New articles on hep-ex

[1] 2010.15361

Search for lepton-number- and baryon-number-violating tau decays at Belle

We search for lepton-number- and baryon-number-violating decays $\tau^{-}\to\overline{p}e^{+}e^{-}$, $pe^{-}e^{-}$, $\overline{p}e^{+}\mu^{-}$, $\overline{p}e^{-}\mu^{+}$, $\overline{p}\mu^{+}\mu^{-}$, and $p\mu^{-}\mu^{-}$ using 921 fb$^{-1}$ of data, equivalent to $(841\pm12)\times 10^6$ $\tau^{+}\tau^{-}$ events, recorded with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy $e^{+}e^{-}$ collider. In the absence of a signal, $90\%$ confidence-level upper limits are set on the branching fractions of these decays in the range $(1.8$-$4.0)\times 10^{-8}$. We set the world's first limits on the first four channels and improve the existing limits by an order of magnitude for the last two channels.

[2] 2010.15136

Non-thermal neutrinos created by shock acceleration in successful and failed core-collapse supernova

We present a comprehensive study of neutrino shock acceleration in core-collapse supernova (CCSN). The leading players are heavy leptonic neutrinos, $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_{\tau}$; the former and latter potentially gain the energy up to $\sim 100$ MeV and $\sim 200$ MeV, respectively, through the shock acceleration. Demonstrating the neutrino shock acceleration by Monte Carlo neutrino transport, we make a statement that it commonly occurs in the early post bounce phase ($\lesssim 50$ ms after bounce) for all massive stellar collapse experiencing nuclear bounce and would reoccur in the late phase ($\gtrsim 100$ ms) for failed CCSNe. This opens up a new possibility to detect high energy neutrinos by terrestrial detectors from Galactic CCSNe; hence, we estimate the event counts for Hyper(Super)-Kamiokande, DUNE, and JUNO. We find that the event count with the energy of $\gtrsim 80$ MeV is a few orders of magnitude higher than that of the thermal neutrinos regardless of the detectors, and muon production may also happen in these detectors by $\nu_{\mu}$ with the energy of $\gtrsim 100$ MeV. The neutrino signals provide a precious information on deciphering the inner dynamics of CCSN and placing a constraint on the physics of neutrino oscillation; indeed, the detection of the high energy neutrinos through charged current reaction channels will be a smoking gun evidence of neutrino flavor conversion.

[3] 2010.15144

The physics case for an electron muon collider

An electron muon collider is proposed here targeting at multi-ab$^{-1}$ integrated luminosities at various stages, involving asymmetrical collision profile of, e.g., 20-200 GeV, 50-1000 GeV and 100-3000 GeV for the electron and muon beam energy, respectively. This novel collider can serve as a powerful machine to probe lepton flavor violation and measure Higgs boson properties precisely. The collision of an electron and a muon beam leads to less physics backgrounds compared with either an electron-electron or a muon-muon beam, as physics processes appear mostly through vector boson fusion or scattering. The asymmetrical beam energy tends to have collision products boosted towards the electron beam side, which can be exploited to reduce beam-induced background from muon beam upstream to a large extent.

[4] 2010.15243

Machine learning assisted non-destructive transverse beam profile imaging

We present a non-destructive beam profile imaging concept that utilizes machine learning tools, namely genetic algorithm with a gradient descent-like minimization. Electromagnetic fields around a charged beam carry information about its transverse profile. The electrodes of a stripline-type beam position monitor (with eight probes in this study) can pick up that information for visualization of the beam profile. We use a genetic algorithm to transform an arbitrary Gaussian beam in such a way that it eventually reconstructs the transverse position and the shape of the original beam. The algorithm requires a signal that is picked up by the stripline electrodes, and a (precise or approximate) knowledge of the beam size. It can visualize the profile of fairly distorted beams as well.

[5] 2010.15553

MUMUG: a fast Monte Carlo generator for the process $e^+ e^- \to μ^+μ^- γ$

A fast leading-order Monte Carlo generator for the process $e^+ e^- \to \mu^+\mu^- \gamma$ is described. Matrix elements are calculated using the helicity amplitude method. Monte Carlo algorithm uses the acceptance-rejection method with an appropriately chosen simplified distribution that can be generated using an efficient algorithm. We provide a detailed pedagogical exposition of both the helicity amplitude method and the Monte Carlo technique, which we hope will be useful for high energy physics students.

[6] 2010.15667

Observation of a new interaction between a single spin and a moving mass

Searching for physics beyond the standard model is crucial for understanding the mystery of the universe, such as the dark matter. We utilized a single spin in a diamond as a sensor to explore the spin-dependent interactions mediated by the axion-like particles, which are well motivated by dark matter candidates. We recorded non-zero magnetic fields exerted on the single electron spin from a moving mass. The strength of the magnetic field is proportional to the velocity of the moving mass. The dependency of the magnetic field on the distance between the spin and the moving mass has been experimentally characterized. We analyzed the possible sources of this magnetic signal, and our results provide highly suggestive of the existence of a new spin-dependent interaction. Our work opens a door for investigating the physics beyond the standard model in laboratory.

[7] 2010.15712

Axionlike particles searches in reactor experiments

Reactor neutrino experiments provide a rich environment for the study of axionlike particles (ALPs). Using the intense photon flux produced in the nuclear reactor core, these experiments have the potential to probe ALPs with masses below 10 MeV. We explore the feasibility of these searches by considering ALPs produced through Primakoff and Compton-like processes as well as nuclear transitions. These particles can subsequently interact with the material of a nearby detector via inverse Primakoff and inverse Compton-like scatterings, via axio-electric absorption, or they can decay into photon or electron-positron pairs. We demonstrate that reactor-based neutrino experiments have a high potential to test ALP-photon couplings and masses, currently probed only by cosmological and astrophysical observations, thus providing complementary laboratory-based searches. We furthermore show how reactor facilities will be able to test previously unexplored regions in the $\sim$MeV ALP mass range and ALP-electron couplings of the order of $g_{aee} \sim 10^{-8}$ as well as ALP-nucleon couplings of the order of $g_{ann}^{(1)} \sim 10^{-9}$, testing regions beyond TEXONO and Borexino limits.

[8] 2010.15807

A data processing system for balloon-borne telescopes

The JEM-EUSO Collaboration aims at studying Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) from space. To reach this goal, a series of pathfinder missions has been developed to prove the observation principle and to raise the technological readiness level of the instrument. Among these, the EUSO-SPB2 (Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon, mission two) foresees the launch of two telescopes on an ultra-long duration balloon. One is a fluorescence telescope designed to detect UHECR via the UV fluorescence emission of the showers in the atmosphere. The other one measures direct Cherenkov light emission from lower energy cosmic rays and other optical backgrounds for cosmogenic tau neutrino detection. In this paper, we describe the data processing system which has been designed to perform data management and instrument control for the two telescopes. It is a complex which controls front-end electronics, tags events with arrival time and payload position through a GPS system, provides signals for time synchronization of the event and measures live and dead time of the telescope. In addition, the data processing system manages mass memory for data storage, performs housekeeping monitor, and controls power on and power off sequences. The target flight duration for the NASA super pressure program is 100 days, consequently, the requirements on the electronics and the data handling are quite severe. The system operates at high altitude in unpressurised environment, which introduces a technological challenge for heat dissipation.