We study the stability of static, spherically symmetric solutions of Rastall's theory in the presence of a scalar field with respect to spherically symmetric perturbations. It is shown that the stability analysis is inconsistent in the sense that linear time-dependent perturbations cannot exist, and we can conclude that these solutions are stable. Possible reasons for this inconsistency are discussed.

We present a generalization of Rastall's gravity in which the conservation law of the energy-moment tensor is altered, and as a result, the trace of the energy-moment tensor is taken into account together with the Ricci scalar in the expression for the covariant derivative. Afterwards, we obtain the field equation in this theory and solve it by considering a spherically symmetric space-time. We show that the external solution has two possible classes of solutions with spherical symmetry in the vacuum in generalized Rastall's gravity. The first class of solutions is completely equivalent to the Schwarzschild solution, while the second class of solutions has the same structure as the Schwarzschild--de Sitter solution in general relativity. The generalization, in contrast to constant value $k=8\pi G$ in general relativity, has a gravitational parameter $k$ that depends on the energy density $\rho$. As an application, we perform a careful analysis of the effects of the theory on neutron stars using realistic equations of state (EoS) as inputs. Our results show that important differences on the profile of neutron stars are obtained within two representatives EoS.

The next-to-leading order correction is studied numerically in the large-$j$ expansion of the Lorentzian Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) 4-simplex amplitude. We perform large-$j$ expansions of Lorentzian EPRL 4-simplex amplitudes with two different types of boundary states: coherent intertwiners and the coherent spin-network, and we compute numerically leading order and next-to-leading $O(1/j)$ contributions of these amplitudes. Dependences of their $O(1/j)$ corrections on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter $\gamma$ are studied, and we show that they, as functions of $\gamma$, stabilize to finite real constants as $\gamma\to\infty$. In addition, we obtain quantum corrections to the Regge action from the $O(1/j)$ contribution of the spinfoam amplitude.

We study thermodynamics of the four-dimensional Kerr-Sen-AdS black hole and its ultra-spinning counterpart, and verify that both black holes fullfil the first law and Bekenstein-Smarr mass formulae of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, we derive new Christodoulou-Ruffini-like squared-mass formulae for the usual and ultra-spinning Kerr-Sen-AdS$_4$ solutions. We show that this ultra-spinning Kerr-Sen-AdS$_4$ black hole does not always violate the Reverse Isoperimetric Inequality (RII) since the value of the isoperimetric ratio can be larger/smaller than, or equal to unity, depending upon where the solution parameters lie in the parameters space. This property is obviously different from that of the Kerr-Newman-AdS$_4$ super-entropic black hole, which always strictly violates the RII, although both of them have some similar properties in other aspects, such as horizon geometry and conformal boundary. In addition, it is found that while there exists the same lower bound on mass ($m_e \geqslant 8l/\sqrt{27}$ with $l$ being the cosmological scale) both for the extremal ultra-spinning Kerr-Sen-AdS$_4$ black hole and for the extremal super-entropic Kerr-Newman-AdS$_4$ case, the former has a maximal horizon radius: $r_{\rm\, HP} = l/\sqrt{3}$ which is the minimum of the latter. Therefore, these two different kinds of four-dimensional ultra-spinning charged AdS black holes exhibit some significant physical differences .

The production of GWs during preheating in the Starobinsky model with a nonminimally coupled auxiliary scalar field is studied through the lattice simulation in this paper. We find that the GW spectrum $\Omega_{\rm gw}$ grows fast with the increase of the absolute value of coupling parameter $\xi$. This is because the resonant bands become broad with the increase of $|\xi|$. When $\xi<0$, $\Omega_{\rm gw}$ begins to grow once the inflation ends and grows faster than the case of $\xi>0$. $\Omega_{\rm gw}$ reaches the maximum at $\xi=-20$ ($\xi=42$ for the case $\xi>0$) and then decreases with slight oscillation. Furthermore we find that the GWs produced in the era of preheating satisfy the limits from the Planck and next-generation CMB experiments.

We study the inflationary phenomenology of a non-minimally coupled Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity theory, in the presence of a scalar potential, under the condition that the gravitational wave speed of the primordial gravitational waves is equal to unity, that is $c_T^2=1$, in natural units. The equations of motion, which are derived directly from the gravitational action, form a system of differential equations with respect to Hubble's parameter and the inflaton field which are very complicated and cannot be solved analytically, even in the minimal coupling case. In this paper, we present a variety of different approximations which could be used, along with the constraint $c_T^2=1$, in order to produce an inflationary phenomenology compatible with recent observations. All the different approaches are able to lead to viable results if the model coupling functions obey simple relations, however, different approaches contain different approximations which must be obeyed during the first horizon crossing, in order for the model to be rendered correct. Models which may lead to a non-viable phenomenology are presented as well in order to understand better the inner framework of this theory. Furthermore, since the velocity of the gravitational waves is set equal to $c_T^2=1$, as stated by the striking event of GW170817 recently, the non-minimal coupling function, the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupling and the scalar potential are related to each other. Here, we shall assume no particular form of the scalar potential and we choose freely the scalar functions coupled to the Ricci scalar and the Gauss-Bonnet invariant. Certain models are also studied in order to assess the phenomenological validity of the theory, but we need to note that all approximations must hold true in order for a particular model to be valid.

We consider an inflationary scenario in the holographic braneworld with a cosmological fluid occupying the 3+1 dimensional brane located at the holographic boundary of an asymptotic ADS$_5$ bulk. The contribution of the boundary conformal field can be represented as a modification of Einstein's equations on the boundary. Using these effective Einstein equations we calculate the cosmological perturbations and derive the corresponding power spectra assuming a general $k$-essence type of inflaton. We find that the braneworld scenario affects the scalar power spectrum only in the speed of sound dependence on the slow-roll parameters whereas there is no change in the tensor power spectrum. This implies that the changes in the spectral indices appear at the second order in the slow-roll parameter expansion.

Constraints on a dark energy dominated Universe are obtained from an interplay between Bayesian Machine Learning and string Swampland criteria. The approach here differs from previous studies, since in the generative process Swampland criteria are used and, only later, the results of the fit are validated, by using observational data-sets. A generative process based Bayesian Learning approach is applied to two models and the results are validated by means of available $H(z)$ data. For the first model, a parametrization of the Hubble constant is considered and, for the second, a parametrization of the deceleration parameter. This study is motivated by a recent work, where constraints on string Swampland criteria have been obtained from a Gaussian Process and $H(z)$ data. However, the results obtained here are fully independent of the observational data and allow to estimate how the high-redshift behavior of the Universe will affect the low-redshift one. Moreover, both parameterizations in the generative process, for the Hubble and for the deceleration parameters, are independent of the dark energy model. The outcome, both data- and dark energy model-independent, may highlight, in the future, the borders of the Swampland for the low-redshift Universe and help to develop new string-theory motivated dark-energy models. The string Swampland criteria considered might be in tension with recent observations indicating that phantom dark energy cannot be in the Swampland. Finally, a spontaneous sign switch in the dark energy equation of state parameter is observed when the field traverses are in the $z\in[0,5]$ redshift range, a remarkable phenomenon requiring further analysis.

We investigate the gravitational particle production in the bounce phase of Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC). We perform both analytical and numerical analysis of the particle production process in a LQC scenario with Bunch-Davies vacuum initial condition in the contracting phase. We obtain that if we extend the validity of the dressed metric approach beyond the limit of small backreaction in which it is well justified, this process would lead to a radiation dominated phase in the pre-inflationary phase of LQC. Our results indicate that the test field approximation, which is required in the truncation scheme used in the dressed metric approach, might not be a valid assumption in a LQC scenario with such initial conditions.

Current study is focussed to discuss the existence of a new family of compact star solutions by adopting the Karmarkar condition in the background of Bardeen black hole geometry. For this purpose, we consider static spherically symmetric spacetime with anisotropic fluid distribution in the presence of electric charge. We consider a specific model of $g_{rr}$ metric function, to describe a new family of solutions which satisfies the Karmarkar condition. Further, we investigate the interior solutions for two different models of compact stars with observational mass and radii, i.e., $(M=1.77M_{\odot}, \;R_{b}=9.56km)$ and $(M=1.97M_{\odot}, \;R_{b}=10.3km)$. It is found that these solutions fulfill all the necessary conditions for a charged star. Through graphical discussion, it is noticed that our calculated solutions are physically arguable with a best degree of accuracy for $n\in[1.8,7)$, where parameter $n$ is involved in the model under discussion. However, it is perceived that the presented model violates all the physical conditions for $n\in\{2,4,6\}$. Finally, it is concluded that the parameter $n$ has a strong impact on the obtained solutions in the context of Bardeen stellar structures.

In the present work, we adopt a nonlinear scalar field theory coupled to the gravity sector to model galactic dark matter. We found analytical solutions for the scalar field coupled to gravity in the Newtonian limit, assuming an isotropic spacetime and a field potential, with a position dependent form of the superpotential, which entails the nonlinear dynamics of the model with self-interactions. The model introduces a position dependent enhancement of the self-interaction of the scalar fields towards the galaxy center, and while going towards the galaxy border the interaction tends to vanish building a non self-interacting DM scenario. The developed approach is able to provide a reasonable analytical description of the rotation curves in both dwarf and low surface brightness late-type galaxies, with parameters associated with the dynamics of the scalar field.

Based on the first-order action for scalar-tensor theories with the Immirzi parameter, the symplectic form for the spacetimes admitting a weakly isolated horizon as internal boundary is derived by the covariant phase space approach. The first law of thermodynamics for the weakly isolated horizons with rotational symmetry is obtained. It turns out that the Immirzi parameter appears in the expression of the angular momentum of isolated horizon, and the scalar field contributes to the horizon entropy.

We elaborate on the proposal of [Phys. Rev. Lett. 123 (2019) 13, 131302], about the hiding of the cosmological constant. We build a differential equation ruling the time evolution of the spatial average of the expansion scalar $\langle K\rangle$. Under certain conditions for the lapse function $N$ a solution $\langle K\rangle = 0$ might exist, despite the presence of a large cosmological constant $\Lambda$. However, we show that such solution is not stable.

The famous hoop conjecture by Thorne has been claimed to be\ violated in curved spacetimes coupled to linear electrodynamics. Hod \cite{Hod:2018} has recently refuted this claim by clarifying the status and validity of the conjecture appropriately interpreting the gravitational mass parameter $M$. However, it turns out that partial violations of the conjecture might seemingly occur also in the well known regular curved spacetimes of gravity coupled to \textit{nonlinear electrodynamic}s. Using the interpretation of $M$ in a generic form accommodating nonlinear electrodynamic coupling, we illustrate a novel extension that the hoop conjecture is \textit{not} violated even in such curved spacetimes. We introduce a Hod function summarizing the hoop conjecture and find that it surprisingly encapsulates the transition regimes between "horizon and no horizon" across the critical values determined essentially by the concerned curved geometries.

The quantum origin of cosmological primordial perturbations is a cornerstone framework in the interplay between gravity and quantum physics. In this paper we study the mutual information between two spatial regions in a radiation-dominated universe filled by a curvature perturbation field in a squeezed state. We find an enhancement with respect to the usual mutual information of the Minkowski vacuum due to momentum modes affected by particle production during inflation. This result supports our previous claim of the existence of quantum entanglement between Primordial Black Holes (PBH) at formation during the radiation era.

We address the problem of deriving the post-Minkowskian approximation, widely used in current gravitational wave literature by investigating a possible deduction out of the recursive N\"other coupling approach, from the Pauli-Fierz spin 2 theory in flat spacetime. We find that this approach yields the post-Minkowskian approximation correctly to the first three orders, without invoking any weak-field limit of general relativity. This connection thus establishes that the post-Minkowskian approximation has a connotation independent of a weak-field expansion of general relativity, which is the manner it is usually presented in the literature. As a consequence, a link manifests between the recursive N\"other coupling approach to deriving general relativity from a linear spin 2 theory in flat spacetime, and theoretical analyses of recent detection of gravitational wave events.

We investigate the first law of thermodynamics in the stationary axisymmetric configurations composed of two Kerr black holes separated by a massless strut. Our analysis employs the recent results obtained for the extended double-Kerr solution and for thermodynamics of the static single and binary black holes. We show that, similar to the electrostatic case, in the stationary binary systems the thermodynamic length $\ell$ is defined by the formula $\ell=L\exp(\gamma_0)$, where $L$ is the coordinate length of the strut, and $\gamma_0$ is the value of the metric function $\gamma$ on the strut.

Gravitational wave observations of the near-horizon region of black holes lend insight into the quantum nature of gravity. In particular, gravitational wave echoes have been identified as a potential signature of quantum gravity-inspired structure near the horizon. In this paper, we connect such observables to the language of black hole microstates in string theory and holography. To that end, we propose a toy model describing the AdS$_3$ near-horizon region of five-dimensional black holes, inspired by earlier work of Solodukhin. This model captures key features of recently constructed microstate geometries, and allows us to make three observations. First, we relate the language of AdS/CFT, in particular the holographic retarded two-point correlator, to effective parameters modeling the structure that are used in flat space gravitational wave literature. Second, we find that for a typical microstate, the `cap' of the microstructure is exponentially close to the horizon, making it an effective sub-Planckian correction to the black hole geometry, although the microstate geometry itself is classical. Third, using a microcanonical ensemble average over geometries, we find support for the claim that the gravitational wave echo amplitude in a typical quantum microstate of the black hole is exponentially suppressed by the black hole entropy.

We apply the recently developed formalism by Kosower, Maybee and O'Connell (KMO) to analyse the soft electromagnetic and soft gravitational radiation emitted by particles without spin in Four and higher dimensions. We use this formalism in conjunction with quantum soft theorems to derive radiative electro-magnetic and gravitational fields in low frequency expansion and to next to leading order in the coupling. We show that in all dimensions, the classical limit of sub-leading soft (photon and graviton) theorems is consistent with the classical soft theorems proved by Sen et al in a series of papers. In particular Saha, Sahoo and Sen proved classical soft theorems for electro-magnetic and gravitational radiation in Four dimensions. For the class of scattering processes that can be analyzed using KMO formalism, we show that the classical limit of quantum soft theorems is consistent with these classical soft theorems, paving the way for their proof from scattering amplitudes.

The shape of a neutron star (NS) is closely linked to its internal structure and the equation of state of supranuclear matters. A rapidly rotating, asymmetric NS in the Milky Way undergoes free precession, making it a potential source for multimessenger observation. The free precession could manifest in (i) the spectra of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) in the kilohertz band for ground-based GW detectors, and (ii) the timing behavior and pulse-profile characteristics if the NS is monitored as a pulsar with radio and/or X-ray telescopes. We extend previous work and investigate in great detail the free precession of a triaxially deformed NS with analytical and numerical approaches. In particular, its associated continuous GWs and pulse signals are derived. Explicit examples are illustrated for the continuous GWs, as well as timing residuals in both time and frequency domains. These results are ready to be used for future multimessenger observation of triaxially-deformed freely-precessing NSs, in order to extract scientific implication as much as possible.

With a view to understanding extended-BMS symmetries in the framework of the $AdS_4/CFT_3$ correspondence, asymptotically AdS geometries are constructed with null impulsive shockwaves involving a discontinuity in superrotation parameters. The holographic dual is proposed to be a two-dimensional Euclidean defect conformal field localized on a particular timeslice in a three-dimensional conformal field theory on de Sitter spacetime. The defect conformal field theory generates a natural action of the Virasoro algebra. The large radius of curvature limit $\ell\to\infty$ yields spacetimes with nontrivial extended-BMS charges.

The planned sensitivity upgrades to the LIGO and Virgo facilities could uniquely identify host galaxies of dark sirens-compact binary coalescences without any electromagnetic counterparts-within a redshift of z = 0.1. This is aided by the higher order spherical harmonic modes present in the gravitational-wave signal, which also improve distance estimation. In conjunction, sensitivity upgrades and higher modes will facilitate an accurate, independent measurement of the host galaxy's redshift in addition to the luminosity distance from the gravitational wave observation to infer the Hubble-Lema\^itre constant H0 to better than a few percent in five years. A possible Voyager upgrade or third generation facilities would further solidify the role of dark sirens for precision cosmology in the future.

The Phenomenologically Emergent Dark Energy model, a dark energy model with the same number of free parameters as the flat $\Lambda$CDM, has been proposed as a working example of a minimal model which can avoid the current cosmological tensions. A straightforward question is whether or not the inclusion of massive neutrinos and extra relativistic species may spoil such an appealing phenomenological alternative. We present the bounds on $M_{\nu}$ and $N_{\rm eff}$ and comment on the long standing $H_0$ and $\sigma_8$ tensions within this cosmological framework with a wealth of cosmological observations. Interestingly, we find, at $95\%$ confidence level, and with the most complete set of cosmological observations, $M_{\nu}\sim 0.21^{+0.15}_{-0.14}$ eV and $N_{\rm eff}= 3.03\pm 0.32$ i.e. an indication for a non-zero neutrino mass with a significance above $2\sigma$. The well known Hubble constant tension is considerably easened, with a significance always below the $2\sigma$ level.