New articles on High Energy Physics - Lattice

[1] 2406.06673

Instanton Density Operator in Lattice QCD from Higher Category Theory

A natural definition for instanton density operator in lattice QCD has been long desired. We show this problem is, and has to be, resolved by higher category theory. The problem is resolved by refining at a conceptual level the Yang-Mills theory on lattice, in order to recover the homotopy information in the continuum, which would have been lost if we put the theory on lattice in the traditional way. The refinement needed is a generalization -- through the lens of higher category theory -- of the familiar process of Villainization that captures winding in lattice XY model and Dirac quantization in lattice Maxwell theory. The apparent difference is that Villainization is in the end described by principal bundles, hence familiar, but more general topological operators can only be captured on the lattice by more flexible structures beyond the usual group theory and fibre bundles, hence the language of categories becomes natural and necessary. The key structure we need for our particular problem is called multiplicative bundle gerbe, based upon which we can construct suitable structures to naturally define the 2d Wess-Zumino-Witten term, 3d skyrmion density operator and 4d hedgehog defect for lattice $S^3$ (pion vacua) non-linear sigma model, and the 3d Chern-Simons term, 4d instanton density operator and 5d Yang monopole defect for lattice $SU(N)$ Yang-Mills theory. In a broader perspective, higher category theory enables us to rethink more systematically the relation between continuum quantum field theory and lattice quantum field theory. We sketch a proposal towards a general machinery that constructs the suitably refined lattice degrees of freedom for a given non-linear sigma model or gauge theory in the continuum, realizing the desired topological operators on the lattice.

[2] 2406.06877

Inclusive reactions from finite Minkowski spacetime correlation functions

The need to determine scattering amplitudes of few-hadron systems for arbitrary kinematics expands a broad set of subfields of modern-day nuclear and hadronic physics. In this work, we expand upon previous explorations on the use of real-time methods, like quantum computing or tensor networks, to determine few-body scattering amplitudes. Such calculations must be performed in a finite Minkowski spacetime, where scattering amplitudes are not well defined. Our previous work presented a conjecture of a systematically improvable estimator for scattering amplitudes constructed from finite-volume correlation functions. Here we provide further evidence that the prescription works for larger kinematic regions than previously explored as well as a broader class of scattering amplitudes. Finally, we devise a new method for estimating the order of magnitude of the error associated with finite time separations needed for such calculations. In units of the lightest mass of the theory, we find that to constrain amplitudes using real-time methods within $\mathcal{O}(10\%)$, the spacetime volumes must satisfy $mL \sim \mathcal{O}(10-10^2)$ and $ mT\sim \mathcal{O}(10^2-10^4)$.

[3] 2406.07261

Coupled-channel $J^{--}$ meson resonances from lattice QCD

We extend an earlier calculation within lattice QCD of excited light meson resonances with $J^{PC}=1^{--}, 2^{--}, 3^{--}$ at the SU(3) flavor point in the singlet representation, by considering the octet representation. In this case the resonances appear in coupled-channel amplitudes, which we determine, establishing the relative strength of pseudoscalar-pseudoscalar to pseudoscalar-vector decays. Combining the new octet results with the prior results for the singlet, we perform a plausible extrapolation to the physical quark mass, and compare to experimental $\rho^\star_J, K^\star_J, \omega^\star_J$ and $\phi^\star_J$ resonances.

[4] 2406.07442

QCD in the chiral SU(3) limit from baryon masses on Lattice QCD ensembles

The baryon masses on CLS ensembles are used to determine the LEC that characterize QCD in the flavor-SU(3) limit with vanishing up, down, and strange quark masses. Here we reevaluate some of the baryon masses on flavor-symmetric ensembles with much-improved statistical precision, in particular for the decuplet states. These additional results then lead to a more significant chiral extrapolation of the Lattice data set to its chiral SU(3) limit. Our results are based on the chiral Lagrangian with baryon octet and decuplet fields considered at the one-loop level. Finite-box and discretization effects of the Lattice data are considered systematically. While in our global fit of the data we insist on large-Nc sum rules for the LEC that enter at N3LO, all other LEC are unconstrained. In particular, we obtain values for the chiral limit of the pion decay constant and the isospin-limit of the quark-mass ratio compatible with the FLAG report.

[5] 2406.04124

Light quark mass dependence of nucleon mass to two-loop order

We investigate the nucleon self energy through the sixth chiral order in the covariant $SU(2)$ chiral perturbation theory ($\chi$PT) in the single baryon sector. The validity of the extended on-mass-shell (EOMS) renormalization scheme is explicitly verified to two-loop order, manifested by the miraculous cancellation of all nonlocal divergences and power-counting-breaking (PCB) terms that are nonanalytic in pion mass. Using the $\sigma_{\pi N}$ term determined from the latest lattice simulation to constrain some unknown higher-order low energy constants (LECs), we predict the nucleon mass in the chiral limit to be $856.6\pm 1.7$ MeV. It is found that the EOMS scheme exhibits quite satisfactory convergence behavior through ${\cal O}(q^6)$ around physical point. We also predict the pion mass dependence of the nucleon mass to the accuracy of ${\cal O}(q^6)$, which is in satisfactory agreement with the recent lattice results over a wide range of pion mass.

[6] 2406.05584

New ideas in nonperturbative QCD -- I

The recent development of the Field Correlator Method (FCM) is discussed, with applications to the most interesting areas of QCD physics obtained in the lattice data and experiment. These areas include: a) the connection of colorelectric confinement with the basic quark and gluon condensates; b) the explicit form of the colorelectric deconfinement at a growing temperature $T$; c) the theory of the colormagnetic confinement at all temperatures; d) the theory of strong decays, the theory of pdf and jets in the instantaneous formalism with confinement. We demonstrate that the FCM with instantaneous formalism and confinement (instead of the light cone formalism and pure perturbation theory) can provide the way to the theory of QCD, which helps to describe world data without phenomenological parameters.

[7] 2406.06055

The matrix model of two-color one-flavor QCD: The ultra-strong coupling regime

Using variational methods, we numerically investigate the matrix model for the two-color QCD coupled to a single quark (matrix-QCD$_{2,1}$) in the limit of ultra-strong Yang-Mills coupling ($g =\infty$). The spectrum of the model has superselection sectors labelled by baryon number $B$ and spin $J$. We study sectors with $B=0,1,2$ and $J=0,1$, which may be organized as mesons, (anti-)diquarks and (anti-)tetraquarks. For each of these sectors, we study the properties of the respective ground states in both chiral and heavy quark limits, and uncover a rich quantum phase transition (QPT) structure. We also investigate the division of the total spin between the glue and the quark and show that glue contribution is significant for several of these sectors. For the $(B,J)=(0,0)$ sector, we find that the dominant glue contribution to the ground state comes from reducible connections. Finally, in the presence of non-trivial baryon chemical potential $\mu$, we construct the phase diagram of the model. For sufficiently large $\mu$, we find that the ground state of the theory may have non-zero spin.

[8] 2406.06193

Rényi entanglement entropy of spin chain with Generative Neural Networks

We describe a method to estimate R\'enyi entanglement entropy of a spin system, which is based on the replica trick and generative neural networks with explicit probability estimation. It can be extended to any spin system or lattice field theory. We demonstrate our method on a one-dimensional quantum Ising spin chain. As the generative model, we use a hierarchy of autoregressive networks, allowing us to simulate up to 32 spins. We calculate the second R\'enyi entropy and its derivative and cross-check our results with the numerical evaluation of entropy and results available in the literature.

[9] 2406.06711

Single Particle Spectrum of Doped $\mathrm{C}_{20}\mathrm{H}_{12}$-Perylene

We present a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo study of doped perylene $\mathrm{C}_{20}\mathrm{H}_{12}$ described with the Hubbard model. Doped perylene can be used for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) or as acceptor material in organic solar cells. Therefore, central to this study is a scan over charge chemical potential. A variational basis of operators allows for the extraction of the single-particle spectrum through a mostly automatic fitting procedure. Finite chemical potential simulations suffer from a sign problem which we ameliorate through contour deformation. The on-site interaction is kept at $U/\kappa = 2$. Discretization effects are handled through a continuum limit extrapolation. Our first-principles calculation shows significant deviation from non-interacting results especially at large chemical potentials.

[10] 2406.06759

Pseudoscalar and vector tetraquarks $bb\overline{c}\overline{c}$

The pseudoscalar and vector four-quark states $bb\overline{c}\overline{c}$ are studied in the context of the QCD sum rule method. We model $T_{\mathrm{ PS}} $ and $T_{\mathrm{V}}$ as structures built of diquarks $ b^{T}C\gamma_{5}b$, $\overline{c}C\overline{c}^{T}$ and $b^{T}C\gamma _{5}b$ , $\overline{c}C\gamma_{\mu}\gamma_{5}\overline{c}^{T}$, respectively, with $ C$ being the charge conjugation matrix. The spectroscopic parameters of the tetraquarks $T_{\mathrm{PS}}$ and $T_{\mathrm{V}}$, i.e., their masses and current couplings are calculated using QCD two-point sum rule method. We evaluate the full widths of $T_{\mathrm{PS}}$ and $T_{\mathrm{V}}$ by taking into account their kinematically allowed decay channels. In the case of the pseudoscalar particle they are processes $T_{\mathrm{PS}} \to B_{c}^{-}B_{c}^{\ast -}$, $B_{c}^{-}B_{c}^{-}(1^{3}P_{0})$ and $B_{c}^{\ast -}B_{c}^{-}(1^{1}P_{1})$. The vector state $T_{\mathrm{V}}$ can dissociate to meson pairs $2 B_{c}^{-}$, $2 B_{c}^{\ast -}$ and $ B_{c}^{-}B_{c}^{-}(1^{1}P_{1})$. Partial widths of these decays are determined by the strong couplings at relevant tetraquark-meson-meson vertices, which evaluated in the context of the three-point sum rule approach. Predictions obtained for the mass and full width of the pseudoscalar $m =(13.092\pm 0.095)~\mathrm{GeV}$, $\Gamma _{\mathrm{PS} }=(63.7\pm 9.4)~\mathrm{MeV}$ and vector $\widetilde{m} =(13.15\pm 0.10)~ \mathrm{GeV}$, $\Gamma_{\mathrm{V}}=(57.5.3\pm 8.6)~\mathrm{MeV}$ tetraquarks can be useful for analyses of different four-quark resonances.

[11] 2406.06763

Cross Validation in Stochastic Analytic Continuation

Stochastic Analytic Continuation (SAC) of Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) imaginary-time correlation function data is a valuable tool in connecting many-body models to experiments. Recent developments of the SAC method have allowed for spectral functions with sharp features, e.g. narrow peaks and divergent edges, to be resolved with unprecedented fidelity. Often times, it is not known what exact sharp features are present a priori, and, due to the ill-posed nature of the analytic continuation problem, multiple spectral representations may be acceptable. In this work, we borrow from the machine learning and statistics literature and implement a cross validation technique to provide an unbiased method to identify the most likely spectrum. We show examples using imaginary-time data generated by QMC simulations and synthetic data generated from artificial spectra. Our procedure, which can be considered a form of "model selection," can be applied to a variety of numerical analytic continuation methods, beyond just SAC.

[12] 2406.06875

Random Disks of Constant Curvature: the Lattice Story

We lay the groundwork for a UV-complete formulation of the Euclidean Jackiw-Teitelboim two-dimensional models of quantum gravity when the boundary lengths are finite, emphasizing the discretized approach. The picture that emerges is qualitatively new. For the disk topology, the problem reduces to counting so-called self-overlapping curves, that are closed loops that bound a distorted disk, with an appropriate multiplicity. We build a matrix model that does the correct counting. The theories in negative, zero and positive curvatures have the same UV description but drastically different macroscopic properties. The Schwarzian theory emerges in the limit of very large and negative cosmological constant in the negative curvature model, as an effective theory valid on distance scales much larger than the curvature length scale. In positive curvature, we argue that large geometries are ubiquitous and that the theory exists only for positive cosmological constant. Our discussion is pedagogical and includes a review of several relevant topics.

[13] 2406.07059

Constraining $ν$SMEFT coefficients: the case of the extra $\text{U}(1)^\prime$

We study the constraints on low-energy coefficients of the $\nu$SMEFT generalization of the Standard Model effective theory in the simple case of a $\text{U}(1)^\prime$ enlargement of the Standard Model gauge group. In particular, we analyse the constraints imposed by the requirement that the extended theory remains free of gauge anomalies. We present the cases of explicit realisations, showing the obtained correlations among the coefficients of $d=6$ operators.

[14] 2406.07447

Calculating the two-photon exchange contribution to $K_L\rightarrowμ^+μ^-$ decay

We present a theoretical framework within which both the real and imaginary parts of the complex, two-photon exchange amplitude contributing to $K_L\rightarrow\mu^+\mu^-$ decay can be calculated using lattice QCD. The real part of this two-photon amplitude is of approximately the same size as that coming from a second-order weak strangeness-changing neutral-current process. Thus a test of the standard model prediction for this second-order weak process depends on an accurate result of this two-photon amplitude. A limiting factor of our proposed method comes from low-energy three-particle $\pi\pi\gamma$ states. The contribution from these states will be significantly distorted by the finite volume of our calculation -- a distortion for which there is no available correction. However, a simple estimate of the contribution of these three-particle states suggests their contribution to be at most a few percent allowing their neglect in a lattice calculation with a 10% target accuracy.