\nu\nu$ and electroweak precision bounds.

[16] 2106.09690

Observing $t\bar{t}Z$ spin correlations at the LHC

Spin correlations in the production of top-antitop quark ($t\bar{t}$) pairs at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are an experimentally verified prediction of the Standard Model. In this paper, we compute the full spin density matrix for $t\bar{t}Z$ production at next-to-leading order precision in QCD, for center-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV. We find that the additional emission of a $Z$ boson leads to significantly different spin correlations with respect to the $t\bar{t}$ case, and induces small longitudinal polarisations of the top quarks. We further propose an analysis strategy that could lead to the observation of spin correlations in $t\bar{t}Z$ events at the end of Run 3 of the LHC, or possibly earlier by combining the ATLAS and CMS datasets. In addition, we show that the pure angular information contained in the spin density matrix provides novel constraints on the dimension-6 effective field theory (EFT) operators relevant to the $t$-$Z$ interaction, without any reference to the total production rates.

[17] 2106.08879

A sufficient condition for counterexamples to the Nelson-Seiberg theorem

Several counterexample models to the Nelson-Seiberg theorem have been discovered in previous literature, with generic superpotentials respecting the R-symmetry and non-generic R-charge assignment for chiral fields. This work present a sufficient condition for such counterexample models: The number of R-charge $2$ fields, which is greater than the number of R-charge $0$ fields, must be less than or equal to the number of R-charge $0$ fields plus the number of independent field pairs with opposite R-charges and satisfying some extra requirements. We give a correct count of such field pairs when there are multiple field pairs with degenerated R-charges. These models give supersymmetric vacua with spontaneous R-symmetry breaking, thus are counterexamples to both the Nelson-Seiberg theorem and its extensions.

[18] 2106.09029

Polarization tensor of magnetized quark-gluon plasma at nonzero baryon density

We derive a general expression for the absorptive part of the one-loop photon polarization tensor in a strongly magnetized quark-gluon plasma at nonzero baryon chemical potential. To demonstrate the application of the main result in the context of heavy-ion collisions, we study the effect of a nonzero baryon chemical potential on the photon emission rate. The rate and the ellipticity of photon emission are studied numerically as a function the transverse momentum (energy) for several values of temperature and chemical potential. When the chemical potential is small compared to the temperature, the rates of the quark and antiquark splitting processes (i.e., $q\rightarrow q +\gamma$ and $\bar{q}\rightarrow \bar{q} +\gamma$, respectively) are approximately the same. However, the quark splitting gradually becomes the dominant process with increasing the chemical potential. We also find that increasing the chemical potential leads to a growing total photon production rate but has only a small effect on the ellipticity of photon emission. The quark-antiquark annihilation ($q+\bar{q}\rightarrow \gamma$) also contributes to the photon production, but its contribution remains relatively small for a wide range of temperatures and chemical potentials investigated.

[19] 2106.09032

Gauge protection in non-Abelian lattice gauge theories

Protection of gauge invariance in experimental realizations of lattice gauge theories based on energy-penalty schemes has recently stimulated impressive efforts both theoretically and in setups of quantum synthetic matter. A major challenge is the reliability of such schemes in non-Abelian gauge theories where local conservation laws do not commute. Here, we show through exact diagonalization that non-Abelian gauge invariance can be reliably controlled using gauge-protection terms that energetically stabilize the target gauge sector in Hilbert space, suppressing gauge violations due to unitary gauge-breaking errors. We present analytic arguments that predict a volume-independent protection strength $V$, which when sufficiently large leads to the emergence of an \textit{adjusted} gauge theory with the same local gauge symmetry up to least a timescale $\propto\sqrt{V/V_0^3}$. Thereafter, a \textit{renormalized} gauge theory dominates up to a timescale $\propto\exp(V/V_0)/V_0$ with $V_0$ a volume-independent energy factor, similar to the case of faulty Abelian gauge theories. Moreover, we show for certain experimentally relevant errors that single-body protection terms robustly suppress gauge violations up to all accessible evolution times in exact diagonalization, and demonstrate that the adjusted gauge theory emerges in this case as well. These single-body protection terms can be readily implemented with fewer engineering requirements than the ideal gauge theory itself in current ultracold-atom setups and NISQ devices.

[20] 2106.09044

Spherically symmetric exact vacuum solutions in Einstein-aether theory

We study spherically symmetric spacetimes in Einstein-aether theory in three different coordinate systems, the isotropic, Painlev\`e-Gullstrand, and Schwarzschild coordinates, and present both time-dependent and time-independent exact vacuum solutions. In particular, in the isotropic coordinates we find a class of exact static solutions characterized by a single parameter $c_{14}$ in closed forms, which satisfies all the current observational constraints of the theory, and reduces to the Schwarzschild vacuum black hole solution in the decoupling limit ($c_{14} = 0$). However, as long as $c_{14} \not= 0$, a marginally trapped throat with a finite non-zero radius always exists, and in one side of it the spacetime is asymptotically flat, while in the other side the spacetime becomes singular within a finite proper distance from the throat, although the geometric area is infinitely large at the singularity. Moreover, the singularity is a strong and spacetime curvature singularity, at which both of the Ricci and Kretschmann scalars become infinitely large.

[21] 2106.09080

Diquark properties from full QCD lattice simulations

We study diquarks on the lattice in the background of a static quark, in a gauge-invariant formalism with quark masses down to almost physical $m_\pi$. We determine mass differences between diquark channels as well as diquark-quark mass differences. The lightest and next-to-lightest diquarks have ''good'' scalar, $\bar{3}_F$, $\bar{3}_c$, $J^P=0^+$, and ''bad'' axial vector, $6_F$, $\bar{3}_c$, $J^P=1^+$, quantum numbers, and a bad-good mass difference for $ud$ flavors, $198(4)~\rm{MeV}$, in excellent agreement with phenomenological determinations. Quark-quark attraction is found only in the ''good'' diquark channel. We extract a corresponding diquark size of $\sim 0.6~\rm{fm}$ and perform a first exploration of the ''good'' diquark shape, which is shown to be spherical. Our results provide quantitative support for modeling the low-lying baryon spectrum using good light diquark effective degrees of freedom.

[22] 2106.09087

Hidden Sectors from Multiple Line Bundles for the $B-L$ MSSM

We give a formalism for constructing hidden sector bundles as extensions of sums of line bundles in heterotic $M$-theory. Although this construction is generic, we present it within the context of the specific Schoen threefold that leads to the physically realistic $B-L$ MSSM model. We discuss the embedding of the line bundles, the existence of the extension bundle, and a number of necessary conditions for the resulting bundle to be slope-stable and thus $N=1$ supersymmetric. An explicit example is presented, where two line bundles are embedded into the $SU(3)$ factor of the $E_{6} \times SU(3)$ maximal subgroup of the hidden sector $E_{8}$ gauge group, and then enhanced to a non-Abelian $SU(3)$ bundle by extension. For this example, there are in fact six inequivalent extension branches, significantly generalizing that space of solutions compared with hidden sectors constructed from a single line bundle.

[23] 2106.09124

Continuous evolution of electromagnetic field in heavy-ion collisions

In heavy-ion collisions the electromagnetic field exists before the hot nuclear matter emergence. Requiring the field continuity we compute it in the central rapidity region by taking into account the electromagnetic response of the Quark Gluon Plasma. We show that the electromagnetic field is nearly time-independent from about 1~fm/c after the collision until the freezeout.

[24] 2106.09224

Search for the $η_{c2}(1D)$ in $e^+e^-\toγη_{c2}(1D)$ at $\sqrt{s}$ near 10.6 GeV at Belle

For the first time we search for the $\eta_{c2}(1D)$ in $e^+e^-\to\gamma\eta_{c2}(1D)$ at $\sqrt{s}$ = 10.52, 10.58, and 10.867 GeV with data samples of 89.5 fb$^{-1}$, 711 fb$^{-1}$, and 121.4 fb$^{-1}$, respectively, accumulated with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy electron-positron collider. No significant $\eta_{c2}(1D)$ signal is observed in the mass range between 3.8 and 3.88 GeV/$c^2$. The upper limit at 90\% confidence level on the product of the Born cross section for $e^+e^- \to \gamma\eta_{c2}(1D)$ and branching fraction for $\eta_{c2}(1D)\to \gamma h_c(1P)$ is determined to be $\sigma(e^+e^- \to \gamma\eta_{c2}(1D)){\cal B}(\eta_{c2}(1D)\to \gamma h_c(1P))$ $<$ 4.9 fb at $\sqrt{s}$ near 10.6 GeV.

[25] 2106.09239

Tilted Dirac cone effects and chiral symmetry breaking in a planar four-fermion model

We analyze the chiral symmetry breaking in a planar four-fermion model with non-null chemical potential, temperature and including the effect of the tilt of the Dirac cone. The system is modeled with a $(2+1)$-dimensional Gross-Neveu-like interaction model in the context of the generalized Weyl Hamiltonian and its phase structure is studied in the meanfield and large-$N$ approximations. Possible applications of the results obtained, e.g., in connection to graphene, are discussed. We also discuss the effect of an external magnetic field applied to the system, which can give rise to the appearance of the anomalous Hall effect and that is expected to arise in connection with two-dimensional Weyl and Dirac semimetals.

[26] 2106.09243

Search for the chiral magnetic effect via charge-dependent azimuthal correlations relative to spectator and participant planes in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV

The chiral magnetic effect (CME) refers to charge separation along a strong magnetic field due to imbalanced chirality of quarks in local parity and charge-parity violating domains in quantum chromodynamics. The experimental measurement of the charge separation is made difficult by the presence of a major background from elliptic azimuthal anisotropy. This background and the CME signal have different sensitivities to the spectator and participant planes, and could thus be determined by measurements with respect to these planes. We report such measurements in Au+Au collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 200 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider. It is found that the charge separation, with the flow background removed, is consistent with zero in peripheral (large impact parameter) collisions. Some indication of finite CME signals is seen with a significance of 1--3 standard deviations in mid-central (intermediate impact parameter) collisions. Significant residual background effects may, however, still be present.

[27] 2106.09278

Precision Higgs Measurements at the 250 GeV ILC

The plan for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is now being prepared as a staged design, with the first stage of 2 ${\rm ab^{-1}}$ at 250GeV and later stages achieving the full project specifications with 4 ${\rm ab^{-1}}$ at 500 GeV. The talk presents the capabilities for precision Higgs boson measurements at 250 GeV. It is shown that the 250 GeV stage of the ILC will already provide many compelling results in Higgs physics, with new measurements unavailable at the Large Hadron Collider, model-independent determinations of key parameters, and possible discrimination of a variety of scenarios for new physics.

[28] 2106.09484

Investigations of the linear and non-linear flow harmonics using the A Multi-Phase Transport model

The higher-order flow harmonics of the Fourier expansion for the azimuthal distributions of particles are anticipated to be produced by a non-linear response from the lower-order anisotropies, in addition to a linear response from the same-order anisotropies. Detailed study of these higher-order flow harmonics and their non-linear and linear components can be used to constrain the heavy-ion collisions' initial conditions and the system transport properties. The multiparticle azimuthal correlation technique is used within the A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model framework to study the linear and non-linear response to the higher-order flow harmonics, the non-linear response coefficients, and the correlations between different order flow symmetry planes for Au--Au collisions at 200~GeV. The current study shows that the AMPT model can to a good degree describe the experimental measurements and also suggest that conducting detailed measurements over a broad range of system size and beam-energy can serve as an additional constraint for accurate $\eta / \textit{s}$ extraction.

[29] 2106.09618

Some Aspects of the Tachyon Inflation with Superpotential in Confrontation with Planck2018 Data

We study the tachyon inflation in the presence of the superpotential as an inflationary potential. We study the primordial perturbations and their non-gaussian feature in the equilateral configuration. We use the Planck2018 TT, TE, EE+lowE+lensing+BK14+BAO joint data at $68\%$ CL and $95\%$ CL, to perform numerical analysis on the scalar perturbations and seek for the observational viability of the tachyon inflation with superpotential. We also check the observational viability of the model by studying the tensor part of the perturbations and comparing the results with Planck2018 TT, TE, EE+lowE+lensing+BK14+BAO+ LIGO$\&$Virgo2016 joint data at $68\%$ CL and $95\%$ CL. By studying the phase space of the model's parameters, we predict the amplitude of the equilateral non-gaussianity in this model. The reheating phase after inflation is another issue that is explored in this paper. We show that, in some ranges of the model's parameters, it is possible to have an observationally viable tachyon model with superpotential.

[30] 2106.09706

Escape from supercooling with or without bubbles: gravitational wave signatures

Quasi-conformal models are an appealing scenario that can offer naturally a strongly supercooled phase transition and a period of thermal inflation in the early Universe. A crucial aspect for the viability of these models is how the Universe escapes from the supercooled state. One possibility is that thermal inflation phase ends by nucleation and percolation of true vacuum bubbles. This route is not, however, always efficient. In such case another escape mechanism, based on the growth of quantum fluctuations of the scalar field that eventually destabilize the false vacuum, becomes relevant. We study both of these cases in detail in a simple yet representative model. We determine the duration of the thermal inflation, the curvature power spectrum generated for the scales that exit horizon during the thermal inflation, and the stochastic gravitational wave background from the phase transition. We show that these gravitational waves provide an observable signal from the thermal inflation in almost the entire parameter space of interest. Furthermore, the shape of the gravitational wave spectrum can be used to ascertain how the Universe escaped from supercooling.