In Ref. [1], a method was proposed to calculate QED corrections to hadronic self energies from lattice QCD without power-law finite-volume errors. In this paper, we extend the method to processes which occur at second-order in the weak interaction and in which there is a massless (or almost massless) leptonic propagator. We demonstrate that, in spite of the presence of the propagator of an almost massless electron, such an infinite-volume reconstruction procedure can be used to obtain the amplitude for the rare kaon decay $K^+\to\pi^+\nu\bar\nu$ from a lattice quantum chromodynamics computation with only exponentially small finite-volume corrections.

A major test of the capabilities of modern quantum simulators and NISQ devices is the reliable realization of gauge theories, which constitute a gold standard of implementational efficacy. In addition to unavoidable unitary errors, realistic experiments suffer from decoherence, which compromises gauge invariance and, therefore, the gauge theory itself. Here, we study the effect of decoherence on the quench dynamics of a lattice gauge theory. Rigorously identifying the gauge violation as a divergence measure in the gauge sectors, we find at short times that it first grows diffusively $\sim\gamma t$ due to decoherence at environment-coupling strength $\gamma$, before unitary errors at strength $\lambda$ dominate and the violation grows ballistically $\sim\lambda^2t^2$. We further introduce multiple quantum coherences in the context of gauge theories to quantify decoherence effects. Both experimentally accessible measures will be of independent interest beyond the immediate context of this work.

We present a quantum algorithm for simulation of quantum field theory in the light-front formulation and demonstrate how existing quantum devices can be used to study the structure of bound states in relativistic nuclear physics. Specifically, we apply the Variational Quantum Eigensolver algorithm to find the ground state of the light-front Hamiltonian obtained within the Basis Light-Front Quantization framework. As a demonstration, we calculate the mass, mass radius, decay constant, electromagnetic form factor, and charge radius of the pion on the IBMQ Vigo chip. We consider two implementations based on different encodings of physical states, and propose a development that may lead to quantum advantage. This is the first time that the light-front approach to quantum field theory has been used to enable simulation of a real physical system on a quantum computer.

The photoproduction of the $J/\psi$ off the proton is believed to deepen our understanding of various physics issues. On the one hand, it is proposed to provide access to the origin of the proton mass, based on the QCD multipole expansion. On the other hand, it can be employed in a study of pentaquark states. The process is usually assumed to proceed through vector-meson dominance, that is the photon couples to a $J/\psi$ which rescatters with the proton to give the $J/\psi p$ final state. In this Letter, we provide a compelling hint for and propose measurements necessary to confirm a novel production mechanism via the $\Lambda_c \bar D^{(*)}$ intermediate states. In particular, there must be cusp structures at the $\Lambda_c \bar D^{(*)}$ thresholds in the energy dependence of the $J/\psi$ photoproduction cross section. The same mechanism also implies the $J/\psi$-nucleon scattering lengths of order 1 mfm. Given this, one expects only a minor contribution of charm quarks to the nucleon mass.