We report evidence for nonlinear modes in the ringdown stage of the gravitational waveform produced by the merger of two comparable-mass black holes. We consider both the coalescence of black hole binaries in quasicircular orbits and high-energy, head-on black hole collisions. The presence of nonlinear modes in the numerical simulations confirms that general-relativistic nonlinearities are important and must be considered in gravitational-wave data analysis.

In the analysis of a binary black hole coalescence, it is necessary to include gravitational self-interactions in order to describe the transition of the gravitational wave signal from the merger to the ringdown stage. In this paper we study the phenomenology of the generation and propagation of nonlinearities in the ringdown of a Schwarzschild black hole, using second-order perturbation theory. Following earlier work, we show that the Green's function and its causal structure determines how both first-order and second-order perturbations are generated, and hence highlight that both of these solutions inherit analogous properties. In particular, we discuss the sense in which both linear and quadratic quasi-normal modes (QNMs) are generated in the vicinity of the peak of the gravitational potential barrier (loosely referred to as the light ring). Among the second-order perturbations, there are solutions with linear QNM frequencies (whose amplitudes are thus renormalized from their linear values), as well as quadratic QNM frequencies with a distinct spectrum. Moreover, we show using a WKB analysis that, in the eikonal limit, waves generated inside the light ring propagate towards the black hole horizon, and only waves generated outside propagate towards an asymptotic observer. These results might be relevant for recent discussions on the validity of perturbation theory close to the merger. Finally, we argue that even if nonlinearities are small, quadratic QNMs may be detectable and would likely be useful for improving ringdown models of higher angular harmonics and future tests of gravity.

The gravitational wave strain emitted by a perturbed black hole (BH) ringing down is typically modeled analytically using first-order BH perturbation theory. In this Letter we show that second-order effects are necessary for modeling ringdowns from BH merger simulations. Focusing on the strain's $(\ell,m)=(4,4)$ angular harmonic, we show the presence of a quadratic effect across a range of binary BH mass ratios that agrees with theoretical expectations. We find that the quadratic $(4,4)$ mode amplitude exhibits quadratic scaling with the fundamental $(2,2)$ mode -- its parent mode. The nonlinear mode's amplitude is comparable to or even larger than that of the linear $(4,4)$ modes. Therefore correctly modeling ringdown -- improving mismatches by an order of magnitude -- requires the inclusion of nonlinear effects.

We study false vacuum decay in a black hole (BH) spacetime with an angular momentum. Considering the false vacuum region described by a Kerr-de Sitter geometry, under the thin wall approximation, we can obtain the stationary configuration of the vacuum bubble seen from the outside false vacuum region without specifying the geometry inside the domain wall. Then, assuming the true vacuum region is described by a Kerr geometry, we can fix the mass and the spin parameter for the Kerr geometry by imposing the 1st junction conditions and conservation of the angular momentum. Although the assumption of the Kerr geometry inside the domain wall cannot be fully consistent with the 2nd junction conditions, we can roughly evaluate the error associated with this inconsistency by calculating the Brown-York quasi-local energy on the domain wall. Then the decay rate can be estimated by using the obtained parameters for the inside Kerr geometry and the Brown-York quasi-local energy. Our results support the statement that the BH spin suppresses the false vacuum decay in a BH spacetime.

We study the critical dynamics in the scalarization and descalarization in the fully nonlinear dynamical evolution in a general theory with scalar field coupling with both Gauss-Bonnet invariant and Ricci scalar. We explore how the Gauss-Bonnet term triggers the black hole scalarization. A typical type I critical phenomenon is observed, where an unstable critical solution emerges at the threshold and acts as an attractor in the dynamical scalarization. In the descalarization, a marginally stable attractor exists at the threshold of the first order phase transition in shedding off black hole hair. This is a new type I critical phenomenon in the black hole phase transition. Implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of thermodynamic properties and perturbations for static solutions. We examine the effect of scalar-Ricci coupling on the hyperbolicity in the fully nonlinear evolution and find that such coupling can suppress the elliptic region and enlarge parameter space in computations.

In this note, we compare two different definitions for the cosmological perturbation $\zeta$ which is conserved on large scales and study their non-conservation on small scales. We derive an equation for the time evolution of the curvature perturbation on a uniform density slice through a calculation solely in longitudinal (conformal-Newtonian) gauge. The result is concise and compatible with that obtained via local conservation of energy-momentum tensor.

It was recently discovered that black holes have pressure coming from the nonlocal quantum gravity correction. This result is based on the fact that the black hole horizon does not receive a correction from the local and nonlocal action up to second order in curvature. We investigate this nonlocal correction for black holes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime and its dual boundary field theory. We show that the second order curvature and the nonlocal actions do not change the metric and, correspondingly, the black hole horizon. Thus, the interpretation of quantum pressure holds in the bulk for AdS black hole. We then show that the leading correction comes from the third order in curvature and explicitly calculate the corrections to the metric and to the horizon. For applications to AdS/CFT, we derived the explicit Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term along with the necessary counter terms to cancel the ultraviolet divergence of the bulk action. We then calculate the thermodynamic quantities in the bulk.

A hydrodynamic model for small acoustic oscillations in a cloud of stars is built with account of self-consistent gravitational field in equilibrium with zero first correlation moment and non-zero second one. It is assumed that the momentum flux density tensor should include the anisotropic pressure tensor and the second correlation moment of both longitudinal and transverse gravitational field strength. Non-relativistic time equation for the second correlation moment of the gravitational field strength is found from Einstein equations on the first order post-Newtonian approximation. One longitudinal and two transverse branches of acoustic oscillations in a homogeneous and isotropic star cloud are found. The requirement for the velocity of transverse oscillations to be zero gives the boundary condition of stability of the cloud. The critical radius of the spherical cloud of stars is obtained, being precisely consistent with the virial theorem.

In this paper, we consider an open system from the thermodynamic perspective for an adiabatic FRW universe model in which particle creation occurs within the system. In that case, the modified continuity equation is obtained and then we correspond it to the continuity equation of $f(T)$ gravity. So, we take $f(T)$ gravity with the viscous fluid in flat-FRW metric, in which $T$ is the torsion scalar. We consider the contents of the universe to be dark matter and dark energy and consider an interaction term between them. The interesting point of this study is that we make equivalent the modified continuity equation resulting from the particle creation with the matter continuity equation resulting from $f(T)$ gravity. The result of this evaluation creates a relationship between the number of particles and the scale factor. In what follows, we write the corresponding cosmological parameters in terms of the number of particles and also reconstruct the number of particles in terms of the redshift parameter, then We parameterize the Hubble parameter derived from power-law cosmology with 51 data from the Hubble observational parameter. Next, we plot the corresponding cosmological parameters for the dark energy in terms of the redshift to investigate the accelerated expansion of the universe. In addition, by using the sound speed parameter, we discuss the stability analysis and instability analysis of the present model in different eras of the universe. Finally, we plot the density parameter values for dark energy and dark matter in terms of the redshift parameter.

Given a function $f : A \to \mathbb{R}^n$ of a certain regularity defined on some open subset $A \subseteq \mathbb{R}^m$, it is a classical problem of analysis to investigate whether the function can be extended to all of $\mathbb{R}^m$ in a certain regularity class. If an extension exists and is continuous, then certainly it is uniquely determined on the closure of $A$. A similar problem arises in general relativity for Lorentzian manifolds instead of functions on $\mathbb{R}^m$. It is well-known, however, that even if the extension of a Lorentzian manifold $(M,g)$ is analytic, various choices are in general possible at the boundary. This paper establishes a uniqueness condition for extensions of globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifolds $(M,g)$ with a focus on low regularities: any two extensions which are anchored by an inextendible causal curve $\gamma : [-1,0) \to M$ in the sense that $\gamma$ has limit points in both extensions, must agree locally around those limit points on the boundary as long as the extensions are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. We also show that this is sharp: anchored extensions which are only H\"older continuous do in general not enjoy this local uniqueness result.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is an efficient tool to optimize the multiparameter tests of general relativity (GR) where one tests for simultaneous deviations in multiple post-Newtonian (PN) phasing coefficients by introducing fractional deformation parameters. We use PCA to construct the `best-measured' linear combinations of the PN deformation parameters from the data. This helps to set stringent limits on deviations from GR and detect possible beyond-GR physics. In this paper, we study the effectiveness of this method with the proposed next-generation gravitational wave detectors, Cosmic Explorer (CE) and Einstein Telescope (ET). Observation of compact binaries with total masses between 20-200 $\mathrm{M}_{\odot}$ in the detector frame and at a luminosity distance of 500 Mpc, CE can measure the three most dominant linear combinations to an accuracy better than 10%, and the most dominant one to better than 0.1%. For specific ranges of masses and linear combinations, constraints from ET are better by a few factors than CE. This improvement is because of the improved low frequency sensitivity of ET compared to CE (between 1-5 Hz). In addition, we explain the sensitivity of the PCA parameters to the different PN deformation parameters and discuss their variation with total mass. We also discuss a criterion for quantifying the number of most dominant linear combinations that capture the information in the signal up to a threshold.

Dense astrophysical environments like globular clusters and galactic nuclei can host hyperbolic encounters of black holes which can lead to gravitational-wave driven capture. There are several astrophysical models which predict a fraction of binary black hole mergers to come from these radiation-driven capture scenarios. In this paper we present the sensitivity of a search towards gravitational-wave driven capture events for O3, the third observing run of LIGO and Virgo. We use capture waveforms produced by numerical relativity simulations covering four different mass ratios and at least two different values of initial angular momentum per mass ratio. We employed the most generic search for short-duration transients in O3 to evaluate the search sensitivity in this parameter space for a wide range in total mass in terms of visible spacetime volume. From the visible spacetime volume we determine for the first time the merger rate upper limit of such systems. The most stringent estimate of rate upper limits at 90% confidence is $0.2~\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$ for an equal mass $200~M_\odot$ binary. Furthermore, we discuss the event GW190521 in the light of it being a capture event which has been suggested in recent studies. For the closest injection set corresponding to this event, we find that the lowest rate needed to detect one event at 90% confidence is $0.47~\mathrm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$.

Milne-like spacetimes are a class of hyperbolic FLRW spacetimes which admit continuous spacetime extensions through the big bang, $\tau = 0$. The existence of the extension follows from writing the metric in conformal Minkowskian coordinates and assuming that the scale factor satisfies $a(\tau) = \tau + o(\tau^{1+\varepsilon})$ as $\tau \to 0$ for some $\varepsilon > 0$. This asymptotic assumption implies $a(\tau) = \tau + o(\tau)$. In this paper, we show that $a(\tau) = \tau + o(\tau)$ is not sufficient to achieve an extension through $\tau = 0$, but it is necessary provided its derivative converges as $\tau \to 0$. We also show that the $\varepsilon$ in $a(\tau) = \tau + o(\tau^{1+\varepsilon})$ is not necessary to achieve an extension through $\tau = 0$.

Relaxing the Bondi gauge, the solution space of three-dimensional gravity in the metric formulation has been shown to contain an additional free function that promotes the boundary metric to a Lorentz or Carroll frame, in asymptotically AdS or flat spacetimes. We pursue this analysis and show that the solution space also admits a finite symplectic structure, obtained taking advantage of the built-in ambiguities. The smoothness of the flat limit of the AdS symplectic structure selects a prescription in which the holographic anomaly appears in the boundary Lorentz symmetry, that rotates the frame. This anomaly turns out to be cohomologically equivalent to the standard holographic Weyl anomaly and survives in the flat limit, thus predicting the existence of quantum anomalies in conformal Carrollian field theories. We also revisit these results in the Chern--Simons formulation, where the prescription for the symplectic structure admitting a smooth flat limit follows from the variational principle, and we compute the charge algebra in the boundary conformal gauge.

We exhibit all spatially isotropic homogeneous galilean spacetimes of dimension $(n+1) \geq 4$, including the novel torsional ones, as null reductions of homogeneous pp-wave spacetimes. We also show that the pp-waves are sourced by pure radiation fields and analyse their global properties.

The recently proposed restricted phase space thermodynamics is shown to be applicable to a large class of higher dimensional higher curvature gravity models coupled to Maxwell field, which are known as black hole scan models and are labeled by the spacetime dimension $d$ and the highest order $k$ of the Lanczos-Lovelock densities appearing in the action. Three typical example cases with $(d,k)=(5,1), (5,2)$ and $(6,2)$ are chosen as example cases and studied in some detail. These cases are representatives of Einstein-Hilbert, Chern-Simons and Born-Infield like gravity models. Our study indicates that the Einstein-Hilbert and Born-Infield like gravity models have similar thermodynamic behaviors, e.g. the existence of isocharge $T-S$ phase transitions with the same critical exponents, the existence of isovoltage $T-S$ transitions and the Hawking-Page like transitions, and the similar high temperature asymptotic behaviors for the isocharge heat capacities, etc. However, the Chern-Simons like $(5,2)$-model behaves quite differently. Neither isocharge nor isovoltage $T-S$ transitions could occur and no Hawking-Page like transition is allowed. This seems to indicate that the Einstein-Hilbert and Born-Infield like models belong to the same universality class while the Chern-Simons like models do not.

We construct quantum geometrically realised spectral triples or `Dirac operators' on the noncommutative torus $\Bbb C_\theta[T^2]$ and on the algebra $M_2(\Bbb C)$ of $2\times 2$ matrices, in both cases with their standard 2D differential calculus, a particular quantum metric and a quantum Levi-Civita connection, as well as more general connections. We derive the required form of Clifford algebra and 2-spinor bundle connection compatible with the quantum Riemannian geometry. In the case of the noncommutative torus, we obtain a standard even spectral triple but now uniquely determined by geometric realisability. In the case of $M_2(\Bbb C)$, we obtain natural even spectral tripes with 2 real parameters and a specific curved quantum Levi-Civita connection.

Working within the approximation of small amplitude expansion, recently an entropy current has been constructed on the horizons of dynamical black hole solution in any higher derivative theory of gravity. In this note, we have dualized this horizon entropy current to a boundary entropy current in an asymptotically AdS black hole metric with a dual description in terms of dynamical fluids living on the AdS boundary. This boundary entropy current is constructed using a set of mapping functions relating each point on the horizon to a point on the boundary. We have applied our construction to black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory. We have seen that up to the first order in derivative expansion, Gauss-Bonnet terms do not add any extra corrections to fluid entropy as expected. However, at the second order in derivative expansion, the boundary current will non-trivially depend on how we choose our horizon to boundary map, which need not be expressible entirely in terms of fluid variables. So generically, the boundary entropy current generated by dualizing the horizon current will not admit a fluid dynamical description.