New articles on General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology

[1] 2406.12933

Charged Quark Stars and Extreme Compact Objects in Regularized 4D Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

Since the derivation of a well-defined $D\rightarrow 4$ limit for 4 dimensional Einstein Gauss-Bonnet (4DEGB) gravity coupled to a scalar field, there has been interest in testing it as an alternative to Einstein's general theory of relativity. Using the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations modified for charge and 4DEGB gravity, we model the stellar structure of charged, non-interacting quark stars. We find that increasing the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant $\alpha$ or the charge $Q$ both tend to increase the mass-radius profiles of quark stars described by this theory, allowing a given central pressure to support larger quark stars in general. We also derive a generalization of the Buchdahl bound for charged stars in 4DEGB gravity. As in the uncharged case, we find that quark stars can exist below the general relativistic Buchdahl bound (BB) and Schwarzschild radius $R=2M$, due to the lack of a mass gap between black holes and compact stars in the 4DEGB theory. Even for $\alpha$ well within current observational constraints, we find that quark star solutions in this theory can describe Extreme Compact Charged Objects (ECCOs), objects whose radii are smaller than what is allowed by general relativity.

[2] 2406.13020

Microscale torsion resonators for short-range gravity experiments

Measuring gravitational interactions on sub-100-$\mu$m length scales offers a window into physics beyond the Standard Model. However, short-range gravity experiments are limited by the ability to position sufficiently massive objects to within small separation distances. Here we propose mass-loaded silicon nitride ribbons as a platform for testing the gravitational inverse square law at separations currently inaccessible with traditional torsion balances. These microscale torsion resonators benefit from low thermal noise due to strain-induced dissipation dilution while maintaining compact size (<100$\,\mu$g) to allow close approach. Considering an experiment combining a 40$\,\mu$g torsion resonator with a source mass of comparable size (130$\,\mu$g) at separations down to 25$\,\mu$m, and including limits from thermomechanical noise and systematic uncertainty, we predict these devices can set novel constraints on Yukawa interactions within the 1-100$\,\mu$m range.

[3] 2406.13032

Compact regular objects from an electrified Tolman-like density: A new interior region for the Kerr-Newman spacetime

Charged static and rotating objects as solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations are obtained and studied in the present work. The full spacetime geometry is obtained by matching two spacetime regions, an interior region containing electrified matter and an exterior electrovacuum region. In the static case, the interior region contains a spherically symmetric distribution of matter constituted by a de Sitter-type perfect fluid with electric charge, whose energy density profile is given by a Tolman-like relation. The interior solution is smoothly matched with the exterior Reissner-Nordstr\"om electrovacuum solution, thus producing different kinds of objects, such as charged regular black holes and overcharged tension stars, that we analyze in detail. We also investigate the connection between the present static solution and the regular black holes with a de Sitter core presented in the work by Lemos and Zanchin [Phys. Rev. D 83, 124005 (2011)]. We then employ the G\"urses-G\"ursey metric and apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to construct a charged rotating interior geometry from the static interior solution. The resulting interior metric and the electromagnetic field are smoothly matched to the exterior Kerr-Newman electrovacuum solution, thus producing a regular interior for the exterior Kerr-Newman geometry. The main properties of the complete rotating solution are analyzed in detail, showing that different kinds of rotating objects, such as charged rotating black holes and other charged rotating objects, also emerge in this solution.

[4] 2406.13068

A new energy inequality in AdS

We study time symmetric initial data for asymptotically AdS spacetimes with conformal boundary containing a spatial circle. Such $d$-dimensional initial data sets can contain $(d-2)$-dimensional minimal surfaces if the circle is contractible. We compute the minimum energy of a large class of such initial data as a function of the area $A$ of this minimal surface. The statement $E \ge E_{min}(A)$ is analogous to the Penrose inequality which bounds the energy from below by a function of the area of a $(d-1)$-dimensional minimal surface.

[5] 2406.13082

The Hanbury-Brown and Twiss effect in inflationary cosmological perturbations

The simplest model of inflation is based around an inflaton field that starts in a coherent false vacuum state with a positive cosmological constant, rolls slowly to the true vacuum and relaxes to it via reheating. We examine whether the scale of the transition from coherence to chaoticity can be examined via the Hanbury-Brown and Twiss (HBT) effect, in parallel with analogous problems of heavy ion physics (the ``pion laser'' and the thermalizing glasma). We develop an ansatz which contains a definition of ''chaoticity'' which parallels that of the usual setups where HBT is used. However, we also discuss the differences between the inflationary setup and more mainstream uses of HBT and conclude that these are more significant than the similarities, making the use of the developed methodology uncertain.

[6] 2406.13132

Cosmic slowing down of acceleration with the Chaplygin-Jacobi gas as a dark fluid

A particular generalization of the Chaplygin inflationary model, using the formalism of Hamilton-Jacobi and elliptic functions, results in a more general non-linear Chaplygin-type equation of state (Chaplygin-Jacobi model). We investigate the implementation of this model as a dark energy (DE) fluid to explain the recent acceleration of the universe. Unlike $\Lambda$CDM and other Chaplygin-like fluids, where the final fate of the universe is an eternal de Sitter (dS) phase, the dynamics of this model allow for the possibility of a decelerating phase in the future, following the current accelerating phase. In other words, a transient acceleration arises, accounting for the recently claimed slowing down phenomenon. This Chaplygin-Jacobi model shows important differences compared to the standard and generalized Chaplygin gas models. Additionally, we perform a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis using several datasets, including Type Ia Supernovae (SnIa), Cosmic Chronometers (CC), and Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs), to examine the observational viability of the model. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

[7] 2406.13189

The cosmological significance of boundary term in non-metricity gravity

Within the context of metric-affine gravity, we examine the significance of the boundary term in symmetric teleparallel gravity by employing the cosmological dynamical system analysis method. We focus on the novel gravity models characterized by the functions $f(Q,C)$, where $f$ is a smooth function of the non-metricity scalar $Q$ and the associated boundary term $C$. In a cosmological setting adopting three different classes of symmetric teleparallel affine connections, we investigate a model $f(Q,C)=Q^{s}+eC^{r}$, and some special cases of this model. We show that the boundary term which is added to the Einsteinian field equations (or equivalently to $f(Q)=Q$ ones) are capable of bringing forward solutions corresponding to the early accelerated expansion. This alludes the physics behind the boundary terms which usually are discarded in the most gravitational theories.

[8] 2406.13224

Possibility of the Traversable Wormholes in the Galactic Halos within $4D$ Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

Recently, there has been significant interest regarding the regularization of a $D\rightarrow 4$ limit of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity. This regularization involves re-scaling the Gauss-Bonnet (GB) coupling constant as $\alpha/(D-4)$, which bypasses Lovelock's theorem and avoids Ostrogradsky instability. A noteworthy observation is that the maximally or spherically symmetric solutions for all the regularized gravities coincide in the $4D$ scenario. Considering this, we investigate the wormhole solutions in the galactic halos based on three different choices of dark matter (DM) profiles, such as Universal Rotation Curve, Navarro-Frenk-White, and Scalar Field Dark Matter with the framework of $4D$ EGB gravity. Also, the Karmarkar condition was used to find the exact solutions for the shape functions under different non-constant redshift functions. We discussed the energy conditions for each DM profile and noticed the influence of GB coefficient $\alpha$ in violating energy conditions, especially null energy conditions. Further, some physical features of wormholes, viz. complexity factor, active gravitational mass, total gravitational energy, and embedding diagrams, have been explored.

[9] 2406.13270

Novel topological phenomena of timelike circular orbits for charged test particles

The topological approach has recently been successfully employed to investigate timelike circular orbits for massive neutral test particles. The observed vanishing topological number implies that these timelike circular orbits occur in pairs. However, the behavior of charged test particles in this regard remains unexplored. To address this issue, our study focuses on examining the influence of particle charge on the topology of timelike circular orbits within a spherically symmetrical black hole spacetime holding a nonvanishing radial electric field. We consider four distinct cases based on the charges of the particle and the black hole: unlike strong charge, unlike weak charge, like weak charge, and like strong charge. For each case, we calculate the corresponding topological number. Our results reveal that when the charge is large enough, the topological number takes a value of -1 instead of 0, which differs from the neutral particle scenario. Consequently, in cases of small charges, the timelike circular orbits appear in pairs, whereas in cases of larger charges, an additional unstable timelike circular orbit emerges. These findings shed light on the influence of the particle charge on the topological properties and number of timelike circular orbits.

[10] 2406.13394

Gravitational Wave Birefringence from Fuzzy Dark Matter

Gravitational wave (GW) birefringence is a remarkable phenomenon that can be used to test the parity violation in gravity. By coupling the fuzzy dark matter (FDM) scalar to the gravitational Chern-Simons term, we explore the GW birefringence effects in the FDM background. In particular, in light of the highly oscillating granular FDM structure at the galactic scale, we are led to investigating the GW propagation in the Chern-Simons gravity over the general nontrivial scalar profile, which is a natural extension of previous studies on the homogeneous and isotropic configurations. As a result, it is found that GWs of both circularly polarized modes propagate in the straight line with the speed of light, and does not show any velocity birefringence. However, when considering the imaginary part of the dispersion relation, GWs exhibit the amplitude birefringence in which one circular polarization is enhanced while the other suppressed. Due to its local nature, the FDM-induced amplitude birefringence only depends on the GW frequency without any reliance on the GW event distance. More importantly, the birefringence factor shows a periodic time variation with the period reflecting the FDM scalar mass, which is the smoking gun for testing this new birefringence mechanism. Finally, we also study the extra-galactic FDM contribution to the GW birefringence, which is shown to be suppressed by the cosmological DM density and thus subdominant compared with the galactic counterpart.

[11] 2406.13416

Influence of thermal bath on Pancharatnam-Berry phase in an accelerated frame

A uniformly accelerated atom captures Pancharatnam-Berry phase in its quantum state and the phase factor depends on the vacuum fluctuation of the background quantum fields. We observe that the thermal nature of the fields further affects the induced phase. Interestingly the induced phase captures the exchange symmetry between the Unruh and real thermal baths. This observation further supports the claim that the Unruh thermal bath mimics a real thermal bath. Moreover for certain values of system parameters and at high temperature, the phase is enhanced compared to zero temperature situation. However the required temperature to observe the phase experimentally is so high that the detection of Unruh effect through this is not possible within the current technology.

[12] 2406.13521

Gravitational-wave background in bouncing models from semi-classical, quantum and string gravity

We study the primordial spectra and the gravitational-wave background (GWB) of three models of semi-classical, quantum or string gravity where the big bang is replaced by a bounce and the tensor spectrum is blue-tilted: ekpyrotic universe with fast-rolling Galileons, string-gas cosmology with Atick-Witten conjecture and pre-big-bang cosmology. We find that the ekpyrotic scenario does not produce a GWB amplitude detectable by present or third-generation interferometers, while the string-gas model is ruled out for producing too large a signal. In contrast, the GWB of the pre-big-bang scenario falls within the sensitivity window of both LISA and Einstein Telescope, where it takes the form of a single or a broken power law depending on the choice of parameters. The latter will be tightly constrained by both detectors.

[13] 2406.13654

Inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms in Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity within the effective-one-body formalism

Gravitational waves (GWs) provide a unique opportunity to test General Relativity (GR) in the highly dynamical, strong-field regime. So far, the majority of the tests of GR with GW signals have been carried out following parametrized, theory-independent approaches. An alternative avenue consists in developing inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) waveform models in specific beyond-GR theories of gravity, by combining analytical and numerical-relativity results. In this work, we provide the first example of a full IMR waveform model in a beyond-GR theory, focusing on Einstein-scalar-Gauss-Bonnet (ESGB) gravity. This theory has attracted particular attention due to its rich phenomenology for binary black-hole (BH) mergers, thanks to the presence of non-trivial scalar fields. Starting from the state-of-the art, effective-one-body (EOB) multipolar waveform model for spin-precessing binary BHs SEOBNRv5PHM, we include theory-specific corrections to the EOB Hamiltonian, the metric and scalar energy fluxes, the GW modes, the quasi-normal-mode (QNM) spectrum and the mass and spin of the remnant BH. We also propose a way to marginalize over the uncertainty in the merger morphology with additional nuisance parameters. Interestingly, we observe that changes in the frequency of the ringdown waveform due to the final mass and spin corrections are significantly larger than those due to ESGB corrections to the QNM spectrum. By performing Bayesian parameter estimation for the GW events GW190412, GW190814 and GW230529_181500, we place constraints on the fundamental coupling of the theory ($\sqrt{\alpha_{\mathrm{GB}}} \lesssim 0.31~\mathrm{km}$ at 90% confidence). The bound could be improved by one order of magnitude by observing a single "golden" binary system with next-generation ground-based GW detectors.

[14] 2406.13690

Lower bound of black hole hair in pure Lovelock theory of gravity

As an alternative to the "no hair conjecture," the "no short hair conjecture" for hairy black holes was established earlier. This theorem stipulates that hair must be present above 3/2 of the event horizon radius for a hairy black hole. It is assumed that the nonlinear behavior of the matter field plays a key role in the presence of such hair. Subsequently, it was established that the hair must extend beyond the photon sphere of the corresponding black hole. We have investigated the validity of the "no short hair conjecture" in pure Lovelock gravity. Our analysis has shown that irrespective of dimensionality and Lovelock order, the hair of a static, spherically symmetric black hole extends at least up to the photon sphere.

[15] 2406.13758

Plane symmetric gravitational fields in (D+1)-dimensional General Relativity

We consider plane symmetric gravitational fields within the framework of General Relativity in (D+1)-dimensional spacetime. Two classes of vacuum solutions correspond to higher-dimensional generalizations of the Rindler and Taub spacetimes. The general solutions are presented for a positive and negative cosmological constant as the only source of the gravity. Matching conditions on a planar boundary between two regions with distinct plane symmetric metric tensors are discussed. An example is considered with Rindler and Taub geometries in neighboring half-spaces. As another example, we discuss a finite thickness cosmological constant slab embedded into the Minkowski, Rindler and Taub spacetimes. The corresponding surface energy-momentum tensor is found required for matching the exterior and interior geometries.

[16] 2406.13845

Effects of quantum corrections to Lorentzian vacuum transitions in the presence of gravity

We present a study of the vacuum transition probabilities taking into account quantum corrections. We first introduce a general method that expand previous works employing the Lorentzian formalism of the Wheeler-De Witt equation by considering higher order terms in the semiclassical expansion. The method presented is applicable in principle to any model in the superspace and up to any desired order in the quantum correction terms. Then, we apply this method to obtain analytical solutions for the probabilities up to second quantum corrections for homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic universes. We use the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker with positive and zero curvature for the isotropic case and the Bianchi III and Kantwowski-Sachs metrics for the anisotropic case. Interpreting the results as distribution probabilities of creating universes by vacuum decay with a given size, we found that the general behaviour is that considering up to the second quantum correction leads to an avoidance of the initial singularity. However, we show that this result can only be achieved for the isotropic universe. Furthermore, we also study the effect of anisotropy on the transition probabilities.

[17] 2406.14157

Exact solutions for differentially rotating galaxies in general relativity

A class of stationary axisymmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for isolated differentially rotating dust sources is presented. The low-energy asymptotic regime is extracted, requiring a self-consistent coupling of quasilocal energy and angular momentum. The Raychaudhuri equation reduces to a balance equation, with two important limits. These limits can be interpreted empirically for rotationally supported configurations such as galaxies. The net energy including quasilocal kinetic contributions vanishes on the inner vortex surface, and the outer rotosurface. These new geometrical objects potentially shed light on virialization. Whether or not abundant collisionless dark matter exists, the new solutions suggest that the phenomenology of galactic rotation curves be fundamentally reconsidered, for consistency with general relativity.

[18] 2406.14173

Time-Delay Interferometry for ASTROD-GW

In the detection of gravitational waves in space, the arm lengths between spacecraft are not equal due to their orbital motion. Consequently, the equal arm length Michelson interferometer used in Earth laboratories is not suitable for space. To achieve the necessary sensitivity for space gravitational wave detectors, laser frequency noise must be suppressed below secondary noise sources such as optical path noise and acceleration noise. To suppress laser frequency noise, time-delay interferometry (TDI) is employed to match the two optical paths and retain gravitational wave signals. Since planets and other solar system bodies perturb the orbits of spacecraft and affect TDI performance, we simulate the time delay numerically using the CGC2.7 ephemeris framework. To examine the feasibility of TDI for the ASTROD-GW mission, we devised a set of 10-year and a set of 20-year optimized mission orbits for the three spacecraft starting on June 21, 2028, and calculated the path mismatches in the first- and second-generation TDI channels. The results demonstrate that all second-generation TDI channels meet the ASTROD-GW requirements. A geometric approach is used in the analysis and synthesis of both first-generation and second-generation TDI to clearly illustrate the construction process.

[19] 2406.14291

Post-Newtonian expansions of extreme mass ratio inspirals of spinning bodies into Schwarzschild black holes

Space-based gravitational-wave detectors such as LISA are expected to detect inspirals of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. Modeling such inspirals requires fully relativistic computations to achieve sufficient accuracy at leading order. However, subleading corrections such as the effects of the spin of the inspiraling compact object may potentially be treated in weak-field expansions such as the post-Newtonian (PN) approach. In this work, we calculate the PN expansion of eccentric orbits of spinning bodies around Schwarzschild black holes. Then we use the Teukolsky equation to compute the energy and angular momentum fluxes from these orbits up to the 5PN order. Some of these PN orders are exact in eccentricity, while others are expanded up to the tenth power in eccentricity. Then we use the fluxes to construct a hybrid inspiral model, where the leading part of the fluxes is calculated numerically in the fully relativistic regime, while the part linear in the small spin is analytically approximated using the PN series. We calculate LISA-relevant inspirals and respective waveforms with this model and a fully relativistic model. Through the calculation of mismatch between the waveforms from both models we conclude that the PN approximation of the linear-in-spin part of the fluxes is sufficient for lower eccentricities.

[20] 2406.14345

Revisiting the static spherically symmetric solutions of gravity with a conformally coupled scalar

We revisit the static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's General Relativity with a conformally coupled scalar field in arbitrary dimensions. Using a four rank tensor introduced earlier we recast the field equations in a manifestly symmetric form to elucidate a somewhat less-known feature of dual mapping between solutions. We also show that there is a two-parameter subfamily of solutions which enjoy a duality symmetry and in four dimensions both the BBMB black hole and the Barcelo-Visser wormhole belong to this subfamily. Along the way, we rederive the full three-parameter family of solutions by direct integration of the field equations and a natural choice of ansatz which arguably has several advantages over other previously known methods.

[21] 2406.14552

Exploring the no-hair theorem with LISA

In this study, we explore the possibility of testing the no-hair theorem with gravitational waves from massive black hole binaries in the frequency band of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Based on its sensitivity, we consider LISA's ability to detect possible deviations from general relativity (GR) in the ringdown. Two approaches are considered: an agnostic quasi-normal mode (QNM) analysis, and a method explicitly targeting the deviations from GR for given QNMs. Both approaches allow us to find fractional deviations from general relativity as estimated parameters or by comparing the mass and spin estimated from different QNMs. However, depending on whether we rely on the prior knowledge of the source parameters from a pre-merger or inspiral-merger-ringdown (IMR) analysis, the estimated deviations may vary. Under some assumptions, the second approach targeting fractional deviations from GR allows us to recover the injected values with high accuracy and precision. We obtain $(5\%, 10\%)$ uncertainty on ($\delta \omega, \delta \tau)$ for the $(3,3,0)$ mode, and $(3\%, 17\%)$ for the $(4,4,0)$ mode. As each approach constrains different features, we conclude that combining both methods would be necessary to perform a better test. In this analysis, we also forecast the precision of the estimated deviation parameters for sources throughout the mass and distance ranges observable by LISA.

[22] 2406.09525

Quantum Gravity Effects on the Tachyon Inflation from Thermodynamic Perspective

By considering the Friedmann equations emerging from the entropy-area law of black hole thermodynamics in the context of the generalized uncertainty principle, we study tachyon inflation in the early universe. The presence of a minimal length modifies the Friedmann equations and hence the slow-roll and perturbation parameters in the tachyon model. These modifications, though small, affect the viability of the tachyon inflation in confrontation with observational data. We compare the numerical results of the model with Planck2018 TT, TE, EE +lowE+lensing+BAO+BK14(18) data and Planck2018 TT, TE,EE +lowE+lensing+BK14(18) +BAO+LIGO $\&$ Virgo2016 data at $68\%$ and $95\%$ CL. We show that while the tachyon inflation with power-law, inverse power-law and inverse exponential potentials is not observationally viable in comparison with the $1\sigma$ and $2\sigma$ confidence levels of the new joint data, in the presence of the minimal length the model becomes observationally viable.

[23] 2406.12713

Structure of Massive Gauge/Gravity Scattering Amplitudes, Equivalence Theorems, and Extended Double-Copy with Compactified Warped Space

We study the structure of scattering amplitudes of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) states in the compactified 5-dimensional warped gauge and gravity theories. We present systematic formulations of the gauge theory equivalence theorem (GAET) and the gravitational equivalence theorem (GRET) for warped KK theories in $R_\xi^{}$ gauge, where the GAET connects the scattering amplitudes of longitudinal KK gauge bosons to that of the corresponding KK Goldstone bosons and the GRET connects the scattering amplitudes of KK gravitons of helicity-zero (helicity-one) to that of the corresponding gravitational KK Goldstone bosons. We analyze the structure of 3-point and 4-point scattering amplitudes of massive KK gauge bosons and of massive KK gravitons as well as their corresponding Goldstone bosons. We first prove the GAET and GRET explicitly for the fundamental 3-point KK gauge/gravity scattering amplitudes. We then demonstrate that the validity of the GAET and GRET for 4-point gauge/gravity scattering amplitudes can be reduced to the validity of GAET and GRET for 3-point gauge/gravity scattering amplitudes at tree level. With these, we study the double-copy construction of KK scattering amplitudes in the warped gauge/gravity theories. We newly realize the double-copy for massive 3-point full gauge/gravity amplitudes at tree level under proper correspondences of color-kinematics and of gauge/gravity couplings, whereas we can construct the double-copy for 4-point KK gauge/gravity amplitudes to the leading order (LO) of high energy expansion. We also conjecture that this LO double-copy construction can be extended to $N$-point scattering amplitudes with $N\!\geqslant\!5$.

[24] 2406.12855

Moving frame and spin field representations of submanifolds in flat space

We introduce a spin field approach, that is compatible with the Cartan moving frame method, to describe the submanifold in a flat space. In fact, we consider a kind of spin field $\psi$, that satisfies a Killing spin field equation (analogous to a Killing spinor equation) written in terms of the Clifford algebra, and we use the spin field to locally rotate the orthonormal basis $\{\hat{e}_\mathtt{I}\}$. Then, the deformed orthonormal frame $\{\tilde{\psi}\hat{e}_\mathtt{I}\psi\}$ can be seen as the moving frame of a submanifold. We find some solutions to the Killing spin field equation and demonstrate an explicit example. Using the product of the spin fields, one can easily generate a new immersion submanifold, and this technique should be useful for studies in geometry and physics. Through the spin field, we find a linear relation between the connection and the extrinsic curvature of the submanifold. We propose a conjecture that any solution of the Killing spin field equation can be locally written as the product of the solutions we find.

[25] 2406.12917

The Black Hole Explorer: Motivation and Vision

We present the Black Hole Explorer (BHEX), a mission that will produce the sharpest images in the history of astronomy by extending submillimeter Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to space. BHEX will discover and measure the bright and narrow "photon ring" that is predicted to exist in images of black holes, produced from light that has orbited the black hole before escaping. This discovery will expose universal features of a black hole's spacetime that are distinct from the complex astrophysics of the emitting plasma, allowing the first direct measurements of a supermassive black hole's spin. In addition to studying the properties of the nearby supermassive black holes M87* and Sgr A*, BHEX will measure the properties of dozens of additional supermassive black holes, providing crucial insights into the processes that drive their creation and growth. BHEX will also connect these supermassive black holes to their relativistic jets, elucidating the power source for the brightest and most efficient engines in the universe. BHEX will address fundamental open questions in the physics and astrophysics of black holes that cannot be answered without submillimeter space VLBI. The mission is enabled by recent technological breakthroughs, including the development of ultra-high-speed downlink using laser communications, and it leverages billions of dollars of existing ground infrastructure. We present the motivation for BHEX, its science goals and associated requirements, and the pathway to launch within the next decade.

[26] 2406.12958

Unimodular Quadratic Gravity and the Cosmological Constant

Unimodular gravity addresses the old cosmological constant (CC) problem, explaining why such constant is not at least as large as the largest particle mass scale, but classically it is indistinguishable from ordinary gravity. Conversely, quantum physics may give us a way to distinguish the two theories. Thus, here the unimodular constraint is imposed on a non-perturbative and background-independent quantum version of quadratic gravity, which was recently formulated. It is shown that unimodularity does lead to different predictions for some inflationary quantum observables. Unimodular gravity per se does not solves the new CC problem (why the CC has the observed value?) even in this realization. To address this issue a multiverse made by different eras in a single big bang is considered and the observed scale of dark energy is explained anthropically.

[27] 2406.13461

Static neutral black holes in Kalb-Ramond gravity

The Kalb-Ramond (KR) gravity theory, a modified gravity theory that nonminimally couples a KR field with a nonzero vacuum expectation value for the gravitational field, can spontaneously break the Lorentz symmetry of gravity. In a recent work, Yang et al. [Phys. Rev. D 108, 124004 (2023)] successfully derived Schwarzschild-like black hole solutions both with and without a nonzero cosmological constant within the framework of KR gravity. However, their analysis did not address the more general case of static, neutral, spherically symmetric black holes. In this paper, we fill this gap by resolving the field equations to construct more general static, neutral, spherically symmetric black hole solutions both with and without a nonzero cosmological constant. Our black hole solutions are shown to obey the first law and the Bekenstein-Smarr mass formulas of black hole thermodynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate that our static neutral spherically symmetric AdS black hole does not always satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality (RII), as the isoperimetric ratio can be larger or smaller than unity depending on the placement of the solution parameters within the parameter space. This behavior contrasts with the above-mentioned Schwarzschild-like AdS black hole in the KR gravity theory, which always obeys the RII. Significantly, the present more general static, neutral, spherically symmetric AdS black hole is the first example of a static AdS black hole that can violate the RII.

[28] 2406.13481

Strong Noninertial Radiative Shifts in Atomic Spectra at Low Accelerations

Despite numerous proposals investigating various properties of accelerated detectors in different settings, detecting the Unruh effect remains challenging due to the typically weak signal at achievable accelerations. For an atom with frequency gap $\omega_0$, accelerated in free space, significant acceleration-induced modification of properties like transition rates and radiative energy shifts requires accelerations of the order of $\omega_0 c$. In this paper, we make the case for a suitably modified density of field states to be complemented by a judicious selection of the system property to be monitored. We study the radiative energy-level shift in inertial and uniformly accelerated atoms coupled to a massless quantum scalar field inside a cylindrical cavity. Uniformly accelerated atoms experience thermal correlations in the inertial vacuum, and the radiative shifts are expected to respond accordingly. We show that the noninertial contribution to the energy shift can be isolated and significantly enhanced relative to the inertial contribution by suitably modifying the density of field modes inside a cylindrical cavity. Moreover, we demonstrate that monitoring the radiative energy shift, as compared to transition rates, allows us to reap a stronger purely-noninertial signal. We find that a purely-noninertial radiative shift as large as 50 times the inertial energy shift can be obtained at small, experimentally achievable accelerations ($ a \sim 10^{-9} \omega_{0} c$) if the cavity's radius $R$ is specified with a relative precision of $\delta R/R_{0} \sim 10^{-7}$. Given that radiative shifts for inertial atoms have already been measured with high accuracy, we argue that the radiative energy-level shift is a promising observable for detecting Unruh thermality with current technology.

[29] 2406.13671

Topological Equivalence Theorem and Double-Copy for Chern-Simons Scattering Amplitudes

We study the mechanism of topological mass-generation for 3d Chern-Simons gauge theories and propose a brand-new Topological Equivalence Theorem to connect scattering amplitudes of the physical gauge boson states to that of the transverse states under high energy expansion. We prove a general energy cancellation mechanism for $N$-point physical gauge boson amplitudes, which predicts large cancellations of $E^{4-L}\to E^{(4-L)- N}$ at any $L$-loop level ($L\geqslant 0$). We extend the double-copy approach to construct massive graviton amplitudes and study their structures. We newly uncover a series of strikingly large energy cancellations $E^{12}\to E^1$ of the tree-level four-graviton scattering amplitude under high energy expansion and establish a new correspondence between the two energy cancellations in the topologically massive Yang-Mills gauge theory and the topologically massive gravity theory. We further study the scattering amplitudes of Chern-Simons gauge bosons and gravitons in the nonrelativistic limit.

[30] 2406.13717

Beyond modified Urca: the nucleon width approximation for flavor-changing processes in dense matter

Flavor-changing charged current ("Urca") processes are of central importance in the astrophysics of neutron stars. Standard calculations approximate the Urca rate as the sum of two contributions, direct Urca and modified Urca. Attempts to make modified Urca calculations more accurate have been impeded by an unphysical divergence at the direct Urca threshold density. In this paper we describe a systematically improvable approach where, in the simplest approximation, instead of modified Urca we include an imaginary part of the nucleon mass (nucleon width). The total Urca rate is then obtained via a straightforward generalization of the direct Urca calculation, yielding results that agree with both direct and modified Urca at the densities where those approximations are valid. At low densities, we observe an enhancement of the rate by more than an order of magnitude, with important ramifications for neutron star cooling and other transport properties.

[31] 2406.13737

The Born regime of gravitational amplitudes

We study the $2 \to 2$ scattering in the regime where the wavelength of the scattered objects is comparable to their distance but is much larger than any Compton wavelength in the quantum field theory. We observe that in this regime - which differs from the eikonal - the Feynman diagram expansion takes the form of a geometric series, akin to the Born series of quantum mechanics. Conversely, we can define the Feynman diagram expansion as the Born series of a relativistic effective-one-body (EOB) Schr\"odinger equation. For a gravitational theory in this regime we observe that the EOB Schr\"odinger equation reduces to the Regge-Wheeler or Teukolsky wave equations. We make use of this understanding to study the tree-level Compton scattering off a Kerr black hole. We compute the scalar and photon Compton amplitude up to $O(a^{30})$ in the black hole spin $a$ and propose an all-order expression. Remarkably, we find that boundary terms, which are typically neglected, give non-zero contact pieces necessary for restoring crossing symmetry and gauge invariance of the Kerr-Compton amplitude.

[32] 2406.13747

Cosmological tests with bright and dark standard sirens

Gravitational waves (GWs) are signals that propagate across large distances in the Universe, and thus, they bring information on the cosmic history. GW sources are at the same time distance indicators and tracers of the matter field. Events generated by binary systems can be divided into bright standard sirens, when followed by electromagnetic transients from which the redshift of the source can be measured, and the more numerous dark standard sirens, when counterparts are not available. In this proceeding, I will discuss some methods for testing the cosmological model using either bright or dark sirens and their combinations with other cosmological probes, focusing on some of my own recent contributions.

[33] 2406.13756

Multi-messenger Approach to Ultra-light Scalars

We propose a novel method to study the ultra-light scalars, where compact rotating objects undergo the phenomenon of superradiance to create gravitational waves and neutrino flux signals. The neutrino flux results from the 'right' coupling between the ultra-light scalars and the neutrinos. We study the intertwining of gravitational waves and neutrino flux signals produced from a single source and elaborate if and when the signals can be detected in existing and upcoming experiments in a direct manner. We also discuss an indirect way to test it by means of cosmic neutrino background which can be detected by upcoming PTOLEMY experiment.

[34] 2406.13784

The interplay of WGC and WCCC via charged scalar field fluxes in the RPST framework

In this paper, we investigate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture (WCCC) for the Reissner-Nordstrom (R-N) AdS black hole in a restricted phase space thermodynamics (RPST). Also here, we consider energy flux and equivalence mass-energy principle and examine the weak gravity conjecture (WGC) and the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The incoming and outgoing energy flux leads to changes in the black hole. In that case, by applying the first law, we examined whether the second law of thermodynamics is valid. And also one can say that, in the case where absorption and superradiance are in the saturated to an equilibrium. Also, by using the thermodynamics of black holes in the restricted phase space, we show that if the black hole is in an extreme or close to an extreme state with radiation and particle absorption, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture is established. In addition, with the help of equivalence mass and energy principle and second-order approximation, in the near extremity, we find that when the black hole radiates and its central charge is greater than the scaled electric charge, the superradiance particles obey the weak gravity conjecture, and this causes the black hole to move further away from its extreme state. But when the particles that obey the weak gravity conjecture are attracted to the black hole when the black hole is very small. Then, in this case, we note that the black hole becomes closer to its extreme state.

[35] 2406.13949

Entanglement island and Page curve of Hawking radiation in rotating Kerr black holes

We initiate the study of the information paradox of rotating Kerr black holes by employing the recently proposed island rule. It is known that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Working within the framework of the 2-dimensional effective theory and assuming the small angular momentum limit, we demonstrate that the entanglement entropy of Hawking radiation from the non-extremal Kerr black hole follows the Page curve and saturates the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy at late times. In addition, we also discuss the effect of the black hole rotation on the Page time and scrambling time. For the extreme Kerr black hole, the entanglement entropy at late times also approximates the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the extreme Kerr black hole. These results imply that entanglement islands can provide a semi-classical resolution of the information paradox for rotating Kerr black holes.

[36] 2406.13965

Quantum analog to flapping of flags: interface instability for co-flow binary superfluids

We study the interface dynamics in immiscible binary superfluids using its holographic description, which naturally consists of an inviscid superfluid component and a viscous normal fluid component. We give the first theoretical realization of interface instability for two superfluid components moving with identical velocity, providing a quantum analog to the flapping of flags that is common in daily life. This behavior is in sharp contrast to the one from Gross-Pitaevskii equation for which no such co-flow instability develops in an isolated uniform system because of Galilean invariance. The real time evolution triggered by the dynamical instability exhibits intricate nonlinear patterns leading to quantum turbulence reminiscent of the quantum Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Moreover, we show that such interface dynamics is essentially different from the Landau instability for which the frictionless flow becomes thermodynamically unstable above a critical superfluid velocity. Our study uncovers the rich interface dynamics of quantum fluids and the emergence of complex flow phenomena.

[37] 2406.14152

Clocking the End of Cosmic Inflation

Making observable predictions for cosmic inflation requires determining when the wavenumbers of astrophysical interest today exited the Hubble radius during the inflationary epoch. These instants are commonly evaluated using the slow-roll approximation and measured in e-folds $\Delta N=N-N_\mathrm{end}$, in reference to the e-fold $N_\mathrm{end}$ at which inflation ended. Slow roll being necessarily violated towards the end of inflation, both the approximated trajectory and $N_\mathrm{end}$ are determined at, typically, one or two e-folds precision. Up to now, such an uncertainty has been innocuous, but this will no longer be the case with the forthcoming cosmological measurements. In this work, we introduce a new and simple analytical method, on top of the usual slow-roll approximation, that reduces uncertainties on $\Delta N$ to less than a tenth of an e-fold.

[38] 2406.14225

Comment on "Covariant quantum field theory of tachyons"

Recently, Paczos et al. (2308.00450) proposed a covariant quantum field theory for free and interacting tachyon fields. We show that the proposed Feynman propagator is not Lorentz invariant, proper asymptotic (in/out) tachyon states do not exist, and the proposed S-matrix describing interactions of tachyons and subluminal matter is ill-defined. Since tachyons behave as bosons, interacting tachyons may also self-interact, e.g., any interaction with ordinary matter generates such terms. As a result, the physical vacuum, instead of being at the origin of the potential, may correspond to the proper minimum of the tachyon potential, or such state does not exist at all. Our analysis indicates that quantum tachyon field does not describe a physical on-shell particle with negative mass squared.

[39] 2406.14257

Finding Black Holes: an Unconventional Multi-messenger

A rather clear problem has remained in black hole physics: localizing black holes. One of the recent theoretical ways proposed to identify black hole mergers' hosts is through multi-messenger gravitational lensing: matching the properties of a lensed galactic host with those of a lensed gravitational wave. This paper reviews the most recent literature and introduces some of the ongoing work on the localization of binary black holes and their host galaxies through lensing of gravitational waves and their electromagnetically-bright hosts.

[40] 2406.14334

The Bose-Marletto-Vedral proposal in different frames of reference and the quantum nature of gravity

Observing spatial entanglement in the Bose-Marletto-Vedral (BMV) experiment would demonstrate the existence of non-classical properties of the gravitational field. We show that the special relativistic invariance of the linear regime of general relativity implies that all the components of the gravitational potential must be non-classical. This is simply necessary in order to describe the BMV entanglement consistently across different inertial frames of reference. On the other hand, we show that the entanglement in accelerated frames could differ from that in stationary frames.

[41] 2406.14357

Black holes with electroweak hair

We construct static and axially symmetric magnetically charged hairy black holes in the gravity-coupled Weinberg-Salam theory. Large black holes merge with the Reissner-Nordstr\"om (RN) family, while the small ones are extremal and support a hair in the form of a ring-shaped electroweak condensate carrying superconducting W-currents and up to $22\%$ of the total magnetic charge. The extremal solutions are asymptotically RN with a mass {\it below} the total charge, $M<|Q|$, due to the negative Zeeman energy of the condensate interacting with the black hole magnetic field. Therefore, they cannot decay into RN black holes. As their charge increases, they show a phase transition when the horizon symmetry changes from spherical to oblate. At this point they have the mass typical for planetary size black holes of which $\approx 11\%$ are stored in the hair. Being obtained within a well-tested theory, our solutions are expected to be physically relevant.

[42] 2406.14450

Hydrodynamics of Relativistic Superheated Bubbles

Relativistic, charged, superheated bubbles may play an important role in neutron star mergers if first-order phase transitions are present in the phase diagram of Quantum Chromodynamics. We describe the properties of these bubbles in the hydrodynamic regime. We find two qualitative differences with supercooled bubbles. First, the pressure inside an expanding superheated bubble can be higher or lower than the pressure outside the bubble. Second, some fluid flows develop metastable regions behind the bubble wall. We consider the possible role of a conserved charge akin to baryon number. The fluid flow profiles are unaffected by this charge if the speed of sound is constant in each phase, but they are modified for more general equations of state. We compute the efficiency factor relevant for gravitational wave production.

[43] 2406.14467

A More Precise Measurement of the Radius of PSR J0740+6620 Using Updated NICER Data

PSR J0740+6620 is the neutron star with the highest precisely determined mass, inferred from radio observations to be $2.08\pm0.07\,\rm M_\odot$. Measurements of its radius therefore hold promise to constrain the properties of the cold, catalyzed, high-density matter in neutron star cores. Previously, Miller et al. (2021) and Riley et al. (2021) reported measurements of the radius of PSR J0740+6620 based on Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) observations accumulated through 17 April 2020, and an exploratory analysis utilizing NICER background estimates and a data set accumulated through 28 December 2021 was presented in Salmi et al. (2022). Here we report an updated radius measurement, derived by fitting models of X-ray emission from the neutron star surface to NICER data accumulated through 21 April 2022, totaling $\sim1.1$ Ms additional exposure compared to the data set analyzed in Miller et al. (2021) and Riley et al. (2021), and to data from X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) observations. We find that the equatorial circumferential radius of PSR J0740+6620 is $12.92_{-1.13}^{+2.09}$ km (68% credibility), a fractional uncertainty $\sim83\%$ the width of that reported in Miller et al. (2021), in line with statistical expectations given the additional data. If we were to require the radius to be less than 16 km, as was done in Salmi et al. (2024), then our 68% credible region would become $R=12.76^{+1.49}_{-1.02}$ km, which is close to the headline result of Salmi et al. (2024). Our updated measurements, along with other laboratory and astrophysical constraints, imply a slightly softer equation of state than that inferred from our previous measurements.

[44] 2406.14533

Local symmetries in partially ordered sets

Partially ordered sets (posets) have a universal appearance as an abstract structure in many areas of mathematics. Though, even their explicit enumeration remains unknown in general, and only the counts of all partial orders on sets of up to 16 unlabelled elements have been calculated to date, see sequence A000112 in the OEIS. In this work, we study automorphisms of posets in order to formulate a classification by local symmetries. These symmetries give rise to a division operation on the set of all posets and lead us to the construction of symmetry classes that are easier to characterise and enumerate. Additionally to the enumeration of symmetry classes, I derive polynomial expressions that count certain subsets of posets with a large number of layers (a large height). As an application in physics, I investigate local symmetries (or rather their lack of) in causal sets, which are discrete spacetime models used as a candidate framework for quantum gravity.