We study matter density perturbations up to third order and the one-loop matter power spectrum in degenerate higher-order scalar-tensor (DHOST) theories beyond Horndeski. We systematically solve gravitational field equations and fluid equations order by order, and find three novel shape functions characterizing the third-order solution in DHOST theories. A complete form of the one-loop matter power spectrum is then obtained using the resultant second- and third-order solutions. We confirm the previous result that the convergence condition of the loop integrals in the infrared limit becomes more stringent than that of the standard one in general relativity. We show that also in the ultraviolet limit the convergence condition becomes more stringent and the one-loop matter power spectrum is thus sensitive to the short-wavelength behavior of the linear power spectrum.

KAGRA is a newly build gravitational-wave observatory, a laser interferometer with 3 km arm length, located in Kamioka, Gifu, Japan. In this paper in the series of KAGRA-featured articles, we discuss the science targets of KAGRA projects, considering not only the baseline KAGRA (current design) but also its future upgrade candidates (KAGRA+) for the near to middle term (~5 years).

In the last few decades, lots of universal relations between different global physical quantities of neutron stars have been proposed to constrain the unobservable or hard to be observed properties of neutron stars. But few of them are related to the gravitational redshift or the gravitational binding energy, especially for the fast rotating neutron stars. Here we will focus on the universal relations related to these two quantities. Based on 11 equations of state (EOSs) from the predictions of microscopic nuclear many-body theories for normal or hybrid neutron stars, we proposed a set of new quasi-universal relations under three rotating cases: static, general rotating and Keplerian rotating. These new quasi-universal relations provide a potential way to constrain or estimate the unobservable or hard to be observed properties of neutron stars.

We introduce a new coupling between stress tensors of the CFTs living on the two boundaries of the BTZ black hole. Similar to the $T \bar{T}$-deformation, the system exhibits universal properties and is solvable. The resulting geometry is an extreme case of a wormhole with the right and left BTZ wedges glued together along the horizons. We show that the geometry is realized by uniform shock waves emanating from both asymptotic boundaries. The construction has profound implications for the structure of the Hilbert space of states of the dual QFT.

We have studied scattering of a probe particle by a four dimensional AdS-Schwarzschild black hole at large impact factor. Our analysis is consistent perturbatively to leading order in the AdS radius and black hole mass parameter. Next we define a proper "soft limit" of the radiation and extract out the "soft factor" from it. We find the correction to the well known flat space Classical Soft graviton theorem due to the presence of an AdS background.

We construct the free Lagrangian of the magnetic sector of Carrollian electrodynamics, which surprisingly, is not obtainable as an ultra-relativistic limit of Maxwellian Electrodynamics. The construction relies on Helmholtz integrability condition for differential equations in a self consistent algorithm working hand in hand with imposing invariance under infinite dimensional Conformal Carroll algebra (CCA). It requires inclusion of new fields in the dynamics and the system in free of gauge redundancies. We calculate two-point functions in the free theory based entirely on symmetry principles. We next add interaction (quartic) terms to the free Lagrangian, strictly constrained by conformal invariance and Carrollian symmetry. Finally, a successful dynamical realization of infinite dimensional CCA is presented at the level of charges, for the interacting theory. In conclusion, we calculate the Poisson brackets for these charges.

In the context of cosmography approach and using the data of Hubble diagram for supernovae, quasars and gamma-ray bursts, we study some DE parametrizations and also the concordance $\Lambda$CDM universe. Using the different combinations of data sample including ({\it i}) supernovae (Pantheon), ({\it ii}) Pantheon + quasars and ({\it iii}) Pantheon + quasars + gamma-ray bursts and applying the minimization of $\chi^2$ function of distance modulus of data samples in the context of Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we first obtain the constrained values of the cosmographic parameters in model independent cosmography scenario. We then investigate our analysis, for different concordance $\Lambda$CDM cosmology, $w$CDM, CPL and Pade parametrizations. Comparing the numerical values of the cosmographic parameters obtained for DE scenarios with those of the model independent method, we show that the concordance $\Lambda$CDM model has a serious tension when we involve the quasars and gamma-ray bursts data in our analysis. While the high redshift quasars and gamma-ray bursts can falsify the concordance model, our results of cosmography approach indicate that the other DE parametrizations are still consistent with these observations.

An explicit form for the geodesic equations that would describe diffracted light rays is obtained and the Levi-Civita connection that enters into it is shown to be a sum of contributions from the metric of the ambient space, the index of refraction of the optical medium, and diffraction effects. The nature of the problem of obtaining explicit forms for the diffraction correction in various problems of interest to optics is discussed briefly.

We numerically study the topologically twisted index of several three-dimensional supersymmetric field theories on a genus $g$ Riemann surface times a circle, $\Sigma_g\times S^1$. We show that for a large class of theories with leading term of the order $N^{3/2}$, where $N$ is generically the rank of the gauge group, there is a universal logarithmic correction of the form $\frac{g-1}{2} \log N$. We explain how this logarithmic subleading correction can be obtained as a one-loop effect on the dual supergravity theory for magnetically charged, asymptotically AdS$_4\times M^7$ black holes for a large class of Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, $M^7$. The matching of the logarithmic correction relies on a generic cohomological property of $M^7$ and it is independent of the black hole charges. We argue that our supergravity results apply also to rotating, electrically charged asymptotically AdS$_4\times M^7$ black holes. We present explicitly the quiver gauge theories and the gravity side corresponding to $M^7=N^{0,1,0}, V^{5,2}$ and $Q^{1,1,1}$.

An observational tension on estimates of the Hubble parameter, $H_0$, using early and late Universe information, is being of intense discussion in the literature. Additionally, it is of great importance to measure $H_0$ independently of CMB data and local distance ladder method. In this sense, we analyze 15 measurements of the transversal BAO scale, $\theta_{\rm BAO}$, obtained in a weakly model-dependent approach, in combination with other data sets obtained in a model-independent way, namely, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) information, 6 gravitationally lensed quasars with measured time delays by the H0LiCOW team, and measures of cosmic chronometers (CC). We find $H_0 = 74.88_{-2.1}^{+1.9}$ km s${}^{-1}$ Mpc${}^{-1}$ and $H_0 = 72.06_{-1.3}^{+1.2}$ km s${}^{-1}$ Mpc${}^{-1}$ from $\theta_{BAO}$+BBN+H0LiCOW and $\theta_{BAO}$+BBN+CC, respectively, in fully accordance with local measurements. Moreover, we estimate the sound horizon at drag epoch, $r_{\rm d}$, independent of CMB data, and find $r_{\rm d}=144.1_{-5.5}^{+5.3}$ Mpc (from $\theta_{BAO}$+BBN+H0LiCOW) and $r_{\rm d} =150.4_{-3.3}^{+2.7}$ Mpc (from $\theta_{BAO}$+BBN+CC). In a second round of analysis, we test how the presence of a possible spatial curvature, $\Omega_k$, can influence the main results. We compare our constraints on $H_0$ and $r_{\rm d}$ with other reported values. Our results show that it is possible to use a robust compilation of transversal BAO data, $\theta_{BAO}$, jointly with model-independent measurements, in such a way that the tension on the Hubble parameter disappears.

The concept of out-of-time-ordered correlation (OTOC) function is treated as a very strong theoretical probe of quantum randomness, using which one can study both chaotic and non-chaotic phenomena in the context of quantum statistical mechanics. In this paper, we define a general class of OTOC, which can perfectly capture quantum randomness phenomena in a better way. Further we demonstrate an equivalent formalism of computation using a general time independent Hamiltonian having well defined eigenstate representation for integrable supersymmetric quantum systems. We found that one needs to consider two new correlators apart from the usual one to have a complete quantum description. To visualize the impact of the given formalism we consider the two well known models viz. Harmonic Oscillator and one dimensional potential well within the framework of supersymmetry. For the Harmonic Oscillator case we obtain similar periodic time dependence but dissimilar parameter dependences compared to the results obtained from both micro-canonical and canonical ensembles in quantum mechanics without supersymmetry. On the other hand, for one dimensional potential well problem we found significantly different time scale and the other parameter dependence compared to the results obtained from non-supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, to establish the consistency of the prescribed formalism in the classical limit, we demonstrate the phase space averaged version of the classical version of OTOCs from a model independent Hamiltonian along with the previously mentioned these well cited models.

We compare primordial black hole (PBH) constraints on the power spectrum and mass distributions using the traditional Press Schechter formalism, peaks theory, and a recently developed version of peaks theory relevant to PBHs. We show that, provided the PBH formation criteria and the power spectrum smoothing are treated consistently, the constraints only vary by $\sim$10\% between methods (a difference that will become increasingly important with better data). Our robust constraints from PBHs take into account the effects of critical collapse, the non-linear relation between $\zeta$ and $\delta$, and the shift from the PBH mass to the power spectrum peak scale. We show that these constraints are remarkably similar to the pulsar timing array (PTA) constraints impacting the black hole masses detected by the LIGO and Virgo, but that the $\mu$-distortion constraints rule out supermassive black hole (SMBH) formation and potentially even the much lighter mass range of $\sim$(1-100) $\mathrm{M}_\odot$ that LIGO/Virgo probes.