New articles on High Energy Physics - Experiment


[1] 2205.06336

The Muon g-2 Experiment at Fermilab

The muon magnetic anomaly, $a_{\mu}$, is a powerful test of the Standard Model of particle physics. A new experiment at Fermilab has recently measured $a_{\mu}$ with unprecedented precision, confirming the results of the earlier Brookhaven experiment and strengthening the tension with the prediction of the Standard Model as determined by dispersive methods. We here describe the experimental technique, recapitulate the recent result, and discuss some of the improvements made for subsequent analyses.


[2] 2205.06372

Measurement of Lepton Mass Squared Moments in $B \to X_c \ell \bar ν_{\ell}$ Decays with the Belle II Experiment

We present measurements of the first to fourth moments of the lepton mass squared $q^2$ of \mbox{$B \to X_c \, \ell\, \bar \nu_{\ell}$} decays for $\ell = e, \mu$ and with $X_c$ a hadronic system containing a charm quark. These results use a sample of electron-positron collisions at the $\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance corresponding to $62.8 \, \mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity and collected by the Belle II experiment in 2019 and 2020. To identify the $X_c$ system and reconstruct $q^2$, one of the $B$ mesons from an $\Upsilon(4S) \to B \kern 0.18em\overline{\kern -0.18em B}$ decay is fully reconstructed in a hadronic decay mode using a multivariate $B$ tagging algorithm. We report raw and central moments for $ q^2 > 1.5 \; \mathrm{GeV^2/c^4}$ up to $q^2 > 8.5 \; \mathrm{GeV^2/c^4}$, probing up to 77\% of the accessible \mbox{$B \to X_c \, \ell\, \bar \nu_{\ell}$} phase space. This is the first measurement of moments in the experimentally challenging range of $[ 1.5, 2.5 ] \, \mathrm{GeV^2/c^4}$.


[3] 2205.06400

Improved search for invisible modes of nucleon decay in water with the SNO+ detector

This paper reports results from a search for single and multi-nucleon disappearance from the $^{16}$O nucleus in water within the \snoplus{} detector using all of the available data. These so-called "invisible" decays do not directly deposit energy within the detector but are instead detected through their subsequent nuclear de-excitation and gamma-ray emission. New limits are given for the partial lifetimes: $\tau(n\rightarrow inv) > 9.0\times10^{29}$ years, $\tau(p\rightarrow inv) > 9.6\times10^{29}$ years, $\tau(nn\rightarrow inv) > 1.5\times10^{28}$ years, $\tau(np\rightarrow inv) > 6.0\times10^{28}$ years, and $\tau(pp\rightarrow inv) > 1.1\times10^{29}$ years at 90\% Bayesian credibility level (with a prior uniform in rate). All but the ($nn\rightarrow inv$) results improve on existing limits by a factor of about 3.


[4] 2205.06667

Search for nonresonant pair production of highly energetic Higgs bosons decaying to bottom quarks

A search for nonresonant Higgs boson (H) pair production via gluon and vector boson (V) fusion is performed in the four-bottom-quark final state, using proton-proton collision data at 13 TeV corresponding to 138 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analysis targets Lorentz-boosted H pairs identified using a graph neural network. It constrains the strengths relative to the standard model of the H self-coupling and the quartic VVHH couplings, $\kappa_{2V}$, excluding $\kappa_{2V}$ = 0 for the first time, with a significance of 6.3 standard deviations when other H couplings are fixed to their standard model values.


[5] 2205.06709

Search for heavy resonances and quantum black holes in e$μ$, e$τ$, and $μτ$ final states in proton-proton collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV

A search is reported for heavy resonances and quantum black holes decaying into e$\mu$, e$\tau$, and $\mu\tau$ final states in proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC during 2016-2018 at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb$^{-1}$. The e$\mu$, e$\tau$, and $\mu\tau$ invariant mass spectra are reconstructed, and no evidence is found for physics beyond the standard model. Upper limits are set at 95% confidence level on the product of the cross section and branching fraction for lepton flavor violating signals. Three benchmark signals are studied: resonant $\tau$ sneutrino production in $R$ parity violating supersymmetric models, heavy Z' gauge bosons with lepton flavor violating decays, and nonresonant quantum black hole production in models with extra spatial dimensions. Resonant $\tau$ sneutrinos are excluded for masses up to 4.2 TeV in the e$\mu$ channel, 3.7 TeV in the e$\tau$ channel, and 3.6 TeV in the $\mu\tau$ channel. A Z' boson with lepton flavor violating couplings is excluded up to a mass of 5.0 TeV in the e$\mu$ channel, up to 4.3 TeV in the e$\tau$ channel, and up to 4.1 TeV in the $\mu\tau$ channel. Quantum black holes in the benchmark model are excluded up to the threshold mass of 5.6 TeV in the e$\mu$ channel, 5.2 TeV in the e$\tau$ channel, and 5.0 TeV in the $\mu\tau$ channel. In addition, model-independent limits are extracted to allow comparisons with other models for the same final states and similar event selection requirements. The results of these searches provide the most stringent limits available from collider experiments for heavy particles that undergo lepton flavor violating decays.


[6] 2205.06378

ACHILLES: A novel event generator for electron- and neutrino-nucleus scattering

We present a novel lepton-nucleus event generator: ACHILLES, A CHIcagoLand Lepton Event Simulator. The generator factorizes the primary interaction from the propagation of hadrons in the nucleus, which allows for a great deal of modularity, facilitating further improvements and interfaces with existing codes. We validate our generator against high quality electron-carbon scattering data in the quasielastic regime, including the recent CLAS/e4v reanalysis of existing data. We find good agreement in both inclusive and exclusive distributions. By varying the assumptions on the propagation of knocked out nucleons throughout the nucleus, we estimate a component of theoretical uncertainties. We also propose novel observables that will allow for further testing of lepton-nucleus scattering models. ACHILLES is readily extendable to generate neutrino-nucleus scattering events.


[7] 2205.06712

Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering -- First constraints/observations and future potential

The detection of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE$\nu$NS) opens new possibilities for neutrino physics within and beyond the Standard Model. Following the initial discovery in 2017, several experimental attempts have emerged allowing this reaction channel to be studied with the full repertoire of modern detection technologies. As one of several reactor experiments, CONUS aims for an observation with antineutrinos emitted from the powerful $3.9$ GW$_{th}$ reactor of the nuclear power plant in Brokdorf (Germany). In particular, the application of ultra-low threshold, high-purity germanium detectors within a sophisticated shield design in close proximity to a nuclear reactor core represents an important step towards high-statistics neutrino detection with small-scale detectors. In addition to the conventional interaction, typical extensions of the Standard Model neutrino sector can be investigated with data provided from different neutrino sources and several target materials. Among these, new neutrino interactions as well as electromagnetic neutrino properties are of particular interest. This talk gives an overview of existing CE$\nu$NS results and highlights the advantage of using different neutrino sources and target materials. The example of CONUS is used to demonstrate the various capabilities of recent and future CE$\nu$NS measurements.


[8] 2205.06726

Diagram of High Energy Nuclear Collisions

Many new particles, mostly hadrons, are produced in high energy collisions between atomic nuclei. The most popular models describing the hadron production process are based on the creation, evolution and decay of resonances, strings or quark-gluon plasma. The validity of these models is under vivid discussion, and it seems that a common framework for this discussion is missing. Here we introduce the diagram of high energy nuclear collisions, where domains of the dominance of different hadron-production processes in the space of laboratory-controlled parameters, the collision energy and nuclear-mass number of colliding nuclei, are indicated. We argue, the recent experimental results locate boundaries between the domains, allowing for the first time to sketch an example diagram. Finally, we discuss the immediate implications for experimental measurements and model development following the sketch.