New articles on High Energy Physics - Experiment

[1] 2406.13806

First detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering on germanium

We report the first detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS) on germanium, measured at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The Ge-Mini detector of the COHERENT collaboration employs large-mass, low-noise, high-purity germanium spectrometers, enabling excellent energy resolution, and an analysis threshold of 1.5 keV electron-equivalent ionization energy. We observe a on-beam excess of 20.6$_{+7.1}^{-6.3}$ counts with a total exposure of 10.22 GWhkg and we reject the no-CEvNS hypothesis with 3.9 sigma significance. The result agrees with the predicted standard model of particle physics signal rate within 2 sigma.

[2] 2406.14121

First Demonstration of a Combined Light and Charge Pixel Readout on the Anode Plane of a LArTPC

The novel SoLAr concept aims to extend sensitivities of liquid-argon neutrino detectors down to the MeV scale for next-generation detectors. SoLAr plans to accomplish this with a liquid-argon time projection chamber that employs an anode plane with dual charge and light readout, which enables precision matching of light and charge signals for data acquisition and reconstruction purposes. We present the results of a first demonstration of the SoLAr detector concept with a small-scale prototype detector integrating a pixel-based charge readout and silicon photomultipliers on a shared printed circuit board. We discuss the design of the prototype, and its operation and performance, highlighting the capability of such a detector design.

[3] 2406.14409

Measurement of the polarizations of prompt and non-prompt J/$ψ$ and $ψ$(2S) mesons produced in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

The polarizations of prompt and non-prompt J$/\psi$ and $\psi$(2S) mesons are measured in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV, using data samples collected by the CMS experiment in 2017 and 2018, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 103.3 fb$^{-1}$. Based on the analysis of the dimuon decay angular distributions in the helicity frame, the polar anisotropy, $\lambda_\theta$, is measured as a function of the transverse momentum, $p_\mathrm{T}$, of the charmonium states, in the 25-120 and 20-100 GeV ranges for the J$/\psi$ and $\psi$(2S), respectively. The non-prompt polarizations agree with predictions based on the hypothesis that, for $p_\mathrm{T}$ $\gtrsim$ 25 GeV, the non-prompt J$/\psi$ and $\psi$(2S) are predominantly produced in two-body B meson decays. The prompt results clearly exclude strong transverse polarizations, even for $p_\mathrm{T}$ exceeding 30 times the J$/\psi$ mass, where $\lambda_\theta$ tends to an asymptotic value around 0.3. Taken together with previous measurements, by CMS and LHCb at $\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, the prompt polarizations show a significant variation with $p_\mathrm{T}$, at low $p_\mathrm{T}$.

[4] 2406.12869

Graph Neural Network-Based Pipeline for Track Finding in the Velo at LHCb

Over the next decade, increases in instantaneous luminosity and detector granularity will amplify the amount of data that has to be analysed by high-energy physics experiments, whether in real time or offline, by an order of magnitude. The reconstruction of charged particle tracks, which has always been a crucial element of offline data processing pipelines, must increasingly be deployed from the very first stages of the real time processing to enable experiments to achieve their physics goals. Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have received a great deal of attention in the community because their computational complexity scales nearly linearly with the number of hits in the detector, unlike conventional algorithms which often scale quadratically or worse. This paper presents ETX4VELO, a GNN-based track-finding pipeline tailored for the Run 3 LHCb experiment's Vertex Locator, in the context of LHCb's fully GPU-based first-level trigger system, Allen. Currently implemented in Python, ETX4VELO offers the ability to reconstruct tracks with shared hits using a novel triplet-based method. When benchmarked against the traditional track-finding algorithm in Allen, this GNN-based approach not only matches but occasionally surpasses its physics performance. In particular, the fraction of fake tracks is reduced from over 2\% to below 1\% and the efficiency to reconstruct electrons is improved. While achieving comparable physics performance is a milestone, the immediate priority remains implementing ETX4VELO in Allen in order to determine and optimise its throughput, to meet the demands of this high-rate environment.

[5] 2406.12873

Evidence for polyimide redeposition and possible correlation with sparks in Gas Electron Multipliers working in CF$_4$ mixtures

Research on aging processes of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) is important to obtain insights on how to increase detector's longevity, stability and performance, as highlighted in the latest developments roadmap by the European Council of Future Accelerators (ECFA). In this work, through the analysis of the molecular content on the surface of a used GEM, we provide evidences for polyimide redeposition as a source of organic material contributing to the formation of insulating layers on the electrodes, which eventually lead to sparks and detector failure. Furthermore, we show that chromium, used to promote adhesion between copper and polyimide, in the device undergoes a diffusion process, effectively blurring the layered structure. We demonstrate the significance of surface-sensitive chemical analysis to investigate the aging process of gaseous detectors and our results reveal the necessity of standardization and more stringent study protocols.

[6] 2406.12874

The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the LZ Calibration Systems

LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) is a tonne-scale experiment searching for direct dark matter interactions and other rare events. It is located at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, USA. The core of the LZ detector is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber (TPC), designed with the primary goal of detecting Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their induced low energy nuclear recoils. Surrounding the TPC, two veto detectors immersed in an ultra-pure water tank enable reducing background events to enhance the discovery potential. Intricate calibration systems are purposely designed to precisely understand the responses of these three detector volumes to various types of particle interactions and to demonstrate LZ's ability to discriminate between signals and backgrounds. In this paper, we present a comprehensive discussion of the key features, requirements, and performance of the LZ calibration systems, which play a crucial role in enabling LZ's WIMP-search and its broad science program. The thorough description of these calibration systems, with an emphasis on their novel aspects, is valuable for future calibration efforts in direct dark matter and other rare-event search experiments.

[7] 2406.12875

Machine learning evaluation in the Global Event Processor FPGA for the ATLAS trigger upgrade

The Global Event Processor (GEP) FPGA is an area-constrained, performance-critical element of the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) ATLAS experiment. It needs to very quickly determine which small fraction of detected events should be retained for further processing, and which other events will be discarded. This system involves a large number of individual processing tasks, brought together within the overall Algorithm Processing Platform (APP), to make filtering decisions at an overall latency of no more than 8ms. Currently, such filtering tasks are hand-coded implementations of standard deterministic signal processing tasks. In this paper we present methods to automatically create machine learning based algorithms for use within the APP framework, and demonstrate several successful such deployments. We leverage existing machine learning to FPGA flows such as hls4ml and fwX to significantly reduce the complexity of algorithm design. These have resulted in implementations of various machine learning algorithms with latencies of 1.2us and less than 5% resource utilization on an Xilinx XCVU9P FPGA. Finally, we implement these algorithms into the GEP system and present their actual performance. Our work shows the potential of using machine learning in the GEP for high-energy physics applications. This can significantly improve the performance of the trigger system and enable the ATLAS experiment to collect more data and make more discoveries. The architecture and approach presented in this paper can also be applied to other applications that require real-time processing of large volumes of data.

[8] 2406.12877

Design of a SiPM-on-Tile ZDC for the future EIC and its Performance with Graph Neural Networks

We present a design for a high-granularity zero-degree calorimeter (ZDC) for the upcoming Electron-Ion Collider (EIC). The design uses SiPM-on-tile technology and features a novel staggered-layer arrangement that improves spatial resolution. To fully leverage the design's high granularity and non-trivial geometry, we employ graph neural networks (GNNs) for energy and angle regression as well as signal classification. The GNN-boosted performance metrics meet, and in some cases, significantly surpass the requirements set in the EIC Yellow Report, laying the groundwork for enhanced measurements that will facilitate a wide physics program. Our studies show that GNNs can significantly enhance the performance of high-granularity CALICE-style calorimeters by automating and optimizing the software compensation algorithms required for these systems. This improvement holds true even in the case of complicated geometries that pose challenges for image-based AI/ML methods.

[9] 2406.12878

Beam test results of the prototype of the multi wire drift chamber for the CSR external-target experiment

The half-size prototype of the multi wire drift chamber (MWDC) for the cooling storage ring (CSR) external-target experiment (CEE) was assembled and tested in 350 MeV/u Kr+Fe reactions on the heavy ion research facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The prototype consists of 6 sense layers, where the sense wires are stretched in three directions X, U and V, meeting $0^\circ$, $30^\circ$ and $-30^\circ$ with respect to the vertical axis, respectively. The sensitive area of the prototype is $76 {\rm cm} \times 76 {\rm cm}$. The amplified and shaped signals from the anode wires are digitized in a serial capacity array. Being operated with 1500 V high voltage on the anode wires, the efficiency for each layer is beyond 95\%. The tracking residual is about $301 \pm 2 \rm \mu m$. The performance meets the requirements of CEE.

[10] 2406.12879

Bayesian Approach to Particles Identification in the MPD Experimen

Identification of particles generated by ion collisions in the NICA collider is one of the basic functions of the Multipurpose Detector (MPD). The main means of identification in MPD are the time-of-flight system (TOF) and the time-projection chamber (TPC). The article considers the optimization of the algorithms of particles identification by these systems. Under certain conditions, the use of the statistical Bayesian approach has made it possible to achieve an optimal ratio of the efficiency of particle identification and contamination by incorrectly defined particles.

[11] 2406.12880

Technical design report for the CODEX-$β$ demonstrator

The CODEX-$\beta$ apparatus is a demonstrator for the proposed future CODEX-b experiment, a long-lived-particle detector foreseen for operation at IP8 during HL-LHC data-taking. The demonstrator project, intended to collect data in 2025, is described, with a particular focus on the design, construction, and installation of the new apparatus.

[12] 2406.12898

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Generative Models in Calorimeter Shower Simulation

The pursuit of understanding fundamental particle interactions has reached unparalleled precision levels. Particle physics detectors play a crucial role in generating low-level object signatures that encode collision physics. However, simulating these particle collisions is a demanding task in terms of memory and computation which will be exasperated with larger data volumes, more complex detectors, and a higher pileup environment in the High-Luminosity LHC. The introduction of "Fast Simulation" has been pivotal in overcoming computational bottlenecks. The use of deep-generative models has sparked a surge of interest in surrogate modeling for detector simulations, generating particle showers that closely resemble the observed data. Nonetheless, there is a pressing need for a comprehensive evaluation of their performance using a standardized set of metrics. In this study, we conducted a rigorous evaluation of three generative models using standard datasets and a diverse set of metrics derived from physics, computer vision, and statistics. Furthermore, we explored the impact of using full versus mixed precision modes during inference. Our evaluation revealed that the CaloDiffusion and CaloScore generative models demonstrate the most accurate simulation of particle showers, yet there remains substantial room for improvement. Our findings identified areas where the evaluated models fell short in accurately replicating Geant4 data.

[13] 2406.12899

Structural design of the acrylic vessel for the Jinping Neutrino Experiment

The Jinping neutrino experiment is designed to have multiple purposes in the China Jinping Underground Laboratory. Following the acrylic vessel design requirements proposal, a structural scheme has been developed and optimized. Subsequently, the stability of the acrylic shell structure was calculated using finite element analysis, as well as the load-bearing capacities under various working conditions. Further, the effects of temperature changes, rope failures, and Young's modulus of the ropes on the static behavior of the structure were analyzed. The results indicated that the stress level and structural displacement of the structure scheme satisfies the design requirements, as well as the stability of the vessel under compression. Moreover, the stress and displacement of the acrylic shell satisfies the given working conditions and temperatures. The structural scheme ensures basic safety if the rope fails.

[14] 2406.12901

Interpretable machine learning approach for electron antineutrino selection in a large liquid scintillator detector

Several neutrino detectors, KamLAND, Daya Bay, Double Chooz, RENO, and the forthcoming large-scale JUNO, rely on liquid scintillator to detect reactor antineutrino interactions. In this context, inverse beta decay represents the golden channel for antineutrino detection, providing a pair of correlated events, thus a strong experimental signature to distinguish the signal from a variety of backgrounds. However, given the low cross-section of antineutrino interactions, the development of a powerful event selection algorithm becomes imperative to achieve effective discrimination between signal and backgrounds. In this study, we introduce a machine learning (ML) model to achieve this goal: a fully connected neural network as a powerful signal-background discriminator for a large liquid scintillator detector. We demonstrate, using the JUNO detector as an example, that, despite the already high efficiency of a cut-based approach, the presented ML model can further improve the overall event selection efficiency. Moreover, it allows for the retention of signal events at the detector edges that would otherwise be rejected because of the overwhelming amount of background events in that region. We also present the first interpretable analysis of the ML approach for event selection in reactor neutrino experiments. This method provides insights into the decision-making process of the model and offers valuable information for improving and updating traditional event selection approaches.

[15] 2406.12912

Burn-in Test and Thermal Performance Evaluation of Silicon Photomultipliers for the JUNO-TAO Experiment

This study evaluates more than 4,000 tiles made of Hamamatsu visual-sensitive silicon photomultipier (SiPM), each with dimensions of 5 $\times$ 5 cm$^2$, intended for the central detector of the Taishan Anti-neutrino Observatory (TAO), a satellite experiment of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) aimed at measuring the reactor anti-neutrino energy spectrum with unprecedented energy resolution. All SiPM tiles underwent a room temperature burn-in test in the dark for two weeks, while cryogenic testing analyzed the thermal dependence of parameters for some sampled SiPMs. Results from these comprehensive tests provide crucial insights into the long-term performance and stability of the 10 square meters of SiPMs operating at -50{\deg}C to detect scintillation photons in the TAO detector. Despite some anomalies awaiting further inspection, all SiPMs successfully passed the burn-in test over two weeks at room temperature, which is equivalent to 6.7 years at -50{\deg}C. Results are also used to guide optimal SiPM selection, configuration, and operation, ensuring reliability and sustainability in reactor neutrino measurements. This work also provides insights for a rapid and robust quality assessment in future experiments that employ large-scale SiPMs as detection systems.

[16] 2406.12956

Cold Darkogenesis: Dark Matter and Baryon Asymmetry in Light of the PTA Signal

We build upon the intriguing possibility that the recently reported nano-Hz gravitational wave signal by Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) experiments is sourced by a strong first-order phase transition from a nearly conformal dark sector. The phase transition has to be strongly supercooled to explain the signal amplitude, while the critical temperature has to be in the $\cal{O}$(GeV) range, as dictated by the peak frequency of the gravitational wave spectrum. However, the resulting strong supercooling exponentially dilutes away any pre-existing baryon asymmetry and dark matter, calling for a new paradigm of their productions. We then develop a mechanism of cold darkogenesis that generates a dark asymmetry during the phase transition from the textured dark $SU(2)_{\rm D}$ Higgs field. This dark asymmetry is transferred to the visible sector via neutron portal interactions, resulting in the observed baryon asymmetry. Furthermore, the mechanism naturally leads to the correct abundance of asymmetric dark matter, with self-interaction of the scale that is of the right order to solve the diversity problem in galactic rotation curves. Collider searches for mono-jets and dark matter direct detection experiments can dictate the viability of the model.

[17] 2406.12961

LO, NLO, and NNLO Parton Distributions for LHC Event Generators

We present NNPDF4.0MC, a variant of the NNPDF4.0 set of parton distributions (PDFs) at LO, NLO and NNLO, with and without inclusion of the photon PDF, suitable for use with Monte Carlo (MC) event generators, which require PDFs to satisfy additional constraints in comparison to standard PDF sets. These requirements include PDF positivity down to a low scale $Q\sim 1$ GeV, smooth extrapolation in the very small and large $x$ regions, and numerically stable results even in extreme regions of phase space for all PDFs. We compare the NNPDF4.0MC PDFs to their baseline NNPDF4.0 counterparts, and to the NNPDF2.3LO set entering the Monash tune of the Pythia8 event generator. We briefly assess the phenomenological impact of these PDFs on the cross-sections for hard and soft QCD processes at the LHC.

[18] 2406.13074

PIPPIN: Generating variable length full events from partons

This paper presents a novel approach for directly generating full events at detector-level from parton-level information, leveraging cutting-edge machine learning techniques. To address the challenge of multiplicity variations between parton and reconstructed object spaces, we employ transformers, score-based models and normalizing flows. Our method tackles the inherent complexities of the stochastic transition between these two spaces and achieves remarkably accurate results. The combination of innovative techniques and the achieved accuracy demonstrates the potential of our approach in advancing the field and opens avenues for further exploration. This research contributes to the ongoing efforts in high-energy physics and generative modelling, providing a promising direction for enhanced precision in fast detector simulation.

[19] 2406.13516

Direct neutrino-mass measurement based on 259 days of KATRIN data

The fact that neutrinos carry a non-vanishing rest mass is evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. Their absolute mass bears important relevance from particle physics to cosmology. In this work, we report on the search for the effective electron antineutrino mass with the KATRIN experiment. KATRIN performs precision spectroscopy of the tritium $\beta$-decay close to the kinematic endpoint. Based on the first five neutrino-mass measurement campaigns, we derive a best-fit value of $m_\nu^{2} = {-0.14^{+0.13}_{-0.15}}~\mathrm{eV^2}$, resulting in an upper limit of $m_\nu < {0.45}~\mathrm{eV}$ at 90 % confidence level. With six times the statistics of previous data sets, amounting to 36 million electrons collected in 259 measurement days, a substantial reduction of the background level and improved systematic uncertainties, this result tightens KATRIN's previous bound by a factor of almost two.

[20] 2406.13520

Energy dependence of particle production in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\text{NN}}}$ = 7.7-200 GeV using a multiphase transport model

In this study, we employ a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model to understand the production of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p$, $\overline{p}$, $K^{0}_{s}$, $\Lambda$, $\bar{\Lambda}$, and $\phi$ in Au + Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 7.7$, $27$, $39$, $62.4$, and $200$ GeV. We have studied the energy dependence of various bulk properties of the system such as transverse momentum ($p_T$) spectra, particle yields ($dN/dy$), mean transverse mass ($\langle m_T \rangle$), and anti-particle to particle ratios. Model calculations using both default and string melting versions of the AMPT with three distinct sets of initial conditions are compared to the data from the STAR experiment. In the case of $\pi^{\pm}$, $K^{\pm}$, $p$, and $\overline{p}$, we observe that the string melting version shows better agreement with data at higher energies, while the default version performs better at lower collision energies. However, for $K^{0}_{s}$, $\Lambda$, and $\phi$, it is observed that the default version is able to describe the data better at all energies. In addition, we have used the blast-wave model to extract the kinetic freeze-out properties, like the kinetic freeze-out temperature and the radial flow velocity. We observe that these parameters are comparable with the data.

[21] 2406.13593

Neutrino trident scattering at the LHC energy regime

The neutrino trident scattering process in neutrino - tungsten interactions at the LHC energy regime is investigated, and the cross-sections for different leptonic final states in coherent and incoherent interactions are estimated. Furthermore, the associated number of eventsat FASER$\nu$2 detector is estimated considering different predictions for the flux of incident neutrinos on the detector, based on distinct hadronic models for the particle production in $pp$ collisions at ultra-forward rapidities. Our results indicate that the observation of the neutrino trident process is, in principle, feasible at the Forward Physics Facility.

[22] 2406.13638

XENONnT WIMP Search: Signal & Background Modeling and Statistical Inference

The XENONnT experiment searches for weakly-interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter scattering off a xenon nucleus. In particular, XENONnT uses a dual-phase time projection chamber with a 5.9-tonne liquid xenon target, detecting both scintillation and ionization signals to reconstruct the energy, position, and type of recoil. A blind search for nuclear recoil WIMPs with an exposure of 1.1 tonne-years yielded no signal excess over background expectations, from which competitive exclusion limits were derived on WIMP-nucleon elastic scatter cross sections, for WIMP masses ranging from 6 GeV/$c^2$ up to the TeV/$c^2$ scale. This work details the modeling and statistical methods employed in this search. By means of calibration data, we model the detector response, which is then used to derive background and signal models. The construction and validation of these models is discussed, alongside additional purely data-driven backgrounds. We also describe the statistical inference framework, including the definition of the likelihood function and the construction of confidence intervals.

[23] 2406.13703

Working group 1 summary: $V_{ud}$, $V_{us}$, $V_{cd}$, $V_{cs}$ and semileptonic/leptonic $D$ decays

We summarize the program of working group 1 at the 12th Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle, whose main subjects covered $V_{ud}$, $V_{us}$, and first-row unitarity as well as $V_{cd}$, $V_{cs}$, and (semi-)leptonic $D$ decays.

[24] 2406.13818

Effective theory tower for $μ\rightarrow e$ conversion

We present theoretical predictions for $\mu \rightarrow e$ conversion rates using a tower of effective field theories connecting the UV to nuclear physics scales. The interactions in nuclei are described using a recently developed nonrelativistic effective theory (NRET) that organizes contributions according to bound nucleon and muon velocities, $\vec{v}_N$ and $\vec{v}_\mu$, with $|\vec{v}_N| > |\vec{v}_\mu|$. To facilitate the top-down matching, we enlarge the set of Lorentz covariant nucleon-level interactions mapped onto the NRET operators to include those mediated by tensor interactions, in addition to the scalar and vector interactions already considered previously, and then match NRET nonperturbatively onto the Weak Effective Theory (WET). At the scale $\mu \approx 2$ GeV WET is formulated in terms of $u$, $d$, $s$ quarks, gluons and photons as the light degrees of freedom, along with the flavor-violating leptonic current. We retain contributions from WET operators up to dimension 7, which requires the full set of 26 NRET operators. The results are encoded in the open-source Python- and Mathematica-based software suite MuonBridge, which we make available to the theoretical and experimental communities interested in $\mu \rightarrow e$ conversion.

[25] 2406.14480

$P$ & $m_e$

Curiously in the minimal left right symmetric model, chiral ($\chi$) symmetry that protects the electron's mass ($m_e$), due to parity (P) implies the vanishing of its neutrino mixing angles. We break the $\chi$ symmetry to generate the observed neutrino mixing which causes the electron to acquire its mass on RGE running, and in turn determines the B-L gauge symmetry breaking scale ($v_R$) to be $10^{10} GeV \lesssim v_R \leq 10^{15} GeV $ (and with fine-tuning can be at $10 TeV$ scale). If the muon's mass is also generated radiatively, the B-L breaking scale is $\sim 10^{14-15}$ GeV. Regardless of how the high scale $v_R$ is, this is a testable model for obtaining the mass of the electron (and muon), since on RGE running and P breaking, a large strong CP phase ($\bar{\theta} >> 10^{-10}$) which depends logarithmically on $v_R$ is generated if there is O(1) CP violation in leptonic Yukawa couplings. Hence we expect that leptonic CP phases including the Dirac CP phase $\delta_{CP}$ of the PMNS matrix must be consistent with $0$ or $180^o$ to within a degree, which can be verified or excluded by neutrino experiments such as DUNE and Hyper-Kamiokande. In lieu of P, if charge conjugation C is used, the same results follow. However with C and no P, axions would likely need to be added anyway, in which case there is no constraint on $\delta_{CP}$.