We construct the gravitational energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of up to fourth-order conformally invariant theories of gravity. Then we linearize the pseudo-tensor and use its average over a macroscopic region to find the energy and momentum carried by the plane gravitational waves of the three main conformally invariant theories of gravity.

In this work, we consider the corrections to the cosmological models based on the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity induced by the non-minimal coupling between scalar field and torsion. To determine these corrections, we consider a power-law parametrization of the deviations between the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and the scalar-torsion gravity. The estimates of the possible influence of the non-minimal coupling of the scalar field and torsion on the background cosmological parameters and the parameters of cosmological perturbations for the inflationary models implying linear relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio and spectral index of the scalar perturbations are obtained. A procedure for verifying these inflationary models based on observational constraints on the values of cosmological perturbation parameters is also considered.

It is shown that an exactly static black hole event horizon cannot be embedded in a time-dependent geometry. Forcing it to do so results in a naked null singularity at the would-be horizon. Therefore, since the universe is expanding, black holes must couple to the cosmological expansion, which was suggested as the growth mechanism for supermassive black holes in galaxies, with implications for the dark energy puzzle.

In this paper, employing the exponential corrected entropy (Chatterjee and Ghosh in Phys Rev Lett 125:041302, 2020), we derive the modified Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics at apparent horizon and Verlinde's entropic gravity scenario. First, we derive the modified Friedmann equations from the first law of thermodynamics. We investigate the validity of generalised second law (GSL) of thermodynamics and find that it is always satisfied for the all eras of universe. Moreover, we investigate the deceleration parameter for the case $k=0$ in two frameworks. Finally, we numerically study the bouncing behaviour for the modified Friedmann equations obtained from entropic gravity. The results indicate that the bouncing behaviour is possible for the cases $k=1$ and $k=-1$.

Revisiting Einstein's gravitational theory, we build a five-dimensional braneworld. Within this framework, one announces the appearance of symmetric and asymmetric domain walls. Furthermore, it examines the emergent four-dimensional gravity from a theory with non-canonical dynamics. Exploring the physical and mathematical aspects, e.g., brane's energy density and the Kaluza-Klein (KK) spectrum, one verifies that brane splitting is absent in the canonical and non-canonical theories. Additionally, we note the localization of the four-dimensional fluctuation projection on the 3-branes, which ensures the theory's stability. Thereby, one can conclude that the behavior of gravitational perturbations of the domain wall maintains a profile similar to a stable and non-localizable tower of massive modes. In contrast, within the brane core, the matter sector generates new barriers and potential wells, resulting in massive modes with approximately symmetric amplitudes. However, the non-canonical dynamics generate massive modes with asymmetric amplitudes far from the 3-brane.

We investigate two classes of non-minimally coupled curvature-matter models in the FLRW universe with a perfect fluid and analyze their cosmological implications using Supernova Ia, Observed Hubble Data, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillation measurements. Non-minimal coupling is introduced via an additional term $\int d^4x \sqrt{-g} \mathcal{G}({\cal L}_{m}) f_2(R)$ in the Einstein-Hilbert action. To obtain observational constraints, we use an exponential-type fluid-pressure profile $p = p_0e^{ak}$ characterized by the dimensionless parameter $k$ and parameterize $f_2(R)$ as $R^n$ with another dimensionless parameter $n$. Two additional parameters, $\alpha$ and $\beta$ in the functional form of $\mathcal{G}({\cal L}_{m})$ determine the coupling strength. We identify significant regions in the $(n, k)$-parameter space for fixed coupling strength values where non-minimally coupled models align with observed late-time cosmic evolution. Additionally, we explore and discuss features of energy transfer between the curvature and matter sectors using observational data.

This article delves into the observational signatures and theoretical underpinnings of rotating astrophysical objects, with a particular focus on superspinars -exotic objects characterized by preventing the formation of event horizons due to their high angular momentum. While solutions within General Relativity (Kerr superspinars) predict such objects, their classical forms harbor naked singularities, violate causality, and exhibit problematic repulsive gravitational effects. These characteristics render classical superspinars theoretically objectionable, leading to the consideration of them as physically implausible. On the other hand, the incompatibility between General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics suggests the exploration of alternative models, particularly those in which Quantum Gravity dominates the core, yielding regular superspinars. This work demonstrates that regular superspinars avoid all the complications associated with Kerr superspinars. From a phenomenological standpoint, it is shown that the silhouettes of regular superspinars are markedly distinct from those of black holes and classical Kerr superspinars. To substantiate these differences, we perform a comprehensive analysis of inner null geodesics and investigate the structure of the Planckian region within regular superspinars. Our study reveals that only regular superspinars provide the potential for distant observers to directly observe the extremely high curvature regions within their interiors.

We investigate gravitational waves generated in $f(Q,B)$ non-metric gravity, i.e., a theory of gravity described by a non-metric compatible connection, free of torsion and curvature. It is an extension of symmetric teleparallel gravity, equipped with a boundary term $B$. This theory exhibits gravitational waves regardless of the gauge adopted: they are the standard massless tensors plus a massive scalar gravitational wave like in the case of $f(R)$ gravity. It is precisely the boundary term $B$ that generates the massive scalar mode with an effective mass $m_{B}$ associated to a Klein-Gordon equation in the linearized boundary term. As in $f(Q)$ gravity also in $f(Q,B)$ non-metric gravity, a free test particle follows a geodesic motion due to the covariant conservation with respect to the Levi-Civita connection of the energy and momentum densities on shell. Therefore, in $f(Q,B)$ gravity, the proper acceleration between two neighboring worldlines traveled by two free point-like particle is governed by a first-order geodesic deviation equation in the metric perturbation $h_{\mu\nu}$. Thanks to this approximate linear equation, $f(Q,B)$ non-metric gravity shows three polarization modes: two massless transverse tensor radiation modes, with helicity equal to 2, reproducing the standard plus and cross modes, exactly as in General Relativity, and an additional massive scalar wave mode with transverse polarization of zero helicity. We obtain the same result both by considering the coincidence gauge and by leaving the gauge free. In summary, three degrees of freedom propagate in the $f(Q,B)$ linearized theory with amplitudes $\tilde{h}^{(+)}$ and $\tilde{h}^{(\times)}$ for tensor modes and amplitude $\tilde{h}^{(s)}$ for the scalar mode. Specifically, both $f(Q,B)$ and $f(R)$ gravity involve the same massive transverse scalar perturbation.

The criterion for existence of gravitational radiation at conformal infinity in the presence of a positive cosmological constant is applied to a general family of exact solutions representing generic (pairs of) black holes of algebraic type D. Our analysis shows that only accelerating black holes generate gravitational radiation measurable at infinity. This very satisfactory result confirms the goodness of the criterion. To that end, a new metric form of the family of exact type D black holes is constructed -- including any cosmological constant and a (double-aligned) non-null electromagnetic field -- whose expression is suitable for investigation of the asymptotic structure of this large family of spacetimes. The family depends on seven physical parameters, namely $m$, $a$, $l$, $\alpha$, $e$, $g$, and $\Lambda$ that characterize mass, specific angular momentum parameter, NUT parameter, acceleration, electric and magnetic charges, and the cosmological constant, respectively.

We propose a toy model of a spherical universe made up of an exotic dark gas with temperature $T$ in thermal equilibrium with a black-body in adiabatic expansion. Each particle of this exotic gas mimics a kind of particle of dark energy represented by the vacuum energy, being quantized into virtual particles with extremely small masses that form such gas representng the own tissue of the expanding space-time governed by a negative pressure whose origin is the equation of state (EOS) of vacuum, i.e., $p=-\rho$, where $\rho$ is the vacuum energy density. So, each vacuum particle occupies a tiny area of space so-called Planck area $L_p^{2}$, which represents the minimum area of the whole space-time given by the spherical surface with area $4\pi R_H^2$, where $R_H$ is the Hubble radius. We realize that such spherical surface is the surface of the black-body for representing the dark universe as if it were the surface of an expanding balloon. Thus, we are able to derive the law of universal gravitation, thus leading us to understand the cosmological anti-gravity. We estimate the very small order of magnitude of the cosmological constant and the acceleration of expansion of the dark sphere. In this toy model, as the dark universe can be thought of as a large black body, when we obtain its power and frequency of emission of radiation, we find very low values. We conclude that such radiation and frequency of the black body made up of dark energy is a background gravitational wave with very low frequency in the order of $10^{-17}$Hz due to the slight stretching of the fabric of space-time.

A geometric definition of news tensor on null hypersurfaces in four space-time dimensions is presented. When the conformal Einstein field equations hold, this news tensor yields the correct expression for the radiative components of the rescaled Weyl tensor at infinity with vanishing cosmological constant in arbitrary conformal gauge. Also, a generalised transport equation for the Geroch tensor is derived. Important differences between null hypersurfaces in the bulk of the space-time and null infinity with vanishing cosmological constant are reviewed, and their impact on the role of the news is discussed.

We introduce the concept of emergent electric field. This is distinguished from the fundamental one in that the emergent electric field directly appears in observations through the Lorentz force, while the latter enters the phase space as the canonical momentum of the electromagnetic field. In Hamiltonian classical electromagnetism this concept naturally appears after introducing the topological $\theta$ term. Furthermore, we show that in the spherically symmetric model the concept of emergent electric field allows us to formulate a modified theory of electromagnetism that is otherwise impossible. The relation between the fundamental and the emergent electric fields is derived from the imposition of general covariance of the electromagnetic strength tensor, which is a nontrivial task in the canonical formulation the modified theory is based on. We couple this theory to emergent modified gravity, where a similar distinction between spacetime and gravity is made such that the spacetime, which defines the observable geometry, is an emergent field composed of the fundamental gravitational field. In this more encompassing emergent field theory coupling gravity and electromagnetism, we show that the spherically symmetric model contains a nonsingular black hole solution where not only modified gravity but also modified electromagnetism is crucial for a robust singularity resolution and to avoid the existence of (super)extermal black holes.

Symmetric teleparallel $f(Q)$-gravity allows for the presence of a perfect fluid with a tilted velocity in the Kantowski-Sachs geometry. In this dipole model, we consider an ideal gas and we investigate the evolution of the physical parameters. The tilt parameter is constrained by the nonlinear function $f(Q)$ through the non-diagonal equations of the field equations. We find that the dynamics always reduce to the vacuum solutions of STEGR. This includes the Kasner universe, when no cosmological term is introduced by the $f(Q)$ function, and the isotropic de Sitter universe, where $f\left( Q\right) $ plays the role of the cosmological constant. In the extreme tilt limit, the universe is consistently anisotropic and accelerated. However, the final solution matches that of STEGR.

Typically, constraints on parameters of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark energy have been obtained in the Jordan frame, where matter fields are minimally coupled to gravity. To connect these constraints with those of the EFT of black hole perturbations with a timelike scalar profile, it is necessary to perform a frame transformation on the EFT in general. In this paper, we study the conformal/disformal transformation of EFT parameters on an arbitrary background. Furthermore, we explore the effect of an EFT operator $M_6(r) \bar{\sigma}^{\mu}_{\nu} \delta K^{\nu}_{\alpha} \delta K^{\alpha}_{\mu}$, which is elusive to the LIGO/Virgo bound on gravitational-wave speed, on the dynamics of odd-parity black hole perturbations. Intriguingly, a deviation from luminal propagation shows up only in the vicinity of the black hole, and the speeds of perturbations in the radial and angular directions are different in general due to the traceless part $\bar{\sigma}^\mu_\nu$ of the background extrinsic curvature. This study establishes an important link between cosmological constraints and those obtained in the black hole regime.

In this work, we have studied how incorporating viscous fluids leads to exact bounce cosmological solutions in general relativity (GR) framework. Specifically, we propose a novel parameterization of bulk viscosity coefficient of the form $\zeta = \zeta_0 (t-t_0)^{-2n} H$, where $\zeta_0$, $n$ being some positive constants and $t_0$ is the bounce epoch. We investigate how this form of bulk viscosity may assist in explaining the early universe's behaviour, with a particular focus on non-singular bounce scenario by studying the various energy conditions and other related cosmological observables and how the model parameters affect the evolution of the Universe. We demonstrate that the NEC and SEC violation occurs at the bounce point while DEC is satisfied. Finally, we carried out a stability check based on linear order perturbation to the Hubble parameter. We found that the perturbation vanishes asymptotically at later times, which indicates a stable behaviour of the bounce scenario

We investigate the dynamics of fermion localization within the framework of $f(T, B)$ gravity featuring non-minimal couplings. Starting from the Dirac action for a spin-$1/2$ fermion in a five-dimensional spacetime governed by torsional $f(T, B)$ gravity, we derive the Dirac equation and we explore its solutions under various non-minimal coupling functions. We examine two realistic forms of the torsional non-minimal coupling and reveal distinct behaviors that impact the localization of both massless and massive fermionic modes on the brane. Additionally, we employ probabilistic measurements, including Shannon entropy theory, Fisher information theory, and relative probability, to analyze the localization of these fermionic modes. The observed effects offer potential insights into probing torsional modifications.

We elucidate that a distinctive resonant excitation between quasinormal modes (QNMs) of black holes emerges as a universal phenomenon at avoided crossing near exceptional point through high-precision numerical analysis and theory of QNMs based on the framework of non-Hermitian physics. This resonant phenomenon not only allows us to decipher a long-standing mystery concerning the peculiar behaviors of QNMs but also stands as a novel beacon for characterizing black hole spacetime geometry. Our findings pave the way for rigorous examinations of black holes and the exploration of new physics in gravity.

In this work we study the thermodynamics of a cosmological unimodular gravity model at late times by considering two different energy diffusion functions that emerges in these scenarios, and that encodes the current for the non-conservation of the energy-momentum tensor, usually termed as $Q(t)$. Specifically, we discuss the barotropic and the continuous spontaneous localization models as energy diffusion functions. The consistency conditions demanded for the entropy of the system in terms of the cosmological parameters of the model: positive production ($dS/dt>0$) and convexity condition ($d^{2}S/dt^{2} <0$), are investigated. We show that these conditions strongly constraint the viavility of these models. Additionally, we comment about our results and compare with those obtained in recent works where the restriction of the parameters for these two diffusion models was implemented with the use of cosmological data.

We show that the information loss at the cosmological apparent horizon in an expanding universe has a direct correspondence with the Landauer principle of information dynamics. We show that the Landauer limit is satisfied in this case, which implies that the information erasure at the cosmological apparent horizon happens in the most efficient way possible. We also show that our results hold for extensions of the standard entropy formulations. This is the first work which directly provides a correspondence between information dynamics and expanding cosmic horizons, and we discuss several interesting implications of this result.

We bring the Kerr--Newman spacetime into the Bondi--Sachs gauge by means of zero angular momentum, null geodesics. We compute the memory effect produced at the black hole horizon by a transient gravitational shock wave, which from future null infinity is seen as a Bondi-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation. This results in a change of the supertransformation charges at infinity between the spacetime geometries defined by the black hole before, and after, the shockwave scattering. For an extremal Kerr--Newman black hole, we give the complementary description of this process in the near-horizon limit, as seen by an observer hovering over the horizon. In this limit, we compute the supertranformation charges and compare them to those calculated at null infinity. We analyze the effect of these transformations on the electromagnetic gauge field and explore the self-interaction between this and the angular momentum of the black hole.

In this work, we provide a thorough analysis of energy extraction via magnetic reconnection, a novel mechanism recently proposed by Comisso and Asenjo, for a Kerr-Newman black hole immersed in a perfect fluid dark matter (PFDM) background. Our studies focus on the impact of black hole spin $a$, electric charge $Q$ and PFDM parameter $\lambda$ on the horizons, ecoregions and circular geodesics at the equatorial plane of this black hole, and how they further influence the reconnection efficiency and energy extraction rate. Our results show that the size of ergoregion does not vary monotonically with increasing dark matter parameters $\lambda$, but it can significantly increase at faster spins ($a>0.8$) as the dark matter parameter $\lambda$ decreases, given the electric charge stays within $Q\in [0.2,0.5]$. We identify the optimal conditions for the combination of $a$, $Q$ and $\lambda$ that enable efficient energy extraction even when the black hole is not rapidly spinning. The Kerr-Newman black hole in PFDM allows for achieving high energy extraction rates comparable to those of most previously studied rotating black holes, which typically require near-extremal spin to reach similar efficiency levels.

This study explores the compatibility of Covariant Extrinsic Gravity (CEG) with current cosmological observations. We employ the chi-square statistic and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to fit the FLRW and Bianchi type-I and V brane models to the latest datasets, including Hubble, Pantheon+ Supernova samples, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), and the structure growth rate, $f\sigma_8(z)$. Parameters for FLRW universe consist $\left(\Omega^{\text{(b)}}_0, \Omega^{\text{(cd)}}_0, \Omega^{\text{(k)}}_0, H_0, \gamma, \sigma_8\right)$, while for the Bianchi model are $\left(\Omega^{\text{(b)}}_0, \Omega^{\text{(cd)}}_0, \Omega^{{(\beta)}}_0, H_0, \gamma, \Omega^{(\theta)}_0, \sigma_8\right)$. We determine the best values for cosmological parameters. For the FLRW model, these values depend on the sign of $\gamma$: $\gamma > 0$ yields $\gamma =0.00008^{+0.00015}_{-0.00011}$, and $\Omega^{\text{(k)}}_0=0.014^{+0.024}_{-0.022}$ and $\gamma < 0$ leads to $\gamma =-0.0226^{+0.0054}_{-0.0062}$, and $\Omega^{\text{(k)}}_0=0.023^{+0.039}_{-0.041}$. In both cases $\Omega^{\text{(k)}}_0>0$ represents a closed universe. Similarly, for the Bianchi type-V brane model, the parameter values vary with the sign of $\gamma$, resulting in $\gamma = 0.00084^{+0.00019}_{-0.00021}$, $\Omega^{(\beta)}_0 =0.0258^{+0.0052}_{-0.0063} $, and $\Omega^{\theta}_0(\times 10^{-5} ) = 4.19^{+0.67}_{-0.75}$ (as with the density parameter of stiff matter) for $\gamma > 0$, and $\gamma = -0.00107^{+0.00019}_{-0.00020}$, $\Omega^{(\beta)}_0 = 0.0259^{+0.0050}_{-0.0062} $, and $\Omega^{\theta}_0(\times 10^{-5} ) = 4.17^{+0.91}_{-0.98}$ for $\gamma < 0$. In both cases $\Omega^{(\beta)}_0>0$, which represents the Bianchi type-V, because in the Bianchi type-I, $\beta=0$. Utilizing these obtained best values, we analyze the behavior of key cosmological parameters.

In this paper, we present an inference method for determining neutron star parameters and constraining the nuclear equation of state (EOS) using the RIFT parameter inference engine. We incorporate externally-produced prior information about the EOS to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the inference process. We apply this method to the GW170817 event and assess its performance. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of incorporating prior EOS information in the inference process, leading to sharper conclusions and more rapid inference on new detections. This approach has the potential to enhance our understanding of neutron stars and the nuclear EOS in future gravitational wave observations.

In this article, we investigate a coupled phantom dark-energy cosmological model in which the coupling term between a phantom scalar field with an exponential potential and a pressureless dark-matter fluid is motivated by the warm inflationary paradigm. Using methods of qualitative analysis of dynamical systems, complemented by numerical solutions of the evolution equations, we study the late-time behavior of our model. We show that contrary to the uncoupled scenario, the coupled phantom model admits accelerated scaling solutions. However, they do not correspond to a final state of the universe's evolution and, therefore, cannot be used to solve the cosmological coincidence problem. Furthermore, we show that, for certain coupling parameter values, the total equation-of-state parameter's asymptotic behavior is significantly changed when compared to the uncoupled scenario, allowing for solutions less phantom even for steeper potentials of the phantom scalar field.

In this study, we investigate the decoherence of a spatially superposed electrically neutral spin-$\frac12$ particle in the presence of a relativistic quantum electromagnetic field in Minkowski spacetime. We demonstrate that decoherence due to the spin-magnetic field coupling can be categorized into two distinct factors: local decoherence, originating from the two-point correlation functions along each branch of the superposed trajectories, and nonlocal decoherence, which arises from the correlation functions between the two superposed trajectories. These effects are linked to phase damping and amplitude damping. We also show that if the quantum field is prepared in a thermal state, decoherence monotonically increases with the field temperature.

A defining property of Hawking radiation is that states with very low entanglement masquerade as highly mixed states; this property is captured by a quantum computational phenomenon known as spoofing entanglement. Motivated by the potential implications for black hole information and the emergence of spacetime connectivity, as well as possible applications of spoofing entanglement, we investigate the geometrization of two types of entanglement spoofers in AdS/CFT: so-called EFI pairs and pseudoentangled state ensembles. We show that (a strengthened version of) EFI pairs with a semiclassical bulk dual have a Python's Lunch; the maximally mixed state over the pseudoentangled state ensemble likewise features a Python's Lunch. Since a Python's Lunch must lie behind an event horizon, we find that black holes are the exclusive gravitational source of entanglement spoofing in the semiclassical limit. Finally, we use an extant construction of holographic pseudorandom states to yield a candidate example of a pseudoentangled state ensemble with a semiclassical bulk dual.

We leverage gravitational wave observations to explore physics beyond the Standard Model, focusing on axion-like particles (ALPs). This study investigates the resonant effects of ALPs with binary black hole systems, where their oscillatory nature induces time-dependent forces on the black holes. By employing a detailed Fisher matrix analysis, we not only probe a new parameter space for ALPs, characterized by their mass and decay constants, but also assess how these parameters affect gravitational waveforms during black hole mergers. Our approach is distinct as it does not assume interactions of ALPs with photons or nucleons. We demonstrate that as binary black holes spiral inward and lose energy, their orbital frequencies may resonate with those of ALPs, producing distinct oscillatory patterns in gravitational waves detectable by upcoming experiments such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). This work broadens the potential of gravitational wave astronomy as a tool for dark matter searches, offering a promising avenue for studying elusive components of the universe.

Via elementary examples it is demonstrated that the singularities of classical physics (sampled by the Big Bang in cosmology) need not necessarily get smeared out after quantization. It is proposed that the role of quantum singularities can be played by the so called Kato's exceptional-point spectral degeneracies.

The multi-wavelength polarized light signals from supermassive black holes have sparked a range of studies on polarized images of accretion disks and hotspots. However, the polarization patterns within the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) region remain to be explored. In this study, we focus on two specific types of orbits, namely the plunging geodesics inward from the ISCO and homoclinic geodesics, to uncover the polarization features associated with non-circular motion in a Kerr spacetime. For an on-axis observer, we specifically develop an approximate function to describe gravitational lensing along the azimuthal direction, and establish a simplified synchrotron emission model. Based on these, we analyze the polarized patterns of hotspots accumulated over time and their Stokes parameters. Moreover, we explore the polarized image of the plunging region within a thin accretion disk.

The recent results from the first year baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) data released by the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and type Ia supernova (SN) data, have shown a detection of significant deviation from a cosmological constant for dark energy. In this work, we utilize the latest DESI BAO data in combination with the SN data from the full five-year observations of the Dark Energy Survey and the CMB data from the Planck satellite to explore potential interactions between dark energy and dark matter. We consider four typical forms of the interaction term $Q$. Our findings suggest that interacting dark energy (IDE) models with $Q \propto \rho_{\rm de}$ support the presence of an interaction where dark energy decays into dark matter. Specifically, the deviation from $\Lambda$CDM for the IDE model with $Q=\beta H_0\rho_{\rm de}$ reaches the $3\sigma$ level. These models yield a lower value of Akaike information criterion than the $\Lambda$CDM model, indicating a preference for these IDE models based on the current observational data. For IDE models with $Q\propto\rho_{\rm c}$, the existence of interaction depends on the form of the proportionality coefficient $\Gamma$. The IDE model with $Q=\beta H\rho_{\rm c}$ yields $\beta=0.0003\pm 0.0011$, which essentially does not support the presence of the interaction. In general, whether the observational data support the existence of interaction is closely related to the model. Our analysis helps to elucidate which type of IDE model can better explain the current observational data.

The measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) have played a significant role in understanding the nature of dark energy. In this article, we investigate the dynamics of the dark energy equation of state, utilizing high-precision CMB data from multiple experiments. We begin by examining the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization, a commonly used and recognized framework for describing the dark energy equation of state. We then explore the general Exponential parametrization, which incorporates CPL as its first-order approximation, and extensions of this parametrization that incorporate nonlinear terms. We constrain these scenarios using CMB data from various missions, including the Planck 2018 legacy release, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), and the South Pole Telescope (SPT), as well as combinations with low-redshift cosmological probes such as Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the Pantheon sample. While the $\Lambda$CDM cosmology remains consistent within the 68\% confidence level, we observe that the extensions of the CPL parametrization are indistinguishable for Planck data. However, for ACT and SPT data, the inclusion of additional terms begins to reveal a peak in $w_{\rm a, DE}$ that was previously unconstrained.

Gravitational waves (GWs) have enabled direct detections of compact binary coalescences (CBCs). However, their poor sky localisation and the typical lack of observable electromagnetic (EM) counterparts make it difficult to confidently identify their hosts, and study the environments that nurture their evolution. In this work, we show that $\textit{detailed}$ information of the host environment (e.g. the mass and steepness of the host potential) can be directly inferred by measuring the kinematic parameters (acceleration and its time-derivatives) of the binary's center of mass using GWs alone, without requiring an EM counterpart. We consider CBCs in various realistic environments such as globular clusters, nuclear star clusters, and active galactic nuclei disks to demonstrate how orbit and environment parameters can be extracted for CBCs detectable by ground- and space-based observatories, including the LIGO detector at A+ sensitivity, Einstein Telescope of the XG network, LISA, and DECIGO, $\textit{on a single-event basis}$. These constraints on host stellar environments promise to shed light on our understanding of how CBCs form, evolve, and merge.

We study integrability and non-integrability of non-SUSY quivers in 4d that are dual to marginal deformations of Gaiotto-Maldacena geometry in 10d. We explore the dual operator spectrum and the fate of Liouvillian non-integrability both in the presence and the absence of the flavour degrees of freedom. We also comment about the factorised scattering and the associated integrability or non-integrability of the sigma model. Our analysis reveals the mutual compatibility between two seemingly different approaches that has existed in the literature for a long time.

The stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) provides a unique opportunity to probe the early Universe, potentially encoding information about the primordial curvature power spectrum and the energy scale of reheating. Recent observations by collaborations such as NANOGrav, PPTA, EPTA+InPTA, and CPTA have detected a stochastic common-spectrum signal, which may originate from scalar-induced gravitational waves (SIGWs) generated by primordial curvature perturbations during inflation. In this study, we explore the hypothesis that the NANOGrav signal is sourced by SIGWs and aim to constrain the shape of the primordial curvature power spectrum and the reheating energy scale using the NANOGrav 15-year data set. We model the primordial curvature power spectrum with a lognormal form and focus on the case where the equation of state during reheating is $w=1/6$, corresponding to an inflaton potential $V(\phi) \sim \phi^{14/5}$. Employing Bayesian inference, we obtain posterior distributions for the lognormal power spectrum parameters and the reheating temperature. Our results indicate a narrow peak in the primordial power spectrum ($\Delta < 0.001$ at 90\% confidence) and a lower bound on the reheating temperature ($T_{\rm rh} \geq 0.1 {\rm GeV}$), consistent with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints. The best-fit SIGW energy density spectrum exhibits a distinct turning point around $f \sim 10^{-8.1}\,{\rm Hz}$, corresponding to the transition from reheating to the radiation-dominated era. This feature, combined with the sharp high-frequency decrease due to the narrow primordial power spectrum peak, offers a unique signature for probing early Universe properties.

Recently, DESI has released baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data, and DES has also published its five-year supernova (SN) data. These observations, combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, support a dynamically evolving dark energy at a high confidence level. When using cosmological observations to weigh neutrinos, the results of weighing neutrinos will be significantly affected by the measurement of dark energy due to the degeneracy between neutrino mass and the dark-energy equation of state. Therefore, we need to understand how the dynamical evolution of dark energy in the current situation will affect the measurement of neutrino mass. In this work, we utilize these latest observations and other additional distance measurements to discuss the mutual influence between neutrinos and dark energy, then calculate the Bayes factor to compare models. We consider three neutrino mass hierarchies including degenerate hierarchy (DH), normal hierarchy (NH), and inverted hierarchy (IH), as well as three dark energy models including $\Lambda \rm CDM$, $w\rm CDM$, and $w_0w_a \rm CDM$ models. Cosmological data combined with the prior of particle physics experiments can provide strong to decisive evidence favoring the $w_0w_a {\rm CDM}+\sum m_\nu$ model with NH. In the $w_0w_a \rm CDM$ model, using the CMB+DESI+DESY5 data, we obtain constraints on the total neutrino mass, $\sum m_\nu<0.171\ \rm eV,\ 0.204\ \rm eV,\ 0.220\ \rm eV$, for DH, NH, and IH, respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the neutrino hierarchy or incorporating additional distance measurements results in a more pronounced deviation from the $\Lambda$CDM model for dark energy. The latter, particularly, exhibits a deviation at a confidence level that surpasses $4\sigma$.

For proposed third-generation gravitational-wave detectors such as the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, whose sensitive bands are proposed to extend down to 5 Hz or below, the signals of low-mass compact binaries such as binary neutron stars remain in the detector's sensitive band long enough (up to a few days for the smallest proposed low-frequency cutoff of 1 Hz) that one cannot neglect the effects of the Earth's rotation on the detector's response and the changing Doppler shift of the signal. In the latter case, one also needs to consider the effects of the Earth's orbital motion, which is currently only included in analyses of compact binary signals using continuous wave techniques. These effects are also relevant for current detectors and signals from putative subsolar-mass binaries. Here we present simple Fourier series methods for computing these effects in the frequency domain, giving explicit expressions for the Earth's orbital motion in terms of low-order Fourier series, which will be sufficiently accurate for all compact binary signals except for those from very low-mass subsolar-mass binaries. The expression for the effects of the Earth's rotation on the antenna pattern functions does not use the stationary phase approximation (SPA), so we are able to show that the SPA is indeed quite accurate in these situations and present a Fourier series expression equivalent to it which is an order of magnitude faster. We also provide illustrations of these effects on detector sensitivity and the accumulation of information about various binary parameters with frequency.

In this paper, we show that the initial clustering of supermassive primordial black holes (SMPBHs) beyond a Poisson distribution can efficiently enhance the matter power spectrum, and thus the halo mass function. As a result, the population of initially clustered SMPBHs with $M_{\rm PBH}\sim 10^9M_\odot$ and the fraction of energy density $f_{\rm PBH}\sim 10^{-3}$ (consistent with current constraints on SMPBHs) has the potential to naturally explain high-redshift massive galaxies observed by the James Webb Space Telescope.

The recent measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) from the DESI collaboration have presented an indication for dynamical dark energy, when adopting the $(w_0,w_a)$ parametrization of the equation of state. The associated posterior constraints imply a crossing of the phantom divide. The latter, however, has profound theoretical implications because not all models can do so without developing incurable instabilities. Simple quintessence models of dark energy, for instance, would be ruled out if such a crossing is confirmed. We perform a non-parametric reconstruction of the equation of state, and confirm that crossing of the phantom divide is required by the DESI BAO data. We then explore the theory space of Horndeski gravity employing a reconstruction method based on the effective field theory of dark energy, and show that for most of the models it is still difficult to safely cross the divide. We identify non-minimal coupling to gravity as the key modification which sustains a stable phantom crossing in the general Horndeski theory space and fits DESI observations. Guided by these insights, we propose the \textit{Thawing Gravity} model which has the same number of parameters as $w_0w_a$CDM and naturally realizes non-minimal coupling when dark energy becomes non-negligible. \textit{Thawing Gravity} improves the fit over $\Lambda$CDM for DESI BAO, CMB as well as type Ia Supernovae.