New articles on High Energy Physics - Experiment

[1] 2303.12927

Study of the $f_{0}(980)$ through the decay $D_{s}^{+} \to π^{+} π^{-} e^{+} ν_{e}$

Using $e^+e^-$ collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 7.33 ${\rm fb^{-1}}$ recorded by the BESIII detector at center-of-mass energies between 4.128 and 4.226 ${\rm GeV}$, we present an analysis of the decay $D_{s}^{+} \to f_{0}(980)e^{+}\nu_{e}$ with $f_{0}(980) \to \pi^{+}\pi^{-}$, where the $D_s^+$ is produced via the process $e^+e^- \to D_{s}^{*\pm}D_{s}^{\mp}$. We observe the $f_{0}(980)$ in the $\pi^+\pi^-$ system and the branching fraction of the decay $D_{s}^{+} \to f_{0}(980)e^{+}\nu_{e}$ with $f_0(980)\to\pi^+\pi^-$ is measured to be $(1.72 \pm 0.13_{\rm stat} \pm 0.10_{\rm syst}) \times10^{-3}$, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The dynamics of the $D_{s}^{+} \to f_{0}(980)e^{+}\nu_{e}$ decay are studied with the simple pole parameterization of the hadronic form factor and the Flatt\'e formula describing the $f_0(980)$ in the differential decay rate, and the product of the form factor $f^{f_0}_{+}(0)$ and the $c\to s$ Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element $|V_{cs}|$ is determined for the first time to be $f^{f_0}_+(0)|V_{cs}|=0.504\pm0.017_{\rm stat}\pm0.035_{\rm syst}$.

[2] 2303.13431

Measurement of inclusive J/$ψ$ pair production cross section in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

The production cross section of inclusive J/$\psi$ pairs in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV is measured with ALICE. The measurement is performed for J/$\psi$ in the rapidity interval $2.5 < y < 4.0$ and for transverse momentum $p_{\rm T} > 0$. The production cross section of inclusive J/$\psi$ pairs is reported to be $10.3 \pm 2.3 {\rm (stat.)} \pm 1.3 {\rm (syst.)}$ nb in this kinematic interval. The contribution from non-prompt J/$\psi$ (i.e. originated from beauty-hadron decays) to the inclusive sample is evaluated. The results are discussed and compared with data.

[3] 2303.12847

Scalar decay into pions via Higgs portal

In extensions of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics a light scalar from a hidden sector can interact with known particles via mixing with the SM Higgs boson. If the scalar mass is of GeV scale, this coupling induces the scalar decay into light hadrons, that saturates the scalar width. Searches for the light scalars are performed in many ongoing experiments and planned for the next generation projects. Applying dispersion relations changes the leading order estimate of the scalar decay rate into pions by a factor of about a hundred indicating the strong final state interaction. This subtlety for about thirty years prevented any reliable inference of the model parameters from experimental data. In this letter we use the gravitational form factor for neutral pion extracted from analysis of $\gamma^*\gamma\to\pi^0\pi^0$ processes to estimate the quark contribution to scalar decay into two pions. We find a factor of two uncertainty in this estimate and argue that the possible gluon contribution is of the same order. The decay rate to pions smoothly matches that to gluons dominating for heavier scalars. With this finding we refine sensitivities of future projects to the scalar-Higgs mixing. The accuracy in the calculations can be further improved by performing similar analysis of $\gamma^*\gamma\to K K$ and $\gamma^*\gamma\to\eta\eta$ processes and possibly decays like $J/\psi\to\gamma+\pi\pi$.

[4] 2303.13198

Light double-gluon hybrid states with the exotic quantum numbers $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ and $3^{-+}$

We apply the QCD sum rule method to study the double-gluon hybrid states with the quark-gluon contents $\bar q q gg$ ($q=u/d$) and $\bar s s gg$. We construct twenty-eight double-gluon hybrid currents, eleven of which are found to be zero due to some internal symmetries between the two gluons fields. We concentrate on the non-vanishing currents with the exotic quantum numbers $J^{PC} = 1^{-+}$ and $3^{-+}$. Their masses are calculated to be $M_{|\bar q q gg;1^{-+}\rangle} = 4.35^{+0.26}_{-0.30}$ GeV, $M_{|\bar s s gg;1^{-+}\rangle} = 4.49^{+0.25}_{-0.30}$ GeV, $M_{|\bar q q gg;3^{-+}\rangle} = 3.02^{+0.24}_{-0.31}$ GeV, and $M_{|\bar s s gg;3^{-+}\rangle} = 3.16^{+0.22}_{-0.28}$ GeV. The decay behaviors of the $J^{PC} = 3^{-+}$ states are studied, and we propose to search for them in the $\pi a_1(1260)/\rho \omega/\phi \phi$ channels in future particle experiments.

[5] 2303.13249

Particle track reconstruction with noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers

The reconstruction of trajectories of charged particles is a key computational challenge for current and future collider experiments. Considering the rapid progress in quantum computing, it is crucial to explore its potential for this and other problems in high-energy physics. The problem can be formulated as a quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) and solved using the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) algorithm. In this work the effects of dividing the QUBO into smaller sub-QUBOs that fit on the hardware available currently or in the near term are assessed. Then, the performance of the VQE on small sub-QUBOs is studied in an ideal simulation, using a noise model mimicking a quantum device and on IBM quantum computers. This work serves as a proof of principle that the VQE could be used for particle tracking and investigates modifications of the VQE to make it more suitable for combinatorial optimization.

[6] 2303.13329

Predictions for feed-down enhancements at the $Λ_c \bar{D}$ and $Λ_c \bar{D}^*$ thresholds via the triangle and box singularities

We demonstrate that triangle singularity (TS) and box singularity (BS) mechanisms can produce unique narrow enhancements at the $\Lambda_c\bar{D}$ and $\Lambda_c\bar{D}^*$ thresholds in the invariant mass spectra of $J/\psi p$ and $J/\psi p\pi$, respectively. Taking into account that such mechanisms only depend on the initial $\Sigma_c^{(*)}\bar{D}^{(*)}$ interactions near threshold within the TS or BS kinematic regimes, the $\Lambda_c\bar{D}$ and $\Lambda_c\bar{D}^*$ threshold enhancements can be regarded as a feed-down phenomenon originated from both the heavier pentaquark decays and the $\Sigma_c^{(*)}\bar{D}^{(*)}$ scatterings from the continuum. A search for these structures in the $J/\psi p$ and $J/\psi p\pi$ spectra in both exclusive and semi-inclusive processes will provide a smoking-gun evidence for the hadronic molecule nature of those observed pentaquarks and clarify the role played by the TS and BS in the near-threshold dynamics.

[7] 2303.13347

Measurement of the angle between jet axes in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

This letter presents the first measurement of the angle between different jet axes (denoted as ${\Delta}R$) in Pb$-$Pb collisions. The measurement is carried out in the 0$-$10% most-central events at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. Jets are assembled by clustering charged particles at midrapidity using the anti-$k_{\rm T}$ algorithm with resolution parameters $R=0.2$ and $0.4$ and transverse momenta in the intervals $40 < p_{\rm T}^{\rm ch jet} < 140$ GeV/$c$ and $80 < p_{\rm T}^{\rm ch jet} < 140$ GeV/$c$, respectively. Measurements at these low transverse momenta enhance the sensitivity to quark$-$gluon plasma (QGP) effects. A comparison to models implementing various mechanisms of jet energy loss in the QGP shows that the observed narrowing of the Pb$-$Pb distribution relative to pp can be explained if quark-initiated jets are more likely to emerge from the medium than gluon-initiated jets. These new measurements discard intra-jet $p_{\rm T}$ broadening as described in a model calculation with the BDMPS formalism as the main mechanism of energy loss in the QGP. The data are sensitive to the angular scale at which the QGP can resolve two independent splittings, favoring mechanisms that incorporate incoherent energy loss.

[8] 2303.13349

Inclusive and multiplicity dependent production of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in pp and p$-$Pb collisions

Measurements of the production of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in pp collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV at midrapidity with the ALICE detector are presented down to a transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$) of 0.2 GeV$/c$ and up to $p_{\rm T} = 35$ GeV$/c$, which is the largest momentum range probed for inclusive electron measurements in ALICE. In p$-$Pb collisions, the production cross section and the nuclear modification factor of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays are measured in the $p_{\rm T}$ range $0.5 < p_{\rm T} < 26$ GeV$/c$ at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 8.16$ TeV. The nuclear modification factor is found to be consistent with unity within the statistical and systematic uncertainties. In both collision systems, first measurements of the yields of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in different multiplicity intervals normalised to the multiplicity-integrated yield (self-normalised yield) at midrapidity are reported as a function of the self-normalised charged-particle multiplicity estimated at midrapidity. The self-normalised yields in pp and p$-$Pb collisions grow faster than linear with the self-normalised multiplicity. A strong $p_{\rm T}$ dependence is observed in pp collisions, where the yield of high-$p_{\rm T}$ electrons increases faster as a function of multiplicity than the one of low-$p_{\rm T}$ electrons. The measurement in p$-$Pb collisions shows no $p_{\rm T}$ dependence within uncertainties. The self-normalised yields in pp and p$-$Pb collisions are compared with measurements of other heavy-flavour, light-flavour, and strange particles, and with Monte Carlo simulations.

[9] 2303.13361

Measurements of inclusive J/$ψ$ production at midrapidity and forward rapidity in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

The measurements of the inclusive J/$\psi$ yield at midrapidity ($\left | y \right | < 0.9$) and forward rapidity (2.5 $< y <$ 4) in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC are reported. The inclusive J/$\psi$ production yields and nuclear modification factors, $R_{\rm AA}$, are measured as a function of the collision centrality, J/$\psi$ transverse momentum ($p_{\rm T}$), and rapidity. The J/$\psi$ average transverse momentum and squared transverse momentum ($\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}\rangle$ and $\langle p_{\mathrm{T}}^{\mathrm{2}}\rangle$) are evaluated as a function of the centrality at midrapidity. Compared to the previous ALICE publications, here the entire Pb$-$Pb collisions dataset collected during the LHC Run 2 is used, which improves the precision of the measurements and extends the $p_{\rm T}$ coverage. The $p_{\rm T}$-integrated $R_{\rm AA}$ shows a hint of an increasing trend towards unity from semicentral to central collisions at midrapidity, while it is flat at forward rapidity. The $p_{\rm T}$-differential $R_{\rm AA}$ shows a strong suppression at high $p_{\rm T}$ with less suppression at low $p_{\rm T}$ where it reaches a larger value at midrapidity compared to forward rapidity. The ratio of the $p_{\rm T}$-integrated yields of J/$\psi$ to those of D$^{0}$ mesons is reported for the first time for the central and semicentral event classes at midrapidity. Model calculations implementing charmonium production via the coalescence of charm quarks and antiquarks during the fireball evolution (transport models) or in a statistical approach with thermal weights are in good agreement with the data at low $p_{\rm T}$. At higher $p_{\rm T}$, the data are well described by transport models and a model based on energy loss in the strongly-interacting medium produced in nuclear collisions at the LHC.

[10] 2303.13414

Higher-order correlations between different moments of two flow amplitudes in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

The correlations between different moments of two flow amplitudes, extracted with the recently developed asymmetric cumulants, are measured in Pb$-$Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s_{\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV recorded by the ALICE detector at the LHC. The magnitudes of the measured observables show a dependence on the different moments as well as on the collision centrality, indicating the presence of non-linear response in all even moments up to the eighth. Furthermore, the higher-order asymmetric cumulants show different signatures than the symmetric and lower-order asymmetric cumulants. Comparisons with state-of-the-art event generators using two different parameterizations obtained from Bayesian optimization show differences between data and simulations in many of the studied observables, indicating a need for further tuning of the models behind those event generators. These results provide new and independent constraints on the initial conditions and transport properties of the system created in heavy-ion collisions.

[11] 2303.13423

CE$ν$NS Experiment Proposal at CSNS

The detection and cross section measurement of Coherent Elastic Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering (CE$\nu$NS) is vital for particle physics, astrophysics and nuclear physics. Therefore, a new CE$\nu$NS detection experiment is proposed in China. Undoped CsI crystals coupled with two Photon Multiplier Tubes (PMTs) each, will be cooled down to 77K and placed at China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) to detect the CE$\nu$NS signals produced by neutrinos from stopped pion decays happening within the Tungsten target of CSNS. Owing to the extremely high light yield of pure CsI at 77K, even though only having a neutrino flux 60\% weaker than COHERENT, the detectable signal event rate is still expected to be $0.14/day/kg$. Low radioactivity materials and devices will be used to construct the detector and strong shielding will be applied to reduce the radioactive and neutron background. Dual-PMT readout should be able to reject PMT-related background like Cherenkov light and PMT dark noise. With all the strategies above, we are hoping to reach a 5.1$\sigma$ signal detection significance by a half-year data taking with a $12kg$ CsI. In this presentation, the design of the experiment will be presented. In addition, the estimation of signal, various kinds of background and expected signal sensitivity will be discussed.

[12] 2303.13435

"Ultima Ratio": Simulating wide-range X-ray scattering and diffraction

We demonstrate a strategy for simulating wide-range X-ray scattering patterns, which spans the small- and wide scattering angles as well as the scattering angles typically used for Pair Distribution Function (PDF) analysis. Such simulated patterns can be used to test holistic analysis models, and, since the diffraction intensity is on the same scale as the scattering intensity, may offer a novel pathway for determining the degree of crystallinity. The "Ultima Ratio" strategy is demonstrated on a 64-nm Metal Organic Framework (MOF) particle, calculated from Q < 0.01 1/nm up to Q < 150 1/nm, with a resolution of 0.16 Angstrom. The computations exploit a modified 3D Fast Fourier Transform (3D-FFT), whose modifications enable the transformations of matrices at least up to 8000^3 voxels in size. Multiple of these modified 3D-FFTs are combined to improve the low-Q behaviour. The resulting curve is compared to a wide-range scattering pattern measured on a polydisperse MOF powder. While computationally intensive, the approach is expected to be useful for simulating scattering from a wide range of realistic, complex structures, from (poly-)crystalline particles to hierarchical, multicomponent structures such as viruses and catalysts.

[13] 2303.13448

Study of the p$-$p$-$K$^+$ and p$-$p$-$K$^-$ dynamics using the femtoscopy technique

The interactions of kaons (K) and antikaons ($\mathrm{\overline{K}}$) with few nucleons (N) were studied so far using kaonic atom data and measurements of kaon production and interaction yields in nuclei. Some details of the three-body KNN and $\mathrm{\overline{K}}$NN dynamics are still not well understood, mainly due to the overlap with multi-nucleon interactions in nuclei. An alternative method to probe the dynamics of three-body systems with kaons is to study the final state interaction within triplet of particles emitted in pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, which are free from effects due to the presence of bound nucleons. This Letter reports the first femtoscopic study of p$-$p$-$K$^+$ and p$-$p$-$K$^-$ correlations measured in high-multiplicity pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The analysis shows that the measured p$-$p$-$K$^+$ and p$-$p$-$K$^-$ correlation functions can be interpreted in terms of pairwise interactions in the triplets, indicating that the dynamics of such systems is dominated by the two-body interactions without significant contributions from three-body effects or bound states.