New articles on Computer Science

[1] 2406.06533

Pragmatic Formal Verification Methodology for Clock Domain Crossing (CDC)

Modern System-on-Chip (SoC) designs are becoming more and more complex due to the technology upscaling. SoC designs often operate on multiple asynchronous clock domains, further adding to the complexity of the overall design. To make the devices power efficient, designers take a Globally-Asynchronous Locally-Synchronous (GALS) approach that creates multiple asynchronous domains. These Clock Domain Crossings (CDC) are prone to metastability effects, and functional verification of such CDC is very important to ensure that no bug escapes. Conventional verification methods, such as register transfer level (RTL) simulations and static timing analysis, are not enough to address these CDC issues, which may lead to verification gaps. Additionally, identifying these CDC-related bugs is very time-consuming and is one of the most common reasons for costly silicon re-spins. This paper is focused on the development of a pragmatic formal verification methodology to minimize the CDC issues by exercising Metastability Injection (MSI) in different CDC paths.

[2] 2406.06534

Compressed Meta-Optical Encoder for Image Classification

Optical and hybrid convolutional neural networks (CNNs) recently have become of increasing interest to achieve low-latency, low-power image classification and computer vision tasks. However, implementing optical nonlinearity is challenging, and omitting the nonlinear layers in a standard CNN comes at a significant reduction in accuracy. In this work, we use knowledge distillation to compress modified AlexNet to a single linear convolutional layer and an electronic backend (two fully connected layers). We obtain comparable performance to a purely electronic CNN with five convolutional layers and three fully connected layers. We implement the convolution optically via engineering the point spread function of an inverse-designed meta-optic. Using this hybrid approach, we estimate a reduction in multiply-accumulate operations from 688M in a conventional electronic modified AlexNet to only 86K in the hybrid compressed network enabled by the optical frontend. This constitutes a four orders of magnitude reduction in latency and power consumption. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate that the classification accuracy of the system exceeds 93\% on the MNIST dataset.

[3] 2406.06535

Utilizing Graph Generation for Enhanced Domain Adaptive Object Detection

The problem of Domain Adaptive in the field of Object Detection involves the transfer of object detection models from labeled source domains to unannotated target domains. Recent advancements in this field aim to address domain discrepancies by aligning pixel-pairs across domains within a non-Euclidean graphical space, thereby minimizing semantic distribution variance. Despite their remarkable achievements, these methods often use coarse semantic representations to model graphs, mainly due to ignoring non-informative elements and failing to focus on precise semantic alignment. Additionally, the generation of coarse graphs inherently introduces abnormal nodes, posing challenges and potentially biasing domain adaptation outcomes. Consequently, we propose a framework, which utilizes the Graph Generation to enhance the quality of DAOD (\method{}). Specifically, we introduce a Node Refinement module that utilizes a memory bank to reconstruct noisy sampled nodes while applying contrastive regularization to noisy features. To enhance semantic alignment, we propose separating domain-specific styles from category invariance encoded within graph covariances, which allows us to selectively remove domain-specific styles while preserving category-invariant information, thus facilitating more accurate semantic alignment across different domains. Furthermore, we propose a Graph Optimization adaptor, leveraging variational inference to mitigate the impact of abnormal nodes. Extensive experimentation across three adaptation benchmarks validates that \method{} achieves state-of-the-art performance in the task of unsupervised domain adaptation.

[4] 2406.06536

Apparate: Evading Memory Hierarchy with GodSpeed Wireless-on-Chip

The rapid advancements in memory systems, CPU technology, and emerging technologies herald a transformative potential in computing, promising to revolutionize memory hierarchies. Innovations in DDR memory are delivering unprecedented bandwidth, while advancements in on-chip wireless technology are reducing size and increasing speed. The introduction of godspeed wireless transceivers on chip, alongside near high-speed DRAM, is poised to directly facilitate memory requests. This integration suggests the potential for eliminating traditional memory hierarchies, offering a new paradigm in computing efficiency and speed. These developments indicate a near-future where computing systems are significantly more responsive and powerful, leveraging direct, high-speed memory access mechanisms.

[5] 2406.06538

Understanding attention-based encoder-decoder networks: a case study with chess scoresheet recognition

Deep neural networks are largely used for complex prediction tasks. There is plenty of empirical evidence of their successful end-to-end training for a diversity of tasks. Success is often measured based solely on the final performance of the trained network, and explanations on when, why and how they work are less emphasized. In this paper we study encoder-decoder recurrent neural networks with attention mechanisms for the task of reading handwritten chess scoresheets. Rather than prediction performance, our concern is to better understand how learning occurs in these type of networks. We characterize the task in terms of three subtasks, namely input-output alignment, sequential pattern recognition, and handwriting recognition, and experimentally investigate which factors affect their learning. We identify competition, collaboration and dependence relations between the subtasks, and argue that such knowledge might help one to better balance factors to properly train a network.

[6] 2406.06539

MatFusion: A Generative Diffusion Model for SVBRDF Capture

We formulate SVBRDF estimation from photographs as a diffusion task. To model the distribution of spatially varying materials, we first train a novel unconditional SVBRDF diffusion backbone model on a large set of 312,165 synthetic spatially varying material exemplars. This SVBRDF diffusion backbone model, named MatFusion, can then serve as a basis for refining a conditional diffusion model to estimate the material properties from a photograph under controlled or uncontrolled lighting. Our backbone MatFusion model is trained using only a loss on the reflectance properties, and therefore refinement can be paired with more expensive rendering methods without the need for backpropagation during training. Because the conditional SVBRDF diffusion models are generative, we can synthesize multiple SVBRDF estimates from the same input photograph from which the user can select the one that best matches the users' expectation. We demonstrate the flexibility of our method by refining different SVBRDF diffusion models conditioned on different types of incident lighting, and show that for a single photograph under colocated flash lighting our method achieves equal or better accuracy than existing SVBRDF estimation methods.

[7] 2406.06541

Global and Local Attention-based Inception U-Net for Static IR Drop Estimation

Static IR drop analysis is a fundamental and critical task in chip design since the IR drop will significantly affect the design's functionality, performance, and reliability. However, the process of IR drop analysis can be time-consuming, potentially taking several hours. Furthermore, in the process of fixing violations, it is frequently imperative to do IR drop analysis iteratively, hence exacerbating the computational burden associated with the analysis. Therefore, a fast and accurate IR drop prediction is paramount for reducing the overall time invested in chip design. In this paper, we propose a global and local attention-based Inception U-Net for static IR drop estimation. Our U-Net incorporates components from the Transformer, CBAM, and Inception architectures to enhance its feature capture capability at different scales and improve the accuracy of predicted IR drop. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can achieve the best results among the winning teams of the ICCAD 2023 contest and the state-of-the-art algorithms.

[8] 2406.06542

vMCU: Coordinated Memory Management and Kernel Optimization for DNN Inference on MCUs

IoT devices based on microcontroller units (MCU) provide ultra-low power consumption and ubiquitous computation for near-sensor deep learning models (DNN). However, the memory of MCU is usually 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than mobile devices, which makes it challenging to map DNNs onto MCUs. Previous work separates memory management and kernel implementation for MCU and relies on coarse-grained memory management techniques such as inplace update to reduce memory consumption. In this paper, we propose to coordinate memory management and kernel optimization for DNN inference on MCUs to enable fine-grained memory management. The key idea is to virtualize the limited memory of MCU as a large memory pool. Each kernel divides the memory pool into kernel-specific segments and handles segment load and store while computing DNN layers. Memory consumption can be reduced because using the fine-grained segment-level memory control, we can overlap the memory footprint of different tensors without the need to materialize them at the same time. Following this idea, we implement \ours{} for DNN inference on MCU. Evaluation for single layers on ARM Cortex-M4 and Cortex-M7 processors shows that \ours{} can reduce from $12.0\%$ to $49.5\%$ RAM usage and from $20.6\%$ to $53.0\%$ energy consumption compared to state-of-the-art work. For full DNN evaluation, \ours{} can reduce the memory bottleneck by $61.5\%$, enabling more models to be deployed on low-end MCUs.

[9] 2406.06543

SparrowSNN: A Hardware/software Co-design for Energy Efficient ECG Classification

Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Given its high risk and often asymptomatic nature, real-time continuous monitoring is essential. Unlike traditional artificial neural networks (ANNs), spiking neural networks (SNNs) are well-known for their energy efficiency, making them ideal for wearable devices and energy-constrained edge computing platforms. However, current energy measurement of SNN implementations for detecting heart diseases typically rely on empirical values, often overlooking hardware overhead. Additionally, the integer and fire activations in SNNs require multiple memory accesses and repeated computations, which can further compromise energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose sparrowSNN, a redesign of the standard SNN workflow from a hardware perspective, and present a dedicated ASIC design for SNNs, optimized for ultra-low power wearable devices used in heartbeat classification. Using the MIT-BIH dataset, our SNN achieves a state-of-the-art accuracy of 98.29% for SNNs, with energy consumption of 31.39nJ per inference and power usage of 6.1uW, making sparrowSNN the highest accuracy with the lowest energy use among comparable systems. We also compare the energy-to-accuracy trade-offs between SNNs and quantized ANNs, offering recommendations on insights on how best to use SNNs.

[10] 2406.06544

TSB: Tiny Shared Block for Efficient DNN Deployment on NVCIM Accelerators

Compute-in-memory (CIM) accelerators using non-volatile memory (NVM) devices offer promising solutions for energy-efficient and low-latency Deep Neural Network (DNN) inference execution. However, practical deployment is often hindered by the challenge of dealing with the massive amount of model weight parameters impacted by the inherent device variations within non-volatile computing-in-memory (NVCIM) accelerators. This issue significantly offsets their advantages by increasing training overhead, the time needed for mapping weights to device states, energy consumption, and diminishing inference accuracy. To mitigate these challenges, we propose the "Tiny Shared Block (TSB)" method, which integrates a small shared 1x1 convolution block into the DNN architecture. This block is designed to stabilize feature processing across the network, effectively reducing the impact of device variation. Extensive experimental results show that TSB achieves over 20x inference accuracy gap improvement, over 5x training speedup, and weights-to-device mapping cost reduction while requiring less than 0.4% of the original weights to be write-verified during programming, when compared with state-of-the-art baseline solutions. Our approach provides a practical and efficient solution for deploying robust DNN models on NVCIM accelerators, making it a valuable contribution to the field of energy-efficient AI hardware.

[11] 2406.06546

SentryCore: A RISC-V Co-Processor System for Safe, Real-Time Control Applications

In the last decade, we have witnessed exponential growth in the complexity of control systems for safety-critical applications (automotive, robots, industrial automation) and their transition to heterogeneous mixed-criticality systems (MCSs). The growth of the RISC-V ecosystem is creating a major opportunity to develop open-source, vendor-neutral reference platforms for safety-critical computing. We present SentryCore, a reliable, real-time, self-contained, open-source mega-IP for advanced control functions that can be seamlessly integrated into Systems-on-Chip, e.g., for automotive applications, through industry-standard Advanced eXtensible Interface 4 (AXI4). SentryCore features three embedded RISC-V processor cores in lockstep with error-correcting code (ECC) protected data memory for reliable execution of any safety-critical application. Context switching is accelerated to under 110 clock cycles via a RISC-V core-local interrupt controller (CLIC) and dedicated hardware extensions, while a timer-based direct memory access (DMA) engine streamlines sensor data readout during periodic control loops. SentryCore was implemented in Intel's 16nm process node and tested with FreeRTOS, ThreadX, and RTIC software support.

[12] 2406.06549

Large Language Model (LLM) for Standard Cell Layout Design Optimization

Standard cells are essential components of modern digital circuit designs. With process technologies advancing toward 2nm, more routability issues have arisen due to the decreasing number of routing tracks, increasing number and complexity of design rules, and strict patterning rules. The state-of-the-art standard cell design automation framework is able to automatically design standard cell layouts in advanced nodes, but it is still struggling to generate highly competitive Performance-Power-Area (PPA) and routable cell layouts for complex sequential cell designs. Consequently, a novel and efficient methodology incorporating the expertise of experienced human designers to incrementally optimize the PPA of cell layouts is highly necessary and essential. High-quality device clustering, with consideration of netlist topology, diffusion sharing/break and routability in the layouts, can reduce complexity and assist in finding highly competitive PPA, and routable layouts faster. In this paper, we leverage the natural language and reasoning ability of Large Language Model (LLM) to generate high-quality cluster constraints incrementally to optimize the cell layout PPA and debug the routability with ReAct prompting. On a benchmark of sequential standard cells in 2nm, we demonstrate that the proposed method not only achieves up to 19.4% smaller cell area, but also generates 23.5% more LVS/DRC clean cell layouts than previous work. In summary, the proposed method not only successfully reduces cell area by 4.65% on average, but also is able to fix routability in the cell layout designs.

[13] 2406.06550

ChiBench: a Benchmark Suite for Testing Electronic Design Automation Tools

Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools are software applications used by engineers in the design, development, simulation, and verification of electronic systems and integrated circuits. These tools typically process specifications written in a Hardware Description Language (HDL), such as Verilog, SystemVerilog or VHDL. Thus, effective testing of these tools requires benchmark suites written in these languages. However, while there exist some open benchmark suites for these languages, they tend to consist of only a handful of specifications. This paper, in contrast, presents ChiBench, a comprehensive suite comprising 50 thousand Verilog programs. These programs were sourced from GitHub repositories and curated using Verible's syntactic analyzer and Jasper(TM)'s HDL semantic analyzer. Since its inception, ChiBench has already revealed bugs in public tools like Verible's obfuscator and parser. In addition to explaining some of these case studies, this paper demonstrates how ChiBench can be used to evaluate the asymptotic complexity and code coverage of typical electronic design automation tools.

[14] 2406.06553

Ensemble Model With Bert,Roberta and Xlnet For Molecular property prediction

This paper presents a novel approach for predicting molecular properties with high accuracy without the need for extensive pre-training. Employing ensemble learning and supervised fine-tuning of BERT, RoBERTa, and XLNet, our method demonstrates significant effectiveness compared to existing advanced models. Crucially, it addresses the issue of limited computational resources faced by experimental groups, enabling them to accurately predict molecular properties. This innovation provides a cost-effective and resource-efficient solution, potentially advancing further research in the molecular domain.

[15] 2406.06555

An Evaluation Benchmark for Autoformalization in Lean4

Large Language Models (LLMs) hold the potential to revolutionize autoformalization. The introduction of Lean4, a mathematical programming language, presents an unprecedented opportunity to rigorously assess the autoformalization capabilities of LLMs. This paper introduces a novel evaluation benchmark designed for Lean4, applying it to test the abilities of state-of-the-art LLMs, including GPT-3.5, GPT-4, and Gemini Pro. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that, despite recent advancements, these LLMs still exhibit limitations in autoformalization, particularly in more complex areas of mathematics. These findings underscore the need for further development in LLMs to fully harness their potential in scientific research and development. This study not only benchmarks current LLM capabilities but also sets the stage for future enhancements in autoformalization.

[16] 2406.06556

Enhancing Presentation Slide Generation by LLMs with a Multi-Staged End-to-End Approach

Generating presentation slides from a long document with multimodal elements such as text and images is an important task. This is time consuming and needs domain expertise if done manually. Existing approaches for generating a rich presentation from a document are often semi-automatic or only put a flat summary into the slides ignoring the importance of a good narrative. In this paper, we address this research gap by proposing a multi-staged end-to-end model which uses a combination of LLM and VLM. We have experimentally shown that compared to applying LLMs directly with state-of-the-art prompting, our proposed multi-staged solution is better in terms of automated metrics and human evaluation.

[17] 2406.06558

Enhancing Text Authenticity: A Novel Hybrid Approach for AI-Generated Text Detection

The rapid advancement of Large Language Models (LLMs) has ushered in an era where AI-generated text is increasingly indistinguishable from human-generated content. Detecting AI-generated text has become imperative to combat misinformation, ensure content authenticity, and safeguard against malicious uses of AI. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid approach that combines traditional TF-IDF techniques with advanced machine learning models, including Bayesian classifiers, Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Categorical Gradient Boosting (CatBoost), and 12 instances of Deberta-v3-large models. Our approach aims to address the challenges associated with detecting AI-generated text by leveraging the strengths of both traditional feature extraction methods and state-of-the-art deep learning models. Through extensive experiments on a comprehensive dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method in accurately distinguishing between human and AI-generated text. Our approach achieves superior performance compared to existing methods. This research contributes to the advancement of AI-generated text detection techniques and lays the foundation for developing robust solutions to mitigate the challenges posed by AI-generated content.

[18] 2406.06559

Harnessing Business and Media Insights with Large Language Models

This paper introduces Fortune Analytics Language Model (FALM). FALM empowers users with direct access to comprehensive business analysis, including market trends, company performance metrics, and expert insights. Unlike generic LLMs, FALM leverages a curated knowledge base built from professional journalism, enabling it to deliver precise and in-depth answers to intricate business questions. Users can further leverage natural language queries to directly visualize financial data, generating insightful charts and graphs to understand trends across diverse business sectors clearly. FALM fosters user trust and ensures output accuracy through three novel methods: 1) Time-aware reasoning guarantees accurate event registration and prioritizes recent updates. 2) Thematic trend analysis explicitly examines topic evolution over time, providing insights into emerging business landscapes. 3) Content referencing and task decomposition enhance answer fidelity and data visualization accuracy. We conduct both automated and human evaluations, demonstrating FALM's significant performance improvements over baseline methods while prioritizing responsible AI practices. These benchmarks establish FALM as a cutting-edge LLM in the business and media domains, with exceptional accuracy and trustworthiness.

[19] 2406.06560

Inverse Constitutional AI: Compressing Preferences into Principles

Feedback data plays an important role in fine-tuning and evaluating state-of-the-art AI models. Often pairwise text preferences are used: given two texts, human (or AI) annotators select the "better" one. Such feedback data is widely used to align models to human preferences (e.g., reinforcement learning from human feedback), or to rank models according to human preferences (e.g., Chatbot Arena). Despite its wide-spread use, prior work has demonstrated that human-annotated pairwise text preference data often exhibits unintended biases. For example, human annotators have been shown to prefer assertive over truthful texts in certain contexts. Models trained or evaluated on this data may implicitly encode these biases in a manner hard to identify. In this paper, we formulate the interpretation of existing pairwise text preference data as a compression task: the Inverse Constitutional AI (ICAI) problem. In constitutional AI, a set of principles (or constitution) is used to provide feedback and fine-tune AI models. The ICAI problem inverts this process: given a dataset of feedback, we aim to extract a constitution that best enables a large language model (LLM) to reconstruct the original annotations. We propose a corresponding initial ICAI algorithm and validate its generated constitutions quantitatively based on reconstructed annotations. Generated constitutions have many potential use-cases -- they may help identify undesirable biases, scale feedback to unseen data or assist with adapting LLMs to individual user preferences. We demonstrate our approach on a variety of datasets: (a) synthetic feedback datasets with known underlying principles; (b) the AlpacaEval dataset of cross-annotated human feedback; and (c) the crowdsourced Chatbot Arena data set. We release the code for our algorithm and experiments at .

[20] 2406.06561

Brainstorming Brings Power to Large Language Models of Knowledge Reasoning

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated amazing capabilities in language generation, text comprehension, and knowledge reasoning. While a single powerful model can already handle multiple tasks, relying on a single perspective can lead to biased and unstable results. Recent studies have further improved the model's reasoning ability on a wide range of tasks by introducing multi-model collaboration. However, models with different capabilities may produce conflicting answers on the same problem, and how to reasonably obtain the correct answer from multiple candidate models has become a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose the multi-model brainstorming based on prompt. It incorporates different models into a group for brainstorming, and after multiple rounds of reasoning elaboration and re-inference, a consensus answer is reached within the group. We conducted experiments on three different types of datasets, and demonstrate that the brainstorming can significantly improve the effectiveness in logical reasoning and fact extraction. Furthermore, we find that two small-parameter models can achieve accuracy approximating that of larger-parameter models through brainstorming, which provides a new solution for distributed deployment of LLMs.

[21] 2406.06562

Achieving Sparse Activation in Small Language Models

Sparse activation, which selectively activates only an input-dependent set of neurons in inference, is a useful technique to reduce the computing cost of Large Language Models (LLMs) without retraining or adaptation efforts. However, whether it can be applied to the recently emerging Small Language Models (SLMs) remains questionable, because SLMs are generally less over-parameterized than LLMs. In this paper, we aim to achieve sparse activation in SLMs. We first show that the existing sparse activation schemes in LLMs that build on neurons' output magnitudes cannot be applied to SLMs, and activating neurons based on their attribution scores is a better alternative. Further, we demonstrated and quantified the large errors of existing attribution metrics when being used for sparse activation, due to the interdependency among attribution scores of neurons across different layers. Based on these observations, we proposed a new attribution metric that can provably correct such errors and achieve precise sparse activation. Experiments over multiple popular SLMs and datasets show that our approach can achieve 80% sparsification ratio with <5% model accuracy loss, comparable to the sparse activation achieved in LLMs. The source code is available at:

[22] 2406.06563

Skywork-MoE: A Deep Dive into Training Techniques for Mixture-of-Experts Language Models

In this technical report, we introduce the training methodologies implemented in the development of Skywork-MoE, a high-performance mixture-of-experts (MoE) large language model (LLM) with 146 billion parameters and 16 experts. It is initialized from the pre-existing dense checkpoints of our Skywork-13B model. We explore the comparative effectiveness of upcycling versus training from scratch initializations. Our findings suggest that the choice between these two approaches should consider both the performance of the existing dense checkpoints and the MoE training budget. We highlight two innovative techniques: gating logit normalization, which improves expert diversification, and adaptive auxiliary loss coefficients, allowing for layer-specific adjustment of auxiliary loss coefficients. Our experimental results validate the effectiveness of these methods. Leveraging these techniques and insights, we trained our upcycled Skywork-MoE on a condensed subset of our SkyPile corpus. The evaluation results demonstrate that our model delivers strong performance across a wide range of benchmarks.

[23] 2406.06564

Revolutionizing Large Language Model Training through Dynamic Parameter Adjustment

In the era of large language models, the demand for efficient use of computational resources has become critically important. Although parameter-efficient fine-tuning techniques have achieved results comparable to full fine-tuning, their application during the pre-training phase poses significant challenges. Specifically, employing parameter-efficient strategies at the onset of pre-training can severely compromise efficiency, especially in larger models. In this paper, building upon the fine-tuning method LoRA, we introduce a novel parameter-efficient training technique that frequently alters trainable part of parameters, facilitating effective pre-training. Our method not only achieves memory reductions and computational overhead comparable to current state-of-the-art parameter-efficient algorithms during the pre-training phase but also maintains accuracy levels comparable to those of full pre-training. We provide both theoretical analyses and empirical evidence to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

[24] 2406.06565

MixEval: Deriving Wisdom of the Crowd from LLM Benchmark Mixtures

Evaluating large language models (LLMs) is challenging. Traditional ground-truth-based benchmarks fail to capture the comprehensiveness and nuance of real-world queries, while LLM-as-judge benchmarks suffer from grading biases and limited query quantity. Both of them may also become contaminated over time. User-facing evaluation, such as Chatbot Arena, provides reliable signals but is costly and slow. In this work, we propose MixEval, a new paradigm for establishing efficient, gold-standard LLM evaluation by strategically mixing off-the-shelf benchmarks. It bridges (1) comprehensive and well-distributed real-world user queries and (2) efficient and fairly-graded ground-truth-based benchmarks, by matching queries mined from the web with similar queries from existing benchmarks. Based on MixEval, we further build MixEval-Hard, which offers more room for model improvement. Our benchmarks' advantages lie in (1) a 0.96 model ranking correlation with Chatbot Arena arising from the highly impartial query distribution and grading mechanism, (2) fast, cheap, and reproducible execution (6% of the time and cost of MMLU), and (3) dynamic evaluation enabled by the rapid and stable data update pipeline. We provide extensive meta-evaluation and analysis for our and existing LLM benchmarks to deepen the community's understanding of LLM evaluation and guide future research directions.

[25] 2406.06566

RAG Enabled Conversations about Household Electricity Monitoring

In this paper, we investigate the integration of Retrieval Augmented Generation (RAG) with large language models (LLMs) such as ChatGPT, Gemini, and Llama to enhance the accuracy and specificity of responses to complex questions about electricity datasets. Recognizing the limitations of LLMs in generating precise and contextually relevant answers due to their dependency on the patterns in training data rather than factual understanding, we propose a solution that leverages a specialized electricity knowledge graph. This approach facilitates the retrieval of accurate, real-time data which is then synthesized with the generative capabilities of LLMs. Our findings illustrate that the RAG approach not only reduces the incidence of incorrect information typically generated by LLMs but also significantly improves the quality of the output by grounding responses in verifiable data. This paper details our methodology, presents a comparative analysis of responses with and without RAG, and discusses the implications of our findings for future applications of AI in specialized sectors like energy data analysis.

[26] 2406.06567

DHA: Learning Decoupled-Head Attention from Transformer Checkpoints via Adaptive Heads Fusion

Large language models (LLMs) with billions of parameters demonstrate impressive performance. However, the widely used Multi-Head Attention (MHA) in LLMs incurs substantial computational and memory costs during inference. While some efforts have optimized attention mechanisms by pruning heads or sharing parameters among heads, these methods often lead to performance degradation or necessitate substantial continued pre-training costs to restore performance. Based on the analysis of attention redundancy, we design a Decoupled-Head Attention (DHA) mechanism. DHA adaptively configures group sharing for key heads and value heads across various layers, achieving a better balance between performance and efficiency. Inspired by the observation of clustering similar heads, we propose to progressively transform the MHA checkpoint into the DHA model through linear fusion of similar head parameters step by step, retaining the parametric knowledge of the MHA checkpoint. We construct DHA models by transforming various scales of MHA checkpoints given target head budgets. Our experiments show that DHA remarkably requires a mere 0.25\% of the original model's pre-training budgets to achieve 97.6\% of performance while saving 75\% of KV cache. Compared to Group-Query Attention (GQA), DHA achieves a 5$\times$ training acceleration, a maximum of 13.93\% performance improvement under 0.01\% pre-training budget, and 4\% relative improvement under 0.05\% pre-training budget.

[27] 2406.06569

Enhancing Clinical Documentation with Synthetic Data: Leveraging Generative Models for Improved Accuracy

Accurate and comprehensive clinical documentation is crucial for delivering high-quality healthcare, facilitating effective communication among providers, and ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements. However, manual transcription and data entry processes can be time-consuming, error-prone, and susceptible to inconsistencies, leading to incomplete or inaccurate medical records. This paper proposes a novel approach to augment clinical documentation by leveraging synthetic data generation techniques to generate realistic and diverse clinical transcripts. We present a methodology that combines state-of-the-art generative models, such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and Variational Autoencoders (VAEs), with real-world clinical transcript and other forms of clinical data to generate synthetic transcripts. These synthetic transcripts can then be used to supplement existing documentation workflows, providing additional training data for natural language processing models and enabling more accurate and efficient transcription processes. Through extensive experiments on a large dataset of anonymized clinical transcripts, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in generating high-quality synthetic transcripts that closely resemble real-world data. Quantitative evaluation metrics, including perplexity scores and BLEU scores, as well as qualitative assessments by domain experts, validate the fidelity and utility of the generated synthetic transcripts. Our findings highlight synthetic data generation's potential to address clinical documentation challenges, improving patient care, reducing administrative burdens, and enhancing healthcare system efficiency.

[28] 2406.06570

Review of Computational Epigraphy

Computational Epigraphy refers to the process of extracting text from stone inscription, transliteration, interpretation, and attribution with the aid of computational methods. Traditional epigraphy methods are time consuming, and tend to damage the stone inscriptions while extracting text. Additionally, interpretation and attribution are subjective and can vary between different epigraphers. However, using modern computation methods can not only be used to extract text, but also interpret and attribute the text in a robust way. We survey and document the existing computational methods that aid in the above-mentioned tasks in epigraphy.

[29] 2406.06571

SUBLLM: A Novel Efficient Architecture with Token Sequence Subsampling for LLM

While Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable success in various fields, the efficiency of training and inference remains a major challenge. To address this issue, we propose SUBLLM, short for Subsampling-Upsampling-Bypass Large Language Model, an innovative architecture that extends the core decoder-only framework by incorporating subsampling, upsampling, and bypass modules. The subsampling modules are responsible for shortening the sequence, while the upsampling modules restore the sequence length, and the bypass modules enhance convergence. In comparison to LLaMA, the proposed SUBLLM exhibits significant enhancements in both training and inference speeds as well as memory usage, while maintaining competitive few-shot performance. During training, SUBLLM increases speeds by 26% and cuts memory by 10GB per GPU. In inference, it boosts speeds by up to 37% and reduces memory by 1GB per GPU. The training and inference speeds can be enhanced by 34% and 52% respectively when the context window is expanded to 8192. We shall release the source code of the proposed architecture in the published version.

[30] 2406.06572

Graph Neural Network Enhanced Retrieval for Question Answering of LLMs

Retrieval augmented generation has revolutionized large language model (LLM) outputs by providing factual supports. Nevertheless, it struggles to capture all the necessary knowledge for complex reasoning questions. Existing retrieval methods typically divide reference documents into passages, treating them in isolation. These passages, however, are often interrelated, such as passages that are contiguous or share the same keywords. Therefore, recognizing the relatedness is crucial for enhancing the retrieval process. In this paper, we propose a novel retrieval method, called GNN-Ret, which leverages graph neural networks (GNNs) to enhance retrieval by considering the relatedness between passages. Specifically, we first construct a graph of passages by connecting passages that are structure-related and keyword-related. A graph neural network (GNN) is then leveraged to exploit the relationships between passages and improve the retrieval of supporting passages. Furthermore, we extend our method to handle multi-hop reasoning questions using a recurrent graph neural network (RGNN), named RGNN-Ret. At each step, RGNN-Ret integrates the graphs of passages from previous steps, thereby enhancing the retrieval of supporting passages. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets demonstrate that GNN-Ret achieves higher accuracy for question answering with a single query of LLMs than strong baselines that require multiple queries, and RGNN-Ret further improves accuracy and achieves state-of-the-art performance, with up to 10.4% accuracy improvement on the 2WikiMQA dataset.

[31] 2406.06573

MedFuzz: Exploring the Robustness of Large Language Models in Medical Question Answering

Large language models (LLM) have achieved impressive performance on medical question-answering benchmarks. However, high benchmark accuracy does not imply that the performance generalizes to real-world clinical settings. Medical question-answering benchmarks rely on assumptions consistent with quantifying LLM performance but that may not hold in the open world of the clinic. Yet LLMs learn broad knowledge that can help the LLM generalize to practical conditions regardless of unrealistic assumptions in celebrated benchmarks. We seek to quantify how well LLM medical question-answering benchmark performance generalizes when benchmark assumptions are violated. Specifically, we present an adversarial method that we call MedFuzz (for medical fuzzing). MedFuzz attempts to modify benchmark questions in ways aimed at confounding the LLM. We demonstrate the approach by targeting strong assumptions about patient characteristics presented in the MedQA benchmark. Successful "attacks" modify a benchmark item in ways that would be unlikely to fool a medical expert but nonetheless "trick" the LLM into changing from a correct to an incorrect answer. Further, we present a permutation test technique that can ensure a successful attack is statistically significant. We show how to use performance on a "MedFuzzed" benchmark, as well as individual successful attacks. The methods show promise at providing insights into the ability of an LLM to operate robustly in more realistic settings.

[32] 2406.06574

Towards Transparency: Exploring LLM Trainings Datasets through Visual Topic Modeling and Semantic Frame

LLMs are now responsible for making many decisions on behalf of humans: from answering questions to classifying things, they have become an important part of everyday life. While computation and model architecture have been rapidly expanding in recent years, the efforts towards curating training datasets are still in their beginnings. This underappreciation of training datasets has led LLMs to create biased and low-quality content. In order to solve that issue, we present Bunka, a software that leverages AI and Cognitive Science to improve the refinement of textual datasets. We show how Topic Modeling coupled with 2-dimensional Cartography can increase the transparency of datasets. We then show how the same Topic Modeling techniques can be applied to Preferences datasets to accelerate the fine-tuning process and increase the capacities of the model on different benchmarks. Lastly, we show how using Frame Analysis can give insights into existing biases in the training corpus. Overall, we argue that we need better tools to explore and increase the quality and transparency of LLMs training datasets.

[33] 2406.06575

Ask-EDA: A Design Assistant Empowered by LLM, Hybrid RAG and Abbreviation De-hallucination

Electronic design engineers are challenged to find relevant information efficiently for a myriad of tasks within design construction, verification and technology development. Large language models (LLM) have the potential to help improve productivity by serving as conversational agents that effectively function as subject-matter experts. In this paper we demonstrate Ask-EDA, a chat agent designed to serve as a 24x7 expert available to provide guidance to design engineers. Ask-EDA leverages LLM, hybrid retrieval augmented generation (RAG) and abbreviation de-hallucination (ADH) techniques to deliver more relevant and accurate responses. We curated three evaluation datasets, namely q2a-100, cmds-100 and abbr-100. Each dataset is tailored to assess a distinct aspect: general design question answering, design command handling and abbreviation resolution. We demonstrated that hybrid RAG offers over a 40% improvement in Recall on the q2a-100 dataset and over a 60% improvement on the cmds-100 dataset compared to not using RAG, while ADH yields over a 70% enhancement in Recall on the abbr-100 dataset. The evaluation results show that Ask-EDA can effectively respond to design-related inquiries.

[34] 2406.06576

OccamLLM: Fast and Exact Language Model Arithmetic in a Single Step

Despite significant advancements in text generation and reasoning, Large Language Models (LLMs) still face challenges in accurately performing complex arithmetic operations. To achieve accurate calculations, language model systems often enable LLMs to generate code for arithmetic operations. However, this approach compromises speed and security and, if finetuning is involved, risks the language model losing prior capabilities. We propose a framework that enables exact arithmetic in \textit{a single autoregressive step}, providing faster, more secure, and more interpretable LLM systems with arithmetic capabilities. We use the hidden states of an LLM to control a symbolic architecture which performs arithmetic. Our implementation using Llama 3 8B Instruct with OccamNet as a symbolic model (OccamLlama) achieves 100\% accuracy on single arithmetic operations ($+,-,\times,\div,\sin{},\cos{},\log{},\exp{},\sqrt{}$), outperforming GPT 4o and on par with GPT 4o using a code interpreter. OccamLlama also outperforms both Llama 3 8B Instruct and GPT 3.5 Turbo on multistep reasoning problems involving challenging arithmetic, thus enabling small LLMs to match the arithmetic performance of even much larger models. We will make our code public shortly.

[35] 2406.06577

RAG-based Crowdsourcing Task Decomposition via Masked Contrastive Learning with Prompts

Crowdsourcing is a critical technology in social manufacturing, which leverages an extensive and boundless reservoir of human resources to handle a wide array of complex tasks. The successful execution of these complex tasks relies on task decomposition (TD) and allocation, with the former being a prerequisite for the latter. Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs)-based methods have garnered significant attention. However, they are constrained to handling straightforward common-sense tasks due to their inherent restrictions involving limited and difficult-to-update knowledge as well as the presence of hallucinations. To address these issues, we propose a retrieval-augmented generation-based crowdsourcing framework that reimagines TD as event detection from the perspective of natural language understanding. However, the existing detection methods fail to distinguish differences between event types and always depend on heuristic rules and external semantic analyzing tools. Therefore, we present a Prompt-Based Contrastive learning framework for TD (PBCT), which incorporates a prompt-based trigger detector to overcome dependence. Additionally, trigger-attentive sentinel and masked contrastive learning are introduced to provide varying attention to trigger and contextual features according to different event types. Experiment results demonstrate the competitiveness of our method in both supervised and zero-shot detection. A case study on printed circuit board manufacturing is showcased to validate its adaptability to unknown professional domains.

[36] 2406.06578

SMS Spam Detection and Classification to Combat Abuse in Telephone Networks Using Natural Language Processing

In the modern era, mobile phones have become ubiquitous, and Short Message Service (SMS) has grown to become a multi-million-dollar service due to the widespread adoption of mobile devices and the millions of people who use SMS daily. However, SMS spam has also become a pervasive problem that endangers users' privacy and security through phishing and fraud. Despite numerous spam filtering techniques, there is still a need for a more effective solution to address this problem [1]. This research addresses the pervasive issue of SMS spam, which poses threats to users' privacy and security. Despite existing spam filtering techniques, the high false-positive rate persists as a challenge. The study introduces a novel approach utilizing Natural Language Processing (NLP) and machine learning models, particularly BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers), for SMS spam detection and classification. Data preprocessing techniques, such as stop word removal and tokenization, are applied, along with feature extraction using BERT. Machine learning models, including SVM, Logistic Regression, Naive Bayes, Gradient Boosting, and Random Forest, are integrated with BERT for differentiating spam from ham messages. Evaluation results revealed that the Na\"ive Bayes classifier + BERT model achieves the highest accuracy at 97.31% with the fastest execution time of 0.3 seconds on the test dataset. This approach demonstrates a notable enhancement in spam detection efficiency and a low false-positive rate. The developed model presents a valuable solution to combat SMS spam, ensuring faster and more accurate detection. This model not only safeguards users' privacy but also assists network providers in effectively identifying and blocking SMS spam messages.

[37] 2406.06579

From Redundancy to Relevance: Enhancing Explainability in Multimodal Large Language Models

Recently, multimodal large language models have exploded with an endless variety, most of the popular Large Vision Language Models (LVLMs) depend on sequential visual representation, where images are converted into hundreds or thousands of tokens before being input into the Large Language Model (LLM) along with language prompts. The black-box design hinders the interpretability of visual-language models, especially regarding more complex reasoning tasks. To explore the interaction process between image and text in complex reasoning tasks, we introduce the information flow method to visualize the interaction mechanism. By analyzing the dynamic flow of the information flow, we find that the information flow appears to converge in the shallow layer. Further investigation revealed a redundancy of the image token in the shallow layer. Consequently, a truncation strategy was introduced to aggregate image tokens within these shallow layers. This approach has been validated through experiments across multiple models, yielding consistent improvements.

[38] 2406.06580

Break the Chain: Large Language Models Can be Shortcut Reasoners

Recent advancements in Chain-of-Thought (CoT) reasoning utilize complex modules but are hampered by high token consumption, limited applicability, and challenges in reproducibility. This paper conducts a critical evaluation of CoT prompting, extending beyond arithmetic to include complex logical and commonsense reasoning tasks, areas where standard CoT methods fall short. We propose the integration of human-like heuristics and shortcuts into language models (LMs) through "break the chain" strategies. These strategies disrupt traditional CoT processes using controlled variables to assess their efficacy. Additionally, we develop innovative zero-shot prompting strategies that encourage the use of shortcuts, enabling LMs to quickly exploit reasoning clues and bypass detailed procedural steps. Our comprehensive experiments across various LMs, both commercial and open-source, reveal that LMs maintain effective performance with "break the chain" strategies. We also introduce ShortcutQA, a dataset specifically designed to evaluate reasoning through shortcuts, compiled from competitive tests optimized for heuristic reasoning tasks such as forward/backward reasoning and simplification. Our analysis confirms that ShortcutQA not only poses a robust challenge to LMs but also serves as an essential benchmark for enhancing reasoning efficiency in AI.

[39] 2406.06581

Set-Based Prompting: Provably Solving the Language Model Order Dependency Problem

The development of generative language models that can create long and coherent textual outputs via autoregression has lead to a proliferation of uses and a corresponding sweep of analyses as researches work to determine the limitations of this new paradigm. Unlike humans, these 'Large Language Models' (LLMs) are highly sensitive to small changes in their inputs, leading to unwanted inconsistency in their behavior. One problematic inconsistency when LLMs are used to answer multiple-choice questions or analyze multiple inputs is order dependency: the output of an LLM can (and often does) change significantly when sub-sequences are swapped, despite both orderings being semantically identical. In this paper we present , a technique that guarantees the output of an LLM will not have order dependence on a specified set of sub-sequences. We show that this method provably eliminates order dependency, and that it can be applied to any transformer-based LLM to enable text generation that is unaffected by re-orderings. Delving into the implications of our method, we show that, despite our inputs being out of distribution, the impact on expected accuracy is small, where the expectation is over the order of uniformly chosen shuffling of the candidate responses, and usually significantly less in practice. Thus, can be used as a 'dropped-in' method on fully trained models. Finally, we discuss how our method's success suggests that other strong guarantees can be obtained on LLM performance via modifying the input representations.

[40] 2406.06582

Discrete Multimodal Transformers with a Pretrained Large Language Model for Mixed-Supervision Speech Processing

Recent work on discrete speech tokenization has paved the way for models that can seamlessly perform multiple tasks across modalities, e.g., speech recognition, text to speech, speech to speech translation. Moreover, large language models (LLMs) pretrained from vast text corpora contain rich linguistic information that can improve accuracy in a variety of tasks. In this paper, we present a decoder-only Discrete Multimodal Language Model (DMLM), which can be flexibly applied to multiple tasks (ASR, T2S, S2TT, etc.) and modalities (text, speech, vision). We explore several critical aspects of discrete multi-modal models, including the loss function, weight initialization, mixed training supervision, and codebook. Our results show that DMLM benefits significantly, across multiple tasks and datasets, from a combination of supervised and unsupervised training. Moreover, for ASR, it benefits from initializing DMLM from a pretrained LLM, and from a codebook derived from Whisper activations.

[41] 2406.06583

Adaptive multiple optimal learning factors for neural network training

This thesis presents a novel approach to neural network training that addresses the challenge of determining the optimal number of learning factors. The proposed Adaptive Multiple Optimal Learning Factors (AMOLF) algorithm dynamically adjusts the number of learning factors based on the error change per multiply, leading to improved training efficiency and accuracy. The thesis also introduces techniques for grouping weights based on the curvature of the objective function and for compressing large Hessian matrices. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of AMOLF compared to existing methods like OWO-MOLF and Levenberg-Marquardt.

[42] 2406.06584

Evaluating the Efficacy of Large Language Models in Detecting Fake News: A Comparative Analysis

In an era increasingly influenced by artificial intelligence, the detection of fake news is crucial, especially in contexts like election seasons where misinformation can have significant societal impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of various LLMs in identifying and filtering fake news content. Utilizing a comparative analysis approach, we tested four large LLMs -- GPT-4, Claude 3 Sonnet, Gemini Pro 1.0, and Mistral Large -- and two smaller LLMs -- Gemma 7B and Mistral 7B. By using fake news dataset samples from Kaggle, this research not only sheds light on the current capabilities and limitations of LLMs in fake news detection but also discusses the implications for developers and policymakers in enhancing AI-driven informational integrity.

[43] 2406.06585

Expressive Symbolic Regression for Interpretable Models of Discrete-Time Dynamical Systems

Interpretable mathematical expressions defining discrete-time dynamical systems (iterated maps) can model many phenomena of scientific interest, enabling a deeper understanding of system behaviors. Since formulating governing expressions from first principles can be difficult, it is of particular interest to identify expressions for iterated maps given only their data streams. In this work, we consider a modified Symbolic Artificial Neural Network-Trained Expressions (SymANNTEx) architecture for this task, an architecture more expressive than others in the literature. We make a modification to the model pipeline to optimize the regression, then characterize the behavior of the adjusted model in identifying several classical chaotic maps. With the goal of parsimony, sparsity-inducing weight regularization and information theory-informed simplification are implemented. We show that our modified SymANNTEx model properly identifies single-state maps and achieves moderate success in approximating a dual-state attractor. These performances offer significant promise for data-driven scientific discovery and interpretation.

[44] 2406.06586

Bi-Chainer: Automated Large Language Models Reasoning with Bidirectional Chaining

Large Language Models (LLMs) have shown human-like reasoning abilities but still face challenges in solving complex logical problems. Existing unidirectional chaining methods, such as forward chaining and backward chaining, suffer from issues like low prediction accuracy and efficiency. To address these, we propose a bidirectional chaining method, Bi-Chainer, which dynamically switches to depth-first reasoning in the opposite reasoning direction when it encounters multiple branching options within the current direction. Thus, the intermediate reasoning results can be utilized as guidance to facilitate the reasoning process. We show that Bi-Chainer achieves sizable accuracy boots over unidirectional chaining frameworks on four challenging logical reasoning datasets. Moreover, Bi-Chainer enhances the accuracy of intermediate proof steps and reduces the average number of inference calls, resulting in more efficient and accurate reasoning.

[45] 2406.06587

Exploring Human-AI Perception Alignment in Sensory Experiences: Do LLMs Understand Textile Hand?

Aligning large language models (LLMs) behaviour with human intent is critical for future AI. An important yet often overlooked aspect of this alignment is the perceptual alignment. Perceptual modalities like touch are more multifaceted and nuanced compared to other sensory modalities such as vision. This work investigates how well LLMs align with human touch experiences using the "textile hand" task. We created a "Guess What Textile" interaction in which participants were given two textile samples -- a target and a reference -- to handle. Without seeing them, participants described the differences between them to the LLM. Using these descriptions, the LLM attempted to identify the target textile by assessing similarity within its high-dimensional embedding space. Our results suggest that a degree of perceptual alignment exists, however varies significantly among different textile samples. For example, LLM predictions are well aligned for silk satin, but not for cotton denim. Moreover, participants didn't perceive their textile experiences closely matched by the LLM predictions. This is only the first exploration into perceptual alignment around touch, exemplified through textile hand. We discuss possible sources of this alignment variance, and how better human-AI perceptual alignment can benefit future everyday tasks.

[46] 2406.06588

Assessing the Emergent Symbolic Reasoning Abilities of Llama Large Language Models

Large Language Models (LLMs) achieve impressive performance in a wide range of tasks, even if they are often trained with the only objective of chatting fluently with users. Among other skills, LLMs show emergent abilities in mathematical reasoning benchmarks, which can be elicited with appropriate prompting methods. In this work, we systematically investigate the capabilities and limitations of popular open-source LLMs on different symbolic reasoning tasks. We evaluate three models of the Llama 2 family on two datasets that require solving mathematical formulas of varying degrees of difficulty. We test a generalist LLM (Llama 2 Chat) as well as two fine-tuned versions of Llama 2 (MAmmoTH and MetaMath) specifically designed to tackle mathematical problems. We observe that both increasing the scale of the model and fine-tuning it on relevant tasks lead to significant performance gains. Furthermore, using fine-grained evaluation measures, we find that such performance gains are mostly observed with mathematical formulas of low complexity, which nevertheless often remain challenging even for the largest fine-tuned models.

[47] 2406.06589

PatentEval: Understanding Errors in Patent Generation

In this work, we introduce a comprehensive error typology specifically designed for evaluating two distinct tasks in machine-generated patent texts: claims-to-abstract generation, and the generation of the next claim given previous ones. We have also developed a benchmark, PatentEval, for systematically assessing language models in this context. Our study includes a comparative analysis, annotated by humans, of various models. These range from those specifically adapted during training for tasks within the patent domain to the latest general-purpose large language models (LLMs). Furthermore, we explored and evaluated some metrics to approximate human judgments in patent text evaluation, analyzing the extent to which these metrics align with expert assessments. These approaches provide valuable insights into the capabilities and limitations of current language models in the specialized field of patent text generation.

[48] 2406.06590

Are LLMs classical or nonmonotonic reasoners? Lessons from generics

Recent scholarship on reasoning in LLMs has supplied evidence of impressive performance and flexible adaptation to machine generated or human feedback. Nonmonotonic reasoning, crucial to human cognition for navigating the real world, remains a challenging, yet understudied task. In this work, we study nonmonotonic reasoning capabilities of seven state-of-the-art LLMs in one abstract and one commonsense reasoning task featuring generics, such as 'Birds fly', and exceptions, 'Penguins don't fly' (see Fig. 1). While LLMs exhibit reasoning patterns in accordance with human nonmonotonic reasoning abilities, they fail to maintain stable beliefs on truth conditions of generics at the addition of supporting examples ('Owls fly') or unrelated information ('Lions have manes'). Our findings highlight pitfalls in attributing human reasoning behaviours to LLMs, as well as assessing general capabilities, while consistent reasoning remains elusive.

[49] 2406.06591

Exploring Multilingual Large Language Models for Enhanced TNM classification of Radiology Report in lung cancer staging

Background: Structured radiology reports remains underdeveloped due to labor-intensive structuring and narrative-style reporting. Deep learning, particularly large language models (LLMs) like GPT-3.5, offers promise in automating the structuring of radiology reports in natural languages. However, although it has been reported that LLMs are less effective in languages other than English, their radiological performance has not been extensively studied. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of TNM classification based on radiology reports using GPT3.5-turbo (GPT3.5) and the utility of multilingual LLMs in both Japanese and English. Material and Methods: Utilizing GPT3.5, we developed a system to automatically generate TNM classifications from chest CT reports for lung cancer and evaluate its performance. We statistically analyzed the impact of providing full or partial TNM definitions in both languages using a Generalized Linear Mixed Model. Results: Highest accuracy was attained with full TNM definitions and radiology reports in English (M = 94%, N = 80%, T = 47%, and ALL = 36%). Providing definitions for each of the T, N, and M factors statistically improved their respective accuracies (T: odds ratio (OR) = 2.35, p < 0.001; N: OR = 1.94, p < 0.01; M: OR = 2.50, p < 0.001). Japanese reports exhibited decreased N and M accuracies (N accuracy: OR = 0.74 and M accuracy: OR = 0.21). Conclusion: This study underscores the potential of multilingual LLMs for automatic TNM classification in radiology reports. Even without additional model training, performance improvements were evident with the provided TNM definitions, indicating LLMs' relevance in radiology contexts.

[50] 2406.06592

Improve Mathematical Reasoning in Language Models by Automated Process Supervision

Complex multi-step reasoning tasks, such as solving mathematical problems or generating code, remain a significant hurdle for even the most advanced large language models (LLMs). Verifying LLM outputs with an Outcome Reward Model (ORM) is a standard inference-time technique aimed at enhancing the reasoning performance of LLMs. However, this still proves insufficient for reasoning tasks with a lengthy or multi-hop reasoning chain, where the intermediate outcomes are neither properly rewarded nor penalized. Process supervision addresses this limitation by assigning intermediate rewards during the reasoning process. To date, the methods used to collect process supervision data have relied on either human annotation or per-step Monte Carlo estimation, both prohibitively expensive to scale, thus hindering the broad application of this technique. In response to this challenge, we propose a novel divide-and-conquer style Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS) algorithm named \textit{OmegaPRM} for the efficient collection of high-quality process supervision data. This algorithm swiftly identifies the first error in the Chain of Thought (CoT) with binary search and balances the positive and negative examples, thereby ensuring both efficiency and quality. As a result, we are able to collect over 1.5 million process supervision annotations to train a Process Reward Model (PRM). Utilizing this fully automated process supervision alongside the weighted self-consistency algorithm, we have enhanced the instruction tuned Gemini Pro model's math reasoning performance, achieving a 69.4\% success rate on the MATH benchmark, a 36\% relative improvement from the 51\% base model performance. Additionally, the entire process operates without any human intervention, making our method both financially and computationally cost-effective compared to existing methods.

[51] 2406.06593

Differentiable Combinatorial Scheduling at Scale

This paper addresses the complex issue of resource-constrained scheduling, an NP-hard problem that spans critical areas including chip design and high-performance computing. Traditional scheduling methods often stumble over scalability and applicability challenges. We propose a novel approach using a differentiable combinatorial scheduling framework, utilizing Gumbel-Softmax differentiable sampling technique. This new technical allows for a fully differentiable formulation of linear programming (LP) based scheduling, extending its application to a broader range of LP formulations. To encode inequality constraints for scheduling tasks, we introduce \textit{constrained Gumbel Trick}, which adeptly encodes arbitrary inequality constraints. Consequently, our method facilitates an efficient and scalable scheduling via gradient descent without the need for training data. Comparative evaluations on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks highlight our capability to significantly improve the optimization efficiency of scheduling, surpassing state-of-the-art solutions offered by commercial and open-source solvers such as CPLEX, Gurobi, and CP-SAT in the majority of the designs.

[52] 2406.06595

Beyond 5G Network Failure Classification for Network Digital Twin Using Graph Neural Network

Fifth-generation (5G) core networks in network digital twins (NDTs) are complex systems with numerous components, generating considerable data. Analyzing these data can be challenging due to rare failure types, leading to imbalanced classes in multiclass classification. To address this problem, we propose a novel method of integrating a graph Fourier transform (GFT) into a message-passing neural network (MPNN) designed for NDTs. This approach transforms the data into a graph using the GFT to address class imbalance, whereas the MPNN extracts features and models dependencies between network components. This combined approach identifies failure types in real and simulated NDT environments, demonstrating its potential for accurate failure classification in 5G and beyond (B5G) networks. Moreover, the MPNN is adept at learning complex local structures among neighbors in an end-to-end setting. Extensive experiments have demonstrated that the proposed approach can identify failure types in three multiclass domain datasets at multiple failure points in real networks and NDT environments. The results demonstrate that the proposed GFT-MPNN can accurately classify network failures in B5G networks, especially when employed within NDTs to detect failure types.

[53] 2406.06596

Are Large Language Models the New Interface for Data Pipelines?

A Language Model is a term that encompasses various types of models designed to understand and generate human communication. Large Language Models (LLMs) have gained significant attention due to their ability to process text with human-like fluency and coherence, making them valuable for a wide range of data-related tasks fashioned as pipelines. The capabilities of LLMs in natural language understanding and generation, combined with their scalability, versatility, and state-of-the-art performance, enable innovative applications across various AI-related fields, including eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), Automated Machine Learning (AutoML), and Knowledge Graphs (KG). Furthermore, we believe these models can extract valuable insights and make data-driven decisions at scale, a practice commonly referred to as Big Data Analytics (BDA). In this position paper, we provide some discussions in the direction of unlocking synergies among these technologies, which can lead to more powerful and intelligent AI solutions, driving improvements in data pipelines across a wide range of applications and domains integrating humans, computers, and knowledge.

[54] 2406.06597

1-D CNN-Based Online Signature Verification with Federated Learning

Online signature verification plays a pivotal role in security infrastructures. However, conventional online signature verification models pose significant risks to data privacy, especially during training processes. To mitigate these concerns, we propose a novel federated learning framework that leverages 1-D Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for online signature verification. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework regarding 1-D CNN and federated learning. Particularly, the experiment results highlight that our framework 1) minimizes local computational resources; 2) enhances transfer effects with substantial initialization data; 3) presents remarkable scalability. The centralized 1-D CNN model achieves an Equal Error Rate (EER) of 3.33% and an accuracy of 96.25%. Meanwhile, configurations with 2, 5, and 10 agents yield EERs of 5.42%, 5.83%, and 5.63%, along with accuracies of 95.21%, 94.17%, and 94.06%, respectively.

[55] 2406.06598

Qabas: An Open-Source Arabic Lexicographic Database

We present Qabas, a novel open-source Arabic lexicon designed for NLP applications. The novelty of Qabas lies in its synthesis of 110 lexicons. Specifically, Qabas lexical entries (lemmas) are assembled by linking lemmas from 110 lexicons. Furthermore, Qabas lemmas are also linked to 12 morphologically annotated corpora (about 2M tokens), making it the first Arabic lexicon to be linked to lexicons and corpora. Qabas was developed semi-automatically, utilizing a mapping framework and a web-based tool. Compared with other lexicons, Qabas stands as the most extensive Arabic lexicon, encompassing about 58K lemmas (45K nominal lemmas, 12.5K verbal lemmas, and 473 functional-word lemmas). Qabas is open-source and accessible online at

[56] 2406.06599

Anna Karenina Strikes Again: Pre-Trained LLM Embeddings May Favor High-Performing Learners

Unsupervised clustering of student responses to open-ended questions into behavioral and cognitive profiles using pre-trained LLM embeddings is an emerging technique, but little is known about how well this captures pedagogically meaningful information. We investigate this in the context of student responses to open-ended questions in biology, which were previously analyzed and clustered by experts into theory-driven Knowledge Profiles (KPs). Comparing these KPs to ones discovered by purely data-driven clustering techniques, we report poor discoverability of most KPs, except for the ones including the correct answers. We trace this "discoverability bias" to the representations of KPs in the pre-trained LLM embeddings space.

[57] 2406.06600

HORAE: A Domain-Agnostic Modeling Language for Automating Multimodal Service Regulation

Artificial intelligence is rapidly encroaching on the field of service regulation. This work presents the design principles behind HORAE, a unified specification language to model multimodal regulation rules across a diverse set of domains. We show how HORAE facilitates an intelligent service regulation pipeline by further exploiting a fine-tuned large language model named HORAE that automates the HORAE modeling process, thereby yielding an end-to-end framework for fully automated intelligent service regulation.

[58] 2406.06601

A Human-in-the-Loop Approach to Improving Cross-Text Prosody Transfer

Text-To-Speech (TTS) prosody transfer models can generate varied prosodic renditions, for the same text, by conditioning on a reference utterance. These models are trained with a reference that is identical to the target utterance. But when the reference utterance differs from the target text, as in cross-text prosody transfer, these models struggle to separate prosody from text, resulting in reduced perceived naturalness. To address this, we propose a Human-in-the-Loop (HitL) approach. HitL users adjust salient correlates of prosody to make the prosody more appropriate for the target text, while maintaining the overall reference prosodic effect. Human adjusted renditions maintain the reference prosody while being rated as more appropriate for the target text $57.8\%$ of the time. Our analysis suggests that limited user effort suffices for these improvements, and that closeness in the latent reference space is not a reliable prosodic similarity metric for the cross-text condition.

[59] 2406.06602

Modeling of New Energy Vehicles' Impact on Urban Ecology Focusing on Behavior

The surging demand for new energy vehicles is driven by the imperative to conserve energy, reduce emissions, and enhance the ecological ambiance. By conducting behavioral analysis and mining usage patterns of new energy vehicles, particular patterns can be identified. For instance, overloading the battery, operating with low battery power, and driving at excessive speeds can all detrimentally affect the battery's performance. To assess the impact of such driving behavior on the urban ecology, an environmental computational modeling method has been proposed to simulate the interaction between new energy vehicles and the environment. To extend the time series data of the vehicle's entire life cycle and the ecological environment within the model sequence data, the LSTM model with Bayesian optimizer is utilized for simulation. The analysis revealed the detrimental effects of poor driving behavior on the environment.

[60] 2406.06603

FPN-fusion: Enhanced Linear Complexity Time Series Forecasting Model

This study presents a novel time series prediction model, FPN-fusion, designed with linear computational complexity, demonstrating superior predictive performance compared to DLiner without increasing parameter count or computational demands. Our model introduces two key innovations: first, a Feature Pyramid Network (FPN) is employed to effectively capture time series data characteristics, bypassing the traditional decomposition into trend and seasonal components. Second, a multi-level fusion structure is developed to integrate deep and shallow features seamlessly. Empirically, FPN-fusion outperforms DLiner in 31 out of 32 test cases on eight open-source datasets, with an average reduction of 16.8% in mean squared error (MSE) and 11.8% in mean absolute error (MAE). Additionally, compared to the transformer-based PatchTST, FPN-fusion achieves 10 best MSE and 15 best MAE results, using only 8% of PatchTST's total computational load in the 32 test projects.

[61] 2406.06606

Prototypical Reward Network for Data-Efficient RLHF

The reward model for Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback (RLHF) has proven effective in fine-tuning Large Language Models (LLMs). Notably, collecting human feedback for RLHF can be resource-intensive and lead to scalability issues for LLMs and complex tasks. Our proposed framework Proto-RM leverages prototypical networks to enhance reward models under limited human feedback. By enabling stable and reliable structural learning from fewer samples, Proto-RM significantly enhances LLMs' adaptability and accuracy in interpreting human preferences. Extensive experiments on various datasets demonstrate that Proto-RM significantly improves the performance of reward models and LLMs in human feedback tasks, achieving comparable and usually better results than traditional methods, while requiring significantly less data. in data-limited scenarios. This research offers a promising direction for enhancing the efficiency of reward models and optimizing the fine-tuning of language models under restricted feedback conditions.

[62] 2406.06607

Continuous Test-time Domain Adaptation for Efficient Fault Detection under Evolving Operating Conditions

Fault detection is crucial in industrial systems to prevent failures and optimize performance by distinguishing abnormal from normal operating conditions. Data-driven methods have been gaining popularity for fault detection tasks as the amount of condition monitoring data from complex industrial systems increases. Despite these advances, early fault detection remains a challenge under real-world scenarios. The high variability of operating conditions and environments makes it difficult to collect comprehensive training datasets that can represent all possible operating conditions, especially in the early stages of system operation. Furthermore, these variations often evolve over time, potentially leading to entirely new data distributions in the future that were previously unseen. These challenges prevent direct knowledge transfer across different units and over time, leading to the distribution gap between training and testing data and inducing performance degradation of those methods in real-world scenarios. To overcome this, our work introduces a novel approach for continuous test-time domain adaptation. This enables early-stage robust anomaly detection by addressing domain shifts and limited data representativeness issues. We propose a Test-time domain Adaptation Anomaly Detection (TAAD) framework that separates input variables into system parameters and measurements, employing two domain adaptation modules to independently adapt to each input category. This method allows for effective adaptation to evolving operating conditions and is particularly beneficial in systems with scarce data. Our approach, tested on a real-world pump monitoring dataset, shows significant improvements over existing domain adaptation methods in fault detection, demonstrating enhanced accuracy and reliability.

[63] 2406.06608

The Prompt Report: A Systematic Survey of Prompting Techniques

Generative Artificial Intelligence (GenAI) systems are being increasingly deployed across all parts of industry and research settings. Developers and end users interact with these systems through the use of prompting or prompt engineering. While prompting is a widespread and highly researched concept, there exists conflicting terminology and a poor ontological understanding of what constitutes a prompt due to the area's nascency. This paper establishes a structured understanding of prompts, by assembling a taxonomy of prompting techniques and analyzing their use. We present a comprehensive vocabulary of 33 vocabulary terms, a taxonomy of 58 text-only prompting techniques, and 40 techniques for other modalities. We further present a meta-analysis of the entire literature on natural language prefix-prompting.

[64] 2406.06609

Ameliorate Spurious Correlations in Dataset Condensation

Dataset Condensation has emerged as a technique for compressing large datasets into smaller synthetic counterparts, facilitating downstream training tasks. In this paper, we study the impact of bias inside the original dataset on the performance of dataset condensation. With a comprehensive empirical evaluation on canonical datasets with color, corruption and background biases, we found that color and background biases in the original dataset will be amplified through the condensation process, resulting in a notable decline in the performance of models trained on the condensed dataset, while corruption bias is suppressed through the condensation process. To reduce bias amplification in dataset condensation, we introduce a simple yet highly effective approach based on a sample reweighting scheme utilizing kernel density estimation. Empirical results on multiple real-world and synthetic datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Notably, on CMNIST with 5% bias-conflict ratio and IPC 50, our method achieves 91.5% test accuracy compared to 23.8% from vanilla DM, boosting the performance by 67.7%, whereas applying state-of-the-art debiasing method on the same dataset only achieves 53.7% accuracy. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing biases in dataset condensation and provide a promising avenue to address bias amplification in the process.

[65] 2406.06610

Reinterpreting 'the Company a Word Keeps': Towards Explainable and Ontologically Grounded Language Models

We argue that the relative success of large language models (LLMs) is not a reflection on the symbolic vs. subsymbolic debate but a reflection on employing a successful bottom-up strategy of a reverse engineering of language at scale. However, and due to their subsymbolic nature whatever knowledge these systems acquire about language will always be buried in millions of weights none of which is meaningful on its own, rendering such systems utterly unexplainable. Furthermore, and due to their stochastic nature, LLMs will often fail in making the correct inferences in various linguistic contexts that require reasoning in intensional, temporal, or modal contexts. To remedy these shortcomings we suggest employing the same successful bottom-up strategy employed in LLMs but in a symbolic setting, resulting in explainable, language-agnostic, and ontologically grounded language models.

[66] 2406.06611

Building Hybrid B-Spline And Neural Network Operators

Control systems are indispensable for ensuring the safety of cyber-physical systems (CPS), spanning various domains such as automobiles, airplanes, and missiles. Safeguarding CPS necessitates runtime methodologies that continuously monitor safety-critical conditions and respond in a verifiably safe manner. A fundamental aspect of many safety approaches involves predicting the future behavior of systems. However, achieving this requires accurate models that can operate in real time. Motivated by DeepONets, we propose a novel strategy that combines the inductive bias of B-splines with data-driven neural networks to facilitate real-time predictions of CPS behavior. We introduce our hybrid B-spline neural operator, establishing its capability as a universal approximator and providing rigorous bounds on the approximation error. These findings are applicable to a broad class of nonlinear autonomous systems and are validated through experimentation on a controlled 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) quadrotor with a 12 dimensional state space. Furthermore, we conduct a comparative analysis of different network architectures, specifically fully connected networks (FCNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN), to elucidate the practical utility and trade-offs associated with each architecture in real-world scenarios.

[67] 2406.06612

SEE-2-SOUND: Zero-Shot Spatial Environment-to-Spatial Sound

Generating combined visual and auditory sensory experiences is critical for the consumption of immersive content. Recent advances in neural generative models have enabled the creation of high-resolution content across multiple modalities such as images, text, speech, and videos. Despite these successes, there remains a significant gap in the generation of high-quality spatial audio that complements generated visual content. Furthermore, current audio generation models excel in either generating natural audio or speech or music but fall short in integrating spatial audio cues necessary for immersive experiences. In this work, we introduce SEE-2-SOUND, a zero-shot approach that decomposes the task into (1) identifying visual regions of interest; (2) locating these elements in 3D space; (3) generating mono-audio for each; and (4) integrating them into spatial audio. Using our framework, we demonstrate compelling results for generating spatial audio for high-quality videos, images, and dynamic images from the internet, as well as media generated by learned approaches.

[68] 2406.06613

GameBench: Evaluating Strategic Reasoning Abilities of LLM Agents

Large language models have demonstrated remarkable few-shot performance on many natural language understanding tasks. Despite several demonstrations of using large language models in complex, strategic scenarios, there lacks a comprehensive framework for evaluating agents' performance across various types of reasoning found in games. To address this gap, we introduce GameBench, a cross-domain benchmark for evaluating strategic reasoning abilities of LLM agents. We focus on 9 different game environments, where each covers at least one axis of key reasoning skill identified in strategy games, and select games for which strategy explanations are unlikely to form a significant portion of models' pretraining corpuses. Our evaluations use GPT-3 and GPT-4 in their base form along with two scaffolding frameworks designed to enhance strategic reasoning ability: Chain-of-Thought (CoT) prompting and Reasoning Via Planning (RAP). Our results show that none of the tested models match human performance, and at worse GPT-4 performs worse than random action. CoT and RAP both improve scores but not comparable to human levels.

[69] 2406.06615

Language Guided Skill Discovery

Skill discovery methods enable agents to learn diverse emergent behaviors without explicit rewards. To make learned skills useful for unknown downstream tasks, obtaining a semantically diverse repertoire of skills is essential. While some approaches introduce a discriminator to distinguish skills and others aim to increase state coverage, no existing work directly addresses the "semantic diversity" of skills. We hypothesize that leveraging the semantic knowledge of large language models (LLMs) can lead us to improve semantic diversity of resulting behaviors. In this sense, we introduce Language Guided Skill Discovery (LGSD), a skill discovery framework that aims to directly maximize the semantic diversity between skills. LGSD takes user prompts as input and outputs a set of semantically distinctive skills. The prompts serve as a means to constrain the search space into a semantically desired subspace, and the generated LLM outputs guide the agent to visit semantically diverse states within the subspace. We demonstrate that LGSD enables legged robots to visit different user-intended areas on a plane by simply changing the prompt. Furthermore, we show that language guidance aids in discovering more diverse skills compared to five existing skill discovery methods in robot-arm manipulation environments. Lastly, LGSD provides a simple way of utilizing learned skills via natural language.

[70] 2406.06616

Transforming Dental Diagnostics with Artificial Intelligence: Advanced Integration of ChatGPT and Large Language Models for Patient Care

Artificial intelligence has dramatically reshaped our interaction with digital technologies, ushering in an era where advancements in AI algorithms and Large Language Models (LLMs) have natural language processing (NLP) systems like ChatGPT. This study delves into the impact of cutting-edge LLMs, notably OpenAI's ChatGPT, on medical diagnostics, with a keen focus on the dental sector. Leveraging publicly accessible datasets, these models augment the diagnostic capabilities of medical professionals, streamline communication between patients and healthcare providers, and enhance the efficiency of clinical procedures. The advent of ChatGPT-4 is poised to make substantial inroads into dental practices, especially in the realm of oral surgery. This paper sheds light on the current landscape and explores potential future research directions in the burgeoning field of LLMs, offering valuable insights for both practitioners and developers. Furthermore, it critically assesses the broad implications and challenges within various sectors, including academia and healthcare, thus mapping out an overview of AI's role in transforming dental diagnostics for enhanced patient care.

[71] 2406.06617

Collaborative Team Recognition: A Core Plus Extension Structure

Scientific collaboration is a significant behavior in knowledge creation and idea exchange. To tackle large and complex research questions, a trend of team formation has been observed in recent decades. In this study, we focus on recognizing collaborative teams and exploring inner patterns using scholarly big graph data. We propose a collaborative team recognition (CORE) model with a "core + extension" team structure to recognize collaborative teams in large academic networks. In CORE, we combine an effective evaluation index called the collaboration intensity index with a series of structural features to recognize collaborative teams in which members are in close collaboration relationships. Then, CORE is used to guide the core team members to their extension members. CORE can also serve as the foundation for team-based research. The simulation results indicate that CORE reveals inner patterns of scientific collaboration: senior scholars have broad collaborative relationships and fixed collaboration patterns, which are the underlying mechanisms of team assembly. The experimental results demonstrate that CORE is promising compared with state-of-the-art methods.

[72] 2406.06618

PANDORA: Deep graph learning based COVID-19 infection risk level forecasting

COVID-19 as a global pandemic causes a massive disruption to social stability that threatens human life and the economy. Policymakers and all elements of society must deliver measurable actions based on the pandemic's severity to minimize the detrimental impact of COVID-19. A proper forecasting system is arguably important to provide an early signal of the risk of COVID-19 infection so that the authorities are ready to protect the people from the worst. However, making a good forecasting model for infection risks in different cities or regions is not an easy task, because it has a lot of influential factors that are difficult to be identified manually. To address the current limitations, we propose a deep graph learning model, called PANDORA, to predict the infection risks of COVID-19, by considering all essential factors and integrating them into a geographical network. The framework uses geographical position relations and transportation frequency as higher-order structural properties formulated by higher-order network structures (i.e., network motifs). Moreover, four significant node attributes (i.e., multiple features of a particular area, including climate, medical condition, economy, and human mobility) are also considered. We propose three different aggregators to better aggregate node attributes and structural features, namely, Hadamard, Summation, and Connection. Experimental results over real data show that PANDORA outperforms the baseline method with higher accuracy and faster convergence speed, no matter which aggregator is chosen. We believe that PANDORA using deep graph learning provides a promising approach to get superior performance in infection risk level forecasting and help humans battle the COVID-19 crisis.

[73] 2406.06620

DualTime: A Dual-Adapter Multimodal Language Model for Time Series Representation

The recent rapid development of language models (LMs) has attracted attention in the field of time series, including multimodal time series modeling. However, we note that current time series multimodal methods are biased, often assigning a primary role to one modality while the other assumes a secondary role. They overlook the mutual benefits and complementary of different modalities. For example, in seizure diagnosis, relying solely on textual clinical reports makes it difficult to pinpoint the area and type of the disease, while electroencephalograms (EEGs) alone cannot provide an accurate diagnosis without considering the symptoms. In this study, based on the complementary information mining of time series multimodal data, we propose DualTime, a Dual-adapter multimodal language model for Time series representation implementing temporal-primary and textual-primary modeling simultaneously. By injecting lightweight adaption tokens, the LM pipeline shared by dual adapters encourages embedding alignment and achieves efficient fine-tuning. Empirically, our method outperforms state-of-the-art models in both supervised and unsupervised settings, highlighting the complementary benefits of different modalities. In addition, we conduct few-shot label transfer experiments, which further verifies the transferability and expressiveness of our proposed DualTime.

[74] 2406.06621

LinkQ: An LLM-Assisted Visual Interface for Knowledge Graph Question-Answering

We present LinkQ, a system that leverages a large language model (LLM) to facilitate knowledge graph (KG) query construction through natural language question-answering. Traditional approaches often require detailed knowledge of complex graph querying languages, limiting the ability for users -- even experts -- to acquire valuable insights from KG data. LinkQ simplifies this process by first interpreting a user's question, then converting it into a well-formed KG query. By using the LLM to construct a query instead of directly answering the user's question, LinkQ guards against the LLM hallucinating or generating false, erroneous information. By integrating an LLM into LinkQ, users are able to conduct both exploratory and confirmatory data analysis, with the LLM helping to iteratively refine open-ended questions into precise ones. To demonstrate the efficacy of LinkQ, we conducted a qualitative study with five KG practitioners and distill their feedback. Our results indicate that practitioners find LinkQ effective for KG question-answering, and desire future LLM-assisted systems for the exploratory analysis of graph databases.

[75] 2406.06622

Adversarial Tuning: Defending Against Jailbreak Attacks for LLMs

Although safely enhanced Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable success in tackling various complex tasks in a zero-shot manner, they remain susceptible to jailbreak attacks, particularly the unknown jailbreak attack. To enhance LLMs' generalized defense capabilities, we propose a two-stage adversarial tuning framework, which generates adversarial prompts to explore worst-case scenarios by optimizing datasets containing pairs of adversarial prompts and their safe responses. In the first stage, we introduce the hierarchical meta-universal adversarial prompt learning to efficiently and effectively generate token-level adversarial prompts. In the second stage, we propose the automatic adversarial prompt learning to iteratively refine semantic-level adversarial prompts, further enhancing LLM's defense capabilities. We conducted comprehensive experiments on three widely used jailbreak datasets, comparing our framework with six defense baselines under five representative attack scenarios. The results underscore the superiority of our proposed methods. Furthermore, our adversarial tuning framework exhibits empirical generalizability across various attack strategies and target LLMs, highlighting its potential as a transferable defense mechanism.

[76] 2406.06623

Spectrum: Targeted Training on Signal to Noise Ratio

Efficiently post-training large language models remains a challenging task due to the vast computational resources required. We present Spectrum, a method that accelerates LLM training by selectively targeting layer modules based on their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and freezing the remaining modules. Our approach, which utilizes an algorithm to compute module SNRs prior to training, has shown to effectively match the performance of full fine-tuning while reducing GPU memory usage. Experiments comparing Spectrum to existing methods such as QLoRA demonstrate its effectiveness in terms of model quality and VRAM efficiency in distributed environments.

[77] 2406.06624

Exploring the Determinants of Pedestrian Crash Severity Using an AutoML Approach

This study investigates pedestrian crash severity through Automated Machine Learning (AutoML), offering a streamlined and accessible method for analyzing critical factors. Utilizing a detailed dataset from Utah spanning 2010-2021, the research employs AutoML to assess the effects of various explanatory variables on crash outcomes. The study incorporates SHAP (SHapley Additive exPlanations) to interpret the contributions of individual features in the predictive model, enhancing the understanding of influential factors such as lighting conditions, road type, and weather on pedestrian crash severity. Emphasizing the efficiency and democratization of data-driven methodologies, the paper discusses the benefits of using AutoML in traffic safety analysis. This integration of AutoML with SHAP analysis not only bolsters predictive accuracy but also improves interpretability, offering critical insights into effective pedestrian safety measures. The findings highlight the potential of this approach in advancing the analysis of pedestrian crash severity.

[78] 2406.06626

Benchmarking Neural Decoding Backbones towards Enhanced On-edge iBCI Applications

Traditional invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces (iBCIs) typically depend on neural decoding processes conducted on workstations within laboratory settings, which prevents their everyday usage. Implementing these decoding processes on edge devices, such as the wearables, introduces considerable challenges related to computational demands, processing speed, and maintaining accuracy. This study seeks to identify an optimal neural decoding backbone that boasts robust performance and swift inference capabilities suitable for edge deployment. We executed a series of neural decoding experiments involving nonhuman primates engaged in random reaching tasks, evaluating four prospective models, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU), Transformer, Receptance Weighted Key Value (RWKV), and Selective State Space model (Mamba), across several metrics: single-session decoding, multi-session decoding, new session fine-tuning, inference speed, calibration speed, and scalability. The findings indicate that although the GRU model delivers sufficient accuracy, the RWKV and Mamba models are preferable due to their superior inference and calibration speeds. Additionally, RWKV and Mamba comply with the scaling law, demonstrating improved performance with larger data sets and increased model sizes, whereas GRU shows less pronounced scalability, and the Transformer model requires computational resources that scale prohibitively. This paper presents a thorough comparative analysis of the four models in various scenarios. The results are pivotal in pinpointing an optimal backbone that can handle increasing data volumes and is viable for edge implementation. This analysis provides essential insights for ongoing research and practical applications in the field.

[79] 2406.06627

Rapid Review of Generative AI in Smart Medical Applications

With the continuous advancement of technology, artificial intelligence has significantly impacted various fields, particularly healthcare. Generative models, a key AI technology, have revolutionized medical image generation, data analysis, and diagnosis. This article explores their application in intelligent medical devices. Generative models enhance diagnostic speed and accuracy, improving medical service quality and efficiency while reducing equipment costs. These models show great promise in medical image generation, data analysis, and diagnosis. Additionally, integrating generative models with IoT technology facilitates real-time data analysis and predictions, offering smarter healthcare services and aiding in telemedicine. Challenges include computational demands, ethical concerns, and scenario-specific limitations.

[80] 2406.06628

Convergence of Subdivision Schemes and Smoothness of Refinable Functions on p-adic Fields

A systematic and comprehensive study of p-adic refinement equations and subdivision scheme associated with a finitely supported refinement mask are carried out in this paper. The Lq -convergence of the subdivision scheme is characterized in terms of the q-norm joint spectral radii of a collection of operators associated with the refinement mask. Also, the smoothness of complex-valued functions on Qp is investigated.

[81] 2406.06629

A Survey of Meta-features Used for Automated Selection of Algorithms for Black-box Single-objective Continuous Optimization

The selection of the most appropriate algorithm to solve a given problem instance, known as algorithm selection, is driven by the potential to capitalize on the complementary performance of different algorithms across sets of problem instances. However, determining the optimal algorithm for an unseen problem instance has been shown to be a challenging task, which has garnered significant attention from researchers in recent years. In this survey, we conduct an overview of the key contributions to algorithm selection in the field of single-objective continuous black-box optimization. We present ongoing work in representation learning of meta-features for optimization problem instances, algorithm instances, and their interactions. We also study machine learning models for automated algorithm selection, configuration, and performance prediction. Through this analysis, we identify gaps in the state of the art, based on which we present ideas for further development of meta-feature representations.

[82] 2406.06631

Hinge-FM2I: An Approach using Image Inpainting for Interpolating Missing Data in Univariate Time Series

Accurate time series forecasts are crucial for various applications, such as traffic management, electricity consumption, and healthcare. However, limitations in models and data quality can significantly impact forecasts accuracy. One common issue with data quality is the absence of data points, referred to as missing data. It is often caused by sensor malfunctions, equipment failures, or human errors. This paper proposes Hinge-FM2I, a novel method for handling missing data values in univariate time series data. Hinge-FM2I builds upon the strengths of the Forecasting Method by Image Inpainting (FM2I). FM2I has proven effective, but selecting the most accurate forecasts remain a challenge. To overcome this issue, we proposed a selection algorithm. Inspired by door hinges, Hinge-FM2I drops a data point either before or after the gap (left/right-hinge), then use FM2I for imputation, and then select the imputed gap based on the lowest error of the dropped data point. Hinge-FM2I was evaluated on a comprehensive sample composed of 1356 time series, extracted from the M3 competition benchmark dataset, with missing value rates ranging from 3.57\% to 28.57\%. Experimental results demonstrate that Hinge-FM2I significantly outperforms established methods such as, linear/spline interpolation, K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN), and ARIMA. Notably, Hinge-FM2I achieves an average Symmetric Mean Absolute Percentage Error (sMAPE) score of 5.6\% for small gaps, and up to 10\% for larger ones. These findings highlight the effectiveness of Hinge-FM2I as a promising new method for addressing missing values in univariate time series data.

[83] 2406.06632

Transfer Entropy in Graph Convolutional Neural Networks

Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) are Graph Neural Networks where the convolutions are applied over a graph. In contrast to Convolutional Neural Networks, GCN's are designed to perform inference on graphs, where the number of nodes can vary, and the nodes are unordered. In this study, we address two important challenges related to GCNs: i) oversmoothing; and ii) the utilization of node relational properties (i.e., heterophily and homophily). Oversmoothing is the degradation of the discriminative capacity of nodes as a result of repeated aggregations. Heterophily is the tendency for nodes of different classes to connect, whereas homophily is the tendency of similar nodes to connect. We propose a new strategy for addressing these challenges in GCNs based on Transfer Entropy (TE), which measures of the amount of directed transfer of information between two time varying nodes. Our findings indicate that using node heterophily and degree information as a node selection mechanism, along with feature-based TE calculations, enhances accuracy across various GCN models. Our model can be easily modified to improve classification accuracy of a GCN model. As a trade off, this performance boost comes with a significant computational overhead when the TE is computed for many graph nodes.

[84] 2406.06633

PairCFR: Enhancing Model Training on Paired Counterfactually Augmented Data through Contrastive Learning

Counterfactually Augmented Data (CAD) involves creating new data samples by applying minimal yet sufficient modifications to flip the label of existing data samples to other classes. Training with CAD enhances model robustness against spurious features that happen to correlate with labels by spreading the casual relationships across different classes. Yet, recent research reveals that training with CAD may lead models to overly focus on modified features while ignoring other important contextual information, inadvertently introducing biases that may impair performance on out-ofdistribution (OOD) datasets. To mitigate this issue, we employ contrastive learning to promote global feature alignment in addition to learning counterfactual clues. We theoretically prove that contrastive loss can encourage models to leverage a broader range of features beyond those modified ones. Comprehensive experiments on two human-edited CAD datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art on OOD datasets.

[85] 2406.06636

LLM Questionnaire Completion for Automatic Psychiatric Assessment

We employ a Large Language Model (LLM) to convert unstructured psychological interviews into structured questionnaires spanning various psychiatric and personality domains. The LLM is prompted to answer these questionnaires by impersonating the interviewee. The obtained answers are coded as features, which are used to predict standardized psychiatric measures of depression (PHQ-8) and PTSD (PCL-C), using a Random Forest regressor. Our approach is shown to enhance diagnostic accuracy compared to multiple baselines. It thus establishes a novel framework for interpreting unstructured psychological interviews, bridging the gap between narrative-driven and data-driven approaches for mental health assessment.

[86] 2406.06637

Exploring the Efficacy of Large Language Models (GPT-4) in Binary Reverse Engineering

This study investigates the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs), specifically GPT-4, in the context of Binary Reverse Engineering (RE). Employing a structured experimental approach, we analyzed the LLM's performance in interpreting and explaining human-written and decompiled codes. The research encompassed two phases: the first on basic code interpretation and the second on more complex malware analysis. Key findings indicate LLMs' proficiency in general code understanding, with varying effectiveness in detailed technical and security analyses. The study underscores the potential and current limitations of LLMs in reverse engineering, revealing crucial insights for future applications and improvements. Also, we examined our experimental methodologies, such as methods of evaluation and data constraints, which provided us with a technical vision for any future research activity in this field.

[87] 2406.06641

Investigation of the Impact of Economic and Social Factors on Energy Demand through Natural Language Processing

The relationship between energy demand and variables such as economic activity and weather is well established. However, this paper aims to explore the connection between energy demand and other social aspects, which receive little attention. Through the use of natural language processing on a large news corpus, we shed light on this important link. This study was carried out in five regions of the UK and Ireland and considers multiple horizons from 1 to 30 days. It also considers economic variables such as GDP, unemployment and inflation. We found that: 1) News about military conflicts, transportation, the global pandemic, regional economics, and the international energy market are related to electricity demand. 2) Economic indicators are more important in the East Midlands and Northern Ireland, while social indicators are more useful in the West Midlands and the South West of England. 3) The use of these indices improved forecasting performance by up to 9%.

[88] 2406.06642

TopoBenchmarkX: A Framework for Benchmarking Topological Deep Learning

This work introduces TopoBenchmarkX, a modular open-source library designed to standardize benchmarking and accelerate research in Topological Deep Learning (TDL). TopoBenchmarkX maps the TDL pipeline into a sequence of independent and modular components for data loading and processing, as well as model training, optimization, and evaluation. This modular organization provides flexibility for modifications and facilitates the adaptation and optimization of various TDL pipelines. A key feature of TopoBenchmarkX is that it allows for the transformation and lifting between topological domains. This enables, for example, to obtain richer data representations and more fine-grained analyses by mapping the topology and features of a graph to higher-order topological domains such as simplicial and cell complexes. The range of applicability of TopoBenchmarkX is demonstrated by benchmarking several TDL architectures for various tasks and datasets.

[89] 2406.06644

Latent Diffusion Model-Enabled Real-Time Semantic Communication Considering Semantic Ambiguities and Channel Noises

Semantic communication (SemCom) has emerged as a new paradigm for communication systems, with deep learning (DL) models being one of the key drives to shift from the accuracy of bit/symbol to the semantics and pragmatics of data. Nevertheless, DL-based SemCom systems often face performance bottlenecks due to overfitting, poor generalization, and sensitivity to outliers. Furthermore, the varying-fading gains and noises with uncertain signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) commonly present in wireless channels usually restrict the accuracy of semantic information transmission. Consequently, to address the aforementioned issues, this paper constructs a SemCom system based on the latent diffusion model, and proposes three improvements compared to existing works: i) To handle potential outliers in the source data, semantic errors obtained by projected gradient descent based on the vulnerabilities of DL models, are utilized to update the parameters and obtain an outlier-robust encoder. ii) A lightweight single-layer latent space transformation adapter completes one-shot learning at transmitter and is placed before the decoder at receiver, enabling adaptation for out-of-distribution data or enhancing human-perceptual quality. iii) An end-to-end consistency distillation (EECD) strategy is used to distill the diffusion models trained in latent space, enabling deterministic single or few-step real-time denoising in various noisy channels while maintaining high semantic quality. Extensive numerical experiments across different datasets demonstrate the superiority of the proposed SemCom system, consistently proving its robustness to outliers, the capability to transmit data with unknown distributions, and the ability to perform real-time channel denoising tasks while preserving high human perceptual quality, outperforming the existing denoising approaches in semantic metrics such as MS-SSIM and LPIPS.

[90] 2406.06645

Network-Based Transfer Learning Helps Improve Short-Term Crime Prediction Accuracy

Deep learning architectures enhanced with human mobility data have been shown to improve the accuracy of short-term crime prediction models trained with historical crime data. However, human mobility data may be scarce in some regions, negatively impacting the correct training of these models. To address this issue, we propose a novel transfer learning framework for short-term crime prediction models, whereby weights from the deep learning crime prediction models trained in source regions with plenty of mobility data are transferred to target regions to fine-tune their local crime prediction models and improve crime prediction accuracy. Our results show that the proposed transfer learning framework improves the F1 scores for target cities with mobility data scarcity, especially when the number of months of available mobility data is small. We also show that the F1 score improvements are pervasive across different types of crimes and diverse cities in the US.

[91] 2406.06647

How Efficient is LLM-Generated Code? A Rigorous & High-Standard Benchmark

The emergence of large language models (LLMs) has significantly pushed the frontiers of program synthesis. Advancement of LLM-based program synthesis calls for a thorough evaluation of LLM-generated code. Most evaluation frameworks focus on the (functional) correctness of generated code; efficiency, as an important measure of code quality, has been overlooked in existing evaluations. In this work, we develop ENAMEL (EfficeNcy AutoMatic EvaLuator), a rigorous and high-standard benchmark for evaluating the capability of LLMs in generating efficient code. Firstly, we propose a new efficiency metric called eff@k, which generalizes the pass@k metric from correctness to efficiency and appropriately handles right-censored execution time. Furthermore, we derive an unbiased and variance-reduced estimator of eff@k via Rao--Blackwellization; we also provide a numerically stable implementation for the new estimator. Secondly, to set a high-standard for efficiency evaluation, we employ a human expert to design best algorithms and implementations as our reference solutions of efficiency, many of which are much more efficient than existing canonical solutions in HumanEval and HumanEval+. Moreover, to ensure a rigorous evaluation, we employ a human expert to curate strong test case generators to filter out wrong code and differentiate suboptimal algorithms. An extensive study across 30 popular LLMs using our benchmark ENAMEL shows that LLMs still fall short of generating expert-level efficient code. Using two subsets of our problem set, we demonstrate that such deficiency is because current LLMs struggle in designing advanced algorithms and are barely aware of implementation optimization. Our benchmark is publicly available at .

[92] 2406.06648

SignBLEU: Automatic Evaluation of Multi-channel Sign Language Translation

Sign languages are multi-channel languages that communicate information through not just the hands (manual signals) but also facial expressions and upper body movements (non-manual signals). However, since automatic sign language translation is usually performed by generating a single sequence of glosses, researchers eschew non-manual and co-occurring manual signals in favor of a simplified list of manual glosses. This can lead to significant information loss and ambiguity. In this paper, we introduce a new task named multi-channel sign language translation (MCSLT) and present a novel metric, SignBLEU, designed to capture multiple signal channels. We validated SignBLEU on a system-level task using three sign language corpora with varied linguistic structures and transcription methodologies and examined its correlation with human judgment through two segment-level tasks. We found that SignBLEU consistently correlates better with human judgment than competing metrics. To facilitate further MCSLT research, we report benchmark scores for the three sign language corpora and release the source code for SignBLEU at

[93] 2406.06651

Short-Term Electricity Demand Forecasting of Dhaka City Using CNN with Stacked BiLSTM

The precise forecasting of electricity demand also referred to as load forecasting, is essential for both planning and managing a power system. It is crucial for many tasks, including choosing which power units to commit to, making plans for future power generation capacity, enhancing the power network, and controlling electricity consumption. As Bangladesh is a developing country, the electricity infrastructure is critical for economic growth and employment in this country. Accurate forecasting of electricity demand is crucial for ensuring that this country has a reliable and sustainable electricity supply to meet the needs of its growing population and economy. The complex and nonlinear behavior of such energy systems inhibits the creation of precise algorithms. Within this context, this paper aims to propose a hybrid model of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and stacked Bidirectional Long-short Term Memory (BiLSTM) architecture to perform an accurate short-term forecast of the electricity demand of Dhaka city. Short-term forecasting is ordinarily done to anticipate load for the following few hours to a few weeks. Normalization techniques have been also investigated because of the sensitivity of these models towards the input range. The proposed approach produced the best prediction results in comparison to the other benchmark models (LSTM, CNN- BiLSTM and CNN-LSTM) used in the study, with MAPE 1.64%, MSE 0.015, RMSE 0.122 and MAE 0.092. The result of the proposed model also outperformed some of the existing works on load-forecasting.

[94] 2406.06652

Improving Generalization of Neural Vehicle Routing Problem Solvers Through the Lens of Model Architecture

Neural models produce promising results when solving Vehicle Routing Problems (VRPs), but often fall short in generalization. Recent attempts to enhance model generalization often incur unnecessarily large training cost or cannot be directly applied to other models solving different VRP variants. To address these issues, we take a novel perspective on model architecture in this study. Specifically, we propose a plug-and-play Entropy-based Scaling Factor (ESF) and a Distribution-Specific (DS) decoder to enhance the size and distribution generalization, respectively. ESF adjusts the attention weight pattern of the model towards familiar ones discovered during training when solving VRPs of varying sizes. The DS decoder explicitly models VRPs of multiple training distribution patterns through multiple auxiliary light decoders, expanding the model representation space to encompass a broader range of distributional scenarios. We conduct extensive experiments on both synthetic and widely recognized real-world benchmarking datasets and compare the performance with seven baseline models. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using ESF and DS decoder to obtain a more generalizable model and showcase their applicability to solve different VRP variants, i.e., travelling salesman problem and capacitated VRP. Notably, our proposed generic components require minimal computational resources, and can be effortlessly integrated into conventional generalization strategies to further elevate model generalization.

[95] 2406.06653

DKDL-Net: A Lightweight Bearing Fault Detection Model via Decoupled Knowledge Distillation and Low-Rank Adaptation Fine-tuning

Rolling bearing fault detection has developed rapidly in the field of fault diagnosis technology, and it occupies a very important position in this field. Deep learning-based bearing fault diagnosis models have achieved significant success. At the same time, with the continuous improvement of new signal processing technologies such as Fourier transform, wavelet transform and empirical mode decomposition, the fault diagnosis technology of rolling bearings has also been greatly developed, and it can be said that it has entered a new research stage. However, most of the existing methods are limited to varying degrees in the industrial field. The main ones are fast feature extraction and computational complexity. The key to this paper is to propose a lightweight bearing fault diagnosis model DKDL-Net to solve these challenges. The model is trained on the CWRU data set by decoupling knowledge distillation and low rank adaptive fine tuning. Specifically, we built and trained a teacher model based on a 6-layer neural network with 69,626 trainable parameters, and on this basis, using decoupling knowledge distillation (DKD) and Low-Rank adaptive (LoRA) fine-tuning, we trained the student sag model DKDL-Net, which has only 6838 parameters. Experiments show that DKDL-Net achieves 99.48\% accuracy in computational complexity on the test set while maintaining model performance, which is 0.58\% higher than the state-of-the-art (SOTA) model, and our model has lower parameters. Our code is available at Github link:

[96] 2406.06654

Training and Validating a Treatment Recommender with Partial Verification Evidence

Current clinical decision support systems (DSS) are trained and validated on observational data from the target clinic. This is problematic for treatments validated in a randomized clinical trial (RCT), but not yet introduced in any clinic. In this work, we report on a method for training and validating the DSS using the RCT data. The key challenges we address are of missingness -- missing rationale for treatment assignment (the assignment is at random), and missing verification evidence, since the effectiveness of a treatment for a patient can only be verified (ground truth) for treatments what were actually assigned to a patient. We use data from a multi-armed RCT that investigated the effectiveness of single- and combination- treatments for 240+ tinnitus patients recruited and treated in 5 clinical centers. To deal with the 'missing rationale' challenge, we re-model the target variable (outcome) in order to suppress the effect of the randomly-assigned treatment, and control on the effect of treatment in general. Our methods are also robust to missing values in features and with a small number of patients per RCT arm. We deal with 'missing verification evidence' by using counterfactual treatment verification, which compares the effectiveness of the DSS recommendations to the effectiveness of the RCT assignments when they are aligned v/s not aligned. We demonstrate that our approach leverages the RCT data for learning and verification, by showing that the DSS suggests treatments that improve the outcome. The results are limited through the small number of patients per treatment; while our ensemble is designed to mitigate this effect, the predictive performance of the methods is affected by the smallness of the data. We provide a basis for the establishment of decision supporting routines on treatments that have been tested in RCTs but have not yet been deployed clinically.

[97] 2406.06655

Fed-Sophia: A Communication-Efficient Second-Order Federated Learning Algorithm

Federated learning is a machine learning approach where multiple devices collaboratively learn with the help of a parameter server by sharing only their local updates. While gradient-based optimization techniques are widely adopted in this domain, the curvature information that second-order methods exhibit is crucial to guide and speed up the convergence. This paper introduces a scalable second-order method, allowing the adoption of curvature information in federated large models. Our method, coined Fed-Sophia, combines a weighted moving average of the gradient with a clipping operation to find the descent direction. In addition to that, a lightweight estimation of the Hessian's diagonal is used to incorporate the curvature information. Numerical evaluation shows the superiority, robustness, and scalability of the proposed Fed-Sophia scheme compared to first and second-order baselines.

[98] 2406.06657

Harnessing AI for efficient analysis of complex policy documents: a case study of Executive Order 14110

Policy documents, such as legislation, regulations, and executive orders, are crucial in shaping society. However, their length and complexity make interpretation and application challenging and time-consuming. Artificial intelligence (AI), particularly large language models (LLMs), has the potential to automate the process of analyzing these documents, improving accuracy and efficiency. This study aims to evaluate the potential of AI in streamlining policy analysis and to identify the strengths and limitations of current AI approaches. The research focuses on question answering and tasks involving content extraction from policy documents. A case study was conducted using Executive Order 14110 on "Safe, Secure, and Trustworthy Development and Use of Artificial Intelligence" as a test case. Four commercial AI systems were used to analyze the document and answer a set of representative policy questions. The performance of the AI systems was compared to manual analysis conducted by human experts. The study found that two AI systems, Gemini 1.5 Pro and Claude 3 Opus, demonstrated significant potential for supporting policy analysis, providing accurate and reliable information extraction from complex documents. They performed comparably to human analysts but with significantly higher efficiency. However, achieving reproducibility remains a challenge, necessitating further research and development.

[99] 2406.06658

Link Prediction in Bipartite Networks

Bipartite networks serve as highly suitable models to represent systems involving interactions between two distinct types of entities, such as online dating platforms, job search services, or ecommerce websites. These models can be leveraged to tackle a number of tasks, including link prediction among the most useful ones, especially to design recommendation systems. However, if this task has garnered much interest when conducted on unipartite (i.e. standard) networks, it is far from being the case for bipartite ones. In this study, we address this gap by performing an experimental comparison of 19 link prediction methods able to handle bipartite graphs. Some come directly from the literature, and some are adapted by us from techniques originally designed for unipartite networks. We also propose to repurpose recommendation systems based on graph convolutional networks (GCN) as a novel link prediction solution for bipartite networks. To conduct our experiments, we constitute a benchmark of 3 real-world bipartite network datasets with various topologies. Our results indicate that GCN-based personalized recommendation systems, which have received significant attention in recent years, can produce successful results for link prediction in bipartite networks. Furthermore, purely heuristic metrics that do not rely on any learning process, like the Structural Perturbation Method (SPM), can also achieve success.

[100] 2406.06660

Space-Time Continuous PDE Forecasting using Equivariant Neural Fields

Recently, Conditional Neural Fields (NeFs) have emerged as a powerful modelling paradigm for PDEs, by learning solutions as flows in the latent space of the Conditional NeF. Although benefiting from favourable properties of NeFs such as grid-agnosticity and space-time-continuous dynamics modelling, this approach limits the ability to impose known constraints of the PDE on the solutions -- e.g. symmetries or boundary conditions -- in favour of modelling flexibility. Instead, we propose a space-time continuous NeF-based solving framework that - by preserving geometric information in the latent space - respects known symmetries of the PDE. We show that modelling solutions as flows of pointclouds over the group of interest $G$ improves generalization and data-efficiency. We validated that our framework readily generalizes to unseen spatial and temporal locations, as well as geometric transformations of the initial conditions - where other NeF-based PDE forecasting methods fail - and improve over baselines in a number of challenging geometries.

[101] 2406.06662

Proximity Matters: Analyzing the Role of Geographical Proximity in Shaping AI Research Collaborations

The role of geographical proximity in facilitating inter-regional or inter-organizational collaborations has been studied thoroughly in recent years. However, the effect of geographical proximity on forming scientific collaborations at the individual level still needs to be addressed. Using publication data in the field of artificial intelligence from 2001 to 2019, in this work, the effect of geographical proximity on the likelihood of forming future scientific collaborations among researchers is studied. In addition, the interaction between geographical and network proximities is examined to see whether network proximity can substitute geographical proximity in encouraging long-distance scientific collaborations. Employing conventional and machine learning techniques, our results suggest that geographical distance impedes scientific collaboration at the individual level despite the tremendous improvements in transportation and communication technologies during recent decades. Moreover, our findings show that the effect of network proximity on the likelihood of scientific collaboration increases with geographical distance, implying that network proximity can act as a substitute for geographical proximity.

[102] 2406.06663

SecureNet: A Comparative Study of DeBERTa and Large Language Models for Phishing Detection

Phishing, whether through email, SMS, or malicious websites, poses a major threat to organizations by using social engineering to trick users into revealing sensitive information. It not only compromises company's data security but also incurs significant financial losses. In this paper, we investigate whether the remarkable performance of Large Language Models (LLMs) can be leveraged for particular task like text classification, particularly detecting malicious content and compare its results with state-of-the-art Deberta V3 (DeBERTa using ELECTRA-Style Pre-Training with Gradient-Disentangled Embedding Sharing) model. We systematically assess the potential and limitations of both approaches using comprehensive public datasets comprising diverse data sources such as email, HTML, URL, SMS, and synthetic data generation. Additionally, we demonstrate how LLMs can generate convincing phishing emails, making it harder to spot scams and evaluate the performance of both models in this context. Our study delves further into the challenges encountered by DeBERTa V3 during its training phases, fine-tuning methodology and transfer learning processes. Similarly, we examine the challenges associated with LLMs and assess their respective performance. Among our experimental approaches, the transformer-based DeBERTa method emerged as the most effective, achieving a test dataset (HuggingFace phishing dataset) recall (sensitivity) of 95.17% closely followed by GPT-4 providing a recall of 91.04%. We performed additional experiments with other datasets on the trained DeBERTa V3 model and LLMs like GPT 4 and Gemini 1.5. Based on our findings, we provide valuable insights into the effectiveness and robustness of these advanced language models, offering a detailed comparative analysis that can inform future research efforts in strengthening cybersecurity measures for detecting and mitigating phishing threats.

[103] 2406.06665

Enrolment-based personalisation for improving individual-level fairness in speech emotion recognition

The expression of emotion is highly individualistic. However, contemporary speech emotion recognition (SER) systems typically rely on population-level models that adopt a `one-size-fits-all' approach for predicting emotion. Moreover, standard evaluation practices measure performance also on the population level, thus failing to characterise how models work across different speakers. In the present contribution, we present a new method for capitalising on individual differences to adapt an SER model to each new speaker using a minimal set of enrolment utterances. In addition, we present novel evaluation schemes for measuring fairness across different speakers. Our findings show that aggregated evaluation metrics may obfuscate fairness issues on the individual-level, which are uncovered by our evaluation, and that our proposed method can improve performance both in aggregated and disaggregated terms.

[104] 2406.06671

Controlling Counterfactual Harm in Decision Support Systems Based on Prediction Sets

Decision support systems based on prediction sets help humans solve multiclass classification tasks by narrowing down the set of potential label values to a subset of them, namely a prediction set, and asking them to always predict label values from the prediction sets. While this type of systems have been proven to be effective at improving the average accuracy of the predictions made by humans, by restricting human agency, they may cause harm$\unicode{x2014}$a human who has succeeded at predicting the ground-truth label of an instance on their own may have failed had they used these systems. In this paper, our goal is to control how frequently a decision support system based on prediction sets may cause harm, by design. To this end, we start by characterizing the above notion of harm using the theoretical framework of structural causal models. Then, we show that, under a natural, albeit unverifiable, monotonicity assumption, we can estimate how frequently a system may cause harm using only predictions made by humans on their own. Further, we also show that, under a weaker monotonicity assumption, which can be verified experimentally, we can bound how frequently a system may cause harm again using only predictions made by humans on their own. Building upon these assumptions, we introduce a computational framework to design decision support systems based on prediction sets that are guaranteed to cause harm less frequently than a user-specified value using conformal risk control. We validate our framework using real human predictions from two different human subject studies and show that, in decision support systems based on prediction sets, there is a trade-off between accuracy and counterfactual harm.

[105] 2406.06679

PatchRefiner: Leveraging Synthetic Data for Real-Domain High-Resolution Monocular Metric Depth Estimation

This paper introduces PatchRefiner, an advanced framework for metric single image depth estimation aimed at high-resolution real-domain inputs. While depth estimation is crucial for applications such as autonomous driving, 3D generative modeling, and 3D reconstruction, achieving accurate high-resolution depth in real-world scenarios is challenging due to the constraints of existing architectures and the scarcity of detailed real-world depth data. PatchRefiner adopts a tile-based methodology, reconceptualizing high-resolution depth estimation as a refinement process, which results in notable performance enhancements. Utilizing a pseudo-labeling strategy that leverages synthetic data, PatchRefiner incorporates a Detail and Scale Disentangling (DSD) loss to enhance detail capture while maintaining scale accuracy, thus facilitating the effective transfer of knowledge from synthetic to real-world data. Our extensive evaluations demonstrate PatchRefiner's superior performance, significantly outperforming existing benchmarks on the Unreal4KStereo dataset by 18.1% in terms of the root mean squared error (RMSE) and showing marked improvements in detail accuracy and consistent scale estimation on diverse real-world datasets like CityScape, ScanNet++, and ETH3D.

[106] 2406.06699

In-Context Learning and Fine-Tuning GPT for Argument Mining

Large Language Models (LLMs) have become ubiquitous in NLP and deep learning. In-Context Learning (ICL) has been suggested as a bridging paradigm between the training-free and fine-tuning LLMs settings. In ICL, an LLM is conditioned to solve tasks by means of a few solved demonstration examples included as prompt. Argument Mining (AM) aims to extract the complex argumentative structure of a text, and Argument Type Classification (ATC) is an essential sub-task of AM. We introduce an ICL strategy for ATC combining kNN-based examples selection and majority vote ensembling. In the training-free ICL setting, we show that GPT-4 is able to leverage relevant information from only a few demonstration examples and achieve very competitive classification accuracy on ATC. We further set up a fine-tuning strategy incorporating well-crafted structural features given directly in textual form. In this setting, GPT-3.5 achieves state-of-the-art performance on ATC. Overall, these results emphasize the emergent ability of LLMs to grasp global discursive flow in raw text in both off-the-shelf and fine-tuned setups.

[107] 2406.06700

Forget Sharpness: Perturbed Forgetting of Model Biases Within SAM Dynamics

Despite attaining high empirical generalization, the sharpness of models trained with sharpness-aware minimization (SAM) do not always correlate with generalization error. Instead of viewing SAM as minimizing sharpness to improve generalization, our paper considers a new perspective based on SAM's training dynamics. We propose that perturbations in SAM perform perturbed forgetting, where they discard undesirable model biases to exhibit learning signals that generalize better. We relate our notion of forgetting to the information bottleneck principle, use it to explain observations like the better generalization of smaller perturbation batches, and show that perturbed forgetting can exhibit a stronger correlation with generalization than flatness. While standard SAM targets model biases exposed by the steepest ascent directions, we propose a new perturbation that targets biases exposed through the model's outputs. Our output bias forgetting perturbations outperform standard SAM, GSAM, and ASAM on ImageNet, robustness benchmarks, and transfer to CIFAR-{10,100}, while sometimes converging to sharper regions. Our results suggest that the benefits of SAM can be explained by alternative mechanistic principles that do not require flatness of the loss surface.

[108] 2406.06703

Video-based Exercise Classification and Activated Muscle Group Prediction with Hybrid X3D-SlowFast Network

This paper introduces a simple yet effective strategy for exercise classification and muscle group activation prediction (MGAP). These tasks have significant implications for personal fitness, facilitating more affordable, accessible, safer, and simpler exercise routines. This is particularly relevant for novices and individuals with disabilities. Previous research in the field is mostly dominated by the reliance on mounted sensors and a limited scope of exercises, reducing practicality for everyday use. Furthermore, existing MGAP methodologies suffer from a similar dependency on sensors and a restricted range of muscle groups, often excluding strength training exercises, which are pivotal for a comprehensive fitness regimen. Addressing these limitations, our research employs a video-based deep learning framework that encompasses a broad spectrum of exercises and muscle groups, including those vital for strength training. Utilizing the "Workout/Exercises Video" dataset, our approach integrates the X3D and SlowFast video activity recognition models in an effective way to enhance exercise classification and MGAP performance. Our findings demonstrate that this hybrid method obtained via weighted ensemble outperforms existing baseline models in accuracy. Pretrained models play a crucial role in enhancing overall performance, with optimal channel reduction values for the SlowFast model identified near 10. Through an ablation study that explores fine-tuning, we further elucidate the interrelation between the two tasks. Our composite model, a weighted-average ensemble of X3D and SlowFast, sets a new benchmark in both exercise classification and MGAP across all evaluated categories, offering a robust solution to the limitations of previous approaches.

[109] 2406.06714

Coprocessor Actor Critic: A Model-Based Reinforcement Learning Approach For Adaptive Brain Stimulation

Adaptive brain stimulation can treat neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and post-stroke motor deficits by influencing abnormal neural activity. Because of patient heterogeneity, each patient requires a unique stimulation policy to achieve optimal neural responses. Model-free reinforcement learning (MFRL) holds promise in learning effective policies for a variety of similar control tasks, but is limited in domains like brain stimulation by a need for numerous costly environment interactions. In this work we introduce Coprocessor Actor Critic, a novel, model-based reinforcement learning (MBRL) approach for learning neural coprocessor policies for brain stimulation. Our key insight is that coprocessor policy learning is a combination of learning how to act optimally in the world and learning how to induce optimal actions in the world through stimulation of an injured brain. We show that our approach overcomes the limitations of traditional MFRL methods in terms of sample efficiency and task success and outperforms baseline MBRL approaches in a neurologically realistic model of an injured brain.

[110] 2406.06717

Analyzing user archetypes in Singapore's Telegram groups on COVID-19 and climate change

Social media platforms, particularly Telegram, play a pivotal role in shaping public perceptions and opinions on global and national issues. Unlike traditional news media, Telegram allows for the proliferation of user-generated content with minimal oversight, making it a significant venue for the spread of controversial and misinformative content. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Telegram's popularity surged in Singapore, a country with one of the highest rates of social media use globally. We leverage Singapore-based Telegram data to analyze information flows within groups focused on COVID-19 and climate change. Using k-means clustering, we identified distinct user archetypes, including Skeptic, Engaged Advocate, Observer, and Analyst, each contributing uniquely to the discourse. We developed a model to classify users into these clusters (Precision: Climate change: 0.99; COVID-19: 0.95). By identifying these user archetypes and examining their contributions to information dissemination, we sought to uncover patterns to inform effective strategies for combating misinformation and enhancing public discourse on pressing global issues.

[111] 2406.06720

Vibrotactile versus Visual Stimulation in Learning the Piano

Vibrotactile stimulation has been explored to accelerate the acquisition of motor skills involving finger movements (Gemicioglu et al. 22, Markow et al. 2010, Seim et al. 17). This study evaluates the effectiveness of vibrotactile stimulation compared to visual feedback in learning a 14-note one-handed tune on the piano. In the experiment, 14 subjects with no prior piano experience were exposed to both vibrotactile and visual stimulation to determine which was more effective. Subjects were randomized 1:1 in a group that first receives vibrotactile stimulation, then visual stimulation or in a group that first receives visual stimulation, then vibrotactile stimulation. Effectiveness was measured by evaluating the timing error and accuracy. Results from our study indicated that the timing error for vibrotactile stimulation was 12.1% (SD 6.0%), while the equivalent for visual stimulation was 22.3% (SD 10.3%). The accuracy for vibrotactile stimulation was 69.2% (SD 27.2%), while the equivalent for visual stimulation was 91.3% (SD 13.5%). It was observed that vibrotactile stimulation was generally more effective at minimizing the timing error at which the notes were hit compared to visual stimulation, and no statistically significant differences were found in accuracy.

[112] 2406.06723

Leveraging Large Language Models for Knowledge-free Weak Supervision in Clinical Natural Language Processing

The performance of deep learning-based natural language processing systems is based on large amounts of labeled training data which, in the clinical domain, are not easily available or affordable. Weak supervision and in-context learning offer partial solutions to this issue, particularly using large language models (LLMs), but their performance still trails traditional supervised methods with moderate amounts of gold-standard data. In particular, inferencing with LLMs is computationally heavy. We propose an approach leveraging fine-tuning LLMs and weak supervision with virtually no domain knowledge that still achieves consistently dominant performance. Using a prompt-based approach, the LLM is used to generate weakly-labeled data for training a downstream BERT model. The weakly supervised model is then further fine-tuned on small amounts of gold standard data. We evaluate this approach using Llama2 on three different n2c2 datasets. With no more than 10 gold standard notes, our final BERT models weakly supervised by fine-tuned Llama2-13B consistently outperformed out-of-the-box PubMedBERT by 4.7% to 47.9% in F1 scores. With only 50 gold standard notes, our models achieved close performance to fully fine-tuned systems.

[113] 2406.06724

Stochastic Guidance of Buoyancy Controlled Vehicles under Ice Shelves using Ocean Currents

We propose a novel technique for guidance of buoyancy-controlled vehicles in uncertain under-ice ocean flows. In-situ melt rate measurements collected at the grounding zone of Antarctic ice shelves, where the ice shelf meets the underlying bedrock, are essential to constrain models of future sea level rise. Buoyancy-controlled vehicles, which control their vertical position in the water column through internal actuation but have no means of horizontal propulsion, offer an affordable and reliable platform for such in-situ data collection. However, reaching the grounding zone requires vehicles to traverse tens of kilometers under the ice shelf, with approximate position knowledge and no means of communication, in highly variable and uncertain ocean currents. To address this challenge, we propose a partially observable MDP approach that exploits model-based knowledge of the under-ice currents and, critically, of their uncertainty, to synthesize effective guidance policies. The approach uses approximate dynamic programming to model uncertainty in the currents, and QMDP to address localization uncertainty. Numerical experiments show that the policy can deliver up to 88.8% of underwater vehicles to the grounding zone -- a 33% improvement compared to state-of-the-art guidance techniques, and a 262% improvement over uncontrolled drifters. Collectively, these results show that model-based under-ice guidance is a highly promising technique for exploration of under-ice cavities, and has the potential to enable cost-effective and scalable access to these challenging and rarely observed environments.

[114] 2406.06728

AI-Driven Predictive Analytics Approach for Early Prognosis of Chronic Kidney Disease Using Ensemble Learning and Explainable AI

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the widespread Chronic diseases with no known ultimo cure and high morbidity. Research demonstrates that progressive Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a heterogeneous disorder that significantly impacts kidney structure and functions, eventually leading to kidney failure. With the progression of time, chronic kidney disease has moved from a life-threatening disease affecting few people to a common disorder of varying severity. The goal of this research is to visualize dominating features, feature scores, and values exhibited for early prognosis and detection of CKD using ensemble learning and explainable AI. For that, an AI-driven predictive analytics approach is proposed to aid clinical practitioners in prescribing lifestyle modifications for individual patients to reduce the rate of progression of this disease. Our dataset is collected on body vitals from individuals with CKD and healthy subjects to develop our proposed AI-driven solution accurately. In this regard, blood and urine test results are provided, and ensemble tree-based machine-learning models are applied to predict unseen cases of CKD. Our research findings are validated after lengthy consultations with nephrologists. Our experiments and interpretation results are compared with existing explainable AI applications in various healthcare domains, including CKD. The comparison shows that our developed AI models, particularly the Random Forest model, have identified more features as significant contributors than XgBoost. Interpretability (I), which measures the ratio of important to masked features, indicates that our XgBoost model achieved a higher score, specifically a Fidelity of 98\%, in this metric and naturally in the FII index compared to competing models.

[115] 2406.06729

Synthetic Query Generation using Large Language Models for Virtual Assistants

Virtual Assistants (VAs) are important Information Retrieval platforms that help users accomplish various tasks through spoken commands. The speech recognition system (speech-to-text) uses query priors, trained solely on text, to distinguish between phonetically confusing alternatives. Hence, the generation of synthetic queries that are similar to existing VA usage can greatly improve upon the VA's abilities -- especially for use-cases that do not (yet) occur in paired audio/text data. In this paper, we provide a preliminary exploration of the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) to generate synthetic queries that are complementary to template-based methods. We investigate whether the methods (a) generate queries that are similar to randomly sampled, representative, and anonymized user queries from a popular VA, and (b) whether the generated queries are specific. We find that LLMs generate more verbose queries, compared to template-based methods, and reference aspects specific to the entity. The generated queries are similar to VA user queries, and are specific enough to retrieve the relevant entity. We conclude that queries generated by LLMs and templates are complementary.

[116] 2406.06730

TRINS: Towards Multimodal Language Models that Can Read

Large multimodal language models have shown remarkable proficiency in understanding and editing images. However, a majority of these visually-tuned models struggle to comprehend the textual content embedded in images, primarily due to the limitation of training data. In this work, we introduce TRINS: a Text-Rich image INStruction dataset, with the objective of enhancing the reading ability of the multimodal large language model. TRINS is built upon LAION using hybrid data annotation strategies that include machine-assisted and human-assisted annotation processes. It contains 39,153 text-rich images, captions, and 102,437 questions. Specifically, we show that the number of words per annotation in TRINS is significantly longer than that of related datasets, providing new challenges. Furthermore, we introduce a simple and effective architecture, called a Language-vision Reading Assistant (LaRA), which is good at understanding textual content within images. LaRA outperforms existing state-of-the-art multimodal large language models on the TRINS dataset, as well as other classical benchmarks. Lastly, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation with TRINS on various text-rich image understanding and generation tasks, demonstrating its effectiveness.

[117] 2406.06732

Mining for sustainability in cloud architecture among the discussions of software practitioners: building a dataset

The adoption of cloud computing is steadily increasing in designing and implementing software systems, thus it becomes imperative to consider the sustainability implications of these processes. While there has already been some academic research on this topic, there is a lack of perspective from practitioners. To bridge this gap, we utilize software repository mining techniques to examine 192 discussions among practitioners on the Software Engineering forum of the StackExchange platform, aiming to build an annotated dataset containing cloud architectural discussions and to understand the current discussion on sustainability in cloud architecture. To identify these discussions, we first put together a list of terms indicating sustainability as the topic. Our initial findings indicate practitioners mainly focus on design aspects (analysis, synthesis, and implementation) while avoiding complex activities like evaluation and maintenance. Technical sustainability is emphasized, while the economic dimension has the most discussions exclusively focused on it. This contrasts with previous academic literature, which highlighted environmental sustainability.

[118] 2406.06734

A Fast Solver for Tridiagonal Toeplitz Systems with Multiple Right-Hand Sides

In this work, we introduce a novel approach for solving tridiagonal Toeplitz systems with multiple right-hand sides.

[119] 2406.06735

Fast Sampling Based Sketches for Tensors

We introduce a new approach for applying sampling-based sketches to two and three mode tensors. We illustrate our technique to construct sketches for the classical problems of $\ell_0$ sampling and producing $\ell_1$ embeddings. In both settings we achieve sketches that can be applied to a rank one tensor in $(\mathbb{R}^d)^{\otimes q}$ (for $q=2,3$) in time scaling with $d$ rather than $d^2$ or $d^3$. Our main idea is a particular sampling construction based on fast convolution which allows us to quickly compute sums over sufficiently random subsets of tensor entries.

[120] 2406.06736

Long-Term Fairness Inquiries and Pursuits in Machine Learning: A Survey of Notions, Methods, and Challenges

The widespread integration of Machine Learning systems in daily life, particularly in high-stakes domains, has raised concerns about the fairness implications. While prior works have investigated static fairness measures, recent studies reveal that automated decision-making has long-term implications and that off-the-shelf fairness approaches may not serve the purpose of achieving long-term fairness. Additionally, the existence of feedback loops and the interaction between models and the environment introduces additional complexities that may deviate from the initial fairness goals. In this survey, we review existing literature on long-term fairness from different perspectives and present a taxonomy for long-term fairness studies. We highlight key challenges and consider future research directions, analyzing both current issues and potential further explorations.

[121] 2406.06737

Raccoon: Prompt Extraction Benchmark of LLM-Integrated Applications

With the proliferation of LLM-integrated applications such as GPT-s, millions are deployed, offering valuable services through proprietary instruction prompts. These systems, however, are prone to prompt extraction attacks through meticulously designed queries. To help mitigate this problem, we introduce the Raccoon benchmark which comprehensively evaluates a model's susceptibility to prompt extraction attacks. Our novel evaluation method assesses models under both defenseless and defended scenarios, employing a dual approach to evaluate the effectiveness of existing defenses and the resilience of the models. The benchmark encompasses 14 categories of prompt extraction attacks, with additional compounded attacks that closely mimic the strategies of potential attackers, alongside a diverse collection of defense templates. This array is, to our knowledge, the most extensive compilation of prompt theft attacks and defense mechanisms to date. Our findings highlight universal susceptibility to prompt theft in the absence of defenses, with OpenAI models demonstrating notable resilience when protected. This paper aims to establish a more systematic benchmark for assessing LLM robustness against prompt extraction attacks, offering insights into their causes and potential countermeasures. Resources of Raccoon are publicly available at

[122] 2406.06738

Instruction Block Movement with Coupled High-Level Program Sequencing

Efficiency in instruction fetching is critical to performance, and this requires the primary structures -- L1 instruction caches (L1i), branch target buffers (BTB) and instruction TLBs (iTLB) -- to have the requisite information when needed. This paper proposes a high-level program sequencing mechanism and a coupled technique for block movement, instruction presending, where instruction cache blocks, BTB entries, and iTLB entries are autonomously moved (or sent) from the secondary to the primary structures in a "just in time" fashion so that they are available when needed. Empirical results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the high-level sequencing mechanism and block movement. Presending is especially effective for benchmarks with a high base MPKI, where the movement of instruction blocks (and BTB/iTLB entries) from secondary to primary structures is frequent. Presending reduces the number of misses in primary structures by an order of magnitude as compared to state-of-the-art instruction prefetching schemes, in many cases, while allowing the processor to operate with small-sized primary BTBs. This reduction in misses results in performance improvements in cases where front-end efficiency is important.

[123] 2406.06739

Scaling the Vocabulary of Non-autoregressive Models for Efficient Generative Retrieval

Generative Retrieval introduces a new approach to Information Retrieval by reframing it as a constrained generation task, leveraging recent advancements in Autoregressive (AR) language models. However, AR-based Generative Retrieval methods suffer from high inference latency and cost compared to traditional dense retrieval techniques, limiting their practical applicability. This paper investigates fully Non-autoregressive (NAR) language models as a more efficient alternative for generative retrieval. While standard NAR models alleviate latency and cost concerns, they exhibit a significant drop in retrieval performance (compared to AR models) due to their inability to capture dependencies between target tokens. To address this, we question the conventional choice of limiting the target token space to solely words or sub-words. We propose PIXAR, a novel approach that expands the target vocabulary of NAR models to include multi-word entities and common phrases (up to 5 million tokens), thereby reducing token dependencies. PIXAR employs inference optimization strategies to maintain low inference latency despite the significantly larger vocabulary. Our results demonstrate that PIXAR achieves a relative improvement of 31.0% in MRR@10 on MS MARCO and 23.2% in Hits@5 on Natural Questions compared to standard NAR models with similar latency and cost. Furthermore, online A/B experiments on a large commercial search engine show that PIXAR increases ad clicks by 5.08% and revenue by 4.02%.

[124] 2406.06742

An Elliptic Kernel Unsupervised Autoencoder-Graph Convolutional Network Ensemble Model for Hyperspectral Unmixing

Spectral Unmixing is an important technique in remote sensing used to analyze hyperspectral images to identify endmembers and estimate abundance maps. Over the past few decades, performance of techniques for endmember extraction and fractional abundance map estimation have significantly improved. This article presents an ensemble model workflow called Autoencoder Graph Ensemble Model (AEGEM) designed to extract endmembers and fractional abundance maps. An elliptical kernel is applied to measure spectral distances, generating the adjacency matrix within the elliptical neighborhood. This information is used to construct an elliptical graph, with centroids as senders and remaining pixels within the geometry as receivers. The next step involves stacking abundance maps, senders, and receivers as inputs to a Graph Convolutional Network, which processes this input to refine abundance maps. Finally, an ensemble decision-making process determines the best abundance maps based on root mean square error metric. The proposed AEGEM is assessed with benchmark datasets such as Samson, Jasper, and Urban, outperforming results obtained by baseline algorithms. For the Samson dataset, AEGEM excels in three abundance maps: water, tree and soil yielding values of 0.081, 0.158, and 0.182, respectively. For the Jasper dataset, results are improved for the tree and water endmembers with values of 0.035 and 0.060 in that order, as well as for the mean average of the spectral angle distance metric 0.109. For the Urban dataset, AEGEM outperforms previous results for the abundance maps of roof and asphalt, achieving values of 0.135 and 0.240, respectively. Additionally, for the endmembers of grass and roof, AEGEM achieves values of 0.063 and 0.094.

[125] 2406.06744

A Multi-module Robust Method for Transient Stability Assessment against False Label Injection Cyberattacks

The success of deep learning in transient stability assessment (TSA) heavily relies on high-quality training data. However, the label information in TSA datasets is vulnerable to contamination through false label injection (FLI) cyberattacks, resulting in degraded performance of deep TSA models. To address this challenge, a Multi-Module Robust TSA method (MMR) is proposed to rectify the supervised training process misguided by FLI in an unsupervised manner. In MMR, a supervised classification module and an unsupervised clustering module are alternatively trained to improve the clustering friendliness of representation leaning, thereby achieving accurate clustering assignments. Leveraging the clustering assignments, we construct a training label corrector to rectify the injected false labels and progressively enhance robustness and resilience against FLI. However, there is still a gap on accuracy and convergence speed between MMR and FLI-free deep TSA models. To narrow this gap, we further propose a human-in-the-loop training strategy, named MMR-HIL. In MMR-HIL, potential false samples can be detected by modeling the training loss with a Gaussian distribution. From these samples, the most likely false samples and most ambiguous samples are re-labeled by a TSA experts guided bi-directional annotator and then subjected to penalized optimization, aimed at improving accuracy and convergence speed. Extensive experiments indicate that MMR and MMR-HIL both exhibit powerful robustness against FLI in TSA performance. Moreover, the contaminated labels can also be effectively corrected, demonstrating superior resilience of the proposed methods.

[126] 2406.06746

Multi-Objective Neural Architecture Search for In-Memory Computing

In this work, we employ neural architecture search (NAS) to enhance the efficiency of deploying diverse machine learning (ML) tasks on in-memory computing (IMC) architectures. Initially, we design three fundamental components inspired by the convolutional layers found in VGG and ResNet models. Subsequently, we utilize Bayesian optimization to construct a convolutional neural network (CNN) model with adaptable depths, employing these components. Through the Bayesian search algorithm, we explore a vast search space comprising over 640 million network configurations to identify the optimal solution, considering various multi-objective cost functions like accuracy/latency and accuracy/energy. Our evaluation of this NAS approach for IMC architecture deployment spans three distinct image classification datasets, demonstrating the effectiveness of our method in achieving a balanced solution characterized by high accuracy and reduced latency and energy consumption.

[127] 2406.06748

Starling Formation-Flying Optical Experiment: Initial Operations and Flight Results

This paper presents initial flight results for distributed optical angles-only navigation of a swarm of small spacecraft, conducted during the Starling Formation-Flying Optical Experiment (StarFOX). StarFOX is a core payload of the NASA Starling mission, which consists of four CubeSats launched in 2023. Prior angles-only flight demonstrations have only featured one observer and target and have relied upon a-priori target orbit knowledge for initialization, translational maneuvers to resolve target range, and external absolute orbit updates to maintain convergence. StarFOX overcomes these limitations by applying the angles-only Absolute and Relative Trajectory Measurement System (ARTMS), which integrates three novel algorithms. Image Processing detects and tracks multiple targets in images from each satellite's on-board camera. Batch Orbit Determination computes initial swarm orbit estimates from bearing angle batches. Sequential Orbit Determination leverages an unscented Kalman filter to refine swarm state estimates over time. Multi-observer measurements shared over an intersatellite link are seamlessly fused to enable absolute and relative orbit determination. StarFOX flight data presents the first demonstrations of autonomous angles-only navigation for a satellite swarm, including multi-target and multi-observer relative navigation; autonomous initialization of navigation for unknown targets; and simultaneous absolute and relative orbit determination. Relative positioning uncertainties of 1.3% of target range (1$\sigma$) are achieved for a single observer under challenging measurement conditions, reduced to 0.6% (1$\sigma$) with multiple observers. Results demonstrate promising performance with regards to ongoing StarFOX campaigns and the application of angles-only navigation to future distributed missions.

[128] 2406.06751

Complexity-Aware Deep Symbolic Regression with Robust Risk-Seeking Policy Gradients

This paper proposes a novel deep symbolic regression approach to enhance the robustness and interpretability of data-driven mathematical expression discovery. Despite the success of the state-of-the-art method, DSR, it is built on recurrent neural networks, purely guided by data fitness, and potentially meet tail barriers, which can zero out the policy gradient and cause inefficient model updates. To overcome these limitations, we use transformers in conjunction with breadth-first-search to improve the learning performance. We use Bayesian information criterion (BIC) as the reward function to explicitly account for the expression complexity and optimize the trade-off between interpretability and data fitness. We propose a modified risk-seeking policy that not only ensures the unbiasness of the gradient, but also removes the tail barriers, thus ensuring effective updates from top performers. Through a series of benchmarks and systematic experiments, we demonstrate the advantages of our approach.

[129] 2406.06754

Incremental Sliding Window Connectivity over Streaming Graphs

We study index-based processing for connectivity queries within sliding windows on streaming graphs. These queries, which determine whether two vertices belong to the same connected component, are fundamental operations in real-time graph data processing and demand high throughput and low latency. While indexing methods that leverage data structures for fully dynamic connectivity can facilitate efficient query processing, they encounter significant challenges with deleting expired edges from the window during window updates. We introduce a novel indexing approach that eliminates the need for physically performing edge deletions. This is achieved through a unique bidirectional incremental computation framework, referred to as the BIC model. The BIC model implements two distinct incremental computations to compute connected components within the window, operating along and against the timeline, respectively. These computations are then merged to efficiently compute queries in the window. We propose techniques for optimized index storage, incremental index updates, and efficient query processing to improve BIC effectiveness. Empirically, BIC achieves a 14$\times$ increase in throughput and a reduction in P95 latency by up to 3900$\times$ when compared to state-of-the-art indexes.

[130] 2406.06760

Decentralized Reliability Estimation for Mixnets

Continuous-time decryption mixnets can anonymously route data packets with end to end latency that can be as low as a second, making them usable for a variety of applications. Such mixnets however lack verifiable reliability properties that ensure the correct processing and delivery of packets, while existing verifiability mechanisms are incompatible with scalable low latency continuous-time mixnets due to imposing overheads measuring in minutes to hours. This work addresses this gap by proposing a scheme that can estimate reliability scores for links and nodes forming a continuous-time mixnet where some form of credentials authorize clients to send traffic. The scores can be computed publicly by all participants from a set of measurement packets that are eventually revealed and act as a random sample of the traffic, without affecting mixnet transmission latency for client packets. Our scheme relies on VRF-based routing, a novel primitive that ensures that legitimate client packets follow the routing policy of the mixnet, as well as randomly generating unforgeable measurement packets. We experimentally validate our construction both in unreliable and adversarial settings, demonstrating its feasibility.

[131] 2406.06761

Scalable Private Search with Wally

This paper presents Wally, a private search system that supports efficient semantic and keyword search queries against large databases. When sufficient clients are making the queries, Wally performance is significantly better than previous systems. In previous private search systems, for each client query, the server must perform at least one expensive cryptographic operation per database entry. As a result, performance degraded proportionally with the number of entries in the database. In Wally we get rid of this limitation. Specifically, for each query the server performs cryptographic operations only against a few database entries. We achieve these results by requiring each client to add a few fake queries, and sends each query via an anonymous network to the server at independently chosen random instants. Additionally, each client also uses somewhat homomorphic encryption (SHE) to hide whether a query is real or fake, Wally provides $(\epsilon, \delta)$-differential privacy guarantee, which is an accepted standard for strong privacy. The number of fake queries each client makes depends inversely on the number of clients making queries. Therefore, the fake queries' overhead vanishes as the number of clients increases, enabling scalability to millions of queries and large databases. Concretely, Wally can serve $8$M requests at a rate of 3,000 queries per second. That is around 60x higher than the state-of-the-art scheme.

[132] 2406.06764

$Classi|Q\rangle$ Towards a Translation Framework To Bridge The Classical-Quantum Programming Gap

Quantum computing, albeit readily available as hardware or emulated on the cloud, is still far from being available in general regarding complex programming paradigms and learning curves. This vision paper introduces $Classi|Q\rangle$, a translation framework idea to bridge Classical and Quantum Computing by translating high-level programming languages, e.g., Python or C++, into a low-level language, e.g., Quantum Assembly. Our idea paper serves as a blueprint for ongoing efforts in quantum software engineering, offering a roadmap for further $Classi|Q\rangle$ development to meet the diverse needs of researchers and practitioners. $Classi|Q\rangle$ is designed to empower researchers and practitioners with no prior quantum experience to harness the potential of hybrid quantum computation. We also discuss future enhancements to $Classi|Q\rangle$, including support for additional quantum languages, improved optimization strategies, and integration with emerging quantum computing platforms.

[133] 2406.06769

DISCOVERYWORLD: A Virtual Environment for Developing and Evaluating Automated Scientific Discovery Agents

Automated scientific discovery promises to accelerate progress across scientific domains. However, developing and evaluating an AI agent's capacity for end-to-end scientific reasoning is challenging as running real-world experiments is often prohibitively expensive or infeasible. In this work we introduce DISCOVERYWORLD, the first virtual environment for developing and benchmarking an agent's ability to perform complete cycles of novel scientific discovery. DISCOVERYWORLD contains a variety of different challenges, covering topics as diverse as radioisotope dating, rocket science, and proteomics, to encourage development of general discovery skills rather than task-specific solutions. DISCOVERYWORLD itself is an inexpensive, simulated, text-based environment (with optional 2D visual overlay). It includes 120 different challenge tasks, spanning eight topics each with three levels of difficulty and several parametric variations. Each task requires an agent to form hypotheses, design and run experiments, analyze results, and act on conclusions. DISCOVERYWORLD further provides three automatic metrics for evaluating performance, based on (a) task completion, (b) task-relevant actions taken, and (c) the discovered explanatory knowledge. We find that strong baseline agents, that perform well in prior published environments, struggle on most DISCOVERYWORLD tasks, suggesting that DISCOVERYWORLD captures some of the novel challenges of discovery, and thus that DISCOVERYWORLD may help accelerate near-term development and assessment of scientific discovery competency in agents. Code available at:

[134] 2406.06773

Evaluating Zero-Shot Long-Context LLM Compression

This study evaluates the effectiveness of zero-shot compression techniques on large language models (LLMs) under long-context. We identify the tendency for computational errors to increase under long-context when employing certain compression methods. We propose a hypothesis to explain the varied behavior of different LLM compression techniques and explore remedies to mitigate the performance decline observed in some techniques under long-context. This is a course report for COS 598D Machine Learning and Systems by Prof. Kai Li at Princeton University. Due to limited computational resources, our experiments were conducted only on LLaMA-2-7B-32K.

[135] 2406.06776

SeeFar: Satellite Agnostic Multi-Resolution Dataset for Geospatial Foundation Models

SeeFar is an evolving collection of multi-resolution satellite images from public and commercial satellites. We specifically curated this dataset for training geospatial foundation models, unconstrained by satellite type. In recent years, advances in technology have made satellite imagery more accessible than ever. More earth-observing satellites have been launched in the last five years than in the previous fifty. Modern commercial satellites now offer up to 100 times the spatial resolution of public access satellites. However, the high cost and limited historical availability of commercial satellite imagery is a barrier to the training of foundational models, impacting what images can be used during inference. The SeeFar dataset represents a step towards training models that are satellite-agnostic by combining multi-resolution commercial and public access pre-processed images. This will enable users to utilize historical data alongside higher-resolution, more expensive satellite imagery, offering greater flexibility during inference. To achieve this, we describe a process for standardizing data from diverse satellite sources, normalizing different data formats, and aligning spectral bands to enhance interoperability. The SeeFar dataset includes images at a resolution of 384x384 pixels, spanning four spectral bands (Blue, Green, Red, and Near-Infrared) and expanding spatial resolutions (starting with 30, 10, 1.5, and 1.0 meters), all in cloud-optimized GeoTIFF format. It also provides consistent and comprehensive metadata to enhance data transparency and reliability. By aggregating data from multiple sources, SeeFar makes processed and consistent satellite data accessible to a wider range of users - from researchers to policymakers - fostering competition and innovation in satellite imagery analysis. The dataset is available at \url{}.

[136] 2406.06777

MolX: Enhancing Large Language Models for Molecular Learning with A Multi-Modal Extension

Recently, Large Language Models (LLMs) with their strong task-handling capabilities have shown remarkable advancements across a spectrum of fields, moving beyond natural language understanding. However, their proficiency within the chemistry domain remains restricted, especially in solving professional molecule-related tasks. This challenge is attributed to their inherent limitations in comprehending molecules using only common textual representations, i.e., SMILES strings. In this study, we seek to enhance the ability of LLMs to comprehend molecules by designing and equipping them with a multi-modal external module, namely MolX. In particular, instead of directly using a SMILES string to represent a molecule, we utilize specific encoders to extract fine-grained features from both SMILES string and 2D molecular graph representations for feeding into an LLM. Moreover, a human-defined molecular fingerprint is incorporated to leverage its embedded domain knowledge. Then, to establish an alignment between MolX and the LLM's textual input space, the whole model in which the LLM is frozen, is pre-trained with a versatile strategy including a diverse set of tasks. Extensive experimental evaluations demonstrate that our proposed method only introduces a small number of trainable parameters while outperforming baselines on various downstream molecule-related tasks ranging from molecule-to-text translation to retrosynthesis, with and without fine-tuning the LLM.

[137] 2406.06786

BTS: Bridging Text and Sound Modalities for Metadata-Aided Respiratory Sound Classification

Respiratory sound classification (RSC) is challenging due to varied acoustic signatures, primarily influenced by patient demographics and recording environments. To address this issue, we introduce a text-audio multimodal model that utilizes metadata of respiratory sounds, which provides useful complementary information for RSC. Specifically, we fine-tune a pretrained text-audio multimodal model using free-text descriptions derived from the sound samples' metadata which includes the gender and age of patients, type of recording devices, and recording location on the patient's body. Our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the ICBHI dataset, surpassing the previous best result by a notable margin of 1.17%. This result validates the effectiveness of leveraging metadata and respiratory sound samples in enhancing RSC performance. Additionally, we investigate the model performance in the case where metadata is partially unavailable, which may occur in real-world clinical setting.

[138] 2406.06792

Reinforced Compressive Neural Architecture Search for Versatile Adversarial Robustness

Prior neural architecture search (NAS) for adversarial robustness works have discovered that a lightweight and adversarially robust neural network architecture could exist in a non-robust large teacher network, generally disclosed by heuristic rules through statistical analysis and neural architecture search, generally disclosed by heuristic rules from neural architecture search. However, heuristic methods cannot uniformly handle different adversarial attacks and "teacher" network capacity. To solve this challenge, we propose a Reinforced Compressive Neural Architecture Search (RC-NAS) for Versatile Adversarial Robustness. Specifically, we define task settings that compose datasets, adversarial attacks, and teacher network information. Given diverse tasks, we conduct a novel dual-level training paradigm that consists of a meta-training and a fine-tuning phase to effectively expose the RL agent to diverse attack scenarios (in meta-training), and making it adapt quickly to locate a sub-network (in fine-tuning) for any previously unseen scenarios. Experiments show that our framework could achieve adaptive compression towards different initial teacher networks, datasets, and adversarial attacks, resulting in more lightweight and adversarially robust architectures.

[139] 2406.06793

PlanDQ: Hierarchical Plan Orchestration via D-Conductor and Q-Performer

Despite the recent advancements in offline RL, no unified algorithm could achieve superior performance across a broad range of tasks. Offline \textit{value function learning}, in particular, struggles with sparse-reward, long-horizon tasks due to the difficulty of solving credit assignment and extrapolation errors that accumulates as the horizon of the task grows.~On the other hand, models that can perform well in long-horizon tasks are designed specifically for goal-conditioned tasks, which commonly perform worse than value function learning methods on short-horizon, dense-reward scenarios. To bridge this gap, we propose a hierarchical planner designed for offline RL called PlanDQ. PlanDQ incorporates a diffusion-based planner at the high level, named D-Conductor, which guides the low-level policy through sub-goals. At the low level, we used a Q-learning based approach called the Q-Performer to accomplish these sub-goals. Our experimental results suggest that PlanDQ can achieve superior or competitive performance on D4RL continuous control benchmark tasks as well as AntMaze, Kitchen, and Calvin as long-horizon tasks.

[140] 2406.06796

FlexLoc: Conditional Neural Networks for Zero-Shot Sensor Perspective Invariance in Object Localization with Distributed Multimodal Sensors

Localization is a critical technology for various applications ranging from navigation and surveillance to assisted living. Localization systems typically fuse information from sensors viewing the scene from different perspectives to estimate the target location while also employing multiple modalities for enhanced robustness and accuracy. Recently, such systems have employed end-to-end deep neural models trained on large datasets due to their superior performance and ability to handle data from diverse sensor modalities. However, such neural models are often trained on data collected from a particular set of sensor poses (i.e., locations and orientations). During real-world deployments, slight deviations from these sensor poses can result in extreme inaccuracies. To address this challenge, we introduce FlexLoc, which employs conditional neural networks to inject node perspective information to adapt the localization pipeline. Specifically, a small subset of model weights are derived from node poses at run time, enabling accurate generalization to unseen perspectives with minimal additional overhead. Our evaluations on a multimodal, multiview indoor tracking dataset showcase that FlexLoc improves the localization accuracy by almost 50% in the zero-shot case (no calibration data available) compared to the baselines. The source code of FlexLoc is available at

[141] 2406.06799

LLM-dCache: Improving Tool-Augmented LLMs with GPT-Driven Localized Data Caching

As Large Language Models (LLMs) broaden their capabilities to manage thousands of API calls, they are confronted with complex data operations across vast datasets with significant overhead to the underlying system. In this work, we introduce LLM-dCache to optimize data accesses by treating cache operations as callable API functions exposed to the tool-augmented agent. We grant LLMs the autonomy to manage cache decisions via prompting, seamlessly integrating with existing function-calling mechanisms. Tested on an industry-scale massively parallel platform that spans hundreds of GPT endpoints and terabytes of imagery, our method improves Copilot times by an average of 1.24x across various LLMs and prompting techniques.

[142] 2406.06805

Lookback Prophet Inequalities

Prophet inequalities are fundamental optimal stopping problems, where a decision-maker observes sequentially items with values sampled independently from known distributions, and must decide at each new observation to either stop and gain the current value or reject it irrevocably and move to the next step. This model is often too pessimistic and does not adequately represent real-world online selection processes. Potentially, rejected items can be revisited and a fraction of their value can be recovered. To analyze this problem, we consider general decay functions $D_1,D_2,\ldots$, quantifying the value to be recovered from a rejected item, depending on how far it has been observed in the past. We analyze how lookback improves, or not, the competitive ratio in prophet inequalities in different order models. We show that, under mild monotonicity assumptions on the decay functions, the problem can be reduced to the case where all the decay functions are equal to the same function $x \mapsto \gamma x$, where $\gamma = \inf_{x>0} \inf_{j \geq 1} D_j(x)/x$. Consequently, we focus on this setting and refine the analyses of the competitive ratios, with upper and lower bounds expressed as increasing functions of $\gamma$.

[143] 2406.06808

Fast White-Box Adversarial Streaming Without a Random Oracle

Recently, the question of adversarially robust streaming, where the stream is allowed to depend on the randomness of the streaming algorithm, has gained a lot of attention. In this work, we consider a strong white-box adversarial model (Ajtai et al. PODS 2022), in which the adversary has access to all past random coins and the parameters used by the streaming algorithm. We focus on the sparse recovery problem and extend our result to other tasks such as distinct element estimation and low-rank approximation of matrices and tensors. The main drawback of previous work is that it requires a random oracle, which is especially problematic in the streaming model since the amount of randomness is counted in the space complexity of a streaming algorithm. Also, the previous work suffers from large update time. We construct a near-optimal solution for the sparse recovery problem in white-box adversarial streams, based on the subexponentially secure Learning with Errors assumption. Importantly, our solution does not require a random oracle and has a polylogarithmic per item processing time. We also give results in a related white-box adversarially robust distributed model. Our constructions are based on homomorphic encryption schemes satisfying very mild structural properties that are currently satisfied by most known schemes.

[144] 2406.06809

AGB-DE: A Corpus for the Automated Legal Assessment of Clauses in German Consumer Contracts

Legal tasks and datasets are often used as benchmarks for the capabilities of language models. However, openly available annotated datasets are rare. In this paper, we introduce AGB-DE, a corpus of 3,764 clauses from German consumer contracts that have been annotated and legally assessed by legal experts. Together with the data, we present a first baseline for the task of detecting potentially void clauses, comparing the performance of an SVM baseline with three fine-tuned open language models and the performance of GPT-3.5. Our results show the challenging nature of the task, with no approach exceeding an F1-score of 0.54. While the fine-tuned models often performed better with regard to precision, GPT-3.5 outperformed the other approaches with regard to recall. An analysis of the errors indicates that one of the main challenges could be the correct interpretation of complex clauses, rather than the decision boundaries of what is permissible and what is not.

[145] 2406.06811

Learning Continually by Spectral Regularization

Loss of plasticity is a phenomenon where neural networks become more difficult to train during the course of learning. Continual learning algorithms seek to mitigate this effect by sustaining good predictive performance while maintaining network trainability. We develop new techniques for improving continual learning by first reconsidering how initialization can ensure trainability during early phases of learning. From this perspective, we derive new regularization strategies for continual learning that ensure beneficial initialization properties are better maintained throughout training. In particular, we investigate two new regularization techniques for continual learning: (i) Wasserstein regularization toward the initial weight distribution, which is less restrictive than regularizing toward initial weights; and (ii) regularizing weight matrix singular values, which directly ensures gradient diversity is maintained throughout training. We present an experimental analysis that shows these alternative regularizers can improve continual learning performance across a range of supervised learning tasks and model architectures. The alternative regularizers prove to be less sensitive to hyperparameters while demonstrating better training in individual tasks, sustaining trainability as new tasks arrive, and achieving better generalization performance.

[146] 2406.06812

On Learning what to Learn: heterogeneous observations of dynamics and establishing (possibly causal) relations among them

Before we attempt to learn a function between two (sets of) observables of a physical process, we must first decide what the inputs and what the outputs of the desired function are going to be. Here we demonstrate two distinct, data-driven ways of initially deciding ``the right quantities'' to relate through such a function, and then proceed to learn it. This is accomplished by processing multiple simultaneous heterogeneous data streams (ensembles of time series) from observations of a physical system: multiple observation processes of the system. We thus determine (a) what subsets of observables are common between the observation processes (and therefore observable from each other, relatable through a function); and (b) what information is unrelated to these common observables, and therefore particular to each observation process, and not contributing to the desired function. Any data-driven function approximation technique can subsequently be used to learn the input-output relation, from k-nearest neighbors and Geometric Harmonics to Gaussian Processes and Neural Networks. Two particular ``twists'' of the approach are discussed. The first has to do with the identifiability of particular quantities of interest from the measurements. We now construct mappings from a single set of observations of one process to entire level sets of measurements of the process, consistent with this single set. The second attempts to relate our framework to a form of causality: if one of the observation processes measures ``now'', while the second observation process measures ``in the future'', the function to be learned among what is common across observation processes constitutes a dynamical model for the system evolution.

[147] 2406.06813

Stable Neighbor Denoising for Source-free Domain Adaptive Segmentation

We study source-free unsupervised domain adaptation (SFUDA) for semantic segmentation, which aims to adapt a source-trained model to the target domain without accessing the source data. Many works have been proposed to address this challenging problem, among which uncertainty-based self-training is a predominant approach. However, without comprehensive denoising mechanisms, they still largely fall into biased estimates when dealing with different domains and confirmation bias. In this paper, we observe that pseudo-label noise is mainly contained in unstable samples in which the predictions of most pixels undergo significant variations during self-training. Inspired by this, we propose a novel mechanism to denoise unstable samples with stable ones. Specifically, we introduce the Stable Neighbor Denoising (SND) approach, which effectively discovers highly correlated stable and unstable samples by nearest neighbor retrieval and guides the reliable optimization of unstable samples by bi-level learning. Moreover, we compensate for the stable set by object-level object paste, which can further eliminate the bias caused by less learned classes. Our SND enjoys two advantages. First, SND does not require a specific segmentor structure, endowing its universality. Second, SND simultaneously addresses the issues of class, domain, and confirmation biases during adaptation, ensuring its effectiveness. Extensive experiments show that SND consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods in various SFUDA semantic segmentation settings. In addition, SND can be easily integrated with other approaches, obtaining further improvements.

[148] 2406.06814

Temporal Link Prediction in Social Networks Based on Agent Behavior Synchrony and a Cognitive Mechanism

Temporality, a crucial characteristic in the formation of social relationships, was used to quantify the long-term time effects of networks for link prediction models, ignoring the heterogeneity of time effects on different time scales. In this work, we propose a novel approach to link prediction in temporal networks, extending existing methods with a cognitive mechanism that captures the dynamics of the interactions. Our approach computes the weight of the edges and their change over time, similar to memory traces in the human brain, by simulating the process of forgetting and strengthening connections depending on the intensity of interactions. We utilized five ground-truth datasets, which were used to predict social ties, missing events, and potential links. We found: (a) the cognitive mechanism enables more accurate capture of the heterogeneity of the temporal effect, leading to an average precision improvement of 9\% compared to baselines with competitive AUC. (b) the local structure and synchronous agent behavior contribute differently to different types of datasets. (c) appropriately increasing the time intervals, which may reduce the negative impact from noise when dividing time windows to calculate the behavioral synchrony of agents, is effective for link prediction tasks.

[149] 2406.06817

The Legal Duty to Search for Less Discriminatory Algorithms

Work in computer science has established that, contrary to conventional wisdom, for a given prediction problem there are almost always multiple possible models with equivalent performance--a phenomenon often termed model multiplicity. Critically, different models of equivalent performance can produce different predictions for the same individual, and, in aggregate, exhibit different levels of impacts across demographic groups. Thus, when an algorithmic system displays a disparate impact, model multiplicity suggests that developers could discover an alternative model that performs equally well, but has less discriminatory impact. Indeed, the promise of model multiplicity is that an equally accurate, but less discriminatory algorithm (LDA) almost always exists. But without dedicated exploration, it is unlikely developers will discover potential LDAs. Model multiplicity and the availability of LDAs have significant ramifications for the legal response to discriminatory algorithms, in particular for disparate impact doctrine, which has long taken into account the availability of alternatives with less disparate effect when assessing liability. A close reading of legal authorities over the decades reveals that the law has on numerous occasions recognized that the existence of a less discriminatory alternative is sometimes relevant to a defendant's burden of justification at the second step of disparate impact analysis. Indeed, under disparate impact doctrine, it makes little sense to say that a given algorithmic system used by an employer, creditor, or housing provider is "necessary" if an equally accurate model that exhibits less disparate effect is available and possible to discover with reasonable effort. As a result, we argue that the law should place a duty of a reasonable search for LDAs on entities that develop and deploy predictive models in covered civil rights domains.

[150] 2406.06818

Conformal Prediction for Class-wise Coverage via Augmented Label Rank Calibration

Conformal prediction (CP) is an emerging uncertainty quantification framework that allows us to construct a prediction set to cover the true label with a pre-specified marginal or conditional probability. Although the valid coverage guarantee has been extensively studied for classification problems, CP often produces large prediction sets which may not be practically useful. This issue is exacerbated for the setting of class-conditional coverage on imbalanced classification tasks. This paper proposes the Rank Calibrated Class-conditional CP (RC3P) algorithm to reduce the prediction set sizes to achieve class-conditional coverage, where the valid coverage holds for each class. In contrast to the standard class-conditional CP (CCP) method that uniformly thresholds the class-wise conformity score for each class, the augmented label rank calibration step allows RC3P to selectively iterate this class-wise thresholding subroutine only for a subset of classes whose class-wise top-k error is small. We prove that agnostic to the classifier and data distribution, RC3P achieves class-wise coverage. We also show that RC3P reduces the size of prediction sets compared to the CCP method. Comprehensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets demonstrate that RC3P achieves class-wise coverage and 26.25% reduction in prediction set sizes on average.

[151] 2406.06820

Adapters Strike Back

Adapters provide an efficient and lightweight mechanism for adapting trained transformer models to a variety of different tasks. However, they have often been found to be outperformed by other adaptation mechanisms, including low-rank adaptation. In this paper, we provide an in-depth study of adapters, their internal structure, as well as various implementation choices. We uncover pitfalls for using adapters and suggest a concrete, improved adapter architecture, called Adapter+, that not only outperforms previous adapter implementations but surpasses a number of other, more complex adaptation mechanisms in several challenging settings. Despite this, our suggested adapter is highly robust and, unlike previous work, requires little to no manual intervention when addressing a novel scenario. Adapter+ reaches state-of-the-art average accuracy on the VTAB benchmark, even without a per-task hyperparameter optimization.

[152] 2406.06821

Streaming Algorithms with Few State Changes

In this paper, we study streaming algorithms that minimize the number of changes made to their internal state (i.e., memory contents). While the design of streaming algorithms typically focuses on minimizing space and update time, these metrics fail to capture the asymmetric costs, inherent in modern hardware and database systems, of reading versus writing to memory. In fact, most streaming algorithms write to their memory on every update, which is undesirable when writing is significantly more expensive than reading. This raises the question of whether streaming algorithms with small space and number of memory writes are possible. We first demonstrate that, for the fundamental $F_p$ moment estimation problem with $p\ge 1$, any streaming algorithm that achieves a constant factor approximation must make $\Omega(n^{1-1/p})$ internal state changes, regardless of how much space it uses. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that this lower bound can be matched by an algorithm that also has near-optimal space complexity. Specifically, we give a $(1+\varepsilon)$-approximation algorithm for $F_p$ moment estimation that uses a near-optimal $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}_\varepsilon(n^{1-1/p})$ number of state changes, while simultaneously achieving near-optimal space, i.e., for $p\in[1,2]$, our algorithm uses $\text{poly}\left(\log n,\frac{1}{\varepsilon}\right)$ bits of space, while for $p>2$, the algorithm uses $\widetilde{\mathcal{O}}_\varepsilon(n^{1-2/p})$ space. We similarly design streaming algorithms that are simultaneously near-optimal in both space complexity and the number of state changes for the heavy-hitters problem, sparse support recovery, and entropy estimation. Our results demonstrate that an optimal number of state changes can be achieved without sacrificing space complexity.

[153] 2406.06822

An LLM-Assisted Easy-to-Trigger Backdoor Attack on Code Completion Models: Injecting Disguised Vulnerabilities against Strong Detection

Large Language Models (LLMs) have transformed code completion tasks, providing context-based suggestions to boost developer productivity in software engineering. As users often fine-tune these models for specific applications, poisoning and backdoor attacks can covertly alter the model outputs. To address this critical security challenge, we introduce CodeBreaker, a pioneering LLM-assisted backdoor attack framework on code completion models. Unlike recent attacks that embed malicious payloads in detectable or irrelevant sections of the code (e.g., comments), CodeBreaker leverages LLMs (e.g., GPT-4) for sophisticated payload transformation (without affecting functionalities), ensuring that both the poisoned data for fine-tuning and generated code can evade strong vulnerability detection. CodeBreaker stands out with its comprehensive coverage of vulnerabilities, making it the first to provide such an extensive set for evaluation. Our extensive experimental evaluations and user studies underline the strong attack performance of CodeBreaker across various settings, validating its superiority over existing approaches. By integrating malicious payloads directly into the source code with minimal transformation, CodeBreaker challenges current security measures, underscoring the critical need for more robust defenses for code completion.

[154] 2406.06823

Locally Interdependent Multi-Agent MDP: Theoretical Framework for Decentralized Agents with Dynamic Dependencies

Many multi-agent systems in practice are decentralized and have dynamically varying dependencies. There has been a lack of attempts in the literature to analyze these systems theoretically. In this paper, we propose and theoretically analyze a decentralized model with dynamically varying dependencies called the Locally Interdependent Multi-Agent MDP. This model can represent problems in many disparate domains such as cooperative navigation, obstacle avoidance, and formation control. Despite the intractability that general partially observable multi-agent systems suffer from, we propose three closed-form policies that are theoretically near-optimal in this setting and can be scalable to compute and store. Consequentially, we reveal a fundamental property of Locally Interdependent Multi-Agent MDP's that the partially observable decentralized solution is exponentially close to the fully observable solution with respect to the visibility radius. We then discuss extensions of our closed-form policies to further improve tractability. We conclude by providing simulations to investigate some long horizon behaviors of our closed-form policies.

[155] 2406.06829

Personalized Binomial DAGs Learning with Network Structured Covariates

The causal dependence in data is often characterized by Directed Acyclic Graphical (DAG) models, widely used in many areas. Causal discovery aims to recover the DAG structure using observational data. This paper focuses on causal discovery with multi-variate count data. We are motivated by real-world web visit data, recording individual user visits to multiple websites. Building a causal diagram can help understand user behavior in transitioning between websites, inspiring operational strategy. A challenge in modeling is user heterogeneity, as users with different backgrounds exhibit varied behaviors. Additionally, social network connections can result in similar behaviors among friends. We introduce personalized Binomial DAG models to address heterogeneity and network dependency between observations, which are common in real-world applications. To learn the proposed DAG model, we develop an algorithm that embeds the network structure into a dimension-reduced covariate, learns each node's neighborhood to reduce the DAG search space, and explores the variance-mean relation to determine the ordering. Simulations show our algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art competitors in heterogeneous data. We demonstrate its practical usefulness on a real-world web visit dataset.

[156] 2406.06833

Data-driven Power Flow Linearization: Simulation

Building on the theoretical insights of Part I, this paper, as the second part of the tutorial, dives deeper into data-driven power flow linearization (DPFL), focusing on comprehensive numerical testing. The necessity of these simulations stems from the theoretical analysis's inherent limitations, particularly the challenge of identifying the differences in real-world performance among DPFL methods with overlapping theoretical capabilities and/or limitations. The absence of a comprehensive numerical comparison of DPFL approaches in the literature also motivates this paper, especially given the fact that over 95% of existing DPFL studies have not provided any open-source codes. To bridge the gap, this paper first reviews existing DPFL experiments, examining the adopted test scenarios, load fluctuation settings, data sources, considerations for data noise/outliers, and the comparison made so far. Subsequently, this paper evaluates a total of 44 methods, containing over 30 existing DPFL approaches, some innovative DPFL techniques, and several classic physics-driven power flow linearization methods for benchmarking. The evaluation spans various dimensions, including generalizability, applicability, accuracy, and computational efficiency, using various different test cases scaling from 9-bus to 1354-bus systems. The numerical analysis identifies and examines significant trends and consistent findings across all methods under various test cases. It also offers theoretical insights into phenomena like under-performance, failure, excessive computation times, etc. Overall, this paper identifies the differences in the performances of the wide range of DPFL methods, reveals gaps not evident from theoretical discussions, assists in method selection for real-world applications, and provides thorough discussions on open questions within DPFL research, indicating ten potential future directions.

[157] 2406.06835

Large language models for generating rules, yay or nay?

Engineering safety-critical systems such as medical devices and digital health intervention systems is complex, where long-term engagement with subject-matter experts (SMEs) is needed to capture the systems' expected behaviour. In this paper, we present a novel approach that leverages Large Language Models (LLMs), such as GPT-3.5 and GPT-4, as a potential world model to accelerate the engineering of software systems. This approach involves using LLMs to generate logic rules, which can then be reviewed and informed by SMEs before deployment. We evaluate our approach using a medical rule set, created from the pandemic intervention monitoring system in collaboration with medical professionals during COVID-19. Our experiments show that 1) LLMs have a world model that bootstraps implementation, 2) LLMs generated less number of rules compared to experts, and 3) LLMs do not have the capacity to generate thresholds for each rule. Our work shows how LLMs augment the requirements' elicitation process by providing access to a world model for domains.

[158] 2406.06838

Stable Minima Cannot Overfit in Univariate ReLU Networks: Generalization by Large Step Sizes

We study the generalization of two-layer ReLU neural networks in a univariate nonparametric regression problem with noisy labels. This is a problem where kernels (\emph{e.g.} NTK) are provably sub-optimal and benign overfitting does not happen, thus disqualifying existing theory for interpolating (0-loss, global optimal) solutions. We present a new theory of generalization for local minima that gradient descent with a constant learning rate can \emph{stably} converge to. We show that gradient descent with a fixed learning rate $\eta$ can only find local minima that represent smooth functions with a certain weighted \emph{first order total variation} bounded by $1/\eta - 1/2 + \widetilde{O}(\sigma + \sqrt{\mathrm{MSE}})$ where $\sigma$ is the label noise level, $\mathrm{MSE}$ is short for mean squared error against the ground truth, and $\widetilde{O}(\cdot)$ hides a logarithmic factor. Under mild assumptions, we also prove a nearly-optimal MSE bound of $\widetilde{O}(n^{-4/5})$ within the strict interior of the support of the $n$ data points. Our theoretical results are validated by extensive simulation that demonstrates large learning rate training induces sparse linear spline fits. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to obtain generalization bound via minima stability in the non-interpolation case and the first to show ReLU NNs without regularization can achieve near-optimal rates in nonparametric regression.

[159] 2406.06839

EAVE: Efficient Product Attribute Value Extraction via Lightweight Sparse-layer Interaction

Product attribute value extraction involves identifying the specific values associated with various attributes from a product profile. While existing methods often prioritize the development of effective models to improve extraction performance, there has been limited emphasis on extraction efficiency. However, in real-world scenarios, products are typically associated with multiple attributes, necessitating multiple extractions to obtain all corresponding values. In this work, we propose an Efficient product Attribute Value Extraction (EAVE) approach via lightweight sparse-layer interaction. Specifically, we employ a heavy encoder to separately encode the product context and attribute. The resulting non-interacting heavy representations of the context can be cached and reused for all attributes. Additionally, we introduce a light encoder to jointly encode the context and the attribute, facilitating lightweight interactions between them. To enrich the interaction within the lightweight encoder, we design a sparse-layer interaction module to fuse the non-interacting heavy representation into the lightweight encoder. Comprehensive evaluation on two benchmarks demonstrate that our method achieves significant efficiency gains with neutral or marginal loss in performance when the context is long and number of attributes is large. Our code is available \href{}{here}.

[160] 2406.06840

Silent Signals, Loud Impact: LLMs for Word-Sense Disambiguation of Coded Dog Whistles

A dog whistle is a form of coded communication that carries a secondary meaning to specific audiences and is often weaponized for racial and socioeconomic discrimination. Dog whistling historically originated from United States politics, but in recent years has taken root in social media as a means of evading hate speech detection systems and maintaining plausible deniability. In this paper, we present an approach for word-sense disambiguation of dog whistles from standard speech using Large Language Models (LLMs), and leverage this technique to create a dataset of 16,550 high-confidence coded examples of dog whistles used in formal and informal communication. Silent Signals is the largest dataset of disambiguated dog whistle usage, created for applications in hate speech detection, neology, and political science. The dataset can be found at

[161] 2406.06841

Compass: A Comprehensive Tool for Accurate and Efficient Molecular Docking in Inference and Fine-Tuning

While there has been discussion about noise levels in molecular docking datasets such as PDBBind, a thorough analysis of their physical/chemical and bioactivity noise characteristics is still lacking. PoseCheck addresses this issue by examining molecular strain energy, molecular-protein clashes, and interactions, but it is primarily created for $de$ $novo$ drug design. Another important metric in molecular docking, Binding Affinity Energy, is better assessed by the new empirical score function, AA-Score, which has demonstrated improved performance over existing methods. To tackle these challenges, we propose the COMPASS method, which integrates the PoseCheck and AA-Score modules. This approach evaluates dataset noise levels and the physical/chemical and bioactivity feasibility of docked molecules. Our analysis of the PDBBind dataset using COMPASS reveals significant noise in the ground truth data. Additionally, we incorporate COMPASS with the state-of-the-art molecular docking method, DiffDock, in inference mode to achieve efficient and accurate assessments of docked ligands. Finally, we propose a new paradigm to enhance model performance for molecular docking through fine-tuning and discuss the potential benefits of this approach. The source code is available publicly at

[162] 2406.06842

Aerial Relay to Achieve Covertness and Security

In this work, a delay-tolerant unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) relayed covert and secure communication framework is investigated. In this framework, a legitimate UAV serves as an aerial relay to realize communication when the direct link between the terrestrial transmitter and receiver is blocked and also acts as a friendly jammer to suppress the malicious nodes presented on the ground. Subsequently, considering the uncertainty of malicious nodes' positions, a robust fractional programming optimization problem is built to maximize energy efficiency by jointly optimizing the trajectory of the UAV, the transmit power of the transmitter, and the time-switching factor. For the extremely complicated covert constraint, Pinsker's inequality, Jensen's inequality, and the bisection search method are employed to construct a tractable shrunken one. After this, an alternate optimization-based algorithm is proposed to solve the fractional programming optimization problem. To achieve low complexity, we design the primal-dual search-based algorithm and the successive convex approximation-based algorithm, respectively, for each sub-problem. Numerical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

[163] 2406.06843

HO-Cap: A Capture System and Dataset for 3D Reconstruction and Pose Tracking of Hand-Object Interaction

We introduce a data capture system and a new dataset named HO-Cap that can be used to study 3D reconstruction and pose tracking of hands and objects in videos. The capture system uses multiple RGB-D cameras and a HoloLens headset for data collection, avoiding the use of expensive 3D scanners or mocap systems. We propose a semi-automatic method to obtain annotations of shape and pose of hands and objects in the collected videos, which significantly reduces the required annotation time compared to manual labeling. With this system, we captured a video dataset of humans using objects to perform different tasks, as well as simple pick-and-place and handover of an object from one hand to the other, which can be used as human demonstrations for embodied AI and robot manipulation research. Our data capture setup and annotation framework can be used by the community to reconstruct 3D shapes of objects and human hands and track their poses in videos.

[164] 2406.06844

A game-theoretic, market-based approach to extract flexibility from distributed energy resources

In this paper, we propose a market design based on game theory to optimally utilize the flexibility of distributed energy resources (DERs) such as solar PV, batteries, electric vehicles, and flexible loads. Market agents perform multiperiod optimization to determine their feasible flexibility limits for power injections while satisfying all constraints of their DERs. This is followed by a Stackelberg game between the market operator and the agents. The market operator as the leader aims to regulate the aggregate power injection around a desired value by leveraging the flexibility of their agents, and computes optimal prices for both electricity and flexibility services. The agents follow by optimally bidding their desired flexible power injections in response to these prices. We show the existence of an equilibrium among the market agents between all agents and the operator, along with simulation results for a small example system.

[165] 2406.06847

Generalized W-Net: Arbitrary-style Chinese Character Synthesization

Synthesizing Chinese characters with consistent style using few stylized examples is challenging. Existing models struggle to generate arbitrary style characters with limited examples. In this paper, we propose the Generalized W-Net, a novel class of W-shaped architectures that addresses this. By incorporating Adaptive Instance Normalization and introducing multi-content, our approach can synthesize Chinese characters in any desired style, even with limited examples. It handles seen and unseen styles during training and can generate new character contents. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

[166] 2406.06848

Taxes Are All You Need: Integration of Taxonomical Hierarchy Relationships into the Contrastive Loss

In this work, we propose a novel supervised contrastive loss that enables the integration of taxonomic hierarchy information during the representation learning process. A supervised contrastive loss operates by enforcing that images with the same class label (positive samples) project closer to each other than images with differing class labels (negative samples). The advantage of this approach is that it directly penalizes the structure of the representation space itself. This enables greater flexibility with respect to encoding semantic concepts. However, the standard supervised contrastive loss only enforces semantic structure based on the downstream task (i.e. the class label). In reality, the class label is only one level of a \emph{hierarchy of different semantic relationships known as a taxonomy}. For example, the class label is oftentimes the species of an animal, but between different classes there are higher order relationships such as all animals with wings being ``birds". We show that by explicitly accounting for these relationships with a weighting penalty in the contrastive loss we can out-perform the supervised contrastive loss. Additionally, we demonstrate the adaptability of the notion of a taxonomy by integrating our loss into medical and noise-based settings that show performance improvements by as much as 7%.

[167] 2406.06852

A Survey of Backdoor Attacks and Defenses on Large Language Models: Implications for Security Measures

The large language models (LLMs), which bridge the gap between human language understanding and complex problem-solving, achieve state-of-the-art performance on several NLP tasks, particularly in few-shot and zero-shot settings. Despite the demonstrable efficacy of LMMs, due to constraints on computational resources, users have to engage with open-source language models or outsource the entire training process to third-party platforms. However, research has demonstrated that language models are susceptible to potential security vulnerabilities, particularly in backdoor attacks. Backdoor attacks are designed to introduce targeted vulnerabilities into language models by poisoning training samples or model weights, allowing attackers to manipulate model responses through malicious triggers. While existing surveys on backdoor attacks provide a comprehensive overview, they lack an in-depth examination of backdoor attacks specifically targeting LLMs. To bridge this gap and grasp the latest trends in the field, this paper presents a novel perspective on backdoor attacks for LLMs by focusing on fine-tuning methods. Specifically, we systematically classify backdoor attacks into three categories: full-parameter fine-tuning, parameter-efficient fine-tuning, and attacks without fine-tuning. Based on insights from a substantial review, we also discuss crucial issues for future research on backdoor attacks, such as further exploring attack algorithms that do not require fine-tuning, or developing more covert attack algorithms.

[168] 2406.06856

Sample Complexity Reduction via Policy Difference Estimation in Tabular Reinforcement Learning

In this paper, we study the non-asymptotic sample complexity for the pure exploration problem in contextual bandits and tabular reinforcement learning (RL): identifying an epsilon-optimal policy from a set of policies with high probability. Existing work in bandits has shown that it is possible to identify the best policy by estimating only the difference between the behaviors of individual policies, which can be substantially cheaper than estimating the behavior of each policy directly. However, the best-known complexities in RL fail to take advantage of this and instead estimate the behavior of each policy directly. Does it suffice to estimate only the differences in the behaviors of policies in RL? We answer this question positively for contextual bandits but in the negative for tabular RL, showing a separation between contextual bandits and RL. However, inspired by this, we show that it almost suffices to estimate only the differences in RL: if we can estimate the behavior of a single reference policy, it suffices to only estimate how any other policy deviates from this reference policy. We develop an algorithm which instantiates this principle and obtains, to the best of our knowledge, the tightest known bound on the sample complexity of tabular RL.

[169] 2406.06858

FLUX: Fast Software-based Communication Overlap On GPUs Through Kernel Fusion

Large deep learning models have demonstrated strong ability to solve many tasks across a wide range of applications. Those large models typically require training and inference to be distributed. Tensor parallelism is a common technique partitioning computation of an operation or layer across devices to overcome the memory capacity limitation of a single processor, and/or to accelerate computation to meet a certain latency requirement. However, this kind of parallelism introduces additional communication that might contribute a significant portion of overall runtime. Thus limits scalability of this technique within a group of devices with high speed interconnects, such as GPUs with NVLinks in a node. This paper proposes a novel method, Flux, to significantly hide communication latencies with dependent computations for GPUs. Flux over-decomposes communication and computation operations into much finer-grained operations and further fuses them into a larger kernel to effectively hide communication without compromising kernel efficiency. Flux can potentially overlap up to 96% of communication given a fused kernel. Overall, it can achieve up to 1.24x speedups for training over Megatron-LM on a cluster of 128 GPUs with various GPU generations and interconnects, and up to 1.66x and 1.30x speedups for prefill and decoding inference over vLLM on a cluster with 8 GPUs with various GPU generations and interconnects.

[170] 2406.06863

Ollabench: Evaluating LLMs' Reasoning for Human-centric Interdependent Cybersecurity

Large Language Models (LLMs) have the potential to enhance Agent-Based Modeling by better representing complex interdependent cybersecurity systems, improving cybersecurity threat modeling and risk management. However, evaluating LLMs in this context is crucial for legal compliance and effective application development. Existing LLM evaluation frameworks often overlook the human factor and cognitive computing capabilities essential for interdependent cybersecurity. To address this gap, I propose OllaBench, a novel evaluation framework that assesses LLMs' accuracy, wastefulness, and consistency in answering scenario-based information security compliance and non-compliance questions. OllaBench is built on a foundation of 24 cognitive behavioral theories and empirical evidence from 38 peer-reviewed papers. OllaBench was used to evaluate 21 LLMs, including both open-weight and commercial models from OpenAI, Anthropic, Google, Microsoft, Meta and so on. The results reveal that while commercial LLMs have the highest overall accuracy scores, there is significant room for improvement. Smaller low-resolution open-weight LLMs are not far behind in performance, and there are significant differences in token efficiency and consistency among the evaluated models. OllaBench provides a user-friendly interface and supports a wide range of LLM platforms, making it a valuable tool for researchers and solution developers in the field of human-centric interdependent cybersecurity and beyond.

[171] 2406.06864

Validating LLM-Generated Programs with Metamorphic Prompt Testing

The latest paradigm shift in software development brings in the innovation and automation afforded by Large Language Models (LLMs), showcased by Generative Pre-trained Transformer (GPT), which has shown remarkable capacity to generate code autonomously, significantly reducing the manual effort required for various programming tasks. Although, the potential benefits of LLM-generated code are vast, most notably in efficiency and rapid prototyping, as LLMs become increasingly integrated into the software development lifecycle and hence the supply chain, complex and multifaceted challenges arise as the code generated from these language models carry profound questions on quality and correctness. Research is required to comprehensively explore these critical concerns surrounding LLM-generated code. In this paper, we propose a novel solution called metamorphic prompt testing to address these challenges. Our intuitive observation is that intrinsic consistency always exists among correct code pieces but may not exist among flawed code pieces, so we can detect flaws in the code by detecting inconsistencies. Therefore, we can vary a given prompt to multiple prompts with paraphrasing, and to ask the LLM to acquire multiple versions of generated code, so that we can validate whether the semantic relations still hold in the acquired code through cross-validation. Our evaluation on HumanEval shows that metamorphic prompt testing is able to detect 75 percent of the erroneous programs generated by GPT-4, with a false positive rate of 8.6 percent.

[172] 2406.06865

Eyeballing Combinatorial Problems: A Case Study of Using Multimodal Large Language Models to Solve Traveling Salesman Problems

Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) have demonstrated proficiency in processing di-verse modalities, including text, images, and audio. These models leverage extensive pre-existing knowledge, enabling them to address complex problems with minimal to no specific training examples, as evidenced in few-shot and zero-shot in-context learning scenarios. This paper investigates the use of MLLMs' visual capabilities to 'eyeball' solutions for the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) by analyzing images of point distributions on a two-dimensional plane. Our experiments aimed to validate the hypothesis that MLLMs can effectively 'eyeball' viable TSP routes. The results from zero-shot, few-shot, self-ensemble, and self-refine zero-shot evaluations show promising outcomes. We anticipate that these findings will inspire further exploration into MLLMs' visual reasoning abilities to tackle other combinatorial problems.

[173] 2406.06870

What's in an embedding? Would a rose by any embedding smell as sweet?

Large Language Models (LLMs) are often criticized for lacking true "understanding" and an ability to "reason" with their knowledge, being seen merely as advanced autocomplete systems. We believe that this perspective might be missing an important insight. We suggest that LLMs do develop a kind of empirical "understanding" that is "geometry"-like, which seems quite sufficient for a range of applications in NLP, computer vision, coding assistance, etc. However, this "geometric" understanding, built from incomplete and noisy data, makes them unreliable, difficult to generalize, and lacking in inference capabilities and explanations, similar to the challenges faced by heuristics-based expert systems decades ago. To overcome these limitations, we suggest that LLMs should be integrated with an "algebraic" representation of knowledge that includes symbolic AI elements used in expert systems. This integration aims to create large knowledge models (LKMs) that not only possess "deep" knowledge grounded in first principles, but also have the ability to reason and explain, mimicking human expert capabilities. To harness the full potential of generative AI safely and effectively, a paradigm shift from LLMs to the more comprehensive LKMs is needed.

[174] 2406.06874

Joint Demonstration and Preference Learning Improves Policy Alignment with Human Feedback

Aligning human preference and value is an important requirement for building contemporary foundation models and embodied AI. However, popular approaches such as reinforcement learning with human feedback (RLHF) break down the task into successive stages, such as supervised fine-tuning (SFT), reward modeling (RM), and reinforcement learning (RL), each performing one specific learning task. Such a sequential approach results in serious issues such as significant under-utilization of data and distribution mismatch between the learned reward model and generated policy, which eventually lead to poor alignment performance. We develop a single stage approach named Alignment with Integrated Human Feedback (AIHF), capable of integrating both human preference and demonstration to train reward models and the policy. The proposed approach admits a suite of efficient algorithms, which can easily reduce to, and leverage, popular alignment algorithms such as RLHF and Directly Policy Optimization (DPO), and only requires minor changes to the existing alignment pipelines. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions with extensive experiments involving alignment problems in LLMs and robotic control problems in MuJoCo. We observe that the proposed solutions outperform the existing alignment algorithms such as RLHF and DPO by large margins, especially when the amount of high-quality preference data is relatively limited.

[175] 2406.06878

Modeling language contact with the Iterated Learning Model

Contact between languages has the potential to transmit vocabulary and other language features; however, this does not always happen. Here, an iterated learning model is used to examine, in a simple way, the resistance of languages to change during language contact. Iterated learning models are agent-based models of language change, they demonstrate that languages that are expressive and compositional arise spontaneously as a consequence of a language transmission bottleneck. A recently introduced type of iterated learning model, the Semi-Supervised ILM is used to simulate language contact. These simulations do not include many of the complex factors involved in language contact and do not model a population of speakers; nonetheless the model demonstrates that the dynamics which lead languages in the model to spontaneously become expressive and compositional, also cause a language to maintain its core traits even after mixing with another language.

[176] 2406.06880

Multi-Objective Sizing Optimization Method of Microgrid Considering Cost and Carbon Emissions

Microgrid serves as a promising solution to integrate and manage distributed renewable energy resources. In this paper, we establish a stochastic multi-objective sizing optimization (SMOSO) model for microgrid planning, which fully captures the battery degradation characteristics and the total carbon emissions. The microgrid operator aims to simultaneously maximize the economic benefits and minimize carbon emissions, and the degradation of the battery energy storage system (BESS) is modeled as a nonlinear function of power throughput. A self-adaptive multi-objective genetic algorithm (SAMOGA) is proposed to solve the SMOSO model, and this algorithm is enhanced by pre-grouped hierarchical selection and self-adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation. Several case studies are conducted to determine the microgrid size by analyzing Pareto frontiers, and the simulation results validate that the proposed method has superior performance over other algorithms on the solution quality of optimum and diversity.

[177] 2406.06886

Enabling Data Dependency-based Query Optimization

Data dependency-based query optimization techniques can considerably improve database system performance: we apply three such optimization techniques to five database management systems (DBMSs) and observe throughput improvements between 5 % and 33 %. We address two key challenges to achieve these results: (i) efficiently identifying and extracting relevant dependencies from the data, and (ii) making use of the dependencies through SQL rewrites or as transformation rules in the optimizer. First, the schema does not provide all relevant dependencies. We present a workload-driven dependency discovery approach to find additional dependencies within milliseconds. Second, the throughput improvement of a state-of-the-art DBMS is 13 % using only SQL rewrites, but 20 % when we integrate dependency-based optimization into the optimizer and execution engine, e. g., by employing dependency propagation and subquery handling. Using all relevant dependencies, the runtime of four standard benchmarks improves by up to 10 % compared to using only primary and foreign keys, and up to 22 % compared to not using dependencies. The dependency discovery overhead amortizes after a single workload execution.

[178] 2406.06887

PLUM: Preference Learning Plus Test Cases Yields Better Code Language Models

Instruction-finetuned code language models (LMs) have shown promise in various programming tasks. They are trained, using a language modeling objective, on natural language instructions and gold code snippet pairs. Recent evidence suggests that these models, never exposed to incorrect solutions during training, often struggle to distinguish between correct and incorrect solutions. This observation raises our inquiry: Can preference learning, which trains models to prefer correct solutions over incorrect ones, help push the boundaries of code LMs even further? We propose PLUM, a novel \textbf{p}reference \textbf{l}earning framework a\textbf{u}gmented with test cases tailored for code L\textbf{M}s.PLUM aims to investigate the key success factors and potential benefits of preference learning in code LMs, which remain elusive despite its success in aligning LMs with human values. PLUM consists of three stages: (1) Generating test cases for natural language instructions, (2) sampling candidate solutions from the policy and evaluating them against the test cases to create a preference dataset, which is then used to (3) train the policy with a preference learning algorithm. Experiments demonstrate that PLUM substantially improves the performance of existing code LMs on established code generation benchmarks such as HumanEval (+) and MBPP (+), even for the state-of-the-art open-source language model CodeQwen-1.5-7B-Chat. PLUM complements the supervised fine-tuning (SFT) stage, demonstrating synergistic effects.

[179] 2406.06888

A Subjective Quality Evaluation of 3D Mesh with Dynamic Level of Detail in Virtual Reality

3D meshes are one of the main components of Virtual Reality applications. However, many network and computational resources are required to process 3D meshes in real-time. A potential solution to this challenge is to dynamically adapt the Level of Detail (LoD) of a 3D mesh based on the object's position and the user's viewpoint. In this paper, we conduct a subjective study to investigate users' quality perception of 3D meshes with dynamic Level of Detail in a Virtual Reality environment. The subjective experiment is carried out with five 3D meshes of different characteristics, four Levels of Detail, and four distance settings. The results of the experiment show that the impact of the dynamic level of detail depends on both the position of the 3D object in the virtual world and the number of vertices of the original mesh. In addition, we present a quality model that can accurately predict the MOS score of a LoD version of a 3D mesh from the number of vertices and the distance from the viewpoint.

[180] 2406.06890

Motion Consistency Model: Accelerating Video Diffusion with Disentangled Motion-Appearance Distillation

Image diffusion distillation achieves high-fidelity generation with very few sampling steps. However, applying these techniques directly to video diffusion often results in unsatisfactory frame quality due to the limited visual quality in public video datasets. This affects the performance of both teacher and student video diffusion models. Our study aims to improve video diffusion distillation while improving frame appearance using abundant high-quality image data. We propose motion consistency model (MCM), a single-stage video diffusion distillation method that disentangles motion and appearance learning. Specifically, MCM includes a video consistency model that distills motion from the video teacher model, and an image discriminator that enhances frame appearance to match high-quality image data. This combination presents two challenges: (1) conflicting frame learning objectives, as video distillation learns from low-quality video frames while the image discriminator targets high-quality images; and (2) training-inference discrepancies due to the differing quality of video samples used during training and inference. To address these challenges, we introduce disentangled motion distillation and mixed trajectory distillation. The former applies the distillation objective solely to the motion representation, while the latter mitigates training-inference discrepancies by mixing distillation trajectories from both the low- and high-quality video domains. Extensive experiments show that our MCM achieves the state-of-the-art video diffusion distillation performance. Additionally, our method can enhance frame quality in video diffusion models, producing frames with high aesthetic scores or specific styles without corresponding video data.

[181] 2406.06891

Tokenize features, enhancing tables: the FT-TABPFN model for tabular classification

Traditional methods for tabular classification usually rely on supervised learning from scratch, which requires extensive training data to determine model parameters. However, a novel approach called Prior-Data Fitted Networks (TabPFN) has changed this paradigm. TabPFN uses a 12-layer transformer trained on large synthetic datasets to learn universal tabular representations. This method enables fast and accurate predictions on new tasks with a single forward pass and no need for additional training. Although TabPFN has been successful on small datasets, it generally shows weaker performance when dealing with categorical features. To overcome this limitation, we propose FT-TabPFN, which is an enhanced version of TabPFN that includes a novel Feature Tokenization layer to better handle classification features. By fine-tuning it for downstream tasks, FT-TabPFN not only expands the functionality of the original model but also significantly improves its applicability and accuracy in tabular classification. Our full source code is available for community use and development.

[182] 2406.06894

Nonlinear time-series embedding by monotone variational inequality

In the wild, we often encounter collections of sequential data such as electrocardiograms, motion capture, genomes, and natural language, and sequences may be multichannel or symbolic with nonlinear dynamics. We introduce a new method to learn low-dimensional representations of nonlinear time series without supervision and can have provable recovery guarantees. The learned representation can be used for downstream machine-learning tasks such as clustering and classification. The method is based on the assumption that the observed sequences arise from a common domain, but each sequence obeys its own autoregressive models that are related to each other through low-rank regularization. We cast the problem as a computationally efficient convex matrix parameter recovery problem using monotone Variational Inequality and encode the common domain assumption via low-rank constraint across the learned representations, which can learn the geometry for the entire domain as well as faithful representations for the dynamics of each individual sequence using the domain information in totality. We show the competitive performance of our method on real-world time-series data with the baselines and demonstrate its effectiveness for symbolic text modeling and RNA sequence clustering.

[183] 2406.06899

Developing, Analyzing, and Evaluating Vehicular Lane Keeping Algorithms Under Dynamic Lighting and Weather Conditions Using Electric Vehicles

Self-driving vehicles have the potential to reduce accidents and fatalities on the road. Many production vehicles already come equipped with basic self-driving capabilities, but have trouble following lanes in adverse lighting and weather conditions. Therefore, we develop, analyze, and evaluate two vehicular lane-keeping algorithms under dynamic weather conditions using a combined deep learning- and hand-crafted approach and an end-to-end deep learning approach. We use image segmentation- and linear-regression based deep learning to drive the vehicle toward the center of the lane, measuring the amount of laps completed, average speed, and average steering error per lap. Our hybrid model completes more laps than our end-to-end deep learning model. In the future, we are interested in combining our algorithms to form one cohesive approach to lane-following.

[184] 2406.06900

SmartPQ: An Adaptive Concurrent Priority Queue for NUMA Architectures

Concurrent priority queues are widely used in important workloads, such as graph applications and discrete event simulations. However, designing scalable concurrent priority queues for NUMA architectures is challenging. Even though several NUMA-oblivious implementations can scale up to a high number of threads, exploiting the potential parallelism of insert operation, NUMA-oblivious implementations scale poorly in deleteMin-dominated workloads. This is because all threads compete for accessing the same memory locations, i.e., the highest-priority element of the queue, thus incurring excessive cache coherence traffic and non-uniform memory accesses between nodes of a NUMA system. In such scenarios, NUMA-aware implementations are typically used to improve system performance on a NUMA system. In this work, we propose an adaptive priority queue, called SmartPQ. SmartPQ tunes itself by switching between a NUMA-oblivious and a NUMA-aware algorithmic mode to achieve high performance under all various contention scenarios. SmartPQ has two key components. First, it is built on top of NUMA Node Delegation (Nuddle), a generic low-overhead technique to construct efficient NUMA-aware data structures using any arbitrary concurrent NUMA-oblivious implementation as its backbone. Second, SmartPQ integrates a lightweight decision making mechanism to decide when to switch between NUMA-oblivious and NUMA-aware algorithmic modes. Our evaluation shows that, in NUMA systems, SmartPQ performs best in all various contention scenarios with 87.9% success rate, and dynamically adapts between NUMA-aware and NUMA-oblivious algorithmic mode, with negligible performance overheads. SmartPQ improves performance by 1.87x on average over SprayList, the state-of-theart NUMA-oblivious priority queue.

[185] 2406.06901

On Stewart's Perturbation Theorem for SVD

This paper establishes a variant of Stewart's theorem (Theorem~6.4 of Stewart, {\em SIAM Rev.}, 15:727--764, 1973) for the singular subspaces associated with the SVD of a matrix subject to perturbations. Stewart's original version uses both the Frobenius and spectral norms, whereas the new variant uses the spectral norm and any unitarily invariant norm that offer choices per convenience of particular applications and lead to sharper bounds than that straightforwardly derived from Stewart's original theorem with the help of the well-known equivalence inequalities between matrix norms. Of interest in their own right, bounds on the solution to two couple Sylvester equations are established for a few different circumstances.

[186] 2406.06902

CodeScore-R: An Automated Robustness Metric for Assessing the FunctionalCorrectness of Code Synthesis

Evaluation metrics are crucial in the field of code synthesis. Commonly used code evaluation metrics canbe classified into three types: match-based, semantic-based, and execution-based. Among them, the execution-basedPass@k metric accurately assesses the functionality of predicted code by executing test cases. However, calculatingthis metric requires a significant amount of overhead, necessitating the design of an automated evaluation metric thatcan assess the functionality of predicted code without the need for test cases. Additionally, a good evaluation metricshould be robust, that is the metric can maintain its accuracy even when the predicted code undergoes minor changes.To address these challenges, we propose an automated robust metric, called CodeScore-R, based on UniXcoder andcontrastive learning, for evaluating the functionality of code synthesis. CodeScore-R employs techniques such assketch-based processing, syntactic-equivalent transformations, and mutation testing to effectively mitigate theinterference caused by identifiers, syntax structures, and operators on evaluation results. Experimental resultsdemonstrate that in the tasks of code generation and migration in Java and Python, CodeScore-R outperforms otherevaluation metrics and is more closely aligned with the Pass@k metric, while exhibiting stronger robustness.

[187] 2406.06904

Person Transfer in the Field: Examining Real World Sequential Human-Robot Interaction Between Two Robots

With more robots being deployed in the world, users will likely interact with multiple robots sequentially when receiving services. In this paper, we describe an exploratory field study in which unsuspecting participants experienced a ``person transfer'' -- a scenario in which they first interacted with one stationary robot before another mobile robot joined to complete the interaction. In our 7-hour study spanning 4 days, we recorded 18 instances of person transfers with 40+ individuals. We also interviewed 11 participants after the interaction to further understand their experience. We used the recorded video and interview data to extract interesting insights about in-the-field sequential human-robot interaction, such as mobile robot handovers, trust in person transfer, and the importance of the robots' positions. Our findings expose pitfalls and present important factors to consider when designing sequential human-robot interaction.

[188] 2406.06907

SignMusketeers: An Efficient Multi-Stream Approach for Sign Language Translation at Scale

A persistent challenge in sign language video processing, including the task of sign language to written language translation, is how we learn representations of sign language in an effective and efficient way that can preserve the important attributes of these languages, while remaining invariant to irrelevant visual differences. Informed by the nature and linguistics of signed languages, our proposed method focuses on just the most relevant parts in a signing video: the face, hands and body posture of the signer. However, instead of using pose estimation coordinates from off-the-shelf pose tracking models, which have inconsistent performance for hands and faces, we propose to learn the complex handshapes and rich facial expressions of sign languages in a self-supervised fashion. Our approach is based on learning from individual frames (rather than video sequences) and is therefore much more efficient than prior work on sign language pre-training. Compared to a recent model that established a new state of the art in sign language translation on the How2Sign dataset, our approach yields similar translation performance, using less than 3\% of the compute.

[189] 2406.06908

UVIS: Unsupervised Video Instance Segmentation

Video instance segmentation requires classifying, segmenting, and tracking every object across video frames. Unlike existing approaches that rely on masks, boxes, or category labels, we propose UVIS, a novel Unsupervised Video Instance Segmentation (UVIS) framework that can perform video instance segmentation without any video annotations or dense label-based pretraining. Our key insight comes from leveraging the dense shape prior from the self-supervised vision foundation model DINO and the openset recognition ability from the image-caption supervised vision-language model CLIP. Our UVIS framework consists of three essential steps: frame-level pseudo-label generation, transformer-based VIS model training, and query-based tracking. To improve the quality of VIS predictions in the unsupervised setup, we introduce a dual-memory design. This design includes a semantic memory bank for generating accurate pseudo-labels and a tracking memory bank for maintaining temporal consistency in object tracks. We evaluate our approach on three standard VIS benchmarks, namely YoutubeVIS-2019, YoutubeVIS-2021, and Occluded VIS. Our UVIS achieves 21.1 AP on YoutubeVIS-2019 without any video annotations or dense pretraining, demonstrating the potential of our unsupervised VIS framework.

[190] 2406.06909

Training Dynamics of Nonlinear Contrastive Learning Model in the High Dimensional Limit

This letter presents a high-dimensional analysis of the training dynamics for a single-layer nonlinear contrastive learning model. The empirical distribution of the model weights converges to a deterministic measure governed by a McKean-Vlasov nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). Under L2 regularization, this PDE reduces to a closed set of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations (ODEs), reflecting the evolution of the model performance during the training process. We analyze the fixed point locations and their stability of the ODEs unveiling several interesting findings. First, only the hidden variable's second moment affects feature learnability at the state with uninformative initialization. Second, higher moments influence the probability of feature selection by controlling the attraction region, rather than affecting local stability. Finally, independent noises added in the data argumentation degrade performance but negatively correlated noise can reduces the variance of gradient estimation yielding better performance. Despite of the simplicity of the analyzed model, it exhibits a rich phenomena of training dynamics, paving a way to understand more complex mechanism behind practical large models.

[191] 2406.06910

Agent-SiMT: Agent-assisted Simultaneous Machine Translation with Large Language Models

Simultaneous Machine Translation (SiMT) generates target translations while reading the source sentence. It relies on a policy to determine the optimal timing for reading sentences and generating translations. Existing SiMT methods generally adopt the traditional Transformer architecture, which concurrently determines the policy and generates translations. While they excel at determining policies, their translation performance is suboptimal. Conversely, Large Language Models (LLMs), trained on extensive corpora, possess superior generation capabilities, but it is difficult for them to acquire translation policy through the training methods of SiMT. Therefore, we introduce Agent-SiMT, a framework combining the strengths of LLMs and traditional SiMT methods. Agent-SiMT contains the policy-decision agent and the translation agent. The policy-decision agent is managed by a SiMT model, which determines the translation policy using partial source sentence and translation. The translation agent, leveraging an LLM, generates translation based on the partial source sentence. The two agents collaborate to accomplish SiMT. Experiments demonstrate that Agent-SiMT attains state-of-the-art performance.

[192] 2406.06911

AsyncDiff: Parallelizing Diffusion Models by Asynchronous Denoising

Diffusion models have garnered significant interest from the community for their great generative ability across various applications. However, their typical multi-step sequential-denoising nature gives rise to high cumulative latency, thereby precluding the possibilities of parallel computation. To address this, we introduce AsyncDiff, a universal and plug-and-play acceleration scheme that enables model parallelism across multiple devices. Our approach divides the cumbersome noise prediction model into multiple components, assigning each to a different device. To break the dependency chain between these components, it transforms the conventional sequential denoising into an asynchronous process by exploiting the high similarity between hidden states in consecutive diffusion steps. Consequently, each component is facilitated to compute in parallel on separate devices. The proposed strategy significantly reduces inference latency while minimally impacting the generative quality. Specifically, for the Stable Diffusion v2.1, AsyncDiff achieves a 2.7x speedup with negligible degradation and a 4.0x speedup with only a slight reduction of 0.38 in CLIP Score, on four NVIDIA A5000 GPUs. Our experiments also demonstrate that AsyncDiff can be readily applied to video diffusion models with encouraging performances. The code is available at

[193] 2406.06914

On the Communication Complexity of Secure Multi-Party Computation With Aborts

A central goal of cryptography is Secure Multi-party Computation (MPC), where $n$ parties desire to compute a function of their joint inputs without letting any party learn about the inputs of its peers. Unfortunately, it is well-known that MPC guaranteeing output delivery to every party is infeasible when a majority of the parties are malicious. In fact, parties operating over a point-to-point network (i.e. without access to a broadcast channel) cannot even reach an agreement on the output when more than one third of the parties are malicious (Lamport, Shostak, and Pease, JACM 1980). Motivated by this infeasibility in the point-to-point model, Goldwasser and Lindell (J. Cryptol 2005) introduced a definition of MPC that does not require agreement, referred to as MPC with selective abort. Under this definition, any party may abort the protocol if they detect malicious behavior. They showed that MPC with selective abort is feasible for any number of malicious parties by implementing a broadcast functionality with abort. While the model of MPC with abort has attracted much attention over the years, little is known about its communication complexity over point-to-point networks. In this work, we study the communication complexity of MPC with abort and devise nearly-optimal communication efficient protocols in this model. Namely, we prove trade-offs between the number of honest parties $h$, the communication complexity, and the locality of the protocols. Here, locality is a bound on the number of peers with which each party must communicate.

[194] 2406.06915

Scalability in Workforce Management: Applying Scalability Principles to Foster a Four-Day Work Week

The traditional five-day workweek faces mounting challenges, prompting exploration of alternative models like the four-day workweek. This research explores the transformative potential of scalability principles derived from cloud computing and IT in redefining workforce management for a four-day workweek. The study employs a Multivocal Literacy Research methodology, combining grey literature and systematic review approaches. Through a comprehensive review of related work, the challenges, and benefits of transitioning to a four-day workweek are explored. Pilot programs, clear communication, and agility are identified as critical success factors. The synthesis of scalability principles in workforce management serves as a powerful framework for a smooth transition towards a four-day workweek. By prioritizing adaptability, dynamic resource allocation, and data-driven insights, organizations can unlock the full potential of a compressed work schedule. This research contributes valuable insights for organizations seeking to thrive in the evolving landscape of modern work structures and prioritizing employee well-being.

[195] 2406.06918

Towards more realistic evaluation of LLM-based code generation: an experimental study and beyond

To evaluate the code generation capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) in complex real-world software development scenarios, many evaluation approaches have been developed. They typically leverage contextual code from the latest version of a project to facilitate LLMs in accurately generating the desired function. However, such evaluation approaches fail to consider the dynamic evolution of software projects over time, which we refer to as evolving-ignored situation, leading to issues of future context leakage and useful context missing. This in turn results in inaccurate evaluation of LLMs' performance. In this paper, we conduct an empirical study to deeply understand LLMs' code generation performance within settings that reflect the evolving nature of software development. To achieve this, we first construct an evolving-aware repository-level code generation dataset, namely HumanEvo, equipped with an automated execution-based evaluation tool. Second, we manually categorize HumanEvo according to dependency levels to more comprehensively analyze the model's performance in generating functions with different dependency levels. Third, we conduct extensive experiments on HumanEvo with seven representative and diverse LLMs to verify the effectiveness of the proposed benchmark. We obtain many important findings through our experimental study. For example, we find that previous evolving-ignored evaluation approaches lead to inflated performance of the LLMs, ranging from 10.0% to 61.1%. Based on the findings, we give actionable suggestions on more realistic evaluation of LLMs on code generation. We also build a shared evolving-aware code generation toolbox to facilitate future research. Replication package including source code, datasets and appendix is available at

[196] 2406.06925

Non-autoregressive Personalized Bundle Generation

The personalized bundle generation problem, which aims to create a preferred bundle for user from numerous candidate items, receives increasing attention in recommendation. However, existing works ignore the order-invariant nature of the bundle and adopt sequential modeling methods as the solution, which might introduce inductive bias and cause a large latency in prediction. To address this problem, we propose to perform the bundle generation via non-autoregressive mechanism and design a novel encoder-decoder framework named BundleNAT, which can effectively output the targeted bundle in one-shot without relying on any inherent order. In detail, instead of learning sequential dependency, we propose to adopt pre-training techniques and graph neural network to fully embed user-based preference and item-based compatibility information, and use a self-attention based encoder to further extract global dependency pattern. We then design a permutation-equivariant decoding architecture that is able to directly output the desired bundle in a one-shot manner. Experiments on three real-world datasets from Youshu and Netease show the proposed BundleNAT significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods in average by up to 35.92%, 10.97% and 23.67% absolute improvements in Precision, Precision+, and Recall, respectively.

[197] 2406.06929

Social Learning with Bounded Rationality: Negative Reviews Persist under Newest First

We study a model of social learning from reviews where customers are computationally limited and make purchases based on reading only the first few reviews displayed by the platform. Under this bounded rationality, we establish that the review ordering policy can have a significant impact. In particular, the popular Newest First ordering induces a negative review to persist as the most recent review longer than a positive review. This phenomenon, which we term the Cost of Newest First, can make the long-term revenue unboundedly lower than a counterpart where reviews are exogenously drawn for each customer. We show that the impact of the Cost of Newest First can be mitigated under dynamic pricing, which allows the price to depend on the set of displayed reviews. Under the optimal dynamic pricing policy, the revenue loss is at most a factor of 2. On the way, we identify a structural property for this optimal dynamic pricing: the prices should ensure that the probability of a purchase is always the same, regardless of the state of reviews. We also study an extension of the model where customers put more weight on more recent reviews (and discount older reviews based on their time of posting), and we show that Newest First is still not the optimal ordering policy if customers discount slowly. Lastly, we corroborate our theoretical findings using a real-world review dataset. We find that the average rating of the first page of reviews is statistically significantly smaller than the overall average rating, which is in line with our theoretical results.

[198] 2406.06930

Explaining Representation Learning with Perceptual Components

Self-supervised models create representation spaces that lack clear semantic meaning. This interpretability problem of representations makes traditional explainability methods ineffective in this context. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to analyze representation spaces using three key perceptual components: color, shape, and texture. We employ selective masking of these components to observe changes in representations, resulting in distinct importance maps for each. In scenarios, where labels are absent, these importance maps provide more intuitive explanations as they are integral to the human visual system. Our approach enhances the interpretability of the representation space, offering explanations that resonate with human visual perception. We analyze how different training objectives create distinct representation spaces using perceptual components. Additionally, we examine the representation of images across diverse image domains, providing insights into the role of these components in different contexts.

[199] 2406.06932

Synthetic Face Ageing: Evaluation, Analysis and Facilitation of Age-Robust Facial Recognition Algorithms

The ability to accurately recognize an individual's face with respect to human aging factor holds significant importance for various private as well as government sectors such as customs and public security bureaus, passport office, and national database systems. Therefore, developing a robust age-invariant face recognition system is of crucial importance to address the challenges posed by ageing and maintain the reliability and accuracy of facial recognition technology. In this research work, the focus is to explore the feasibility of utilizing synthetic ageing data to improve the robustness of face recognition models that can eventually help in recognizing people at broader age intervals. To achieve this, we first design set of experiments to evaluate state-of-the-art synthetic ageing methods. In the next stage we explore the effect of age intervals on a current deep learning-based face recognition algorithm by using synthetic ageing data as well as real ageing data to perform rigorous training and validation. Moreover, these synthetic age data have been used in facilitating face recognition algorithms. Experimental results show that the recognition rate of the model trained on synthetic ageing images is 3.33% higher than the results of the baseline model when tested on images with an age gap of 40 years, which prove the potential of synthetic age data which has been quantified to enhance the performance of age-invariant face recognition systems.

[200] 2406.06934

Decentralized Social Networks and the Future of Free Speech Online

Decentralized social networks like Mastodon and BlueSky are trending topics that have drawn much attention and discussion in recent years. By devolving powers from the central node to the end users, decentralized social networks aim to cure existing pathologies on the centralized platforms and have been viewed by many as the future of the Internet. This article critically and systematically assesses the decentralization project's prospect for communications online. It uses normative theories of free speech to examine whether and how the decentralization design could facilitate users' freedom of expression online. The analysis shows that both promises and pitfalls exist, highlighting the importance of value-based design in this area. Two most salient issues for the design of the decentralized networks are: how to balance the decentralization ideal with constant needs of centralization on the network, and how to empower users to make them truly capable of exercising their control. The article then uses some design examples, such as the shared blocklist and the opt-in search function, to illustrate the value considerations underlying the design choices. Some tentative proposals for law and policy interventions are offered to better facilitate the design of the new network. Rather than providing clear answers, the article seeks to map the value implications of the design choices, highlight the stakes, and point directions for future research.

[201] 2406.06937

A Non-autoregressive Generation Framework for End-to-End Simultaneous Speech-to-Any Translation

Simultaneous translation models play a crucial role in facilitating communication. However, existing research primarily focuses on text-to-text or speech-to-text models, necessitating additional cascade components to achieve speech-to-speech translation. These pipeline methods suffer from error propagation and accumulate delays in each cascade component, resulting in reduced synchronization between the speaker and listener. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel non-autoregressive generation framework for simultaneous speech translation (NAST-S2X), which integrates speech-to-text and speech-to-speech tasks into a unified end-to-end framework. We develop a non-autoregressive decoder capable of concurrently generating multiple text or acoustic unit tokens upon receiving fixed-length speech chunks. The decoder can generate blank or repeated tokens and employ CTC decoding to dynamically adjust its latency. Experimental results show that NAST-S2X outperforms state-of-the-art models in both speech-to-text and speech-to-speech tasks. It achieves high-quality simultaneous interpretation within a delay of less than 3 seconds and provides a 28 times decoding speedup in offline generation.

[202] 2406.06938

Post-Hoc Answer Attribution for Grounded and Trustworthy Long Document Comprehension: Task, Insights, and Challenges

Attributing answer text to its source document for information-seeking questions is crucial for building trustworthy, reliable, and accountable systems. We formulate a new task of post-hoc answer attribution for long document comprehension (LDC). Owing to the lack of long-form abstractive and information-seeking LDC datasets, we refactor existing datasets to assess the strengths and weaknesses of existing retrieval-based and proposed answer decomposition and textual entailment-based optimal selection attribution systems for this task. We throw light on the limitations of existing datasets and the need for datasets to assess the actual performance of systems on this task.

[203] 2406.06942

Optimal Matrix-Mimetic Tensor Algebras via Variable Projection

Recent advances in {matrix-mimetic} tensor frameworks have made it possible to preserve linear algebraic properties for multilinear data analysis and, as a result, to obtain optimal representations of multiway data. Matrix mimeticity arises from interpreting tensors as operators that can be multiplied, factorized, and analyzed analogous to matrices. Underlying the tensor operation is an algebraic framework parameterized by an invertible linear transformation. The choice of linear mapping is crucial to representation quality and, in practice, is made heuristically based on expected correlations in the data. However, in many cases, these correlations are unknown and common heuristics lead to suboptimal performance. In this work, we simultaneously learn optimal linear mappings and corresponding tensor representations without relying on prior knowledge of the data. Our new framework explicitly captures the coupling between the transformation and representation using variable projection. We preserve the invertibility of the linear mapping by learning orthogonal transformations with Riemannian optimization. We provide original theory of uniqueness of the transformation and convergence analysis of our variable-projection-based algorithm. We demonstrate the generality of our framework through numerical experiments on a wide range of applications, including financial index tracking, image compression, and reduced order modeling. We have published all the code related to this work at

[204] 2406.06943

FAULT+PROBE: A Generic Rowhammer-based Bit Recovery Attack

Rowhammer is a security vulnerability that allows unauthorized attackers to induce errors within DRAM cells. To prevent fault injections from escalating to successful attacks, a widely accepted mitigation is implementing fault checks on instructions and data. We challenge the validity of this assumption by examining the impact of the fault on the victim's functionality. Specifically, we illustrate that an attacker can construct a profile of the victim's memory based on the directional patterns of bit flips. This profile is then utilized to identify the most susceptible bit locations within DRAM rows. These locations are then subsequently leveraged during an online attack phase with side information observed from the change in the victim's behavior to deduce sensitive bit values. Consequently, the primary objective of this study is to utilize Rowhammer as a probe, shifting the emphasis away from the victim's memory integrity and toward statistical fault analysis (SFA) based on the victim's operational behavior. We show FAULT+PROBE may be used to circumvent the verify-after-sign fault check mechanism, which is designed to prevent the generation of erroneous signatures that leak sensitive information. It does so by injecting directional faults into key positions identified during a memory profiling stage. The attacker observes the signature generation rate and decodes the secret bit value accordingly. This circumvention is enabled by an observable channel in the victim. FAULT+PROBE is not limited to signing victims and can be used to probe secret bits on arbitrary systems where an observable channel is present that leaks the result of the fault injection attempt. To demonstrate the attack, we target the fault-protected ECDSA in wolfSSL's implementation of the TLS 1.3 handshake. We recover 256-bit session keys with an average recovery rate of 22 key bits/hour and a 100% success rate.

[205] 2406.06946

Sparse Bayesian Networks: Efficient Uncertainty Quantification in Medical Image Analysis

Efficiently quantifying predictive uncertainty in medical images remains a challenge. While Bayesian neural networks (BNN) offer predictive uncertainty, they require substantial computational resources to train. Although Bayesian approximations such as ensembles have shown promise, they still suffer from high training and inference costs. Existing approaches mainly address the costs of BNN inference post-training, with little focus on improving training efficiency and reducing parameter complexity. This study introduces a training procedure for a sparse (partial) Bayesian network. Our method selectively assigns a subset of parameters as Bayesian by assessing their deterministic saliency through gradient sensitivity analysis. The resulting network combines deterministic and Bayesian parameters, exploiting the advantages of both representations to achieve high task-specific performance and minimize predictive uncertainty. Demonstrated on multi-label ChestMNIST for classification and ISIC, LIDC-IDRI for segmentation, our approach achieves competitive performance and predictive uncertainty estimation by reducing Bayesian parameters by over 95\%, significantly reducing computational expenses compared to fully Bayesian and ensemble methods.

[206] 2406.06947

CAAP: Context-Aware Action Planning Prompting to Solve Computer Tasks with Front-End UI Only

Software robots have long been deployed in Robotic Process Automation (RPA) to automate mundane and repetitive computer tasks. The advent of Large Language Models (LLMs) with advanced reasoning capabilities has set the stage for these agents to now undertake more complex and even previously unseen tasks. However, the LLM-based automation techniques in recent literature frequently rely on HTML source codes for input, limiting their application to web environments. Moreover, the information contained in HTML codes is often inaccurate or incomplete, making the agent less reliable for practical applications. We propose an LLM-based agent that functions solely on the basis of screenshots for recognizing environments, while leveraging in-context learning to eliminate the need for collecting large datasets of human demonstration. Our strategy, named Context-Aware Action Planning (CAAP) prompting encourages the agent to meticulously review the context in various angles. Through our proposed methodology, we achieve a success rate of 94.4% on 67~types of MiniWoB++ problems, utilizing only 1.48~demonstrations per problem type. Our method offers the potential for broader applications, especially for tasks that require inter-application coordination on computers or smartphones, showcasing a significant advancement in the field of automation agents. Codes and models are accessible at

[207] 2406.06948

Neural Visibility Field for Uncertainty-Driven Active Mapping

This paper presents Neural Visibility Field (NVF), a novel uncertainty quantification method for Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) applied to active mapping. Our key insight is that regions not visible in the training views lead to inherently unreliable color predictions by NeRF at this region, resulting in increased uncertainty in the synthesized views. To address this, we propose to use Bayesian Networks to composite position-based field uncertainty into ray-based uncertainty in camera observations. Consequently, NVF naturally assigns higher uncertainty to unobserved regions, aiding robots to select the most informative next viewpoints. Extensive evaluations show that NVF excels not only in uncertainty quantification but also in scene reconstruction for active mapping, outperforming existing methods.

[208] 2406.06949

Triple-domain Feature Learning with Frequency-aware Memory Enhancement for Moving Infrared Small Target Detection

Moving infrared small target detection presents significant challenges due to tiny target sizes and low contrast against backgrounds. Currently-existing methods primarily focus on extracting target features only from the spatial-temporal domain. For further enhancing feature representation, more information domains such as frequency are believed to be potentially valuable. To extend target feature learning, we propose a new Triple-domain Strategy (Tridos) with the frequency-aware memory enhancement on the spatial-temporal domain. In our scheme, it effectively detaches and enhances frequency features by a local-global frequency-aware module with Fourier transform. Inspired by the human visual system, our memory enhancement aims to capture the target spatial relations between video frames. Furthermore, it encodes temporal dynamics motion features via differential learning and residual enhancing. Additionally, we further design a residual compensation unit to reconcile possible cross-domain feature mismatches. To our best knowledge, our Tridos is the first work to explore target feature learning comprehensively in spatial-temporal-frequency domains. The extensive experiments on three datasets (DAUB, ITSDT-15K, and IRDST) validate that our triple-domain learning scheme could be obviously superior to state-of-the-art ones. Source codes are available at

[209] 2406.06950

A Probabilistic Framework for LLM Hallucination Detection via Belief Tree Propagation

This paper focuses on the task of hallucination detection, which aims to determine the truthfulness of LLM-generated statements. To address this problem, a popular class of methods utilize the LLM's self-consistencies in its beliefs in a set of logically related augmented statements generated by the LLM, which does not require external knowledge databases and can work with both white-box and black-box LLMs. However, in many existing approaches, the augmented statements tend to be very monotone and unstructured, which makes it difficult to integrate meaningful information from the LLM beliefs in these statements. Also, many methods work with the binarized version of the LLM's belief, instead of the continuous version, which significantly loses information. To overcome these limitations, in this paper, we propose Belief Tree Propagation (BTProp), a probabilistic framework for LLM hallucination detection. BTProp introduces a belief tree of logically related statements by recursively decomposing a parent statement into child statements with three decomposition strategies, and builds a hidden Markov tree model to integrate the LLM's belief scores in these statements in a principled way. Experiment results show that our method improves baselines by 3%-9% (evaluated by AUROC and AUC-PR) on multiple hallucination detection benchmarks. Code is available at

[210] 2406.06953

Stepwise Regression and Pre-trained Edge for Robust Stereo Matching

Due to the difficulty in obtaining real samples and ground truth, the generalization performance and the fine-tuned performance are critical for the feasibility of stereo matching methods in real-world applications. However, the presence of substantial disparity distributions and density variations across different datasets presents significant challenges for the generalization and fine-tuning of the model. In this paper, we propose a novel stereo matching method, called SR-Stereo, which mitigates the distributional differences across different datasets by predicting the disparity clips and uses a loss weight related to the regression target scale to improve the accuracy of the disparity clips. Moreover, this stepwise regression architecture can be easily extended to existing iteration-based methods to improve the performance without changing the structure. In addition, to mitigate the edge blurring of the fine-tuned model on sparse ground truth, we propose Domain Adaptation Based on Pre-trained Edges (DAPE). Specifically, we use the predicted disparity and RGB image to estimate the edge map of the target domain image. The edge map is filtered to generate edge map background pseudo-labels, which together with the sparse ground truth disparity on the target domain are used as a supervision to jointly fine-tune the pre-trained stereo matching model. These proposed methods are extensively evaluated on SceneFlow, KITTI, Middbury 2014 and ETH3D. The SR-Stereo achieves competitive disparity estimation performance and state-of-the-art cross-domain generalisation performance. Meanwhile, the proposed DAPE significantly improves the disparity estimation performance of fine-tuned models, especially in the textureless and detail regions.

[211] 2406.06954

Distributional MIPLIB: a Multi-Domain Library for Advancing ML-Guided MILP Methods

Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) is a fundamental tool for modeling combinatorial optimization problems. Recently, a growing body of research has used machine learning to accelerate MILP solving. Despite the increasing popularity of this approach, there is a lack of a common repository that provides distributions of similar MILP instances across different domains, at different hardness levels, with standardized test sets. In this paper, we introduce Distributional MIPLIB, a multi-domain library of problem distributions for advancing ML-guided MILP methods. We curate MILP distributions from existing work in this area as well as real-world problems that have not been used, and classify them into different hardness levels. It will facilitate research in this area by enabling comprehensive evaluation on diverse and realistic domains. We empirically illustrate the benefits of using Distributional MIPLIB as a research vehicle in two ways. We evaluate the performance of ML-guided variable branching on previously unused distributions to identify potential areas for improvement. Moreover, we propose to learn branching policies from a mix of distributions, demonstrating that mixed distributions achieve better performance compared to homogeneous distributions when there is limited data and generalize well to larger instances.

[212] 2406.06955

ElasticRec: A Microservice-based Model Serving Architecture Enabling Elastic Resource Scaling for Recommendation Models

With the increasing popularity of recommendation systems (RecSys), the demand for compute resources in datacenters has surged. However, the model-wise resource allocation employed in current RecSys model serving architectures falls short in effectively utilizing resources, leading to sub-optimal total cost of ownership. We propose ElasticRec, a model serving architecture for RecSys providing resource elasticity and high memory efficiency. ElasticRec is based on a microservice-based software architecture for fine-grained resource allocation, tailored to the heterogeneous resource demands of RecSys. Additionally, ElasticRec achieves high memory efficiency via our utility-based resource allocation. Overall, ElasticRec achieves an average 3.3x reduction in memory allocation size and 8.1x increase in memory utility, resulting in an average 1.6x reduction in deployment cost compared to state-of-the-art RecSys inference serving system.

[213] 2406.06958

Turning the Tide on Dark Pools? Towards Multi-Stakeholder Vulnerability Notifications in the Ad-Tech Supply Chain

Online advertising relies on a complex and opaque supply chain that involves multiple stakeholders, including advertisers, publishers, and ad-networks, each with distinct and sometimes conflicting incentives. Recent research has demonstrated the existence of ad-tech supply chain vulnerabilities such as dark pooling, where low-quality publishers bundle their ad inventory with higher-quality ones to mislead advertisers. We investigate the effectiveness of vulnerability notification campaigns aimed at mitigating dark pooling. Prior research on vulnerability notifications has primarily focused on single-stakeholder scenarios, and it is unclear whether vulnerability notifications can be effective in the multi-stakeholder ad-tech supply chain. We implement an automated vulnerability notification pipeline to systematically evaluate the responsiveness of various stakeholders, including publishers, ad-networks, and advertisers to vulnerability notifications by academics and activists. Our nine-month long multi-stakeholder notification study shows that notifications are an effective method for reducing dark pooling vulnerabilities in the online advertising ecosystem, especially when targeted towards ad-networks. Further, the sender reputation does not impact responses to notifications from activists and academics in a statistically different way. In addition to being the first notification study targeting the online advertising ecosystem, we are also the first to study multi-stakeholder context in vulnerability notifications.

[214] 2406.06959

Unleashing the Denoising Capability of Diffusion Prior for Solving Inverse Problems

The recent emergence of diffusion models has significantly advanced the precision of learnable priors, presenting innovative avenues for addressing inverse problems. Since inverse problems inherently entail maximum a posteriori estimation, previous works have endeavored to integrate diffusion priors into the optimization frameworks. However, prevailing optimization-based inverse algorithms primarily exploit the prior information within the diffusion models while neglecting their denoising capability. To bridge this gap, this work leverages the diffusion process to reframe noisy inverse problems as a two-variable constrained optimization task by introducing an auxiliary optimization variable. By employing gradient truncation, the projection gradient descent method is efficiently utilized to solve the corresponding optimization problem. The proposed algorithm, termed ProjDiff, effectively harnesses the prior information and the denoising capability of a pre-trained diffusion model within the optimization framework. Extensive experiments on the image restoration tasks and source separation and partial generation tasks demonstrate that ProjDiff exhibits superior performance across various linear and nonlinear inverse problems, highlighting its potential for practical applications. Code is available at

[215] 2406.06960

Low Rank Multi-Dictionary Selection at Scale

The sparse dictionary coding framework represents signals as a linear combination of a few predefined dictionary atoms. It has been employed for images, time series, graph signals and recently for 2-way (or 2D) spatio-temporal data employing jointly temporal and spatial dictionaries. Large and over-complete dictionaries enable high-quality models, but also pose scalability challenges which are exacerbated in multi-dictionary settings. Hence, an important problem that we address in this paper is: How to scale multi-dictionary coding for large dictionaries and datasets? We propose a multi-dictionary atom selection technique for low-rank sparse coding named LRMDS. To enable scalability to large dictionaries and datasets, it progressively selects groups of row-column atom pairs based on their alignment with the data and performs convex relaxation coding via the corresponding sub-dictionaries. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that when the data has a low-rank encoding with a sparse subset of the atoms, LRMDS is able to select them with strong guarantees under mild assumptions. Furthermore, we demonstrate the scalability and quality of LRMDS in both synthetic and real-world datasets and for a range of coding dictionaries. It achieves 3X to 10X speed-up compared to baselines, while obtaining up to two orders of magnitude improvement in representation quality on some of the real world datasets given a fixed target number of atoms.

[216] 2406.06962

Evolving Subnetwork Training for Large Language Models

Large language models have ushered in a new era of artificial intelligence research. However, their substantial training costs hinder further development and widespread adoption. In this paper, inspired by the redundancy in the parameters of large language models, we propose a novel training paradigm: Evolving Subnetwork Training (EST). EST samples subnetworks from the layers of the large language model and from commonly used modules within each layer, Multi-Head Attention (MHA) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). By gradually increasing the size of the subnetworks during the training process, EST can save the cost of training. We apply EST to train GPT2 model and TinyLlama model, resulting in 26.7\% FLOPs saving for GPT2 and 25.0\% for TinyLlama without an increase in loss on the pre-training dataset. Moreover, EST leads to performance improvements in downstream tasks, indicating that it benefits generalization. Additionally, we provide intuitive theoretical studies based on training dynamics and Dropout theory to ensure the feasibility of EST. Our code is available at

[217] 2406.06963

DHR+S: Distributed Hybrid Rendering with Realistic Real-time Shadows for Interactive Thin Client Metaverse and Game Applications

Distributed hybrid rendering (DHR) is a real-time rendering approach that incorporates cloud-based ray tracing with locally rasterized graphics for interactive thin client metaverse and game applications. With cloud assistance, DHR can generate high-fidelity ray-traced graphics contents remotely and deliver them to thin clients with low graphics capability, including standalone extended reality devices and mobile phones, while maintaining interactive frame rates for users under adverse network conditions. DHR can already achieve the effect of ray-traced hard shadows that form with the occlusion of direct illumination. We enhance the realism of these shadows by softening their edges with the direction of rays traced and approximating the occlusion of indirect illumination by reconstructing ray-traced ambient occlusion with a modified version of spatiotemporal variance-guided filtering. Our technique uses only 20-30% of the bandwidth of remote rendering and is also tolerant of delays of up to 200 ms with only slight distortion to the shadows along object edges.

[218] 2406.06964

Missingness-resilient Video-enhanced Multimodal Disfluency Detection

Most existing speech disfluency detection techniques only rely upon acoustic data. In this work, we present a practical multimodal disfluency detection approach that leverages available video data together with audio. We curate an audiovisual dataset and propose a novel fusion technique with unified weight-sharing modality-agnostic encoders to learn the temporal and semantic context. Our resilient design accommodates real-world scenarios where the video modality may sometimes be missing during inference. We also present alternative fusion strategies when both modalities are assured to be complete. In experiments across five disfluency-detection tasks, our unified multimodal approach significantly outperforms Audio-only unimodal methods, yielding an average absolute improvement of 10% (i.e., 10 percentage point increase) when both video and audio modalities are always available, and 7% even when video modality is missing in half of the samples.

[219] 2406.06965

Evolving from Single-modal to Multi-modal Facial Deepfake Detection: A Survey

This survey addresses the critical challenge of deepfake detection amidst the rapid advancements in artificial intelligence. As AI-generated media, including video, audio and text, become more realistic, the risk of misuse to spread misinformation and commit identity fraud increases. Focused on face-centric deepfakes, this work traces the evolution from traditional single-modality methods to sophisticated multi-modal approaches that handle audio-visual and text-visual scenarios. We provide comprehensive taxonomies of detection techniques, discuss the evolution of generative methods from auto-encoders and GANs to diffusion models, and categorize these technologies by their unique attributes. To our knowledge, this is the first survey of its kind. We also explore the challenges of adapting detection methods to new generative models and enhancing the reliability and robustness of deepfake detectors, proposing directions for future research. This survey offers a detailed roadmap for researchers, supporting the development of technologies to counter the deceptive use of AI in media creation, particularly facial forgery. A curated list of all related papers can be found at \href{}{}.

[220] 2406.06967

Dual Thinking and Perceptual Analysis of Deep Learning Models using Human Adversarial Examples

The dual thinking framework considers fast, intuitive processing and slower, logical processing. The perception of dual thinking in vision requires images where inferences from intuitive and logical processing differ. We introduce an adversarial dataset to provide evidence for the dual thinking framework in human vision, which also aids in studying the qualitative behavior of deep learning models. Our study also addresses a major criticism of using classification models as computational models of human vision by using instance segmentation models that localize objects. The evidence underscores the importance of shape in identifying instances in human vision and shows that deep learning models lack an understanding of sub-structures, as indicated by errors related to the position and number of sub-components. Additionally, the similarity in errors made by models and intuitive human processing indicates that models only address intuitive thinking in human vision.

[221] 2406.06968

Beyond the Norms: Detecting Prediction Errors in Regression Models

This paper tackles the challenge of detecting unreliable behavior in regression algorithms, which may arise from intrinsic variability (e.g., aleatoric uncertainty) or modeling errors (e.g., model uncertainty). First, we formally introduce the notion of unreliability in regression, i.e., when the output of the regressor exceeds a specified discrepancy (or error). Then, using powerful tools for probabilistic modeling, we estimate the discrepancy density, and we measure its statistical diversity using our proposed metric for statistical dissimilarity. In turn, this allows us to derive a data-driven score that expresses the uncertainty of the regression outcome. We show empirical improvements in error detection for multiple regression tasks, consistently outperforming popular baseline approaches, and contributing to the broader field of uncertainty quantification and safe machine learning systems. Our code is available at

[222] 2406.06972

Generative Lifting of Multiview to 3D from Unknown Pose: Wrapping NeRF inside Diffusion

We cast multiview reconstruction from unknown pose as a generative modeling problem. From a collection of unannotated 2D images of a scene, our approach simultaneously learns both a network to predict camera pose from 2D image input, as well as the parameters of a Neural Radiance Field (NeRF) for the 3D scene. To drive learning, we wrap both the pose prediction network and NeRF inside a Denoising Diffusion Probabilistic Model (DDPM) and train the system via the standard denoising objective. Our framework requires the system accomplish the task of denoising an input 2D image by predicting its pose and rendering the NeRF from that pose. Learning to denoise thus forces the system to concurrently learn the underlying 3D NeRF representation and a mapping from images to camera extrinsic parameters. To facilitate the latter, we design a custom network architecture to represent pose as a distribution, granting implicit capacity for discovering view correspondences when trained end-to-end for denoising alone. This technique allows our system to successfully build NeRFs, without pose knowledge, for challenging scenes where competing methods fail. At the conclusion of training, our learned NeRF can be extracted and used as a 3D scene model; our full system can be used to sample novel camera poses and generate novel-view images.

[223] 2406.06973

RWKV-CLIP: A Robust Vision-Language Representation Learner

Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) has significantly improved performance in various vision-language tasks by expanding the dataset with image-text pairs obtained from websites. This paper further explores CLIP from the perspectives of data and model architecture. To address the prevalence of noisy data and enhance the quality of large-scale image-text data crawled from the internet, we introduce a diverse description generation framework that can leverage Large Language Models (LLMs) to synthesize and refine content from web-based texts, synthetic captions, and detection tags. Furthermore, we propose RWKV-CLIP, the first RWKV-driven vision-language representation learning model that combines the effective parallel training of transformers with the efficient inference of RNNs. Comprehensive experiments across various model scales and pre-training datasets demonstrate that RWKV-CLIP is a robust and efficient vision-language representation learner, it achieves state-of-the-art performance in several downstream tasks, including linear probe, zero-shot classification, and zero-shot image-text retrieval. To facilitate future research, the code and pre-trained models are released at

[224] 2406.06975

TraceMesh: Scalable and Streaming Sampling for Distributed Traces

Distributed tracing serves as a fundamental element in the monitoring of cloud-based and datacenter systems. It provides visibility into the full lifecycle of a request or operation across multiple services, which is essential for understanding system dependencies and performance bottlenecks. To mitigate computational and storage overheads, most tracing frameworks adopt a uniform sampling strategy, which inevitably captures overlapping and redundant information. More advanced methods employ learning-based approaches to bias the sampling toward more informative traces. However, existing methods fall short of considering the high-dimensional and dynamic nature of trace data, which is essential for the production deployment of trace sampling. To address these practical challenges, in this paper we present TraceMesh, a scalable and streaming sampler for distributed traces. TraceMesh employs Locality-Sensitivity Hashing (LSH) to improve sampling efficiency by projecting traces into a low-dimensional space while preserving their similarity. In this process, TraceMesh accommodates previously unseen trace features in a unified and streamlined way. Subsequently, TraceMesh samples traces through evolving clustering, which dynamically adjusts the sampling decision to avoid over-sampling of recurring traces. The proposed method is evaluated with trace data collected from both open-source microservice benchmarks and production service systems. Experimental results demonstrate that TraceMesh outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a significant margin in both sampling accuracy and efficiency.

[225] 2406.06976

Discrete Dictionary-based Decomposition Layer for Structured Representation Learning

Neuro-symbolic neural networks have been extensively studied to integrate symbolic operations with neural networks, thereby improving systematic generalization. Specifically, Tensor Product Representation (TPR) framework enables neural networks to perform differentiable symbolic operations by encoding the symbolic structure of data within vector spaces. However, TPR-based neural networks often struggle to decompose unseen data into structured TPR representations, undermining their symbolic operations. To address this decomposition problem, we propose a Discrete Dictionary-based Decomposition (D3) layer designed to enhance the decomposition capabilities of TPR-based models. D3 employs discrete, learnable key-value dictionaries trained to capture symbolic features essential for decomposition operations. It leverages the prior knowledge acquired during training to generate structured TPR representations by mapping input data to pre-learned symbolic features within these dictionaries. D3 is a straightforward drop-in layer that can be seamlessly integrated into any TPR-based model without modifications. Our experimental results demonstrate that D3 significantly improves the systematic generalization of various TPR-based models while requiring fewer additional parameters. Notably, D3 outperforms baseline models on the synthetic task that demands the systematic decomposition of unseen combinatorial data.

[226] 2406.06977

Cross-domain-aware Worker Selection with Training for Crowdsourced Annotation

Annotation through crowdsourcing draws incremental attention, which relies on an effective selection scheme given a pool of workers. Existing methods propose to select workers based on their performance on tasks with ground truth, while two important points are missed. 1) The historical performances of workers in other tasks. In real-world scenarios, workers need to solve a new task whose correlation with previous tasks is not well-known before the training, which is called cross-domain. 2) The dynamic worker performance as workers will learn from the ground truth. In this paper, we consider both factors in designing an allocation scheme named cross-domain-aware worker selection with training approach. Our approach proposes two estimation modules to both statistically analyze the cross-domain correlation and simulate the learning gain of workers dynamically. A framework with a theoretical analysis of the worker elimination process is given. To validate the effectiveness of our methods, we collect two novel real-world datasets and generate synthetic datasets. The experiment results show that our method outperforms the baselines on both real-world and synthetic datasets.

[227] 2406.06978

Hydra-MDP: End-to-end Multimodal Planning with Multi-target Hydra-Distillation

We propose Hydra-MDP, a novel paradigm employing multiple teachers in a teacher-student model. This approach uses knowledge distillation from both human and rule-based teachers to train the student model, which features a multi-head decoder to learn diverse trajectory candidates tailored to various evaluation metrics. With the knowledge of rule-based teachers, Hydra-MDP learns how the environment influences the planning in an end-to-end manner instead of resorting to non-differentiable post-processing. This method achieves the $1^{st}$ place in the Navsim challenge, demonstrating significant improvements in generalization across diverse driving environments and conditions. Code will be available at \url{}

[228] 2406.06979

AudioMarkBench: Benchmarking Robustness of Audio Watermarking

The increasing realism of synthetic speech, driven by advancements in text-to-speech models, raises ethical concerns regarding impersonation and disinformation. Audio watermarking offers a promising solution via embedding human-imperceptible watermarks into AI-generated audios. However, the robustness of audio watermarking against common/adversarial perturbations remains understudied. We present AudioMarkBench, the first systematic benchmark for evaluating the robustness of audio watermarking against watermark removal and watermark forgery. AudioMarkBench includes a new dataset created from Common-Voice across languages, biological sexes, and ages, 3 state-of-the-art watermarking methods, and 15 types of perturbations. We benchmark the robustness of these methods against the perturbations in no-box, black-box, and white-box settings. Our findings highlight the vulnerabilities of current watermarking techniques and emphasize the need for more robust and fair audio watermarking solutions. Our dataset and code are publicly available at \url{}.

[229] 2406.06982

Open Packing in Graphs: Bounds and Complexity

Given a graph $G(V,E)$, a vertex subset S of G is called an open packing in G if no pair of distinct vertices in S have a common neighbour in G. The size of a largest open packing in G is called the open packing number of G and is denoted by $\rho^o(G)$. It would be interesting to note that the open packing number is a lower bound for the total domination number in graphs with no isolated vertices [Henning and Slater, 1999]. Given a graph G and a positive integer k, the decision problem OPEN PACKING tests whether G has an open packing of size at least k. The optimization problem MAX-OPEN PACKING takes a graph G as input and finds the open packing number of G. It is known that OPEN PACKING is NP-complete on split graphs (i.e., the class of $\{2K_2,C_4,C_5\}$-free graphs) [Ramos et al., 2014]. In this work, we complete the study on the complexity (P vs NPC) of OPEN PACKING on H-free graphs for every graph H with at least three vertices by proving that OPEN PACKING is (i) NP-complete on $K_{1,3}$-free graphs and (ii) polynomial time solvable on $(P_4\cup rK_1)$-free graphs for every $r\geq 1$. In the course of proving (ii), we show that for every $t\in {2,3,4}$ and $r\geq 1$, if G is a $(P_t\cup rK_1)$-free graph, then $\rho^o(G)$ is bounded above by a linear function of r. Moreover, we show that OPEN PACKING parameterized by solution size is W[1]-complete on $K_{1,3}$-free graphs and MAX-OPEN PACKING is hard to approximate within a factor of $n^{(\frac{1}{2}-\delta)}$ for any $\delta>0$ on $K_{1,3}$-free graphs unless P=NP. Further, we prove that OPEN PACKING is (a) NP-complete on $K_{1,4}$-free split graphs and (b) polynomial time solvable on $K_{1,3}$-free split graphs. We prove a similar dichotomy result on split graphs with degree restrictions on the vertices in the independent set of the clique-independent set partition of the split graphs.

[230] 2406.06984

On the Hölder Stability of Multiset and Graph Neural Networks

Famously, multiset neural networks based on sum-pooling can separate all distinct multisets, and as a result can be used by message passing neural networks (MPNNs) to separate all pairs of graphs that can be separated by the 1-WL graph isomorphism test. However, the quality of this separation may be very weak, to the extent that the embeddings of "separable" multisets and graphs might even be considered identical when using fixed finite precision. In this work, we propose to fully analyze the separation quality of multiset models and MPNNs via a novel adaptation of Lipschitz and H\"{o}lder continuity to parametric functions. We prove that common sum-based models are lower-H\"{o}lder continuous, with a H\"{o}lder exponent that decays rapidly with the network's depth. Our analysis leads to adversarial examples of graphs which can be separated by three 1-WL iterations, but cannot be separated in practice by standard maximally powerful MPNNs. To remedy this, we propose two novel MPNNs with improved separation quality, one of which is lower Lipschitz continuous. We show these MPNNs can easily classify our adversarial examples, and compare favorably with standard MPNNs on standard graph learning tasks.

[231] 2406.06986

DNN Partitioning, Task Offloading, and Resource Allocation in Dynamic Vehicular Networks: A Lyapunov-Guided Diffusion-Based Reinforcement Learning Approach

The rapid advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has introduced Deep Neural Network (DNN)-based tasks to the ecosystem of vehicular networks. These tasks are often computation-intensive, requiring substantial computation resources, which are beyond the capability of a single vehicle. To address this challenge, Vehicular Edge Computing (VEC) has emerged as a solution, offering computing services for DNN-based tasks through resource pooling via Vehicle-to-Vehicle/Infrastructure (V2V/V2I) communications. In this paper, we formulate the problem of joint DNN partitioning, task offloading, and resource allocation in VEC as a dynamic long-term optimization. Our objective is to minimize the DNN-based task completion time while guaranteeing the system stability over time. To this end, we first leverage a Lyapunov optimization technique to decouple the original long-term optimization with stability constraints into a per-slot deterministic problem. Afterwards, we propose a Multi-Agent Diffusion-based Deep Reinforcement Learning (MAD2RL) algorithm, incorporating the innovative use of diffusion models to determine the optimal DNN partitioning and task offloading decisions. Furthermore, we integrate convex optimization techniques into MAD2RL as a subroutine to allocate computation resources, enhancing the learning efficiency. Through simulations under real-world movement traces of vehicles, we demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark solutions.

[232] 2406.06987

Position Paper: Technical Research and Talent is Needed for Effective AI Governance

In light of recent advancements in AI capabilities and the increasingly widespread integration of AI systems into society, governments worldwide are actively seeking to mitigate the potential harms and risks associated with these technologies through regulation and other governance tools. However, there exist significant gaps between governance aspirations and the current state of the technical tooling necessary for their realisation. In this position paper, we survey policy documents published by public-sector institutions in the EU, US, and China to highlight specific areas of disconnect between the technical requirements necessary for enacting proposed policy actions, and the current technical state of the art. Our analysis motivates a call for tighter integration of the AI/ML research community within AI governance in order to i) catalyse technical research aimed at bridging the gap between current and supposed technical underpinnings of regulatory action, as well as ii) increase the level of technical expertise within governing institutions so as to inform and guide effective governance of AI.

[233] 2406.06990

Privacy-Utility Tradeoff Based on $α$-lift

Information density and its exponential form, known as lift, play a central role in information privacy leakage measures. $\alpha$-lift is the power-mean of lift, which is tunable between the worst-case measure max-lift ($\alpha=\infty$) and more relaxed versions ($\alpha<\infty$). This paper investigates the optimization problem of the privacy-utility tradeoff where $\alpha$-lift and mutual information are privacy and utility measures, respectively. Due to the nonlinear nature of $\alpha$-lift for $\alpha<\infty$, finding the optimal solution is challenging. Therefore, we propose a heuristic algorithm to estimate the optimal utility for each value of $\alpha$, inspired by the optimal solution for $\alpha=\infty$. In proposing the algorithm, we prove and use the convexity of $\alpha$-lift with respect to the lift.

[234] 2406.06992

Scaling up masked audio encoder learning for general audio classification

Despite progress in audio classification, a generalization gap remains between speech and other sound domains, such as environmental sounds and music. Models trained for speech tasks often fail to perform well on environmental or musical audio tasks, and vice versa. While self-supervised (SSL) audio representations offer an alternative, there has been limited exploration of scaling both model and dataset sizes for SSL-based general audio classification. We introduce Dasheng, a simple SSL audio encoder, based on the efficient masked autoencoder framework. Trained with 1.2 billion parameters on 272,356 hours of diverse audio, Dasheng obtains significant performance gains on the HEAR benchmark. It outperforms previous works on CREMA-D, LibriCount, Speech Commands, VoxLingua, and competes well in music and environment classification. Dasheng features inherently contain rich speech, music, and environmental information, as shown in nearest-neighbor classification experiments. Code is available

[235] 2406.06995

HPC Alongside User-space Kubernetes

High performance computing (HPC) and cloud have traditionally been separate, and presented in an adversarial light. The conflict arises from disparate beginnings that led to two drastically different cultures, incentive structures, and communities that are now in direct competition with one another for resources, talent, and speed of innovation. With the emergence of converged computing, a new paradigm of computing has entered the space that advocates for bringing together the best of both worlds from a technological and cultural standpoint. This movement has emerged due to economic and practical needs. Emerging heterogeneous, complex scientific workloads that require an orchestration of services, simulation, and reaction to state can no longer be served by traditional HPC paradigms. However, while cloud offers automation, portability, and orchestration, as it stands now it cannot deliver the network performance, fine-grained resource mapping, or scalability that these same simulations require. These novel requirements call for change not just in workflow software or design, but also in the underlying infrastructure to support them. This is one of the goals of converged computing. While the future of traditional HPC and commercial cloud cannot be entirely known, a reasonable approach to take is one that focuses on new models of convergence, and a collaborative mindset. In this paper, we introduce a new paradigm for compute -- a traditional HPC workload manager, Flux Framework, running seamlessly with a user-space Kubernetes "Usernetes" to bring a service-oriented, modular, and portable architecture directly to on-premises HPC clusters. We present experiments that assess HPC application performance and networking between the environments, and provide a reproducible setup for the larger community to do exactly that.

[236] 2406.06999

Teaching with Uncertainty: Unleashing the Potential of Knowledge Distillation in Object Detection

Knowledge distillation (KD) is a widely adopted and effective method for compressing models in object detection tasks. Particularly, feature-based distillation methods have shown remarkable performance. Existing approaches often ignore the uncertainty in the teacher model's knowledge, which stems from data noise and imperfect training. This limits the student model's ability to learn latent knowledge, as it may overly rely on the teacher's imperfect guidance. In this paper, we propose a novel feature-based distillation paradigm with knowledge uncertainty for object detection, termed "Uncertainty Estimation-Discriminative Knowledge Extraction-Knowledge Transfer (UET)", which can seamlessly integrate with existing distillation methods. By leveraging the Monte Carlo dropout technique, we introduce knowledge uncertainty into the training process of the student model, facilitating deeper exploration of latent knowledge. Our method performs effectively during the KD process without requiring intricate structures or extensive computational resources. Extensive experiments validate the effectiveness of our proposed approach across various distillation strategies, detectors, and backbone architectures. Specifically, following our proposed paradigm, the existing FGD method achieves state-of-the-art (SoTA) performance, with ResNet50-based GFL achieving 44.1% mAP on the COCO dataset, surpassing the baselines by 3.9%.

[237] 2406.07001

Mitigating Boundary Ambiguity and Inherent Bias for Text Classification in the Era of Large Language Models

Text classification is a crucial task encountered frequently in practical scenarios, yet it is still under-explored in the era of large language models (LLMs). This study shows that LLMs are vulnerable to changes in the number and arrangement of options in text classification. Our extensive empirical analyses reveal that the key bottleneck arises from ambiguous decision boundaries and inherent biases towards specific tokens and positions. To mitigate these issues, we make the first attempt and propose a novel two-stage classification framework for LLMs. Our approach is grounded in the empirical observation that pairwise comparisons can effectively alleviate boundary ambiguity and inherent bias. Specifically, we begin with a self-reduction technique to efficiently narrow down numerous options, which contributes to reduced decision space and a faster comparison process. Subsequently, pairwise contrastive comparisons are employed in a chain-of-thought manner to draw out nuances and distinguish confusable options, thus refining the ambiguous decision boundary. Extensive experiments on four datasets (Banking77, HWU64, LIU54, and Clinic150) verify the effectiveness of our framework. Furthermore, benefitting from our framework, various LLMs can achieve consistent improvements. Our code and data are available in \url{}.

[238] 2406.07003

GraphCoder: Enhancing Repository-Level Code Completion via Code Context Graph-based Retrieval and Language Model

The performance of repository-level code completion depends upon the effective leverage of both general and repository-specific knowledge. Despite the impressive capability of code LLMs in general code completion tasks, they often exhibit less satisfactory performance on repository-level completion due to the lack of repository-specific knowledge in these LLMs. To address this problem, we propose GraphCoder, a retrieval-augmented code completion framework that leverages LLMs' general code knowledge and the repository-specific knowledge via a graph-based retrieval-generation process. In particular, GraphCoder captures the context of completion target more accurately through code context graph (CCG) that consists of control-flow, data- and control-dependence between code statements, a more structured way to capture the completion target context than the sequence-based context used in existing retrieval-augmented approaches; based on CCG, GraphCoder further employs a coarse-to-fine retrieval process to locate context-similar code snippets with the completion target from the current repository. Experimental results demonstrate both the effectiveness and efficiency of GraphCoder: Compared to baseline retrieval-augmented methods, GraphCoder achieves higher exact match (EM) on average, with increases of +6.06 in code match and +6.23 in identifier match, while using less time and space.

[239] 2406.07006

MIPI 2024 Challenge on Few-shot RAW Image Denoising: Methods and Results

The increasing demand for computational photography and imaging on mobile platforms has led to the widespread development and integration of advanced image sensors with novel algorithms in camera systems. However, the scarcity of high-quality data for research and the rare opportunity for in-depth exchange of views from industry and academia constrain the development of mobile intelligent photography and imaging (MIPI). Building on the achievements of the previous MIPI Workshops held at ECCV 2022 and CVPR 2023, we introduce our third MIPI challenge including three tracks focusing on novel image sensors and imaging algorithms. In this paper, we summarize and review the Few-shot RAW Image Denoising track on MIPI 2024. In total, 165 participants were successfully registered, and 7 teams submitted results in the final testing phase. The developed solutions in this challenge achieved state-of-the-art erformance on Few-shot RAW Image Denoising. More details of this challenge and the link to the dataset can be found at

[240] 2406.07007

Crayon: Customized On-Device LLM via Instant Adapter Blending and Edge-Server Hybrid Inference

The customization of large language models (LLMs) for user-specified tasks gets important. However, maintaining all the customized LLMs on cloud servers incurs substantial memory and computational overheads, and uploading user data can also lead to privacy concerns. On-device LLMs can offer a promising solution by mitigating these issues. Yet, the performance of on-device LLMs is inherently constrained by the limitations of small-scaled models. To overcome these restrictions, we first propose Crayon, a novel approach for on-device LLM customization. Crayon begins by constructing a pool of diverse base adapters, and then we instantly blend them into a customized adapter without extra training. In addition, we develop a device-server hybrid inference strategy, which deftly allocates more demanding queries or non-customized tasks to a larger, more capable LLM on a server. This ensures optimal performance without sacrificing the benefits of on-device customization. We carefully craft a novel benchmark from multiple question-answer datasets, and show the efficacy of our method in the LLM customization.

[241] 2406.07008

Eye-for-an-eye: Appearance Transfer with Semantic Correspondence in Diffusion Models

As pretrained text-to-image diffusion models have become a useful tool for image synthesis, people want to specify the results in various ways. In this paper, we introduce a method to produce results with the same structure of a target image but painted with colors from a reference image, i.e., appearance transfer, especially following the semantic correspondence between the result and the reference. E.g., the result wing takes color from the reference wing, not the reference head. Existing methods rely on the query-key similarity within self-attention layer, usually producing defective results. To this end, we propose to find semantic correspondences and explicitly rearrange the features according to the semantic correspondences. Extensive experiments show the superiority of our method in various aspects: preserving the structure of the target and reflecting the color from the reference according to the semantic correspondences, even when the two images are not aligned.

[242] 2406.07011

Breaking Free: Efficient Multi-Party Private Set Union Without Non-Collusion Assumptions

Multi-party private set union (MPSU) protocol enables $m$ $(m > 2)$ parties, each holding a set, to collectively compute the union of their sets without revealing any additional information to other parties. There are two main categories of MPSU protocols: The first builds on public-key techniques. All existing works in this category involve a super-linear number of public-key operations, resulting in poor practical efficiency. The second builds on oblivious transfer and symmetric-key techniques. The only existing work in this category is proposed by Liu and Gao (ASIACRYPT 2023), which features the best concrete performance among all existing protocols, despite its super-linear computation and communication. Unfortunately, it does not achieve the standard semi-honest security, as it inherently relies on a non-collusion assumption, which is unlikely to hold in practice. Therefore, the problem of constructing a practical MPSU protocol based on oblivious transfer and symmetric-key techniques in standard semi-honest model remains open. Furthermore, there is no MPSU protocol achieving both linear computation and linear communication complexity, which leaves another unresolved problem. In this work, we resolve these two open problems. We propose the first MPSU protocol based on oblivious transfer and symmetric-key techniques in the standard semi-honest model. This protocol is $4.9-9.3 \times$ faster than Liu and Gao in the LAN setting. Concretely, our protocol requires only $3.6$ seconds in online phase for 3 parties with sets of $2^{20}$ items each. We propose the first MPSU protocol achieving both linear computation and linear communication complexity, based on public-key operations. This protocol has the lowest overall communication costs and shows a factor of $3.0-36.5\times$ improvement in terms of overall communication compared to Liu and Gao.

[243] 2406.07012

Bridging Language Gaps in Audio-Text Retrieval

Audio-text retrieval is a challenging task, requiring the search for an audio clip or a text caption within a database. The predominant focus of existing research on English descriptions poses a limitation on the applicability of such models, given the abundance of non-English content in real-world data. To address these linguistic disparities, we propose a language enhancement (LE), using a multilingual text encoder (SONAR) to encode the text data with language-specific information. Additionally, we optimize the audio encoder through the application of consistent ensemble distillation (CED), enhancing support for variable-length audio-text retrieval. Our methodology excels in English audio-text retrieval, demonstrating state-of-the-art (SOTA) performance on commonly used datasets such as AudioCaps and Clotho. Simultaneously, the approach exhibits proficiency in retrieving content in seven other languages with only 10% of additional language-enhanced training data, yielding promising results. The source code is publicly available

[244] 2406.07016

Delving into ChatGPT usage in academic writing through excess vocabulary

Recent large language models (LLMs) can generate and revise text with human-level performance, and have been widely commercialized in systems like ChatGPT. These models come with clear limitations: they can produce inaccurate information, reinforce existing biases, and be easily misused. Yet, many scientists have been using them to assist their scholarly writing. How wide-spread is LLM usage in the academic literature currently? To answer this question, we use an unbiased, large-scale approach, free from any assumptions on academic LLM usage. We study vocabulary changes in 14 million PubMed abstracts from 2010-2024, and show how the appearance of LLMs led to an abrupt increase in the frequency of certain style words. Our analysis based on excess words usage suggests that at least 10% of 2024 abstracts were processed with LLMs. This lower bound differed across disciplines, countries, and journals, and was as high as 30% for some PubMed sub-corpora. We show that the appearance of LLM-based writing assistants has had an unprecedented impact in the scientific literature, surpassing the effect of major world events such as the Covid pandemic.

[245] 2406.07017

MoreauPruner: Robust Pruning of Large Language Models against Weight Perturbations

Few-shot gradient methods have been extensively utilized in existing model pruning methods, where the model weights are regarded as static values and the effects of potential weight perturbations are not considered. However, the widely used large language models (LLMs) have several billion model parameters, which could increase the fragility of few-shot gradient pruning. In this work, we experimentally show that one-shot gradient pruning algorithms could lead to unstable results under perturbations to model weights. And the minor error of switching between data formats bfloat16 and float16 could result in drastically different outcomes. To address such instabilities, we leverage optimization analysis and propose an LLM structural pruning method, called MoreauPruner, with provable robustness against weight perturbations. In MoreauPruner, the model weight importance is estimated based on the neural network's Moreau envelope, which can be flexibly combined with $\ell_1$-norm regularization techniques to induce the sparsity required in the pruning task. We extensively evaluate the MoreauPruner algorithm on several well-known LLMs, including LLaMA-7B, LLaMA-13B, LLaMA3-8B, and Vicuna-7B. Our numerical results suggest the robustness of MoreauPruner against weight perturbations, and indicate the MoreauPruner's successful accuracy-based scores in comparison to several existing pruning methods. We have released the code in \url{}.

[246] 2406.07020

Learning Discrete Latent Variable Structures with Tensor Rank Conditions

Unobserved discrete data are ubiquitous in many scientific disciplines, and how to learn the causal structure of these latent variables is crucial for uncovering data patterns. Most studies focus on the linear latent variable model or impose strict constraints on latent structures, which fail to address cases in discrete data involving non-linear relationships or complex latent structures. To achieve this, we explore a tensor rank condition on contingency tables for an observed variable set $\mathbf{X}_p$, showing that the rank is determined by the minimum support of a specific conditional set (not necessary in $\mathbf{X}_p$) that d-separates all variables in $\mathbf{X}_p$. By this, one can locate the latent variable through probing the rank on different observed variables set, and further identify the latent causal structure under some structure assumptions. We present the corresponding identification algorithm and conduct simulated experiments to verify the effectiveness of our method. In general, our results elegantly extend the identification boundary for causal discovery with discrete latent variables and expand the application scope of causal discovery with latent variables.

[247] 2406.07021

A Tool for Test Case Scenarios Generation Using Large Language Models

Large Language Models (LLMs) are widely used in Software Engineering (SE) for various tasks, including generating code, designing and documenting software, adding code comments, reviewing code, and writing test scripts. However, creating test scripts or automating test cases demands test suite documentation that comprehensively covers functional requirements. Such documentation must enable thorough testing within a constrained scope and timeframe, particularly as requirements and user demands evolve. This article centers on generating user requirements as epics and high-level user stories and crafting test case scenarios based on these stories. It introduces a web-based software tool that employs an LLM-based agent and prompt engineering to automate the generation of test case scenarios against user requirements.

[248] 2406.07023

LiSD: An Efficient Multi-Task Learning Framework for LiDAR Segmentation and Detection

With the rapid proliferation of autonomous driving, there has been a heightened focus on the research of lidar-based 3D semantic segmentation and object detection methodologies, aiming to ensure the safety of traffic participants. In recent decades, learning-based approaches have emerged, demonstrating remarkable performance gains in comparison to conventional algorithms. However, the segmentation and detection tasks have traditionally been examined in isolation to achieve the best precision. To this end, we propose an efficient multi-task learning framework named LiSD which can address both segmentation and detection tasks, aiming to optimize the overall performance. Our proposed LiSD is a voxel-based encoder-decoder framework that contains a hierarchical feature collaboration module and a holistic information aggregation module. Different integration methods are adopted to keep sparsity in segmentation while densifying features for query initialization in detection. Besides, cross-task information is utilized in an instance-aware refinement module to obtain more accurate predictions. Experimental results on the nuScenes dataset and Waymo Open Dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model. It is worth noting that LiSD achieves the state-of-the-art performance of 83.3% mIoU on the nuScenes segmentation benchmark for lidar-only methods.

[249] 2406.07024

Plant-and-Steal: Truthful Fair Allocations via Predictions

We study truthful mechanisms for approximating the Maximin-Share (MMS) allocation of agents with additive valuations for indivisible goods. Algorithmically, constant factor approximations exist for the problem for any number of agents. When adding incentives to the mix, a jarring result by Amanatidis, Birmpas, Christodoulou, and Markakis [EC 2017] shows that the best possible approximation for two agents and $m$ items is $\lfloor \frac{m}{2} \rfloor$. We adopt a learning-augmented framework to investigate what is possible when some prediction on the input is given. For two agents, we give a truthful mechanism that takes agents' ordering over items as prediction. When the prediction is accurate, we give a $2$-approximation to the MMS (consistency), and when the prediction is off, we still get an $\lceil \frac{m}{2} \rceil$-approximation to the MMS (robustness). We further show that the mechanism's performance degrades gracefully in the number of ``mistakes" in the prediction; i.e., we interpolate (up to constant factors) between the two extremes: when there are no mistakes, and when there is a maximum number of mistakes. We also show an impossibility result on the obtainable consistency for mechanisms with finite robustness. For the general case of $n\ge 2$ agents, we give a 2-approximation mechanism for accurate predictions, with relaxed fallback guarantees. Finally, we give experimental results which illustrate when different components of our framework, made to insure consistency and robustness, come into play.

[250] 2406.07025

Entropy-Reinforced Planning with Large Language Models for Drug Discovery

The objective of drug discovery is to identify chemical compounds that possess specific pharmaceutical properties toward a binding target. Existing large language models (LLMS) can achieve high token matching scores in terms of likelihood for molecule generation. However, relying solely on LLM decoding often results in the generation of molecules that are either invalid due to a single misused token, or suboptimal due to unbalanced exploration and exploitation as a consequence of the LLMs prior experience. Here we propose ERP, Entropy-Reinforced Planning for Transformer Decoding, which employs an entropy-reinforced planning algorithm to enhance the Transformer decoding process and strike a balance between exploitation and exploration. ERP aims to achieve improvements in multiple properties compared to direct sampling from the Transformer. We evaluated ERP on the SARS-CoV-2 virus (3CLPro) and human cancer cell target protein (RTCB) benchmarks and demonstrated that, in both benchmarks, ERP consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art algorithm by 1-5 percent, and baselines by 5-10 percent, respectively. Moreover, such improvement is robust across Transformer models trained with different objectives. Finally, to further illustrate the capabilities of ERP, we tested our algorithm on three code generation benchmarks and outperformed the current state-of-the-art approach as well. Our code is publicly available at:

[251] 2406.07028

Heterogeneous Learning Rate Scheduling for Neural Architecture Search on Long-Tailed Datasets

In this paper, we attempt to address the challenge of applying Neural Architecture Search (NAS) algorithms, specifically the Differentiable Architecture Search (DARTS), to long-tailed datasets where class distribution is highly imbalanced. We observe that traditional re-sampling and re-weighting techniques, which are effective in standard classification tasks, lead to performance degradation when combined with DARTS. To mitigate this, we propose a novel adaptive learning rate scheduling strategy tailored for the architecture parameters of DARTS when integrated with the Bilateral Branch Network (BBN) for handling imbalanced datasets. Our approach dynamically adjusts the learning rate of the architecture parameters based on the training epoch, preventing the disruption of well-trained representations in the later stages of training. Additionally, we explore the impact of branch mixing factors on the algorithm's performance. Through extensive experiments on the CIFAR-10 dataset with an artificially induced long-tailed distribution, we demonstrate that our method achieves comparable accuracy to using DARTS alone. And the experiment results suggest that re-sampling methods inherently harm the performance of the DARTS algorithm. Our findings highlight the importance of careful data augment when applying DNAS to imbalanced learning scenarios.

[252] 2406.07029

Fairness-Aware Meta-Learning via Nash Bargaining

To address issues of group-level fairness in machine learning, it is natural to adjust model parameters based on specific fairness objectives over a sensitive-attributed validation set. Such an adjustment procedure can be cast within a meta-learning framework. However, naive integration of fairness goals via meta-learning can cause hypergradient conflicts for subgroups, resulting in unstable convergence and compromising model performance and fairness. To navigate this issue, we frame the resolution of hypergradient conflicts as a multi-player cooperative bargaining game. We introduce a two-stage meta-learning framework in which the first stage involves the use of a Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) to resolve hypergradient conflicts and steer the model toward the Pareto front, and the second stage optimizes with respect to specific fairness goals. Our method is supported by theoretical results, notably a proof of the NBS for gradient aggregation free from linear independence assumptions, a proof of Pareto improvement, and a proof of monotonic improvement in validation loss. We also show empirical effects across various fairness objectives in six key fairness datasets and two image classification tasks.

[253] 2406.07031

Arbitrary-Order Distributed Finite-Time Differentiator for Multi-Agent Systems

This paper proposes arbitrary-order distributed finite-time differentiator (AODFD) for leader-follower multi-agent systems (MAS) under directed graph by only using relative or absolute output information. By using arbitrary-order distributed finite-time differentiator via relative output information (AODFD-R), each follower agent can obtain the relative output information between itself and leader and the relative output's arbitrary-order derivatives, where the information to be measured is only the local relative output information between each follower agent and its neighboring agents. As a simple extension of AODFD-R, the arbitrary-order distributed finite-time differentiator via absolute output information (AODFD-A) is also given. The finite-time stability of the closed-loop system under AODFD is proved by constructing a Lyapunov function skillfully. Finally, several simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the AODFD.

[254] 2406.07032

RS-DFM: A Remote Sensing Distributed Foundation Model for Diverse Downstream Tasks

Remote sensing lightweight foundation models have achieved notable success in online perception within remote sensing. However, their capabilities are restricted to performing online inference solely based on their own observations and models, thus lacking a comprehensive understanding of large-scale remote sensing scenarios. To overcome this limitation, we propose a Remote Sensing Distributed Foundation Model (RS-DFM) based on generalized information mapping and interaction. This model can realize online collaborative perception across multiple platforms and various downstream tasks by mapping observations into a unified space and implementing a task-agnostic information interaction strategy. Specifically, we leverage the ground-based geometric prior of remote sensing oblique observations to transform the feature mapping from absolute depth estimation to relative depth estimation, thereby enhancing the model's ability to extract generalized features across diverse heights and perspectives. Additionally, we present a dual-branch information compression module to decouple high-frequency and low-frequency feature information, achieving feature-level compression while preserving essential task-agnostic details. In support of our research, we create a multi-task simulation dataset named AirCo-MultiTasks for multi-UAV collaborative observation. We also conduct extensive experiments, including 3D object detection, instance segmentation, and trajectory prediction. The numerous results demonstrate that our RS-DFM achieves state-of-the-art performance across various downstream tasks.

[255] 2406.07034

Improving Multi-hop Logical Reasoning in Knowledge Graphs with Context-Aware Query Representation Learning

Multi-hop logical reasoning on knowledge graphs is a pivotal task in natural language processing, with numerous approaches aiming to answer First-Order Logic (FOL) queries. Recent geometry (e.g., box, cone) and probability (e.g., beta distribution)-based methodologies have effectively addressed complex FOL queries. However, a common challenge across these methods lies in determining accurate geometric bounds or probability parameters for these queries. The challenge arises because existing methods rely on linear sequential operations within their computation graphs, overlooking the logical structure of the query and the relation-induced information that can be gleaned from the relations of the query, which we call the context of the query. To address the problem, we propose a model-agnostic methodology that enhances the effectiveness of existing multi-hop logical reasoning approaches by fully integrating the context of the FOL query graph. Our approach distinctively discerns (1) the structural context inherent to the query structure and (2) the relation-induced context unique to each node in the query graph as delineated in the corresponding knowledge graph. This dual-context paradigm helps nodes within a query graph attain refined internal representations throughout the multi-hop reasoning steps. Through experiments on two datasets, our method consistently enhances the three multi-hop reasoning foundation models, achieving performance improvements of up to 19.5%. Our code is available at

[256] 2406.07036

Paying More Attention to Source Context: Mitigating Unfaithful Translations from Large Language Model

Large language models (LLMs) have showcased impressive multilingual machine translation ability. However, unlike encoder-decoder style models, decoder-only LLMs lack an explicit alignment between source and target contexts. Analyzing contribution scores during generation processes revealed that LLMs can be biased towards previously generated tokens over corresponding source tokens, leading to unfaithful translations. To address this issue, we propose to encourage LLMs to pay more attention to the source context from both source and target perspectives in zeroshot prompting: 1) adjust source context attention weights; 2) suppress irrelevant target prefix influence; Additionally, we propose 3) avoiding over-reliance on the target prefix in instruction tuning. Experimental results from both human-collected unfaithfulness test sets focusing on LLM-generated unfaithful translations and general test sets, verify our methods' effectiveness across multiple language pairs. Further human evaluation shows our method's efficacy in reducing hallucinatory translations and facilitating faithful translation generation.

[257] 2406.07037

PanoSSC: Exploring Monocular Panoptic 3D Scene Reconstruction for Autonomous Driving

Vision-centric occupancy networks, which represent the surrounding environment with uniform voxels with semantics, have become a new trend for safe driving of camera-only autonomous driving perception systems, as they are able to detect obstacles regardless of their shape and occlusion. Modern occupancy networks mainly focus on reconstructing visible voxels from object surfaces with voxel-wise semantic prediction. Usually, they suffer from inconsistent predictions of one object and mixed predictions for adjacent objects. These confusions may harm the safety of downstream planning modules. To this end, we investigate panoptic segmentation on 3D voxel scenarios and propose an instance-aware occupancy network, PanoSSC. We predict foreground objects and backgrounds separately and merge both in post-processing. For foreground instance grouping, we propose a novel 3D instance mask decoder that can efficiently extract individual objects. we unify geometric reconstruction, 3D semantic segmentation, and 3D instance segmentation into PanoSSC framework and propose new metrics for evaluating panoptic voxels. Extensive experiments show that our method achieves competitive results on SemanticKITTI semantic scene completion benchmark.

[258] 2406.07040

Learning EFSM Models with Registers in Guards

This paper presents an active inference method for Extended Finite State Machines, where inputs and outputs are parametrized, and transitions can be conditioned by guards involving input parameters and internal variables called registers. The method applies to (software) systems that cannot be reset, so it learns an EFSM model of the system on a single trace.

[259] 2406.07041

Integrating Domain Knowledge for handling Limited Data in Offline RL

With the ability to learn from static datasets, Offline Reinforcement Learning (RL) emerges as a compelling avenue for real-world applications. However, state-of-the-art offline RL algorithms perform sub-optimally when confronted with limited data confined to specific regions within the state space. The performance degradation is attributed to the inability of offline RL algorithms to learn appropriate actions for rare or unseen observations. This paper proposes a novel domain knowledge-based regularization technique and adaptively refines the initial domain knowledge to considerably boost performance in limited data with partially omitted states. The key insight is that the regularization term mitigates erroneous actions for sparse samples and unobserved states covered by domain knowledge. Empirical evaluations on standard discrete environment datasets demonstrate a substantial average performance increase of at least 27% compared to existing offline RL algorithms operating on limited data.

[260] 2406.07042

EFFOcc: A Minimal Baseline for EFficient Fusion-based 3D Occupancy Network

3D occupancy prediction (Occ) is a rapidly rising challenging perception task in the field of autonomous driving which represents the driving scene as uniformly partitioned 3D voxel grids with semantics. Compared to 3D object detection, grid perception has great advantage of better recognizing irregularly shaped, unknown category, or partially occluded general objects. However, existing 3D occupancy networks (occnets) are both computationally heavy and label-hungry. In terms of model complexity, occnets are commonly composed of heavy Conv3D modules or transformers on the voxel level. In terms of label annotations requirements, occnets are supervised with large-scale expensive dense voxel labels. Model and data inefficiency, caused by excessive network parameters and label annotations requirement, severely hinder the onboard deployment of occnets. This paper proposes an efficient 3d occupancy network (EFFOcc), that targets the minimal network complexity and label requirement while achieving state-of-the-art accuracy. EFFOcc only uses simple 2D operators, and improves Occ accuracy to the state-of-the-art on multiple large-scale benchmarks: Occ3D-nuScenes, Occ3D-Waymo, and OpenOccupancy-nuScenes. On Occ3D-nuScenes benchmark, EFFOcc has only 18.4M parameters, and achieves 50.46 in terms of mean IoU (mIoU), to our knowledge, it is the occnet with minimal parameters compared with related occnets. Moreover, we propose a two-stage active learning strategy to reduce the requirements of labelled data. Active EFFOcc trained with 6\% labelled voxels achieves 47.19 mIoU, which is 95.7% fully supervised performance. The proposed EFFOcc also supports improved vision-only occupancy prediction with the aid of region-decomposed distillation. Code and demo videos will be available at

[261] 2406.07043

1st Place Solution for MeViS Track in CVPR 2024 PVUW Workshop: Motion Expression guided Video Segmentation

Motion Expression guided Video Segmentation (MeViS), as an emerging task, poses many new challenges to the field of referring video object segmentation (RVOS). In this technical report, we investigated and validated the effectiveness of static-dominant data and frame sampling on this challenging setting. Our solution achieves a J&F score of 0.5447 in the competition phase and ranks 1st in the MeViS track of the PVUW Challenge. The code is available at:

[262] 2406.07044

On inertial Levenberg-Marquardt type methods for solving nonlinear ill-posed operator equations

In these notes we propose and analyze an inertial type method for obtaining stable approximate solutions to nonlinear ill-posed operator equations. The method is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) iteration. The main obtained results are: monotonicity and convergence for exact data, stability and semi-convergence for noisy data. Regarding numerical experiments we consider: i) a parameter identification problem in elliptic PDEs, ii) a parameter identification problem in machine learning; the computational efficiency of the proposed method is compared with canonical implementations of the LM method.

[263] 2406.07045

Research on High-precision Detection Technology for Un-derground Space Information Data

The quality of underground space information data has become a major problem endangering the safety of underground space. After research and analysis, we found that the current high accuracy information data remote detection methods are limited to the detection of overground spaces objects, and are not applicable to the detection of various information data in underground space. In this paper, we analyze the spectral properties of the fractional-order differential (FDO) operator, and establish mathematical model of remote transmission and high-precision detection of information data, which realizes the functions of high-precision and remote detection of information data. By fusing the information data to detect the mathematical model in a long distance and with high accuracy, A mathematical model has been established to improve the quality of underground spatial information data. Through the application in engineering practice, the effectiveness of this method in underground space information data detection is verified.

[264] 2406.07048

GPU-Accelerated Optimization-Based Collision Avoidance

This paper proposes a GPU-accelerated optimization framework for collision avoidance problems where the controlled objects and the obstacles can be modeled as the finite union of convex polyhedra. A novel collision avoidance constraint is proposed based on scale-based collision detection and the strong duality of convex optimization. Under this constraint, the high-dimensional non-convex optimization problems of collision avoidance can be decomposed into several low-dimensional quadratic programmings (QPs) following the paradigm of alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Furthermore, these low-dimensional QPs can be solved parallel with GPUs, significantly reducing computational time. High-fidelity simulations are conducted to validate the proposed method's effectiveness and practicality.

[265] 2406.07049

GridPE: Unifying Positional Encoding in Transformers with a Grid Cell-Inspired Framework

Understanding spatial location and relationships is a fundamental capability for modern artificial intelligence systems. Insights from human spatial cognition provide valuable guidance in this domain. Recent neuroscientific discoveries have highlighted the role of grid cells as a fundamental neural component for spatial representation, including distance computation, path integration, and scale discernment. In this paper, we introduce a novel positional encoding scheme inspired by Fourier analysis and the latest findings in computational neuroscience regarding grid cells. Assuming that grid cells encode spatial position through a summation of Fourier basis functions, we demonstrate the translational invariance of the grid representation during inner product calculations. Additionally, we derive an optimal grid scale ratio for multi-dimensional Euclidean spaces based on principles of biological efficiency. Utilizing these computational principles, we have developed a **Grid**-cell inspired **Positional Encoding** technique, termed **GridPE**, for encoding locations within high-dimensional spaces. We integrated GridPE into the Pyramid Vision Transformer architecture. Our theoretical analysis shows that GridPE provides a unifying framework for positional encoding in arbitrary high-dimensional spaces. Experimental results demonstrate that GridPE significantly enhances the performance of transformers, underscoring the importance of incorporating neuroscientific insights into the design of artificial intelligence systems.

[266] 2406.07050

DualMamba: A Lightweight Spectral-Spatial Mamba-Convolution Network for Hyperspectral Image Classification

The effectiveness and efficiency of modeling complex spectral-spatial relations are both crucial for Hyperspectral image (HSI) classification. Most existing methods based on CNNs and transformers still suffer from heavy computational burdens and have room for improvement in capturing the global-local spectral-spatial feature representation. To this end, we propose a novel lightweight parallel design called lightweight dual-stream Mamba-convolution network (DualMamba) for HSI classification. Specifically, a parallel lightweight Mamba and CNN block are first developed to extract global and local spectral-spatial features. First, the cross-attention spectral-spatial Mamba module is proposed to leverage the global modeling of Mamba at linear complexity. Within this module, dynamic positional embedding is designed to enhance the spatial location information of visual sequences. The lightweight spectral/spatial Mamba blocks comprise an efficient scanning strategy and a lightweight Mamba design to efficiently extract global spectral-spatial features. And the cross-attention spectral-spatial fusion is designed to learn cross-correlation and fuse spectral-spatial features. Second, the lightweight spectral-spatial residual convolution module is proposed with lightweight spectral and spatial branches to extract local spectral-spatial features through residual learning. Finally, the adaptive global-local fusion is proposed to dynamically combine global Mamba features and local convolution features for a global-local spectral-spatial representation. Compared with state-of-the-art HSI classification methods, experimental results demonstrate that DualMamba achieves significant classification accuracy on three public HSI datasets and a superior reduction in model parameters and floating point operations (FLOPs).

[267] 2406.07053

TelecomRAG: Taming Telecom Standards with Retrieval Augmented Generation and LLMs

Large Language Models (LLMs) have immense potential to transform the telecommunications industry. They could help professionals understand complex standards, generate code, and accelerate development. However, traditional LLMs struggle with the precision and source verification essential for telecom work. To address this, specialized LLM-based solutions tailored to telecommunication standards are needed. Retrieval-augmented generation (RAG) offers a way to create precise, fact-based answers. This paper proposes TelecomRAG, a framework for a Telecommunication Standards Assistant that provides accurate, detailed, and verifiable responses. Our implementation, using a knowledge base built from 3GPP Release 16 and Release 18 specification documents, demonstrates how this assistant surpasses generic LLMs, offering superior accuracy, technical depth, and verifiability, and thus significant value to the telecommunications field.

[268] 2406.07054

CoEvol: Constructing Better Responses for Instruction Finetuning through Multi-Agent Cooperation

In recent years, instruction fine-tuning (IFT) on large language models (LLMs) has garnered considerable attention to enhance model performance on unseen tasks. Attempts have been made on automatic construction and effective selection for IFT data. However, we posit that previous methods have not fully harnessed the potential of LLMs for enhancing data quality. The responses within IFT data could be further enhanced by leveraging the capabilities of LLMs themselves. In this paper, we propose CoEvol, an LLM-based multi-agent cooperation framework for the improvement of responses to instructions. To effectively refine the responses, we develop an iterative framework following a debate-advise-edit-judge paradigm. A two-stage multi-agent debate strategy is further devised to ensure the diversity and reliability of editing suggestions within the framework. Empirically, models equipped with CoEvol outperform competitive baselines evaluated by MT-Bench and AlpacaEval, demonstrating its effectiveness in enhancing instruction-following capabilities for LLMs.

[269] 2406.07056

Effectively Compress KV Heads for LLM

The advent of pre-trained large language models (LLMs) has revolutionized various natural language processing tasks. These models predominantly employ an auto-regressive decoding mechanism that utilizes Key-Value (KV) caches to eliminate redundant calculations for previous tokens. Nevertheless, as context lengths and batch sizes increase, the linear expansion in memory footprint of KV caches becomes a key bottleneck of LLM deployment, which decreases generation speeds significantly. To mitigate this issue, previous techniques like multi-query attention (MQA) and grouped-query attention (GQA) have been developed, in order to reduce KV heads to accelerate inference with comparable accuracy to multi-head attention (MHA). Despite their effectiveness, existing strategies for compressing MHA often overlook the intrinsic properties of the KV caches. In this work, we explore the low-rank characteristics of the KV caches and propose a novel approach for compressing KV heads. In particular, we carefully optimize the MHA-to-GQA transformation to minimize compression error, and to remain compatible with rotary position embeddings (RoPE), we also introduce specialized strategies for key caches with RoPE. We demonstrate that our method can compress half or even three-quarters of KV heads while maintaining performance comparable to the original LLMs, which presents a promising direction for more efficient LLM deployment in resource-constrained environments.

[270] 2406.07057

Benchmarking Trustworthiness of Multimodal Large Language Models: A Comprehensive Study

Despite the superior capabilities of Multimodal Large Language Models (MLLMs) across diverse tasks, they still face significant trustworthiness challenges. Yet, current literature on the assessment of trustworthy MLLMs remains limited, lacking a holistic evaluation to offer thorough insights into future improvements. In this work, we establish MultiTrust, the first comprehensive and unified benchmark on the trustworthiness of MLLMs across five primary aspects: truthfulness, safety, robustness, fairness, and privacy. Our benchmark employs a rigorous evaluation strategy that addresses both multimodal risks and cross-modal impacts, encompassing 32 diverse tasks with self-curated datasets. Extensive experiments with 21 modern MLLMs reveal some previously unexplored trustworthiness issues and risks, highlighting the complexities introduced by the multimodality and underscoring the necessity for advanced methodologies to enhance their reliability. For instance, typical proprietary models still struggle with the perception of visually confusing images and are vulnerable to multimodal jailbreaking and adversarial attacks; MLLMs are more inclined to disclose privacy in text and reveal ideological and cultural biases even when paired with irrelevant images in inference, indicating that the multimodality amplifies the internal risks from base LLMs. Additionally, we release a scalable toolbox for standardized trustworthiness research, aiming to facilitate future advancements in this important field. Code and resources are publicly available at:

[271] 2406.07060

Reading Miscue Detection in Primary School through Automatic Speech Recognition

Automatic reading diagnosis systems can benefit both teachers for more efficient scoring of reading exercises and students for accessing reading exercises with feedback more easily. However, there are limited studies on Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) for child speech in languages other than English, and limited research on ASR-based reading diagnosis systems. This study investigates how efficiently state-of-the-art (SOTA) pretrained ASR models recognize Dutch native children speech and manage to detect reading miscues. We found that Hubert Large finetuned on Dutch speech achieves SOTA phoneme-level child speech recognition (PER at 23.1\%), while Whisper (Faster Whisper Large-v2) achieves SOTA word-level performance (WER at 9.8\%). Our findings suggest that Wav2Vec2 Large and Whisper are the two best ASR models for reading miscue detection. Specifically, Wav2Vec2 Large shows the highest recall at 0.83, whereas Whisper exhibits the highest precision at 0.52 and an F1 score of 0.52.

[272] 2406.07065

Optimal Gait Design for a Soft Quadruped Robot via Multi-fidelity Bayesian Optimization

This study focuses on the locomotion capability improvement in a tendon-driven soft quadruped robot through an online adaptive learning approach. Leveraging the inverse kinematics model of the soft quadruped robot, we employ a central pattern generator to design a parametric gait pattern, and use Bayesian optimization (BO) to find the optimal parameters. Further, to address the challenges of modeling discrepancies, we implement a multi-fidelity BO approach, combining data from both simulation and physical experiments throughout training and optimization. This strategy enables the adaptive refinement of the gait pattern and ensures a smooth transition from simulation to real-world deployment for the controller. Moreover, we integrate a computational task off-loading architecture by edge computing, which reduces the onboard computational and memory overhead, to improve real-time control performance and facilitate an effective online learning process. The proposed approach successfully achieves optimal walking gait design for physical deployment with high efficiency, effectively addressing challenges related to the reality gap in soft robotics.

[273] 2406.07067

TIM: Temporal Interaction Model in Notification System

Modern mobile applications heavily rely on the notification system to acquire daily active users and enhance user engagement. Being able to proactively reach users, the system has to decide when to send notifications to users. Although many researchers have studied optimizing the timing of sending notifications, they only utilized users' contextual features, without modeling users' behavior patterns. Additionally, these efforts only focus on individual notifications, and there is a lack of studies on optimizing the holistic timing of multiple notifications within a period. To bridge these gaps, we propose the Temporal Interaction Model (TIM), which models users' behavior patterns by estimating CTR in every time slot over a day in our short video application Kuaishou. TIM leverages long-term user historical interaction sequence features such as notification receipts, clicks, watch time and effective views, and employs a temporal attention unit (TAU) to extract user behavior patterns. Moreover, we provide an elegant strategy of holistic notifications send time control to improve user engagement while minimizing disruption. We evaluate the effectiveness of TIM through offline experiments and online A/B tests. The results indicate that TIM is a reliable tool for forecasting user behavior, leading to a remarkable enhancement in user engagement without causing undue disturbance.

[274] 2406.07069

Optimal Gait Control for a Tendon-driven Soft Quadruped Robot by Model-based Reinforcement Learning

This study presents an innovative approach to optimal gait control for a soft quadruped robot enabled by four Compressible Tendon-driven Soft Actuators (CTSAs). Improving our previous studies of using model-free reinforcement learning for gait control, we employ model-based reinforcement learning (MBRL) to further enhance the performance of the gait controller. Compared to rigid robots, the proposed soft quadruped robot has better safety, less weight, and a simpler mechanism for fabrication and control. However, the primary challenge lies in developing sophisticated control algorithms to attain optimal gait control for fast and stable locomotion. The research employs a multi-stage methodology, including state space restriction, data-driven model training, and reinforcement learning algorithm development. Compared to benchmark methods, the proposed MBRL algorithm, combined with post-training, significantly improves the efficiency and performance of gait control policies. The developed policy is both robust and adaptable to the robot's deformable morphology. The study concludes by highlighting the practical applicability of these findings in real-world scenarios.

[275] 2406.07070

HalluDial: A Large-Scale Benchmark for Automatic Dialogue-Level Hallucination Evaluation

Large Language Models (LLMs) have significantly advanced the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP), achieving remarkable performance across diverse tasks and enabling widespread real-world applications. However, LLMs are prone to hallucination, generating content that either conflicts with established knowledge or is unfaithful to the original sources. Existing hallucination benchmarks primarily focus on sentence- or passage-level hallucination detection, neglecting dialogue-level evaluation, hallucination localization, and rationale provision. They also predominantly target factuality hallucinations while underestimating faithfulness hallucinations, often relying on labor-intensive or non-specialized evaluators. To address these limitations, we propose HalluDial, the first comprehensive large-scale benchmark for automatic dialogue-level hallucination evaluation. HalluDial encompasses both spontaneous and induced hallucination scenarios, covering factuality and faithfulness hallucinations. The benchmark includes 4,094 dialogues with a total of 146,856 samples. Leveraging HalluDial, we conduct a comprehensive meta-evaluation of LLMs' hallucination evaluation capabilities in information-seeking dialogues and introduce a specialized judge language model, HalluJudge. The high data quality of HalluDial enables HalluJudge to achieve superior or competitive performance in hallucination evaluation, facilitating the automatic assessment of dialogue-level hallucinations in LLMs and providing valuable insights into this phenomenon. The dataset and the code are available at

[276] 2406.07071

Is Stateful Fuzzing Really Challenging?

Fuzzing has been proven extremely effective in finding vulnerabilities in software. When it comes to fuzz stateless systems, analysts have no doubts about the choice to make. In fact, among the plethora of stateless fuzzers devised in the last 20 years, AFL (with its descendants AFL++ and LibAFL) stood up for its effectiveness, speed and ability to find bugs. On the other hand, when dealing with stateful systems, it is not clear what is the best tool to use. In fact, the research community struggles to devise (and benchmark) effective and generic stateful fuzzers. In this short paper, we discuss the reasons that make stateful fuzzers difficult to devise and benchmark.

[277] 2406.07073

Adaptive Control: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

Adaptive control provides techniques for adjusting control parameters in real time to maintain system performance despite unknown or changing process parameters. These methods use real data to tune controllers and adjust plant models or controller parameters. The field has progressed significantly since the 1970s, helped by digital computers. Early applications offered essential feedback, and theoretical advances solved many basic problems. This book comprehensively treats adaptive control, guiding readers from basic problems to analytical solutions with practical applications. Presenting a unified view is challenging due to various design steps and applications. However, a coherent presentation of basic techniques is now possible. The book uses a discrete-time approach to reflect the role of digital computers and shares practical experiences and understanding of different control designs. Mathematical aspects of synthesizing and analyzing algorithms are emphasized, though they alone may not solve practical problems. The book includes applications of control techniques but stresses that a solid mathematical understanding is crucial for creatively applying them to new challenges. Mathematical synthesis and analysis are highlighted, but they must be supplemented with practical problem-solving and algorithm modifications for specific applications.

[278] 2406.07074

A Neck Orthosis with Multi-Directional Variable Stiffness for Persons with Dropped Head Syndrome

Dropped Head Syndrome (DHS) causes a passively correctable neck deformation. Currently, there is no wearable orthopedic neck brace to fulfill the needs of persons suffering from DHS. Related works have made progress in this area by creating mobile neck braces that provide head support to mitigate deformation while permitting neck mobility, which enhances user-perceived comfort and quality of life. Specifically, passive designs show great potential for fully functional devices in the short term due to their inherent simplicity and compactness, although achieving suitable support presents some challenges. This work introduces a novel compliant mechanism that provides non-restrictive adjustable support for the neck's anterior and posterior flexion movements while enabling its unconstrained free rotation. The results from the experiments on non-affected persons suggest that the device provides the proposed adjustable support that unloads the muscle groups involved in supporting the head without overloading the antagonist muscle groups. Simultaneously, it was verified that the free rotation is achieved regardless of the stiffness configuration of the device.

[279] 2406.07077

Meta-Backscatter: A New ISAC Paradigm for Battery-Free Internet of Things

The meta-material sensor has been regarded as a next-generation sensing technology for the battery-free Internet of Things (IoT) due to its battery-free characteristic and improved sensing performance. The meta-material sensors function as backscatter tags that change their reflection coefficients with the conditions of sensing targets such as temperature and gas concentration, allowing transceivers to perform sensing by analyzing the reflected signals from the sensors. Simultaneously, the sensors also function as environmental scatterers, creating additional signal paths to enhance communication performance. Therefore, the meta-material sensor potentially provides a new paradigm of Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) for the battery-free IoT system. In this article, we first propose a Meta-Backscatter system that utilizes meta-material sensors to achieve diverse sensing functionalities and improved communication performance. We begin with the introduction of the metamaterial sensor and further elaborate on the Meta-Backscatter system. Subsequently, we present optimization strategies for meta-material sensors, transmitters, and receivers to strike a balance between sensing and communication. Furthermore, this article provides a case study of the system and examines the feasibility and trade-off through the simulation results. Finally, potential extensions of the system and their related research challenges are addressed.

[280] 2406.07078

Unified Modeling Enhanced Multimodal Learning for Precision Neuro-Oncology

Multimodal learning, integrating histology images and genomics, promises to enhance precision oncology with comprehensive views at microscopic and molecular levels. However, existing methods may not sufficiently model the shared or complementary information for more effective integration. In this study, we introduce a Unified Modeling Enhanced Multimodal Learning (UMEML) framework that employs a hierarchical attention structure to effectively leverage shared and complementary features of both modalities of histology and genomics. Specifically, to mitigate unimodal bias from modality imbalance, we utilize a query-based cross-attention mechanism for prototype clustering in the pathology encoder. Our prototype assignment and modularity strategy are designed to align shared features and minimizes modality gaps. An additional registration mechanism with learnable tokens is introduced to enhance cross-modal feature integration and robustness in multimodal unified modeling. Our experiments demonstrate that our method surpasses previous state-of-the-art approaches in glioma diagnosis and prognosis tasks, underscoring its superiority in precision neuro-Oncology.

[281] 2406.07080

DARA: Decomposition-Alignment-Reasoning Autonomous Language Agent for Question Answering over Knowledge Graphs

Answering Questions over Knowledge Graphs (KGQA) is key to well-functioning autonomous language agents in various real-life applications. To improve the neural-symbolic reasoning capabilities of language agents powered by Large Language Models (LLMs) in KGQA, we propose the DecompositionAlignment-Reasoning Agent (DARA) framework. DARA effectively parses questions into formal queries through a dual mechanism: high-level iterative task decomposition and low-level task grounding. Importantly, DARA can be efficiently trained with a small number of high-quality reasoning trajectories. Our experimental results demonstrate that DARA fine-tuned on LLMs (e.g. Llama-2-7B, Mistral) outperforms both in-context learning-based agents with GPT-4 and alternative fine-tuned agents, across different benchmarks in zero-shot evaluation, making such models more accessible for real-life applications. We also show that DARA attains performance comparable to state-of-the-art enumerating-and-ranking-based methods for KGQA.

[282] 2406.07081

Efficiently Exploring Large Language Models for Document-Level Machine Translation with In-context Learning

Large language models (LLMs) exhibit outstanding performance in machine translation via in-context learning. In contrast to sentence-level translation, document-level translation (DOCMT) by LLMs based on in-context learning faces two major challenges: firstly, document translations generated by LLMs are often incoherent; secondly, the length of demonstration for in-context learning is usually limited. To address these issues, we propose a Context-Aware Prompting method (CAP), which enables LLMs to generate more accurate, cohesive, and coherent translations via in-context learning. CAP takes into account multi-level attention, selects the most relevant sentences to the current one as context, and then generates a summary from these collected sentences. Subsequently, sentences most similar to the summary are retrieved from the datastore as demonstrations, which effectively guide LLMs in generating cohesive and coherent translations. We conduct extensive experiments across various DOCMT tasks, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, particularly in zero pronoun translation (ZPT) and literary translation tasks.

[283] 2406.07083

Efficient Mixture Learning in Black-Box Variational Inference

Mixture variational distributions in black box variational inference (BBVI) have demonstrated impressive results in challenging density estimation tasks. However, currently scaling the number of mixture components can lead to a linear increase in the number of learnable parameters and a quadratic increase in inference time due to the evaluation of the evidence lower bound (ELBO). Our two key contributions address these limitations. First, we introduce the novel Multiple Importance Sampling Variational Autoencoder (MISVAE), which amortizes the mapping from input to mixture-parameter space using one-hot encodings. Fortunately, with MISVAE, each additional mixture component incurs a negligible increase in network parameters. Second, we construct two new estimators of the ELBO for mixtures in BBVI, enabling a tremendous reduction in inference time with marginal or even improved impact on performance. Collectively, our contributions enable scalability to hundreds of mixture components and provide superior estimation performance in shorter time, with fewer network parameters compared to previous Mixture VAEs. Experimenting with MISVAE, we achieve astonishing, SOTA results on MNIST. Furthermore, we empirically validate our estimators in other BBVI settings, including Bayesian phylogenetic inference, where we improve inference times for the SOTA mixture model on eight data sets.

[284] 2406.07084

Leveraging Large Language Models for Efficient Failure Analysis in Game Development

In games, and more generally in the field of software development, early detection of bugs is vital to maintain a high quality of the final product. Automated tests are a powerful tool that can catch a problem earlier in development by executing periodically. As an example, when new code is submitted to the code base, a new automated test verifies these changes. However, identifying the specific change responsible for a test failure becomes harder when dealing with batches of changes -- especially in the case of a large-scale project such as a AAA game, where thousands of people contribute to a single code base. This paper proposes a new approach to automatically identify which change in the code caused a test to fail. The method leverages Large Language Models (LLMs) to associate error messages with the corresponding code changes causing the failure. We investigate the effectiveness of our approach with quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Our approach reaches an accuracy of 71% in our newly created dataset, which comprises issues reported by developers at EA over a period of one year. We further evaluated our model through a user study to assess the utility and usability of the tool from a developer perspective, resulting in a significant reduction in time -- up to 60% -- spent investigating issues.

[285] 2406.07085

CAT: Coordinating Anatomical-Textual Prompts for Multi-Organ and Tumor Segmentation

Existing promptable segmentation methods in the medical imaging field primarily consider either textual or visual prompts to segment relevant objects, yet they often fall short when addressing anomalies in medical images, like tumors, which may vary greatly in shape, size, and appearance. Recognizing the complexity of medical scenarios and the limitations of textual or visual prompts, we propose a novel dual-prompt schema that leverages the complementary strengths of visual and textual prompts for segmenting various organs and tumors. Specifically, we introduce CAT, an innovative model that Coordinates Anatomical prompts derived from 3D cropped images with Textual prompts enriched by medical domain knowledge. The model architecture adopts a general query-based design, where prompt queries facilitate segmentation queries for mask prediction. To synergize two types of prompts within a unified framework, we implement a ShareRefiner, which refines both segmentation and prompt queries while disentangling the two types of prompts. Trained on a consortium of 10 public CT datasets, CAT demonstrates superior performance in multiple segmentation tasks. Further validation on a specialized in-house dataset reveals the remarkable capacity of segmenting tumors across multiple cancer stages. This approach confirms that coordinating multimodal prompts is a promising avenue for addressing complex scenarios in the medical domain.

[286] 2406.07087

Edge Rendering Architecture for multiuser XR Experiences and E2E Performance Assessment

Holographic communications are gaining ground among emerging eXtended-Reality (XR) applications due to their potential to revolutionize human communication. However, these technologies are characterized by higher requirements in terms of Quality of Service (QoS), such as high transmission data rates, very low latency, and high computation capacity, challenging current achievable capabilities. In this context, computation offloading techniques are being investigated, where resource-intensive computational tasks, like rendering XR experiences, are shifted from user devices to a separate processor, specifically an Edge Computing instance. This paper introduces an Edge Rendering architecture for multiuser XR experiences, implements it on top of widely employed XR and Web technologies, and proposes a method based on image and audio processing to evaluate its performance in terms of end-to-end media streaming latency, inter-device, and intra-media synchronization when employing different access networks.

[287] 2406.07088

The Influence of Placement on Transmission in Distributed Computing of Boolean Functions

In this paper, we explore a distributed setting, where a user seeks to compute a linearly-separable Boolean function of degree $M$ from $N$ servers, each with a cache size $M$. Exploiting the fundamental concepts of sensitivity and influences of Boolean functions, we devise a novel approach to capture the interplay between dataset placement across servers and server transmissions and to determine the optimal solution for dataset placement that minimizes the communication cost. In particular, we showcase the achievability of the minimum average joint sensitivity, $\frac{N}{2^{M-1}}$, as a measure for the communication cost.

[288] 2406.07089

RS-Agent: Automating Remote Sensing Tasks through Intelligent Agents

An increasing number of models have achieved great performance in remote sensing tasks with the recent development of Large Language Models (LLMs) and Visual Language Models (VLMs). However, these models are constrained to basic vision and language instruction-tuning tasks, facing challenges in complex remote sensing applications. Additionally, these models lack specialized expertise in professional domains. To address these limitations, we propose a LLM-driven remote sensing intelligent agent named RS-Agent. Firstly, RS-Agent is powered by a large language model (LLM) that acts as its "Central Controller," enabling it to understand and respond to various problems intelligently. Secondly, our RS-Agent integrates many high-performance remote sensing image processing tools, facilitating multi-tool and multi-turn conversations. Thirdly, our RS-Agent can answer professional questions by leveraging robust knowledge documents. We conducted experiments using several datasets, e.g., RSSDIVCS, RSVQA, and DOTAv1. The experimental results demonstrate that our RS-Agent delivers outstanding performance in many tasks, i.e., scene classification, visual question answering, and object counting tasks.

[289] 2406.07091

AutoTVG: A New Vision-language Pre-training Paradigm for Temporal Video Grounding

Temporal Video Grounding (TVG) aims to localize a moment from an untrimmed video given the language description. Since the annotation of TVG is labor-intensive, TVG under limited supervision has accepted attention in recent years. The great success of vision-language pre-training guides TVG to follow the traditional "pre-training + fine-tuning" paradigm, however, the pre-training process would suffer from a lack of temporal modeling and fine-grained alignment due to the difference of data nature between pre-train and test. Besides, the large gap between pretext and downstream tasks makes zero-shot testing impossible for the pre-trained model. To avoid the drawbacks of the traditional paradigm, we propose AutoTVG, a new vision-language pre-training paradigm for TVG that enables the model to learn semantic alignment and boundary regression from automatically annotated untrimmed videos. To be specific, AutoTVG consists of a novel Captioned Moment Generation (CMG) module to generate captioned moments from untrimmed videos, and TVGNet with a regression head to predict localization results. Experimental results on Charades-STA and ActivityNet Captions show that, regarding zero-shot temporal video grounding, AutoTVG achieves highly competitive performance with in-distribution methods under out-of-distribution testing, and is superior to existing pre-training frameworks with much less training data.

[290] 2406.07094

Grapevine Disease Prediction Using Climate Variables from Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Imagery via a Transformer Model

Early detection and management of grapevine diseases are important in pursuing sustainable viticulture. This paper introduces a novel framework leveraging the TabPFN model to forecast blockwise grapevine diseases using climate variables from multi-sensor remote sensing imagery. By integrating advanced machine learning techniques with detailed environmental data, our approach significantly enhances the accuracy and efficiency of disease prediction in vineyards. The TabPFN model's experimental evaluations showcase comparable performance to traditional gradient-boosted decision trees, such as XGBoost, CatBoost, and LightGBM. The model's capability to process complex data and provide per-pixel disease-affecting probabilities enables precise, targeted interventions, contributing to more sustainable disease management practices. Our findings underscore the transformative potential of combining Transformer models with remote sensing data in precision agriculture, offering a scalable solution for improving crop health and productivity while reducing environmental impact.

[291] 2406.07095

Data Complexity in Expressive Description Logics With Path Expressions

We investigate the data complexity of the satisfiability problem for the very expressive description logic ZOIQ (a.k.a. ALCHb Self reg OIQ) over quasi-forests and establish its NP-completeness. This completes the data complexity landscape for decidable fragments of ZOIQ, and reproves known results on decidable fragments of OWL2 (SR family). Using the same technique, we establish coNEXPTIME-completeness (w.r.t. the combined complexity) of the entailment problem of rooted queries in ZIQ.

[292] 2406.07098

Guiding Catalogue Enrichment with User Queries

Techniques for knowledge graph (KGs) enrichment have been increasingly crucial for commercial applications that rely on evolving product catalogues. However, because of the huge search space of potential enrichment, predictions from KG completion (KGC) methods suffer from low precision, making them unreliable for real-world catalogues. Moreover, candidate facts for enrichment have varied relevance to users. While making correct predictions for incomplete triplets in KGs has been the main focus of KGC method, the relevance of when to apply such predictions has been neglected. Motivated by the product search use case, we address the angle of generating relevant completion for a catalogue using user search behaviour and the users property association with a product. In this paper, we present our intuition for identifying enrichable data points and use general-purpose KGs to show-case the performance benefits. In particular, we extract entity-predicate pairs from user queries, which are more likely to be correct and relevant, and use these pairs to guide the prediction of KGC methods. We assess our method on two popular encyclopedia KGs, DBPedia and YAGO 4. Our results from both automatic and human evaluations show that query guidance can significantly improve the correctness and relevance of prediction.

[293] 2406.07100

D-GRIL: End-to-End Topological Learning with 2-parameter Persistence

End-to-end topological learning using 1-parameter persistence is well-known. We show that the framework can be enhanced using 2-parameter persistence by adopting a recently introduced 2-parameter persistence based vectorization technique called GRIL. We establish a theoretical foundation of differentiating GRIL producing D-GRIL. We show that D-GRIL can be used to learn a bifiltration function on standard benchmark graph datasets. Further, we exhibit that this framework can be applied in the context of bio-activity prediction in drug discovery.

[294] 2406.07102

An efficient active-stress electromechanical isogeometric shell model for muscular thin film simulations

We propose an isogeometric approach to model the deformation of active thin films using layered, nonlinear, Kirchhoff Love shells. Isogeometric Collocation and Galerkin formulations are employed to discretize the electrophysiological and mechanical sub-problems, respectively, with the possibility to adopt different element and time-step sizes. Numerical tests illustrate the capabilities of the active stress based approach to effectively simulate the contraction of thin films in both quasi-static and dynamic conditions.

[295] 2406.07107

Agnostic Sharpness-Aware Minimization

Sharpness-aware minimization (SAM) has been instrumental in improving deep neural network training by minimizing both the training loss and the sharpness of the loss landscape, leading the model into flatter minima that are associated with better generalization properties. In another aspect, Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning (MAML) is a framework designed to improve the adaptability of models. MAML optimizes a set of meta-models that are specifically tailored for quick adaptation to multiple tasks with minimal fine-tuning steps and can generalize well with limited data. In this work, we explore the connection between SAM and MAML, particularly in terms of enhancing model generalization. We introduce Agnostic-SAM, a novel approach that combines the principles of both SAM and MAML. Agnostic-SAM adapts the core idea of SAM by optimizing the model towards wider local minima using training data, while concurrently maintaining low loss values on validation data. By doing so, it seeks flatter minima that are not only robust to small perturbations but also less vulnerable to data distributional shift problems. Our experimental results demonstrate that Agnostic-SAM significantly improves generalization over baselines across a range of datasets and under challenging conditions such as noisy labels and data limitation.

[296] 2406.07108

On the power of adaption and randomization

We present bounds between different widths of convex subsets of Banach spaces, including Gelfand and Bernstein widths. Using this, and some relations between widths and minimal errors, we obtain bounds on the maximal gain of adaptive and randomized algorithms over non-adaptive, deterministic ones for approximating linear operators on convex sets. Our results also apply to the approximation of embeddings into the space of bounded functions based on function evaluations, i.e., to sampling recovery in the uniform norm. We conclude with a list of open problems.

[297] 2406.07109

Solving singular generalized eigenvalue problems. Part III: structure preservation

In Parts I and II of this series of papers, three new methods for the computation of eigenvalues of singular pencils were developed: rank-completing perturbations, rank-projections, and augmentation. It was observed that a straightforward structure-preserving adaption for symmetric pencils was not possible and it was left as an open question how to address this challenge. In this Part III, it is shown how the observed issue can be circumvented by using Hermitian perturbations. This leads to structure-preserving analogues of the three techniques from Parts I and II for Hermitian pencils (including real symmetric pencils) as well as for related structures. It is an important feature of these methods that the sign characteristic of the given pencil is preserved. As an application, it is shown that the resulting methods can be used to solve systems of bivariate polynomials.

[298] 2406.07111

NeRSP: Neural 3D Reconstruction for Reflective Objects with Sparse Polarized Images

We present NeRSP, a Neural 3D reconstruction technique for Reflective surfaces with Sparse Polarized images. Reflective surface reconstruction is extremely challenging as specular reflections are view-dependent and thus violate the multiview consistency for multiview stereo. On the other hand, sparse image inputs, as a practical capture setting, commonly cause incomplete or distorted results due to the lack of correspondence matching. This paper jointly handles the challenges from sparse inputs and reflective surfaces by leveraging polarized images. We derive photometric and geometric cues from the polarimetric image formation model and multiview azimuth consistency, which jointly optimize the surface geometry modeled via implicit neural representation. Based on the experiments on our synthetic and real datasets, we achieve the state-of-the-art surface reconstruction results with only 6 views as input.

[299] 2406.07112

Linear Codes from Projective Linear Anticodes Revisited

An anticode ${\bf C} \subset {\bf F}_q^n$ with the diameter $\delta$ is a code in ${\bf F}_q^n$ such that the distance between any two distinct codewords in ${\bf C}$ is at most $\delta$. The famous Erd\"{o}s-Kleitman bound for a binary anticode ${\bf C}$ of the length $n$ and the diameter $\delta$ asserts that $$|{\bf C}| \leq \Sigma_{i=0}^{\frac{\delta}{2}} \displaystyle{n \choose i}.$$ In this paper, we give an antiGriesmer bound for $q$-ary projective linear anticodes, which is stronger than the above Erd\"{o}s-Kleitman bound for binary anticodes. The antiGriesmer bound is a lower bound on diameters of projective linear anticodes. From some known projective linear anticodes, we construct some linear codes with optimal or near optimal minimum distances. A complementary theorem constructing infinitely many new projective linear $(t+1)$-weight code from a known $t$-weight linear code is presented. Then many new optimal or almost optimal few-weight linear codes are given and their weight distributions are determined. As a by-product, we also construct several infinite families of three-weight binary linear codes, which lead to $l$-strongly regular graphs for each odd integer $l \geq 3$.

[300] 2406.07113

Beyond Bare Queries: Open-Vocabulary Object Retrieval with 3D Scene Graph

Locating objects referred to in natural language poses a significant challenge for autonomous agents. Existing CLIP-based open-vocabulary methods successfully perform 3D object retrieval with simple (bare) queries but cannot cope with ambiguous descriptions that demand an understanding of object relations. To tackle this problem, we propose a modular approach called BBQ (Beyond Bare Queries), which constructs 3D scene spatial graph representation with metric edges and utilizes a large language model as a human-to-agent interface through our deductive scene reasoning algorithm. BBQ employs robust DINO-powered associations to form 3D objects, an advanced raycasting algorithm to project them to 2D, and a vision-language model to describe them as graph nodes. On Replica and ScanNet datasets, we show that the designed method accurately constructs 3D object-centric maps. We have demonstrated that their quality takes a leading place for open-vocabulary 3D semantic segmentation against other zero-shot methods. Also, we show that leveraging spatial relations is especially effective for scenes containing multiple entities of the same semantic class. On Sr3D and Nr3D benchmarks, our deductive approach demonstrates a significant improvement, enabling retrieving objects by complex queries compared to other state-of-the-art methods. Considering our design solutions, we achieved a processing speed approximately x3 times faster than the closest analog. This promising performance enables our approach for usage in applied intelligent robotics projects. We make the code publicly available at

[301] 2406.07114

Unlocking the Potential of the Metaverse for Innovative and Immersive Digital Care

The Metaverse, a persistent, immersive virtual environment, has the immense potential to revolutionize healthcare by transforming patient care, medical education, and research. This paper explores the applications, benefits, and challenges associated with this transformative technology, highlighting its ability to improve patient engagement, communication, access to information, and health outcomes. The paper also examines how the analysis of Metaverse data using machine learning techniques can unlock insights to further enhance healthcare applications. The discussion summarizes key findings, analyzes the significance and practical implications of Metaverse integration, and identifies areas for future research. It underscores the role of major tech companies in developing Metaverse-based solutions and the importance of addressing emerging opportunities and challenges to unlock the transformative potential of this technology in healthcare. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for collaboration between stakeholders to ensure the ethical and effective implementation of these technologies, ultimately leading to a more accessible, personalized, and efficient healthcare system.

[302] 2406.07115

Advancing Tool-Augmented Large Language Models: Integrating Insights from Errors in Inference Trees

Tool-augmented large language models (LLMs) leverage tools, often in the form of APIs, to enhance their reasoning capabilities on complex tasks, thus taking on the role of intelligent agents interacting with the real world. The recently introduced ToolLLaMA model by Qin et al. [2024] utilizes the depth-first search-based decision tree (DFSDT) method for reasoning with $16000+$ real-world APIs, which effectively improves the planning and inferencing performance of tool-augmented LLMs compared to traditional chain reasoning approaches. However, their approach only employs successful paths from decision trees (also called inference trees) for supervised fine-tuning (SFT) during training, which does not fully exploit the advantages of the tree of thought. In this study, we propose an inference trajectory optimization framework based on the preference data extracted from decision trees to address this limitation. We first introduce a novel method for constructing preference data from the tree of thought, capitalizing on the failed explorations previously overlooked in the trees. Specifically, we generate an effective step-wise preference dataset, named ToolPreference, for tool use based on the ToolBench dataset. In the subsequent training phase, we first fine-tune the LLM with tool-usage expert trajectories and then use these step-wise preference pairs for direct preference optimization (DPO) to update the policy of the LLM, resulting in our ToolPrefer-LLaMA (TP-LLaMA) model. Our experiments demonstrate that by obtaining insights from errors in inference trees, TP-LLaMA significantly outperforms the baselines across almost all test scenarios by a large margin and exhibits better generalization capabilities with unseen APIs. At the same time, TP-LLaMA has also demonstrated superior reasoning efficiency compared to the baselines, making it more suitable for complex tool-usage reasoning tasks.

[303] 2406.07117

Augmenting Offline RL with Unlabeled Data

Recent advancements in offline Reinforcement Learning (Offline RL) have led to an increased focus on methods based on conservative policy updates to address the Out-of-Distribution (OOD) issue. These methods typically involve adding behavior regularization or modifying the critic learning objective, focusing primarily on states or actions with substantial dataset support. However, we challenge this prevailing notion by asserting that the absence of an action or state from a dataset does not necessarily imply its suboptimality. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to tackle the OOD problem. We introduce an offline RL teacher-student framework, complemented by a policy similarity measure. This framework enables the student policy to gain insights not only from the offline RL dataset but also from the knowledge transferred by a teacher policy. The teacher policy is trained using another dataset consisting of state-action pairs, which can be viewed as practical domain knowledge acquired without direct interaction with the environment. We believe this additional knowledge is key to effectively solving the OOD issue. This research represents a significant advancement in integrating a teacher-student network into the actor-critic framework, opening new avenues for studies on knowledge transfer in offline RL and effectively addressing the OOD challenge.

[304] 2406.07119

T2S-GPT: Dynamic Vector Quantization for Autoregressive Sign Language Production from Text

In this work, we propose a two-stage sign language production (SLP) paradigm that first encodes sign language sequences into discrete codes and then autoregressively generates sign language from text based on the learned codebook. However, existing vector quantization (VQ) methods are fixed-length encodings, overlooking the uneven information density in sign language, which leads to under-encoding of important regions and over-encoding of unimportant regions. To address this issue, we propose a novel dynamic vector quantization (DVA-VAE) model that can dynamically adjust the encoding length based on the information density in sign language to achieve accurate and compact encoding. Then, a GPT-like model learns to generate code sequences and their corresponding durations from spoken language text. Extensive experiments conducted on the PHOENIX14T dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. To promote sign language research, we propose a new large German sign language dataset, PHOENIX-News, which contains 486 hours of sign language videos, audio, and transcription texts.Experimental analysis on PHOENIX-News shows that the performance of our model can be further improved by increasing the size of the training data. Our project homepage is

[305] 2406.07121

The Treatment of Ties in Rank-Biased Overlap

Rank-Biased Overlap (RBO) is a similarity measure for indefinite rankings: it is top-weighted, and can be computed when only a prefix of the rankings is known or when they have only some items in common. It is widely used for instance to analyze differences between search engines by comparing the rankings of documents they retrieve for the same queries. In these situations, though, it is very frequent to find tied documents that have the same score. Unfortunately, the treatment of ties in RBO remains superficial and incomplete, in the sense that it is not clear how to calculate it from the ranking prefixes only. In addition, the existing way of dealing with ties is very different from the one traditionally followed in the field of Statistics, most notably found in rank correlation coefficients such as Kendall's and Spearman's. In this paper we propose a generalized formulation for RBO to handle ties, thanks to which we complete the original definitions by showing how to perform prefix evaluation. We also use it to fully develop two variants that align with the ones found in the Statistics literature: one when there is a reference ranking to compare to, and one when there is not. Overall, these three variants provide researchers with flexibility when comparing rankings with RBO, by clearly determining what ties mean, and how they should be treated. Finally, using both synthetic and TREC data, we demonstrate the use of these new tie-aware RBO measures. We show that the scores may differ substantially from the original tie-unaware RBO measure, where ties had to be broken at random or by arbitrary criteria such as by document ID. Overall, these results evidence the need for a proper account of ties in rank similarity measures such as RBO.

[306] 2406.07124

CHARME: A chain-based reinforcement learning approach for the minor embedding problem

Quantum Annealing (QA) holds great potential for solving combinatorial optimization problems efficiently. However, the effectiveness of QA algorithms heavily relies on the embedding of problem instances, represented as logical graphs, into the quantum unit processing (QPU) whose topology is in form of a limited connectivity graph, known as the minor embedding Problem. Existing methods for the minor embedding problem suffer from scalability issues when confronted with larger problem sizes. In this paper, we propose a novel approach utilizing Reinforcement Learning (RL) techniques to address the minor embedding problem, named CHARME. CHARME includes three key components: a Graph Neural Network (GNN) architecture for policy modeling, a state transition algorithm ensuring solution validity, and an order exploration strategy for effective training. Through comprehensive experiments on synthetic and real-world instances, we demonstrate that the efficiency of our proposed order exploration strategy as well as our proposed RL framework, CHARME. In details, CHARME yields superior solutions compared to fast embedding methods such as Minorminer and ATOM. Moreover, our method surpasses the OCT-based approach, known for its slower runtime but high-quality solutions, in several cases. In addition, our proposed exploration enhances the efficiency of the training of the CHARME framework by providing better solutions compared to the greedy strategy.

[307] 2406.07125

CARACAS: vehiCular ArchitectuRe for detAiled Can Attacks Simulation

Modern vehicles are increasingly vulnerable to attacks that exploit network infrastructures, particularly the Controller Area Network (CAN) networks. To effectively counter such threats using contemporary tools like Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) based on data analysis and classification, large datasets of CAN messages become imperative. This paper delves into the feasibility of generating synthetic datasets by harnessing the modeling capabilities of simulation frameworks such as Simulink coupled with a robust representation of attack models to present CARACAS, a vehicular model, including component control via CAN messages and attack injection capabilities. CARACAS showcases the efficacy of this methodology, including a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) model, and focuses on attacks targeting torque control in two distinct scenarios.

[308] 2406.07126

Logical Distillation of Graph Neural Networks

We present a logic based interpretable model for learning on graphs and an algorithm to distill this model from a Graph Neural Network (GNN). Recent results have shown connections between the expressivity of GNNs and the two-variable fragment of first-order logic with counting quantifiers (C2). We introduce a decision-tree based model which leverages an extension of C2 to distill interpretable logical classifiers from GNNs. We test our approach on multiple GNN architectures. The distilled models are interpretable, succinct, and attain similar accuracy to the underlying GNN. Furthermore, when the ground truth is expressible in C2, our approach outperforms the GNN.

[309] 2406.07129

Mining Frequent Structures in Conceptual Models

The problem of using structured methods to represent knowledge is well-known in conceptual modeling and has been studied for many years. It has been proven that adopting modeling patterns represents an effective structural method. Patterns are, indeed, generalizable recurrent structures that can be exploited as solutions to design problems. They aid in understanding and improving the process of creating models. The undeniable value of using patterns in conceptual modeling was demonstrated in several experimental studies. However, discovering patterns in conceptual models is widely recognized as a highly complex task and a systematic solution to pattern identification is currently lacking. In this paper, we propose a general approach to the problem of discovering frequent structures, as they occur in conceptual modeling languages. As proof of concept for our scientific contribution, we provide an implementation of the approach, by focusing on UML class diagrams, in particular OntoUML models. This implementation comprises an exploratory tool, which, through the combination of a frequent subgraph mining algorithm and graph manipulation techniques, can process multiple conceptual models and discover recurrent structures according to multiple criteria. The primary objective is to offer a support facility for language engineers. This can be employed to leverage both good and bad modeling practices, to evolve and maintain the conceptual modeling language, and to promote the reuse of encoded experience in designing better models with the given language.

[310] 2406.07131

ICGAN: An implicit conditioning method for interpretable feature control of neural audio synthesis

Neural audio synthesis methods can achieve high-fidelity and realistic sound generation by utilizing deep generative models. Such models typically rely on external labels which are often discrete as conditioning information to achieve guided sound generation. However, it remains difficult to control the subtle changes in sounds without appropriate and descriptive labels, especially given a limited dataset. This paper proposes an implicit conditioning method for neural audio synthesis using generative adversarial networks that allows for interpretable control of the acoustic features of synthesized sounds. Our technique creates a continuous conditioning space that enables timbre manipulation without relying on explicit labels. We further introduce an evaluation metric to explore controllability and demonstrate that our approach is effective in enabling a degree of controlled variation of different synthesized sound effects for in-domain and cross-domain sounds.

[311] 2406.07135

Smart Wireless Environment Enhanced Telecommunications: A Network Stabilisation Paradigm for Mobile Operators

Due to the uncontrolled and complex real-life radio propagation environments, Claude Shannon's information theory of communications describes fundamental limits to state-of-the-art 5G radio access network (RAN) capacity, with respect to fixed radio resource usage. Fortunately, recent research has found that a holographic metasurface-based new physical layer architecture may hold the key to overcome these fundamental limits of current mobile networks under a new paradigm, smart wireless environment (SWE), where the long-standing challenge of mobile communications, fading channel hostility, may be solved, leading to a step-change boost in network performance and user experience. Despite recent research activities in SWE, the best way to implement it as a network operator remains an open challenge. In this industrial review, we adopt a novel yet realistic mobile channel stabilisation perspective for network operators to understand this paradigm shift. More specifically, we provide a technical analysis of the synergy between key next-gen mobile network enablers, e.g., holographic metasurface, wireless sensing, and machine intelligence, as well as of how this synergy leads to a robust future RAN architecture. Against the as yet unclear theoretical boundaries and low technology readiness level (TRL) of SWE enhanced telecommunications, we conclude by identifying critical challenges in future commercial deployments.

[312] 2406.07136

Progressive Query Expansion for Retrieval Over Cost-constrained Data Sources

Query expansion has been employed for a long time to improve the accuracy of query retrievers. Earlier works relied on pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF) techniques, which augment a query with terms extracted from documents retrieved in a first stage. However, the documents may be noisy hindering the effectiveness of the ranking. To avoid this, recent studies have instead used Large Language Models (LLMs) to generate additional content to expand a query. These techniques are prone to hallucination and also focus on the LLM usage cost. However, the cost may be dominated by the retrieval in several important practical scenarios, where the corpus is only available via APIs which charge a fee per retrieved document. We propose combining classic PRF techniques with LLMs and create a progressive query expansion algorithm ProQE that iteratively expands the query as it retrieves more documents. ProQE is compatible with both sparse and dense retrieval systems. Our experimental results on four retrieval datasets show that ProQE outperforms state-of-the-art baselines by 37% and is the most cost-effective.

[313] 2406.07138

Never Miss A Beat: An Efficient Recipe for Context Window Extension of Large Language Models with Consistent "Middle" Enhancement

Recently, many methods have been developed to extend the context length of pre-trained large language models (LLMs), but they often require fine-tuning at the target length ($\gg4K$) and struggle to effectively utilize information from the middle part of the context. To address these issues, we propose $\textbf{C}$ontinuity-$\textbf{R}$elativity ind$\textbf{E}$xing with g$\textbf{A}$ussian $\textbf{M}$iddle (CREAM), which interpolates positional encodings by manipulating position indices. Apart from being simple, CREAM is training-efficient: it only requires fine-tuning at the pre-trained context window (eg, Llama 2-4K) and can extend LLMs to a much longer target context length (eg, 256K). To ensure that the model focuses more on the information in the middle, we introduce a truncated Gaussian to encourage sampling from the middle part of the context during fine-tuning, thus alleviating the ``Lost-in-the-Middle'' problem faced by long-context LLMs. Experimental results show that CREAM successfully extends LLMs to the target length for both Base and Chat versions of $\texttt{Llama2-7B}$ with ``Never Miss A Beat''. Our code will be publicly available soon.

[314] 2406.07141

Identifiable Object-Centric Representation Learning via Probabilistic Slot Attention

Learning modular object-centric representations is crucial for systematic generalization. Existing methods show promising object-binding capabilities empirically, but theoretical identifiability guarantees remain relatively underdeveloped. Understanding when object-centric representations can theoretically be identified is crucial for scaling slot-based methods to high-dimensional images with correctness guarantees. To that end, we propose a probabilistic slot-attention algorithm that imposes an aggregate mixture prior over object-centric slot representations, thereby providing slot identifiability guarantees without supervision, up to an equivalence relation. We provide empirical verification of our theoretical identifiability result using both simple 2-dimensional data and high-resolution imaging datasets.

[315] 2406.07145

Failures Are Fated, But Can Be Faded: Characterizing and Mitigating Unwanted Behaviors in Large-Scale Vision and Language Models

In large deep neural networks that seem to perform surprisingly well on many tasks, we also observe a few failures related to accuracy, social biases, and alignment with human values, among others. Therefore, before deploying these models, it is crucial to characterize this failure landscape for engineers to debug and legislative bodies to audit models. Nevertheless, it is infeasible to exhaustively test for all possible combinations of factors that could lead to a model's failure. In this paper, we introduce a post-hoc method that utilizes \emph{deep reinforcement learning} to explore and construct the landscape of failure modes in pre-trained discriminative and generative models. With the aid of limited human feedback, we then demonstrate how to restructure the failure landscape to be more desirable by moving away from the discovered failure modes. We empirically show the effectiveness of the proposed method across common Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, and Vision-Language tasks.

[316] 2406.07146

Benchmarking and Boosting Radiology Report Generation for 3D High-Resolution Medical Images

Automatic radiology report generation can significantly benefit the labor-intensive process of report writing by radiologists, especially for 3D radiographs like CT scans, which are crucial for broad clinical diagnostics yet underexplored compared to 2D radiographs. Existing methods often handle 3D volumes either slice-wise or with aggressive downsampling due to current GPU memory limitations, which results in a loss of the inherent 3D nature and critical details. To overcome these issues, we introduce a novel framework that efficiently and effectively generates radiology reports for high-resolution (HR) 3D volumes, based on large language models (LLMs). Specifically, our framework utilizes low-resolution (LR) visual tokens as queries to mine information from HR tokens, preserving detailed HR information while reducing computational costs by only processing HR informed LR visual queries. Further benefiting the field, we curate and release BIMCV-RG, a new dataset with 5,328 HR 3D volumes and paired reports, establishing the first benchmarks for report generation from 3D HR medical images. Our method consistently surpasses existing methods on this benchmark across three different settings: normal-resolution, high-resolution inputs, and zero-shot domain transfer, all at an acceptable computational cost, trainable on a single A100-80G.

[317] 2406.07147

Wearable Device-Based Physiological Signal Monitoring: An Assessment Study of Cognitive Load Across Tasks

This study employs cutting-edge wearable monitoring technology to conduct high-precision, high-temporal-resolution cognitive load assessment on EEG data from the FP1 channel and heart rate variability (HRV) data of secondary vocational students(SVS). By jointly analyzing these two critical physiological indicators, the research delves into their application value in assessing cognitive load among SVS students and their utility across various tasks. The study designed two experiments to validate the efficacy of the proposed approach: Initially, a random forest classification model, developed using the N-BACK task, enabled the precise decoding of physiological signal characteristics in SVS students under different levels of cognitive load, achieving a classification accuracy of 97%. Subsequently, this classification model was applied in a cross-task experiment involving the National Computer Rank Examination, demonstrating the method's significant applicability and cross-task transferability in diverse learning contexts. Conducted with high portability, this research holds substantial theoretical and practical significance for optimizing teaching resource allocation in secondary vocational education, as well as for cognitive load assessment methods and monitoring. Currently, the research findings are undergoing trial implementation in the school.

[318] 2406.07151

EEG-ImageNet: An Electroencephalogram Dataset and Benchmarks with Image Visual Stimuli of Multi-Granularity Labels

Identifying and reconstructing what we see from brain activity gives us a special insight into investigating how the biological visual system represents the world. While recent efforts have achieved high-performance image classification and high-quality image reconstruction from brain signals collected by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) or magnetoencephalogram (MEG), the expensiveness and bulkiness of these devices make relevant applications difficult to generalize to practical applications. On the other hand, Electroencephalography (EEG), despite its advantages of ease of use, cost-efficiency, high temporal resolution, and non-invasive nature, has not been fully explored in relevant studies due to the lack of comprehensive datasets. To address this gap, we introduce EEG-ImageNet, a novel EEG dataset comprising recordings from 16 subjects exposed to 4000 images selected from the ImageNet dataset. EEG-ImageNet consists of 5 times EEG-image pairs larger than existing similar EEG benchmarks. EEG-ImageNet is collected with image stimuli of multi-granularity labels, i.e., 40 images with coarse-grained labels and 40 with fine-grained labels. Based on it, we establish benchmarks for object classification and image reconstruction. Experiments with several commonly used models show that the best models can achieve object classification with accuracy around 60% and image reconstruction with two-way identification around 64%. These results demonstrate the dataset's potential to advance EEG-based visual brain-computer interfaces, understand the visual perception of biological systems, and provide potential applications in improving machine visual models.

[319] 2406.07153

EEG classification for visual brain decoding with spatio-temporal and transformer based paradigms

In this work, we delve into the EEG classification task in the domain of visual brain decoding via two frameworks, involving two different learning paradigms. Considering the spatio-temporal nature of EEG data, one of our frameworks is based on a CNN-BiLSTM model. The other involves a CNN-Transformer architecture which inherently involves the more versatile attention based learning paradigm. In both cases, a special 1D-CNN feature extraction module is used to generate the initial embeddings with 1D convolutions in the time and the EEG channel domains. Considering the EEG signals are noisy, non stationary and the discriminative features are even less clear (than in semantically structured data such as text or image), we also follow a window-based classification followed by majority voting during inference, to yield labels at a signal level. To illustrate how brain patterns correlate with different image classes, we visualize t-SNE plots of the BiLSTM embeddings alongside brain activation maps for the top 10 classes. These visualizations provide insightful revelations into the distinct neural signatures associated with each visual category, showcasing the BiLSTM's capability to capture and represent the discriminative brain activity linked to visual stimuli. We demonstrate the performance of our approach on the updated EEG-Imagenet dataset with positive comparisons with state-of-the-art methods.

[320] 2406.07155

Scaling Large-Language-Model-based Multi-Agent Collaboration

Pioneering advancements in large language model-powered agents have underscored the design pattern of multi-agent collaboration, demonstrating that collective intelligence can surpass the capabilities of each individual. Inspired by the neural scaling law, which posits that increasing neurons leads to emergent abilities, this study investigates whether a similar principle applies to increasing agents in multi-agent collaboration. Technically, we propose multi-agent collaboration networks (MacNet), which utilize directed acyclic graphs to organize agents and streamline their interactive reasoning via topological ordering, with solutions derived from their dialogues. Extensive experiments show that MacNet consistently outperforms baseline models, enabling effective agent collaboration across various network topologies and supporting cooperation among more than a thousand agents. Notably, we observed a small-world collaboration phenomenon, where topologies resembling small-world properties achieved superior performance. Additionally, we identified a collaborative scaling law, indicating that normalized solution quality follows a logistic growth pattern as scaling agents, with collaborative emergence occurring much earlier than previously observed instances of neural emergence. The code and data will be available at

[321] 2406.07160

Deep Learning-Based Approach for User Activity Detection with Grant-Free Random Access in Cell-Free Massive MIMO

Modern wireless networks must reliably support a wide array of connectivity demands, encompassing various user needs across diverse scenarios. Machine-Type Communication (mMTC) is pivotal in these networks, particularly given the challenges posed by massive connectivity and sporadic device activation patterns. Traditional grant-based random access (GB-RA) protocols face limitations due to constrained orthogonal preamble resources. In response, the adoption of grant-free random access (GF-RA) protocols offers a promising solution. This paper explores the application of supervised machine learning models to tackle activity detection issues in scenarios where non-orthogonal preamble design is considered. We introduce a data-driven algorithm specifically designed for user activity detection in Cell-Free Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (CF-mMIMO) networks operating under GF-RA protocols. Additionally, this study presents a novel clustering strategy that simplifies and enhances activity detection accuracy, assesses the resilience of the algorithm to input perturbations, and investigates the effects of adopting floating-to-fixed-point conversion on algorithm performance. Simulations conducted adhere to 3GPP standards, ensuring accurate channel modeling, and employ a deep learning approach to boost the detection capabilities of mMTC GF-RA devices. The results are compelling: the algorithm achieves an exceptional 99\% accuracy rate, confirming its efficacy in real-world applications.

[322] 2406.07162

EmoBox: Multilingual Multi-corpus Speech Emotion Recognition Toolkit and Benchmark

Speech emotion recognition (SER) is an important part of human-computer interaction, receiving extensive attention from both industry and academia. However, the current research field of SER has long suffered from the following problems: 1) There are few reasonable and universal splits of the datasets, making comparing different models and methods difficult. 2) No commonly used benchmark covers numerous corpus and languages for researchers to refer to, making reproduction a burden. In this paper, we propose EmoBox, an out-of-the-box multilingual multi-corpus speech emotion recognition toolkit, along with a benchmark for both intra-corpus and cross-corpus settings. For intra-corpus settings, we carefully designed the data partitioning for different datasets. For cross-corpus settings, we employ a foundation SER model, emotion2vec, to mitigate annotation errors and obtain a test set that is fully balanced in speakers and emotions distributions. Based on EmoBox, we present the intra-corpus SER results of 10 pre-trained speech models on 32 emotion datasets with 14 languages, and the cross-corpus SER results on 4 datasets with the fully balanced test sets. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest SER benchmark, across language scopes and quantity scales. We hope that our toolkit and benchmark can facilitate the research of SER in the community.

[323] 2406.07163

FaceGPT: Self-supervised Learning to Chat about 3D Human Faces

We introduce FaceGPT, a self-supervised learning framework for Large Vision-Language Models (VLMs) to reason about 3D human faces from images and text. Typical 3D face reconstruction methods are specialized algorithms that lack semantic reasoning capabilities. FaceGPT overcomes this limitation by embedding the parameters of a 3D morphable face model (3DMM) into the token space of a VLM, enabling the generation of 3D faces from both textual and visual inputs. FaceGPT is trained in a self-supervised manner as a model-based autoencoder from in-the-wild images. In particular, the hidden state of LLM is projected into 3DMM parameters and subsequently rendered as 2D face image to guide the self-supervised learning process via image-based reconstruction. Without relying on expensive 3D annotations of human faces, FaceGPT obtains a detailed understanding about 3D human faces, while preserving the capacity to understand general user instructions. Our experiments demonstrate that FaceGPT not only achieves high-quality 3D face reconstructions but also retains the ability for general-purpose visual instruction following. Furthermore, FaceGPT learns fully self-supervised to generate 3D faces based on complex textual inputs, which opens a new direction in human face analysis.

[324] 2406.07165

Realizing RF Wavefront Copying with RIS for Future Extended Reality Applications

Lately a new approach to Extended Reality (XR), denoted as XR-RF, has been proposed which is realized by combining Radio Frequency (RF) Imaging and programmable wireless environments (PWEs). RF Imaging is a technique that aims to detect geometric and material features of an object through RF waves. On the other hand, the PWE focuses on the the conversion of the wireless RF propagation in a controllable, by software, entity through the utilization of Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs), which can have a controllable interaction with impinging RF waves. In that sense, this dynamic synergy leverages the potential of RF Imaging to detect the structure of an object through RF wavefronts and the PWE's ability to selectively replicate those RF wavefronts from one spatial location to wherever an XR-RF mobile user is presently located. Then the captured wavefront, through appropriate hardware, is mapped to the visual representation of the object through machine learning models. As a key aspect of the XR-RF's system workflow is the wavefront copying mechanism, this work introduces a new PWE configuration algorithm for XR-RF. Moreover, it is shown that the waveform replication process inevitably yields imprecision in the replication process. After statistical analysis, based on simulation results, it is shown that this imprecision can be effectively modeled by the gamma distribution.

[325] 2406.07168

Teaching Language Models to Self-Improve by Learning from Language Feedback

Aligning Large Language Models (LLMs) with human intentions and values is crucial yet challenging. Current methods primarily rely on human preferences, which are costly and insufficient in capturing nuanced feedback expressed in natural language. In this paper, we present Self-Refinement Tuning (SRT), a method that leverages model feedback for alignment, thereby reducing reliance on human annotations. SRT uses a base language model (e.g., Tulu2) to generate initial responses, which are critiqued and refined by a more advanced model (e.g., GPT-4-Turbo). This process enables the base model to self-evaluate and improve its outputs, facilitating continuous learning. SRT further optimizes the model by learning from its self-generated feedback and refinements, creating a feedback loop that promotes model improvement. Our empirical evaluations demonstrate that SRT significantly outperforms strong baselines across diverse tasks and model sizes. When applied to a 70B parameter model, SRT increases the win rate from 9.6\% to 25.8\% on the AlpacaEval 2.0 benchmark, surpassing well-established systems such as GPT-4-0314, Claude 2, and Gemini. Our analysis highlights the crucial role of language feedback in the success of SRT, suggesting potential for further exploration in this direction.

[326] 2406.07169

RecMoDiffuse: Recurrent Flow Diffusion for Human Motion Generation

Human motion generation has paramount importance in computer animation. It is a challenging generative temporal modelling task due to the vast possibilities of human motion, high human sensitivity to motion coherence and the difficulty of accurately generating fine-grained motions. Recently, diffusion methods have been proposed for human motion generation due to their high sample quality and expressiveness. However, generated sequences still suffer from motion incoherence, and are limited to short duration, and simpler motion and take considerable time during inference. To address these limitations, we propose \textit{RecMoDiffuse: Recurrent Flow Diffusion}, a new recurrent diffusion formulation for temporal modelling. Unlike previous work, which applies diffusion to the whole sequence without any temporal dependency, an approach that inherently makes temporal consistency hard to achieve. Our method explicitly enforces temporal constraints with the means of normalizing flow models in the diffusion process and thereby extends diffusion to the temporal dimension. We demonstrate the effectiveness of RecMoDiffuse in the temporal modelling of human motion. Our experiments show that RecMoDiffuse achieves comparable results with state-of-the-art methods while generating coherent motion sequences and reducing the computational overhead in the inference stage.

[327] 2406.07170

VoxNeuS: Enhancing Voxel-Based Neural Surface Reconstruction via Gradient Interpolation

Neural Surface Reconstruction learns a Signed Distance Field~(SDF) to reconstruct the 3D model from multi-view images. Previous works adopt voxel-based explicit representation to improve efficiency. However, they ignored the gradient instability of interpolation in the voxel grid, leading to degradation on convergence and smoothness. Besides, previous works entangled the optimization of geometry and radiance, which leads to the deformation of geometry to explain radiance, causing artifacts when reconstructing textured planes. In this work, we reveal that the instability of gradient comes from its discontinuity during trilinear interpolation, and propose to use the interpolated gradient instead of the original analytical gradient to eliminate the discontinuity. Based on gradient interpolation, we propose VoxNeuS, a lightweight surface reconstruction method for computational and memory efficient neural surface reconstruction. Thanks to the explicit representation, the gradient of regularization terms, i.e. Eikonal and curvature loss, are directly solved, avoiding computation and memory-access overhead. Further, VoxNeuS adopts a geometry-radiance disentangled architecture to handle the geometry deformation from radiance optimization. The experimental results show that VoxNeuS achieves better reconstruction quality than previous works. The entire training process takes 15 minutes and less than 3 GB of memory on a single 2080ti GPU.

[328] 2406.07174

ULog: Unsupervised Log Parsing with Large Language Models through Log Contrastive Units

Log parsing serves as an essential prerequisite for various log analysis tasks. Recent advancements in this field have improved parsing accuracy by leveraging the semantics in logs through fine-tuning large language models (LLMs) or learning from in-context demonstrations. However, these methods heavily depend on labeled examples to achieve optimal performance. In practice, collecting sufficient labeled data is challenging due to the large scale and continuous evolution of logs, leading to performance degradation of existing log parsers after deployment. To address this issue, we propose ULog, an unsupervised LLM-based method for efficient and off-the-shelf log parsing. Our key insight is that while LLMs may struggle with direct log parsing, their performance can be significantly enhanced through comparative analysis across multiple logs that differ only in their parameter parts. We refer to such groups of logs as Log Contrastive Units (LCUs). Given the vast volume of logs, obtaining LCUs is difficult. Therefore, ULog introduces a hybrid ranking scheme to effectively search for LCUs by jointly considering the commonality and variability among logs. Additionally, ULog crafts a novel parsing prompt for LLMs to identify contrastive patterns and extract meaningful log structures from LCUs. Experiments on large-scale public datasets demonstrate that ULog significantly outperforms state-of-the-art log parsers in terms of accuracy and efficiency, providing an effective and scalable solution for real-world deployment.

[329] 2406.07176

RAD: A Comprehensive Dataset for Benchmarking the Robustness of Image Anomaly Detection

Robustness against noisy imaging is crucial for practical image anomaly detection systems. This study introduces a Robust Anomaly Detection (RAD) dataset with free views, uneven illuminations, and blurry collections to systematically evaluate the robustness of current anomaly detection methods. Specifically, RAD aims to identify foreign objects on working platforms as anomalies. The collection process incorporates various sources of imaging noise, such as viewpoint changes, uneven illuminations, and blurry collections, to replicate real-world inspection scenarios. Subsequently, we assess and analyze 11 state-of-the-art unsupervised and zero-shot methods on RAD. Our findings indicate that: 1) Variations in viewpoint, illumination, and blurring affect anomaly detection methods to varying degrees; 2) Methods relying on memory banks and assisted by synthetic anomalies demonstrate stronger robustness; 3) Effectively leveraging the general knowledge of foundational models is a promising avenue for enhancing the robustness of anomaly detection methods.

[330] 2406.07177

TernaryLLM: Ternarized Large Language Model

Large language models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable performance on Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, but they are hindered by high computational costs and memory requirements. Ternarization, an extreme form of quantization, offers a solution by reducing memory usage and enabling energy-efficient floating-point additions. However, applying ternarization to LLMs faces challenges stemming from outliers in both weights and activations. In this work, observing asymmetric outliers and non-zero means in weights, we introduce Dual Learnable Ternarization (DLT), which enables both scales and shifts to be learnable. We also propose Outlier-Friendly Feature Knowledge Distillation (OFF) to recover the information lost in extremely low-bit quantization. The proposed OFF can incorporate semantic information and is insensitive to outliers. At the core of OFF is maximizing the mutual information between features in ternarized and floating-point models using cosine similarity. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our TernaryLLM surpasses previous low-bit quantization methods on the standard text generation and zero-shot benchmarks for different LLM families. Specifically, for one of the most powerful open-source models, LLaMA-3, our approach (W1.58A16) outperforms the previous state-of-the-art method (W2A16) by 5.8 in terms of perplexity on C4 and by 8.2% in terms of average accuracy on zero-shot tasks.

[331] 2406.07185

A Well-Balanced Method for an Unstaggered Central Scheme, the two-space Dimensional Case

We develop a second-order accurate central scheme for the two-dimensional hyperbolic system of in-homogeneous conservation laws. The main idea behind the scheme is that we combine the well-balanced deviation method with the Kurganov-Tadmor (KT) scheme. The approach satisfies the well-balanced property and retains the advantages of KT scheme: Riemann-solver-free and the avoidance of oversampling on the regions between Riemann-fans. The scheme is implemented and applied to a number of numerical experiments for the Euler equations with gravitational source term and the results are non-oscillatory. Based on the same idea, we construct a semi-discrete scheme where we combine the above two methods and illustrate the maximum principle.

[332] 2406.07188

Merging Improves Self-Critique Against Jailbreak Attacks

The robustness of large language models (LLMs) against adversarial manipulations, such as jailbreak attacks, remains a significant challenge. In this work, we propose an approach that enhances the self-critique capability of the LLM and further fine-tunes it over sanitized synthetic data. This is done with the addition of an external critic model that can be merged with the original, thus bolstering self-critique capabilities and improving the robustness of the LLMs response to adversarial prompts. Our results demonstrate that the combination of merging and self-critique can reduce the attack success rate of adversaries significantly, thus offering a promising defense mechanism against jailbreak attacks. Code, data and models released at .

[333] 2406.07189

RGB-Sonar Tracking Benchmark and Spatial Cross-Attention Transformer Tracker

Vision camera and sonar are naturally complementary in the underwater environment. Combining the information from two modalities will promote better observation of underwater targets. However, this problem has not received sufficient attention in previous research. Therefore, this paper introduces a new challenging RGB-Sonar (RGB-S) tracking task and investigates how to achieve efficient tracking of an underwater target through the interaction of RGB and sonar modalities. Specifically, we first propose an RGBS50 benchmark dataset containing 50 sequences and more than 87000 high-quality annotated bounding boxes. Experimental results show that the RGBS50 benchmark poses a challenge to currently popular SOT trackers. Second, we propose an RGB-S tracker called SCANet, which includes a spatial cross-attention module (SCAM) consisting of a novel spatial cross-attention layer and two independent global integration modules. The spatial cross-attention is used to overcome the problem of spatial misalignment of between RGB and sonar images. Third, we propose a SOT data-based RGB-S simulation training method (SRST) to overcome the lack of RGB-S training datasets. It converts RGB images into sonar-like saliency images to construct pseudo-data pairs, enabling the model to learn the semantic structure of RGB-S-like data. Comprehensive experiments show that the proposed spatial cross-attention effectively achieves the interaction between RGB and sonar modalities and SCANet achieves state-of-the-art performance on the proposed benchmark. The code is available at

[334] 2406.07191

MeMSVD: Long-Range Temporal Structure Capturing Using Incremental SVD

This paper is on long-term video understanding where the goal is to recognise human actions over long temporal windows (up to minutes long). In prior work, long temporal context is captured by constructing a long-term memory bank consisting of past and future video features which are then integrated into standard (short-term) video recognition backbones through the use of attention mechanisms. Two well-known problems related to this approach are the quadratic complexity of the attention operation and the fact that the whole feature bank must be stored in memory for inference. To address both issues, we propose an alternative to attention-based schemes which is based on a low-rank approximation of the memory obtained using Singular Value Decomposition. Our scheme has two advantages: (a) it reduces complexity by more than an order of magnitude, and (b) it is amenable to an efficient implementation for the calculation of the memory bases in an incremental fashion which does not require the storage of the whole feature bank in memory. The proposed scheme matches or surpasses the accuracy achieved by attention-based mechanisms while being memory-efficient. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate that our framework generalises to different architectures and tasks, outperforming the state-of-the-art in three datasets.

[335] 2406.07194

Supporting Changes in Digital Ownership and Data Sovereignty Across the Automotive Value Chain with Catena-X

Digital Twins have evolved as a concept describing digital representations of physical assets. They can be used to facilitate simulations, monitoring, or optimization of product lifecycles. Considering the concept of a Circular Economy, which entails several lifecycles of, e.g., vehicles, their components, and materials, it is important to investigate how the respective Digital Twins are managed over the lifecycle of their physical assets. This publication presents and compares three approaches for managing Digital Twins in industrial use cases. The analysis considers aspects such as updates, data ownership, and data sovereignty. The results based on the research project Catena-X

[336] 2406.07202

Can Foundation Models Reliably Identify Spatial Hazards? A Case Study on Curb Segmentation

Curbs serve as vital borders that delineate safe pedestrian zones from potential vehicular traffic hazards. Curbs also represent a primary spatial hazard during dynamic navigation with significant stumbling potential. Such vulnerabilities are particularly exacerbated for persons with blindness and low vision (PBLV). Accurate visual-based discrimination of curbs is paramount for assistive technologies that aid PBLV with safe navigation in urban environments. Herein, we investigate the efficacy of curb segmentation for foundation models. We introduce the largest curb segmentation dataset to-date to benchmark leading foundation models. Our results show that state-of-the-art foundation models face significant challenges in curb segmentation. This is due to their high false-positive rates (up to 95%) with poor performance distinguishing curbs from curb-like objects or non-curb areas, such as sidewalks. In addition, the best-performing model averaged a 3.70-second inference time, underscoring problems in providing real-time assistance. In response, we propose solutions including filtered bounding box selections to achieve more accurate curb segmentation. Overall, despite the immediate flexibility of foundation models, their application for practical assistive technology applications still requires refinement. This research highlights the critical need for specialized datasets and tailored model training to address navigation challenges for PBLV and underscores implicit weaknesses in foundation models.

[337] 2406.07203

ParaCLAP -- Towards a general language-audio model for computational paralinguistic tasks

Contrastive language-audio pretraining (CLAP) has recently emerged as a method for making audio analysis more generalisable. Specifically, CLAP-style models are able to `answer' a diverse set of language queries, extending the capabilities of audio models beyond a closed set of labels. However, CLAP relies on a large set of (audio, query) pairs for pretraining. While such sets are available for general audio tasks, like captioning or sound event detection, there are no datasets with matched audio and text queries for computational paralinguistic (CP) tasks. As a result, the community relies on generic CLAP models trained for general audio with limited success. In the present study, we explore training considerations for ParaCLAP, a CLAP-style model suited to CP, including a novel process for creating audio-language queries. We demonstrate its effectiveness on a set of computational paralinguistic tasks, where it is shown to surpass the performance of open-source state-of-the-art models.

[338] 2406.07207

Model order reduction for seismic applications

We propose a model order reduction approach to speed up the computation of seismograms, i.e. the solution of the seismic wave equation evaluated at a receiver location, for different model parameters. Our approach achieves a reduction of the unknowns by a factor of approximately 1000 for various numerical experiments for a 2D subsurface model of Groningen, the Netherlands, even if the wave speeds of the subsurface are relatively varied. Moreover, using parallel computing, the reduced model can approximate the (time domain) seismogram in a lower wall clock time than an implicit Newmark-beta method. To realize this reduction, we exploit the fact that seismograms are low-pass filtered for the observed seismic events by considering the Laplace-transformed problem in frequency domain. Therefore, we can avoid the high frequencies that would require many reduced basis functions to reach the desired accuracy and generally make the reduced order approximation of wave problems challenging. Instead, we can prove for our ansatz that for a fixed subsurface model the reduced order approximation converges exponentially fast in the frequency range of interest in the Laplace domain. We build the reduced model from solutions of the Laplace-transformed problem via a (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition-)Greedy algorithm targeting the construction of the reduced model to the time domain seismograms; the latter is achieved by using an a posteriori error estimator that does not require computing any time domain counterparts. Finally, we show that we obtain a stable reduced model thus overcoming the challenge that standard model reduction approaches do not necessarily yield a stable reduced model for wave problems.

[339] 2406.07208

Database-assisted automata learning

This paper presents DAALder (Database-Assisted Automata Learning, with Dutch suffix from leerder), a new algorithm for learning state machines, or automata, specifically deterministic finite-state automata (DFA). When learning state machines from log data originating from software systems, the large amount of log data can pose a challenge. Conventional state merging algorithms cannot efficiently deal with this, as they require a large amount of memory. To solve this, we utilized database technologies to efficiently query a big trace dataset and construct a state machine from it, as databases allow to save large amounts of data on disk while still being able to query it efficiently. Building on research in both active learning and passive learning, the proposed algorithm is a combination of the two. It can quickly find a characteristic set of traces from a database using heuristics from a state merging algorithm. Experiments show that our algorithm has similar performance to conventional state merging algorithms on large datasets, but requires far less memory.

[340] 2406.07209

MS-Diffusion: Multi-subject Zero-shot Image Personalization with Layout Guidance

Recent advancements in text-to-image generation models have dramatically enhanced the generation of photorealistic images from textual prompts, leading to an increased interest in personalized text-to-image applications, particularly in multi-subject scenarios. However, these advances are hindered by two main challenges: firstly, the need to accurately maintain the details of each referenced subject in accordance with the textual descriptions; and secondly, the difficulty in achieving a cohesive representation of multiple subjects in a single image without introducing inconsistencies. To address these concerns, our research introduces the MS-Diffusion framework for layout-guided zero-shot image personalization with multi-subjects. This innovative approach integrates grounding tokens with the feature resampler to maintain detail fidelity among subjects. With the layout guidance, MS-Diffusion further improves the cross-attention to adapt to the multi-subject inputs, ensuring that each subject condition acts on specific areas. The proposed multi-subject cross-attention orchestrates harmonious inter-subject compositions while preserving the control of texts. Comprehensive quantitative and qualitative experiments affirm that this method surpasses existing models in both image and text fidelity, promoting the development of personalized text-to-image generation.

[341] 2406.07212

Towards Human-AI Collaboration in Healthcare: Guided Deferral Systems with Large Language Models

Large language models (LLMs) present a valuable technology for various applications in healthcare, but their tendency to hallucinate introduces unacceptable uncertainty in critical decision-making situations. Human-AI collaboration (HAIC) can mitigate this uncertainty by combining human and AI strengths for better outcomes. This paper presents a novel guided deferral system that provides intelligent guidance when AI defers cases to human decision-makers. We leverage LLMs' verbalisation capabilities and internal states to create this system, demonstrating that fine-tuning smaller LLMs with data from larger models enhances performance while maintaining computational efficiency. A pilot study showcases the effectiveness of our deferral system.

[342] 2406.07213

Semantic-Aware Spectrum Sharing in Internet of Vehicles Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

This work aims to investigate semantic communication in high-speed mobile Internet of vehicles (IoV) environments, with a focus on the spectrum sharing between vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. We specifically address spectrum scarcity and network traffic and then propose a semantic-aware spectrum sharing algorithm (SSS) based on the deep reinforcement learning (DRL) soft actor-critic (SAC) approach. Firstly, we delve into the extraction of semantic information. Secondly, we redefine metrics for semantic information in V2V and V2I spectrum sharing in IoV environments, introducing high-speed semantic spectrum efficiency (HSSE) and semantic transmission rate (HSR). Finally, we employ the SAC algorithm for decision optimization in V2V and V2I spectrum sharing based on semantic information. This optimization encompasses the optimal link of V2V and V2I sharing strategies, the transmission power for vehicles sending semantic information and the length of transmitted semantic symbols, aiming at maximizing HSSE of V2I and enhancing success rate of effective semantic information transmission (SRS) of V2V. Experimental results demonstrate that the SSS algorithm outperforms other baseline algorithms, including other traditional-communication-based spectrum sharing algorithms and spectrum sharing algorithm using other reinforcement learning approaches. The SSS algorithm exhibits a 15% increase in HSSE and approximately a 7% increase in SRS.

[343] 2406.07215

DSig: Breaking the Barrier of Signatures in Data Centers

Data centers increasingly host mutually distrustful users on shared infrastructure. A powerful tool to safeguard such users are digital signatures. Digital signatures have revolutionized Internet-scale applications, but current signatures are too slow for the growing genre of microsecond-scale systems in modern data centers. We propose DSig, the first digital signature system to achieve single-digit microsecond latency to sign, transmit, and verify signatures in data center systems. DSig is based on the observation that, in many data center applications, the signer of a message knows most of the time who will verify its signature. We introduce a new hybrid signature scheme that combines cheap single-use hash-based signatures verified in the foreground with traditional signatures pre-verified in the background. Compared to prior state-of-the-art signatures, DSig reduces signing time from 18.9 to 0.7 us and verification time from 35.6 to 5.1 us, while keeping signature transmission time below 2.5 us. Moreover, DSig achieves 2.5x higher signing throughput and 6.9x higher verification throughput than the state of the art. We use DSig to (a) bring auditability to two key-value stores (HERD and Redis) and a financial trading system (based on Liquibook) for 86% lower added latency than the state of the art, and (b) replace signatures in BFT broadcast and BFT replication, reducing their latency by 73% and 69%, respectively

[344] 2406.07216

The Semantics of Effects: Centrality, Quantum Control and Reversible Recursion

This thesis revolves around an area of computer science called "semantics". We work with operational semantics, equational theories, and denotational semantics. The first contribution of this thesis is a study of the commutativity of effects through the prism of monads. Monads are the generalisation of algebraic structures such as monoids, which have a notion of centre: the centre of a monoid is made of elements which commute with all others. We provide the necessary and sufficient conditions for a monad to have a centre. We also detail the semantics of a language with effects that carry information on which effects are central. Moreover, we provide a strong link between its equational theories and its denotational semantics. The second focus of the thesis is quantum computing, seen as a reversible effect. Physically permissible quantum operations are all reversible, except measurement; however, measurement can be deferred at the end of the computation, allowing us to focus on the reversible part first. We define a simply-typed reversible programming language performing quantum operations called "unitaries". A denotational semantics and an equational theory adapted to the language are presented, and we prove that the former is complete. Furthermore, we study recursion in reversible programming, providing adequate operational and denotational semantics to a Turing-complete, reversible, functional programming language. The denotational semantics uses the dcpo enrichment of rig join inverse categories. This mathematical account of higher-order reasoning on reversible computing does not directly generalise to its quantum counterpart. In the conclusion, we detail the limitations and possible future for higher-order quantum control through guarded recursion.

[345] 2406.07217

A Synthetic Dataset for Personal Attribute Inference

Recently, powerful Large Language Models (LLMs) have become easily accessible to hundreds of millions of users worldwide. However, their strong capabilities and vast world knowledge do not come without associated privacy risks. In this work, we focus on the emerging privacy threat LLMs pose - the ability to accurately infer personal information from online texts. Despite the growing importance of LLM-based author profiling, research in this area has been hampered by a lack of suitable public datasets, largely due to ethical and privacy concerns associated with real personal data. In this work, we take two steps to address this problem: (i) we construct a simulation framework for the popular social media platform Reddit using LLM agents seeded with synthetic personal profiles; (ii) using this framework, we generate SynthPAI, a diverse synthetic dataset of over 7800 comments manually labeled for personal attributes. We validate our dataset with a human study showing that humans barely outperform random guessing on the task of distinguishing our synthetic comments from real ones. Further, we verify that our dataset enables meaningful personal attribute inference research by showing across 18 state-of-the-art LLMs that our synthetic comments allow us to draw the same conclusions as real-world data. Together, this indicates that our dataset and pipeline provide a strong and privacy-preserving basis for future research toward understanding and mitigating the inference-based privacy threats LLMs pose.

[346] 2406.07220

Probabilistic time integration for semi-explicit PDAEs

This paper deals with the application of probabilistic time integration methods to semi-explicit partial differential-algebraic equations of parabolic type and its semi-discrete counterparts, namely semi-explicit differential-algebraic equations of index 2. The proposed methods iteratively construct a probability distribution over the solution of deterministic problems, enhancing the information obtained from the numerical simulation. Within this paper, we examine the efficacy of the randomized versions of the implicit Euler method, the midpoint scheme, and exponential integrators of first and second order. By demonstrating the consistency and convergence properties of these solvers, we illustrate their utility in capturing the sensitivity of the solution to numerical errors. Our analysis establishes the theoretical validity of randomized time integration for constrained systems and offers insights into the calibration of probabilistic integrators for practical applications.

[347] 2406.07221

Open-World Human-Object Interaction Detection via Multi-modal Prompts

In this paper, we develop \textbf{MP-HOI}, a powerful Multi-modal Prompt-based HOI detector designed to leverage both textual descriptions for open-set generalization and visual exemplars for handling high ambiguity in descriptions, realizing HOI detection in the open world. Specifically, it integrates visual prompts into existing language-guided-only HOI detectors to handle situations where textual descriptions face difficulties in generalization and to address complex scenarios with high interaction ambiguity. To facilitate MP-HOI training, we build a large-scale HOI dataset named Magic-HOI, which gathers six existing datasets into a unified label space, forming over 186K images with 2.4K objects, 1.2K actions, and 20K HOI interactions. Furthermore, to tackle the long-tail issue within the Magic-HOI dataset, we introduce an automated pipeline for generating realistically annotated HOI images and present SynHOI, a high-quality synthetic HOI dataset containing 100K images. Leveraging these two datasets, MP-HOI optimizes the HOI task as a similarity learning process between multi-modal prompts and objects/interactions via a unified contrastive loss, to learn generalizable and transferable objects/interactions representations from large-scale data. MP-HOI could serve as a generalist HOI detector, surpassing the HOI vocabulary of existing expert models by more than 30 times. Concurrently, our results demonstrate that MP-HOI exhibits remarkable zero-shot capability in real-world scenarios and consistently achieves a new state-of-the-art performance across various benchmarks.

[348] 2406.07222

Improving Autoformalization using Type Checking

Large language models show promise for autoformalization, the task of automatically translating natural language into formal languages. However, current autoformalization methods remain limited. The last reported state-of-the-art performance on the ProofNet formalization benchmark for the Lean proof assistant, achieved using Codex for Lean 3, only showed successful formalization of 16.1% of informal statements. Similarly, our evaluation of GPT-4o for Lean 4 only produces successful translations 34.9% of the time. Our analysis shows that the performance of these models is largely limited by their inability to generate formal statements that successfully type-check (i.e., are syntactically correct and consistent with types) - with a whopping 86.6% of GPT-4o errors starting from a type-check failure. In this work, we propose a method to fix this issue through decoding with type-check filtering, where we initially sample a diverse set of candidate formalizations for an informal statement, then use the Lean proof assistant to filter out candidates that do not type-check. Using GPT-4o as a base model, and combining our method with self-consistency, we obtain a +18.3% absolute increase in formalization accuracy, and achieve a new state-of-the-art of 53.2% on ProofNet with Lean 4.

[349] 2406.07224

Differentiability and Optimization of Multiparameter Persistent Homology

Real-valued functions on geometric data -- such as node attributes on a graph -- can be optimized using descriptors from persistent homology, allowing the user to incorporate topological terms in the loss function. When optimizing a single real-valued function (the one-parameter setting), there is a canonical choice of descriptor for persistent homology: the barcode. The operation mapping a real-valued function to its barcode is differentiable almost everywhere, and the convergence of gradient descent for losses using barcodes is relatively well understood. When optimizing a vector-valued function (the multiparameter setting), there is no unique choice of descriptor for multiparameter persistent homology, and many distinct descriptors have been proposed. This calls for the development of a general framework for differentiability and optimization that applies to a wide range of multiparameter homological descriptors. In this article, we develop such a framework and show that it encompasses well-known descriptors of different flavors, such as signed barcodes and the multiparameter persistence landscape. We complement the theory with numerical experiments supporting the idea that optimizing multiparameter homological descriptors can lead to improved performances compared to optimizing one-parameter descriptors, even when using the simplest and most efficiently computable multiparameter descriptors.

[350] 2406.07227

Which Country Is This? Automatic Country Ranking of Street View Photos

In this demonstration, we present Country Guesser, a live system that guesses the country that a photo is taken in. In particular, given a Google Street View image, our federated ranking model uses a combination of computer vision, machine learning and text retrieval methods to compute a ranking of likely countries of the location shown in a given image from Street View. Interestingly, using text-based features to probe large pre-trained language models can assist to provide cross-modal supervision. We are not aware of previous country guessing systems informed by visual and textual features.

[351] 2406.07228

Haptic Repurposing with GenAI

Mixed Reality aims to merge the digital and physical worlds to create immersive human-computer interactions. Despite notable advancements, the absence of realistic haptic feedback often breaks the immersive experience by creating a disconnect between visual and tactile perceptions. This paper introduces Haptic Repurposing with GenAI, an innovative approach to enhance MR interactions by transforming any physical objects into adaptive haptic interfaces for AI-generated virtual assets. Utilizing state-of-the-art generative AI models, this system captures both 2D and 3D features of physical objects and, through user-directed prompts, generates corresponding virtual objects that maintain the physical form of the original objects. Through model-based object tracking, the system dynamically anchors virtual assets to physical props in real time, allowing objects to visually morph into any user-specified virtual object. This paper details the system's development, presents findings from usability studies that validate its effectiveness, and explores its potential to significantly enhance interactive MR environments. The hope is this work can lay a foundation for further research into AI-driven spatial transformation in immersive and haptic technologies.

[352] 2406.07229

Improving Commonsense Bias Classification by Mitigating the Influence of Demographic Terms

Understanding commonsense knowledge is crucial in the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). However, the presence of demographic terms in commonsense knowledge poses a potential risk of compromising the performance of NLP models. This study aims to investigate and propose methods for enhancing the performance and effectiveness of a commonsense polarization classifier by mitigating the influence of demographic terms. Three methods are introduced in this paper: (1) hierarchical generalization of demographic terms (2) threshold-based augmentation and (3) integration of hierarchical generalization and threshold-based augmentation methods (IHTA). The first method involves replacing demographic terms with more general ones based on a term hierarchy ontology, aiming to mitigate the influence of specific terms. To address the limited bias-related information, the second method measures the polarization of demographic terms by comparing the changes in the model's predictions when these terms are masked versus unmasked. This method augments commonsense sentences containing terms with high polarization values by replacing their predicates with synonyms generated by ChatGPT. The third method combines the two approaches, starting with threshold-based augmentation followed by hierarchical generalization. The experiments show that the first method increases the accuracy over the baseline by 2.33%, and the second one by 0.96% over standard augmentation methods. The IHTA techniques yielded an 8.82% and 9.96% higher accuracy than threshold-based and standard augmentation methods, respectively.

[353] 2406.07230

Needle In A Multimodal Haystack

With the rapid advancement of multimodal large language models (MLLMs), their evaluation has become increasingly comprehensive. However, understanding long multimodal content, as a foundational ability for real-world applications, remains underexplored. In this work, we present Needle In A Multimodal Haystack (MM-NIAH), the first benchmark specifically designed to systematically evaluate the capability of existing MLLMs to comprehend long multimodal documents. Our benchmark includes three types of evaluation tasks: multimodal retrieval, counting, and reasoning. In each task, the model is required to answer the questions according to different key information scattered throughout the given multimodal document. Evaluating the leading MLLMs on MM-NIAH, we observe that existing models still have significant room for improvement on these tasks, especially on vision-centric evaluation. We hope this work can provide a platform for further research on long multimodal document comprehension and contribute to the advancement of MLLMs. Code and benchmark are released at

[354] 2406.07231

Decipherment-Aware Multilingual Learning in Jointly Trained Language Models

The principle that governs unsupervised multilingual learning (UCL) in jointly trained language models (mBERT as a popular example) is still being debated. Many find it surprising that one can achieve UCL with multiple monolingual corpora. In this work, we anchor UCL in the context of language decipherment and show that the joint training methodology is a decipherment process pivotal for UCL. In a controlled setting, we investigate the effect of different decipherment settings on the multilingual learning performance and consolidate the existing opinions on the contributing factors to multilinguality. From an information-theoretic perspective we draw a limit to the UCL performance and demonstrate the importance of token alignment in challenging decipherment settings caused by differences in the data domain, language order and tokenization granularity. Lastly, we apply lexical alignment to mBERT and investigate the contribution of aligning different lexicon groups to downstream performance.

[355] 2406.07232

DUAL-REFLECT: Enhancing Large Language Models for Reflective Translation through Dual Learning Feedback Mechanisms

Recently, large language models (LLMs) enhanced by self-reflection have achieved promising performance on machine translation. The key idea is guiding LLMs to generate translation with human-like feedback. However, existing self-reflection methods lack effective feedback information, limiting the translation performance. To address this, we introduce a DUAL-REFLECT framework, leveraging the dual learning of translation tasks to provide effective feedback, thereby enhancing the models' self-reflective abilities and improving translation performance. The application of this method across various translation tasks has proven its effectiveness in improving translation accuracy and eliminating ambiguities, especially in translation tasks with low-resource language pairs.

[356] 2406.07234

OPFData: Large-scale datasets for AC optimal power flow with topological perturbations

Solving the AC optimal power flow problem (AC-OPF) is critical to the efficient and safe planning and operation of power grids. Small efficiency improvements in this domain have the potential to lead to billions of dollars of cost savings, and significant reductions in emissions from fossil fuel generators. Recent work on data-driven solution methods for AC-OPF shows the potential for large speed improvements compared to traditional solvers; however, no large-scale open datasets for this problem exist. We present the largest readily-available collection of solved AC-OPF problems to date. This collection is orders of magnitude larger than existing readily-available datasets, allowing training of high-capacity data-driven models. Uniquely, it includes topological perturbations - a critical requirement for usage in realistic power grid operations. We hope this resource will spur the community to scale research to larger grid sizes with variable topology.

[357] 2406.07236

Let Go of Your Labels with Unsupervised Transfer

Foundation vision-language models have enabled remarkable zero-shot transferability of the pre-trained representations to a wide range of downstream tasks. However, to solve a new task, zero-shot transfer still necessitates human guidance to define visual categories that appear in the data. Here, we show that fully unsupervised transfer emerges when searching for the labeling of a dataset that induces maximal margin classifiers in representation spaces of different foundation models. We present TURTLE, a fully unsupervised method that effectively employs this guiding principle to uncover the underlying labeling of a downstream dataset without any supervision and task-specific representation learning. We evaluate TURTLE on a diverse benchmark suite of 26 datasets and show that it achieves new state-of-the-art unsupervised performance. Furthermore, TURTLE, although being fully unsupervised, outperforms zero-shot transfer baselines on a wide range of datasets. In particular, TURTLE matches the average performance of CLIP zero-shot on 26 datasets by employing the same representation space, spanning a wide range of architectures and model sizes. By guiding the search for the underlying labeling using the representation spaces of two foundation models, TURTLE surpasses zero-shot transfer and unsupervised prompt tuning baselines, demonstrating the surprising power and effectiveness of unsupervised transfer.

[358] 2406.07239

On the Hallucination in Simultaneous Machine Translation

It is widely known that hallucination is a critical issue in Simultaneous Machine Translation (SiMT) due to the absence of source-side information. While many efforts have been made to enhance performance for SiMT, few of them attempt to understand and analyze hallucination in SiMT. Therefore, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of hallucination in SiMT from two perspectives: understanding the distribution of hallucination words and the target-side context usage of them. Intensive experiments demonstrate some valuable findings and particularly show that it is possible to alleviate hallucination by decreasing the over usage of target-side information for SiMT.

[359] 2406.07243

MBBQ: A Dataset for Cross-Lingual Comparison of Stereotypes in Generative LLMs

Generative large language models (LLMs) have been shown to exhibit harmful biases and stereotypes. While safety fine-tuning typically takes place in English, if at all, these models are being used by speakers of many different languages. There is existing evidence that the performance of these models is inconsistent across languages and that they discriminate based on demographic factors of the user. Motivated by this, we investigate whether the social stereotypes exhibited by LLMs differ as a function of the language used to prompt them, while controlling for cultural differences and task accuracy. To this end, we present MBBQ (Multilingual Bias Benchmark for Question-answering), a carefully curated version of the English BBQ dataset extended to Dutch, Spanish, and Turkish, which measures stereotypes commonly held across these languages. We further complement MBBQ with a parallel control dataset to measure task performance on the question-answering task independently of bias. Our results based on several open-source and proprietary LLMs confirm that some non-English languages suffer from bias more than English, even when controlling for cultural shifts. Moreover, we observe significant cross-lingual differences in bias behaviour for all except the most accurate models. With the release of MBBQ, we hope to encourage further research on bias in multilingual settings. The dataset and code are available at

[360] 2406.07246

Marginalization Consistent Mixture of Separable Flows for Probabilistic Irregular Time Series Forecasting

Probabilistic forecasting models for joint distributions of targets in irregular time series are a heavily under-researched area in machine learning with, to the best of our knowledge, only three models researched so far: GPR, the Gaussian Process Regression model~\citep{Durichen2015.Multitask}, TACTiS, the Transformer-Attentional Copulas for Time Series~\cite{Drouin2022.Tactis, ashok2024tactis} and ProFITi \citep{Yalavarthi2024.Probabilistica}, a multivariate normalizing flow model based on invertible attention layers. While ProFITi, thanks to using multivariate normalizing flows, is the more expressive model with better predictive performance, we will show that it suffers from marginalization inconsistency: it does not guarantee that the marginal distributions of a subset of variables in its predictive distributions coincide with the directly predicted distributions of these variables. Also, TACTiS does not provide any guarantees for marginalization consistency. We develop a novel probabilistic irregular time series forecasting model, Marginalization Consistent Mixtures of Separable Flows (moses), that mixes several normalizing flows with (i) Gaussian Processes with full covariance matrix as source distributions and (ii) a separable invertible transformation, aiming to combine the expressivity of normalizing flows with the marginalization consistency of Gaussians. In experiments on four different datasets we show that moses outperforms other state-of-the-art marginalization consistent models, performs on par with ProFITi, but different from ProFITi, guarantee marginalization consistency.

[361] 2406.07251

Is One GPU Enough? Pushing Image Generation at Higher-Resolutions with Foundation Models

In this work, we introduce Pixelsmith, a zero-shot text-to-image generative framework to sample images at higher resolutions with a single GPU. We are the first to show that it is possible to scale the output of a pre-trained diffusion model by a factor of 1000, opening the road for gigapixel image generation at no additional cost. Our cascading method uses the image generated at the lowest resolution as a baseline to sample at higher resolutions. For the guidance, we introduce the Slider, a tunable mechanism that fuses the overall structure contained in the first-generated image with enhanced fine details. At each inference step, we denoise patches rather than the entire latent space, minimizing memory demands such that a single GPU can handle the process, regardless of the image's resolution. Our experimental results show that Pixelsmith not only achieves higher quality and diversity compared to existing techniques, but also reduces sampling time and artifacts. The code for our work is available at

[362] 2406.07252

Optimal Electrical Oblivious Routing on Expanders

In this paper, we investigate the question of whether the electrical flow routing is a good oblivious routing scheme on an $m$-edge graph $G = (V, E)$ that is a $\Phi$-expander, i.e. where $\lvert \partial S \rvert \geq \Phi \cdot \mathrm{vol}(S)$ for every $S \subseteq V, \mathrm{vol}(S) \leq \mathrm{vol}(V)/2$. Beyond its simplicity and structural importance, this question is well-motivated by the current state-of-the-art of fast algorithms for $\ell_{\infty}$ oblivious routings that reduce to the expander-case which is in turn solved by electrical flow routing. Our main result proves that the electrical routing is an $O(\Phi^{-1} \log m)$-competitive oblivious routing in the $\ell_1$- and $\ell_\infty$-norms. We further observe that the oblivious routing is $O(\log^2 m)$-competitive in the $\ell_2$-norm and, in fact, $O(\log m)$-competitive if $\ell_2$-localization is $O(\log m)$ which is widely believed. Using these three upper bounds, we can smoothly interpolate to obtain upper bounds for every $p \in [2, \infty]$ and $q$ given by $1/p + 1/q = 1$. Assuming $\ell_2$-localization in $O(\log m)$, we obtain that in $\ell_p$ and $\ell_q$, the electrical oblivious routing is $O(\Phi^{-(1-2/p)}\log m)$ competitive. Using the currently known result for $\ell_2$-localization, this ratio deteriorates by at most a sublogarithmic factor for every $p, q \neq 2$. We complement our upper bounds with lower bounds that show that the electrical routing for any such $p$ and $q$ is $\Omega(\Phi^{-(1-2/p)}\log m)$-competitive. This renders our results in $\ell_1$ and $\ell_{\infty}$ unconditionally tight up to constants, and the result in any $\ell_p$- and $\ell_q$-norm to be tight in case of $\ell_2$-localization in $O(\log m)$.

[363] 2406.07253

Hybrid Reinforcement Learning from Offline Observation Alone

We consider the hybrid reinforcement learning setting where the agent has access to both offline data and online interactive access. While Reinforcement Learning (RL) research typically assumes offline data contains complete action, reward and transition information, datasets with only state information (also known as observation-only datasets) are more general, abundant and practical. This motivates our study of the hybrid RL with observation-only offline dataset framework. While the task of competing with the best policy "covered" by the offline data can be solved if a reset model of the environment is provided (i.e., one that can be reset to any state), we show evidence of hardness when only given the weaker trace model (i.e., one can only reset to the initial states and must produce full traces through the environment), without further assumption of admissibility of the offline data. Under the admissibility assumptions -- that the offline data could actually be produced by the policy class we consider -- we propose the first algorithm in the trace model setting that provably matches the performance of algorithms that leverage a reset model. We also perform proof-of-concept experiments that suggest the effectiveness of our algorithm in practice.

[364] 2406.07254

SRC4VC: Smartphone-Recorded Corpus for Voice Conversion Benchmark

We present SRC4VC, a new corpus containing 11 hours of speech recorded on smartphones by 100 Japanese speakers. Although high-quality multi-speaker corpora can advance voice conversion (VC) technologies, they are not always suitable for testing VC when low-quality speech recording is given as the input. To this end, we first asked 100 crowdworkers to record their voice samples using smartphones. Then, we annotated the recorded samples with speaker-wise recording-quality scores and utterance-wise perceived emotion labels. We also benchmark SRC4VC on any-to-any VC, in which we trained a multi-speaker VC model on high-quality speech and used the SRC4VC speakers' voice samples as the source in VC. The results show that the recording quality mismatch between the training and evaluation data significantly degrades the VC performance, which can be improved by applying speech enhancement to the low-quality source speech samples.

[365] 2406.07255

Towards Realistic Data Generation for Real-World Super-Resolution

Existing image super-resolution (SR) techniques often fail to generalize effectively in complex real-world settings due to the significant divergence between training data and practical scenarios. To address this challenge, previous efforts have either manually simulated intricate physical-based degradations or utilized learning-based techniques, yet these approaches remain inadequate for producing large-scale, realistic, and diverse data simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a novel Realistic Decoupled Data Generator (RealDGen), an unsupervised learning data generation framework designed for real-world super-resolution. We meticulously develop content and degradation extraction strategies, which are integrated into a novel content-degradation decoupled diffusion model to create realistic low-resolution images from unpaired real LR and HR images. Extensive experiments demonstrate that RealDGen excels in generating large-scale, high-quality paired data that mirrors real-world degradations, significantly advancing the performance of popular SR models on various real-world benchmarks.

[366] 2406.07256

AS-70: A Mandarin stuttered speech dataset for automatic speech recognition and stuttering event detection

The rapid advancements in speech technologies over the past two decades have led to human-level performance in tasks like automatic speech recognition (ASR) for fluent speech. However, the efficacy of these models diminishes when applied to atypical speech, such as stuttering. This paper introduces AS-70, the first publicly available Mandarin stuttered speech dataset, which stands out as the largest dataset in its category. Encompassing conversational and voice command reading speech, AS-70 includes verbatim manual transcription, rendering it suitable for various speech-related tasks. Furthermore, baseline systems are established, and experimental results are presented for ASR and stuttering event detection (SED) tasks. By incorporating this dataset into the model fine-tuning, significant improvements in the state-of-the-art ASR models, e.g., Whisper and Hubert, are observed, enhancing their inclusivity in addressing stuttered speech.

[367] 2406.07257

Scholarly Question Answering using Large Language Models in the NFDI4DataScience Gateway

This paper introduces a scholarly Question Answering (QA) system on top of the NFDI4DataScience Gateway, employing a Retrieval Augmented Generation-based (RAG) approach. The NFDI4DS Gateway, as a foundational framework, offers a unified and intuitive interface for querying various scientific databases using federated search. The RAG-based scholarly QA, powered by a Large Language Model (LLM), facilitates dynamic interaction with search results, enhancing filtering capabilities and fostering a conversational engagement with the Gateway search. The effectiveness of both the Gateway and the scholarly QA system is demonstrated through experimental analysis.

[368] 2406.07259

Scientific Computing with Large Language Models

We provide an overview of the emergence of large language models for scientific computing applications. We highlight use cases that involve natural language processing of scientific documents and specialized languages designed to describe physical systems. For the former, chatbot style applications appear in medicine, mathematics and physics and can be used iteratively with domain experts for problem solving. We also review specialized languages within molecular biology, the languages of molecules, proteins, and DNA where language models are being used to predict properties and even create novel physical systems at much faster rates than traditional computing methods.

[369] 2406.07263

Active learning for affinity prediction of antibodies

The primary objective of most lead optimization campaigns is to enhance the binding affinity of ligands. For large molecules such as antibodies, identifying mutations that enhance antibody affinity is particularly challenging due to the combinatorial explosion of potential mutations. When the structure of the antibody-antigen complex is available, relative binding free energy (RBFE) methods can offer valuable insights into how different mutations will impact the potency and selectivity of a drug candidate, thereby reducing the reliance on costly and time-consuming wet-lab experiments. However, accurately simulating the physics of large molecules is computationally intensive. We present an active learning framework that iteratively proposes promising sequences for simulators to evaluate, thereby accelerating the search for improved binders. We explore different modeling approaches to identify the most effective surrogate model for this task, and evaluate our framework both using pre-computed pools of data and in a realistic full-loop setting.

[370] 2406.07264

Personalisation of d'Hondt's algorithm and its use in recommender ecosystems

In the area of recommender systems, we are dealing with aggregations and potential of personalisation in ecosystems. Personalisation is based on separate aggregation models for each user. This approach reveals differences in user preferences, especially when they are in strict disagreement with global preferences. Hybrid models are based on combination of global and personalised model of weights for d'Hondt's voting algorithm. This paper shows that personalisation combined with hybridisation on case-by-case basis outperforms non-personalised d'Hondt's algorithm on datasets RetailRocket and SLANTour. By taking into account voices of minorities we achieved better click through rate.

[371] 2406.07266

Efficient 3D Molecular Generation with Flow Matching and Scale Optimal Transport

Generative models for 3D drug design have gained prominence recently for their potential to design ligands directly within protein pockets. Current approaches, however, often suffer from very slow sampling times or generate molecules with poor chemical validity. Addressing these limitations, we propose Semla, a scalable E(3)-equivariant message passing architecture. We further introduce a molecular generation model, MolFlow, which is trained using flow matching along with scale optimal transport, a novel extension of equivariant optimal transport. Our model produces state-of-the-art results on benchmark datasets with just 100 sampling steps. Crucially, MolFlow samples high quality molecules with as few as 20 steps, corresponding to a two order-of-magnitude speed-up compared to state-of-the-art, without sacrificing performance. Furthermore, we highlight limitations of current evaluation methods for 3D generation and propose new benchmark metrics for unconditional molecular generators. Finally, using these new metrics, we compare our model's ability to generate high quality samples against current approaches and further demonstrate MolFlow's strong performance.

[372] 2406.07268

Advancing Grounded Multimodal Named Entity Recognition via LLM-Based Reformulation and Box-Based Segmentation

Grounded Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (GMNER) task aims to identify named entities, entity types and their corresponding visual regions. GMNER task exhibits two challenging attributes: 1) The tenuous correlation between images and text on social media contributes to a notable proportion of named entities being ungroundable. 2) There exists a distinction between coarse-grained noun phrases used in similar tasks (e.g., phrase localization) and fine-grained named entities. In this paper, we propose RiVEG, a unified framework that reformulates GMNER into a joint MNER-VE-VG task by leveraging large language models (LLMs) as connecting bridges. This reformulation brings two benefits: 1) It enables us to optimize the MNER module for optimal MNER performance and eliminates the need to pre-extract region features using object detection methods, thus naturally addressing the two major limitations of existing GMNER methods. 2) The introduction of Entity Expansion Expression module and Visual Entailment (VE) module unifies Visual Grounding (VG) and Entity Grounding (EG). This endows the proposed framework with unlimited data and model scalability. Furthermore, to address the potential ambiguity stemming from the coarse-grained bounding box output in GMNER, we further construct the new Segmented Multimodal Named Entity Recognition (SMNER) task and corresponding Twitter-SMNER dataset aimed at generating fine-grained segmentation masks, and experimentally demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using box prompt-based Segment Anything Model (SAM) to empower any GMNER model with the ability to accomplish the SMNER task. Extensive experiments demonstrate that RiVEG significantly outperforms SoTA methods on four datasets across the MNER, GMNER, and SMNER tasks.

[373] 2406.07270

3D Voxel Maps to 2D Occupancy Maps for Efficient Path Planning for Aerial and Ground Robots

This article introduces a novel method for converting 3D voxel maps, commonly utilized by robots for localization and navigation, into 2D occupancy maps that can be used for more computationally efficient large-scale navigation, both in the sense of computation time and memory usage. The main aim is to effectively integrate the distinct mapping advantages of 2D and 3D maps to enable efficient path planning for both unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The proposed method uses the free space representation in the UFOMap mapping solution to generate 2D occupancy maps with height and slope information. In the process of 3D to 2D map conversion, the proposed method conducts safety checks and eliminates free spaces in the map with dimensions (in the height axis) lower than the robot's safety margins. This allows an aerial or ground robot to navigate safely, relying primarily on the 2D map generated by the method. Additionally, the method extracts height and slope data from the 3D voxel map. The slope data identifies areas too steep for a ground robot to traverse, marking them as occupied, thus enabling a more accurate representation of the terrain for ground robots. The height data is utilized to convert paths generated using the 2D map into paths in 3D space for both UAVs and UGVs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated in two different environments.

[374] 2406.07271

Exploiting Heterogeneity in the Decentralised Control of Platoons

This paper investigates the use of decentralised control architectures with heterogeneous dynamics for improving performance in large-scale systems. Our focus is on two well-known decentralised approaches; the 'predecessor following' and 'bidirectional architectures' for vehicle platooning. The former, utilising homogeneous control dynamics, is known to face exponential growth in disturbance amplification throughout the platoon, resulting in poor scalability properties. We demonstrate that by incorporating heterogeneous control system dynamics, this limitation disappears entirely, even under bandwidth constraints. Furthermore, we reveal that introducing heterogeneity in the bidirectional architecture allows the platoon's behaviour to be rendered independent of its length, allowing for highly scalable performance.

[375] 2406.07272

Integrated Near Field Sensing and Communications Using Unitary Approximate Message Passing Based Matrix Factorization

Due to the utilization of large antenna arrays at base stations (BSs) and the operations of wireless communications in high frequency bands, mobile terminals often find themselves in the near-field of the array aperture. In this work, we address the signal processing challenges of integrated near-field localization and communication in uplink transmission of an integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) system, where the BS performs joint near-field localization and signal detection (JNFLSD). We show that JNFLSD can be formulated as a matrix factorization (MF) problem with proper structures imposed on the factor matrices. Then, leveraging the variational inference (VI) and unitary approximate message passing (UAMP), we develop a low complexity Bayesian approach to MF, called UAMP-MF, to handle a generic MF problem. We then apply the UAMP-MF algorithm to solve the JNFLSD problem, where the factor matrix structures are fully exploited. Extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

[376] 2406.07275

DCA-Bench: A Benchmark for Dataset Curation Agents

The quality of datasets plays an increasingly crucial role in the research and development of modern artificial intelligence (AI). Despite the proliferation of open dataset platforms nowadays, data quality issues, such as insufficient documentation, inaccurate annotations, and ethical concerns, remain common in datasets widely used in AI. Furthermore, these issues are often subtle and difficult to be detected by rule-based scripts, requiring expensive manual identification and verification by dataset users or maintainers. With the increasing capability of large language models (LLMs), it is promising to streamline the curation of datasets with LLM agents. In this work, as the initial step towards this goal, we propose a dataset curation agent benchmark, DCA-Bench, to measure LLM agents' capability of detecting hidden dataset quality issues. Specifically, we collect diverse real-world dataset quality issues from eight open dataset platforms as a testbed. Additionally, to establish an automatic pipeline for evaluating the success of LLM agents, which requires a nuanced understanding of the agent outputs, we implement a dedicated Evaluator using another LLM agent. We demonstrate that the LLM-based Evaluator empirically aligns well with human evaluation, allowing reliable automatic evaluation on the proposed benchmark. We further conduct experiments on several baseline LLM agents on the proposed benchmark and demonstrate the complexity of the task, indicating that applying LLMs to real-world dataset curation still requires further in-depth exploration and innovation. Finally, the proposed benchmark can also serve as a testbed for measuring the capability of LLMs in problem discovery rather than just problem-solving. The benchmark suite is available at \url{}.

[377] 2406.07277

Speaking Your Language: Spatial Relationships in Interpretable Emergent Communication

Effective communication requires the ability to refer to specific parts of an observation in relation to others. While emergent communication literature shows success in developing various language properties, no research has shown the emergence of such positional references. This paper demonstrates how agents can communicate about spatial relationships within their observations. The results indicate that agents can develop a language capable of expressing the relationships between parts of their observation, achieving over 90% accuracy when trained in a referential game which requires such communication. Using a collocation measure, we demonstrate how the agents create such references. This analysis suggests that agents use a mixture of non-compositional and compositional messages to convey spatial relationships. We also show that the emergent language is interpretable by humans. The translation accuracy is tested by communicating with the receiver agent, where the receiver achieves over 78% accuracy using parts of this lexicon, confirming that the interpretation of the emergent language was successful.

[378] 2406.07278

On Kernel's Safety in the Spectre Era (Extended Version)

The efficacy of address space layout randomization has been formally demonstrated in a shared-memory model by Abadi et al., contingent on specific assumptions about victim programs. However, modern operating systems, implementing layout randomization in the kernel, diverge from these assumptions and operate on a separate memory model with communication through system calls. In this work, we relax Abadi et al.'s language assumptions while demonstrating that layout randomization offers a comparable safety guarantee in a system with memory separation. However, in practice, speculative execution and side-channels are recognized threats to layout randomization. We show that kernel safety cannot be restored for attackers capable of using side-channels and speculative execution and introduce a new condition, that allows us to formally prove kernel safety in the Spectre era. Our research demonstrates that under this condition, the system remains safe without relying on layout randomization. We also demonstrate that our condition can be sensibly weakened, leading to enforcement mechanisms that can guarantee kernel safety for safe system calls in the Spectre era.

[379] 2406.07280

Noise-Robust Voice Conversion by Conditional Denoising Training Using Latent Variables of Recording Quality and Environment

We propose noise-robust voice conversion (VC) which takes into account the recording quality and environment of noisy source speech. Conventional denoising training improves the noise robustness of a VC model by learning noisy-to-clean VC process. However, the naturalness of the converted speech is limited when the noise of the source speech is unseen during the training. To this end, our proposed training conditions a VC model on two latent variables representing the recording quality and environment of the source speech. These latent variables are derived from deep neural networks pre-trained on recording quality assessment and acoustic scene classification and calculated in an utterance-wise or frame-wise manner. As a result, the trained VC model can explicitly learn information about speech degradation during the training. Objective and subjective evaluations show that our training improves the quality of the converted speech compared to the conventional training.

[380] 2406.07282

Optimal policy design for decision problems under social influence

This paper focuses on devising strategies for control-oriented decision-making scenarios, in the presence of social and external influences, e.g. within recommending systems in social contexts. More precisely, we extend the classical Friedkin and Johnsen model of opinion dynamics to incorporate random factors, such as variability in individual predisposition, and uncertainty in social acceptance towards a specific action that a recommending system aims to promote. Furthermore, we formulate an optimization-based control problem aimed at fostering the social acceptance of particular actions within the network. Initially conceptualized as an economic cost minimization, in this preliminary work, we simplify our problem by reformulating it into an MPC framework. Through our analysis and numerical simulations, we illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodologies.

[381] 2406.07284

Unsupervised Object Detection with Theoretical Guarantees

Unsupervised object detection using deep neural networks is typically a difficult problem with few to no guarantees about the learned representation. In this work we present the first unsupervised object detection method that is theoretically guaranteed to recover the true object positions up to quantifiable small shifts. We develop an unsupervised object detection architecture and prove that the learned variables correspond to the true object positions up to small shifts related to the encoder and decoder receptive field sizes, the object sizes, and the widths of the Gaussians used in the rendering process. We perform detailed analysis of how the error depends on each of these variables and perform synthetic experiments validating our theoretical predictions up to a precision of individual pixels. We also perform experiments on CLEVR-based data and show that, unlike current SOTA object detection methods (SAM, CutLER), our method's prediction errors always lie within our theoretical bounds. We hope that this work helps open up an avenue of research into object detection methods with theoretical guarantees.

[382] 2406.07287

Bilingual Sexism Classification: Fine-Tuned XLM-RoBERTa and GPT-3.5 Few-Shot Learning

Sexism in online content is a pervasive issue that necessitates effective classification techniques to mitigate its harmful impact. Online platforms often have sexist comments and posts that create a hostile environment, especially for women and minority groups. This content not only spreads harmful stereotypes but also causes emotional harm. Reliable methods are essential to find and remove sexist content, making online spaces safer and more welcoming. Therefore, the sEXism Identification in Social neTworks (EXIST) challenge addresses this issue at CLEF 2024. This study aims to improve sexism identification in bilingual contexts (English and Spanish) by leveraging natural language processing models. The tasks are to determine whether a text is sexist and what the source intention behind it is. We fine-tuned the XLM-RoBERTa model and separately used GPT-3.5 with few-shot learning prompts to classify sexist content. The XLM-RoBERTa model exhibited robust performance in handling complex linguistic structures, while GPT-3.5's few-shot learning capability allowed for rapid adaptation to new data with minimal labeled examples. Our approach using XLM-RoBERTa achieved 4th place in the soft-soft evaluation of Task 1 (sexism identification). For Task 2 (source intention), we achieved 2nd place in the soft-soft evaluation.

[383] 2406.07288

Fine-tuning with HED-IT: The impact of human post-editing for dialogical language models

Automatic methods for generating and gathering linguistic data have proven effective for fine-tuning Language Models (LMs) in languages less resourced than English. Still, while there has been emphasis on data quantity, less attention has been given to its quality. In this work, we investigate the impact of human intervention on machine-generated data when fine-tuning dialogical models. In particular, we study (1) whether post-edited dialogues exhibit higher perceived quality compared to the originals that were automatically generated; (2) whether fine-tuning with post-edited dialogues results in noticeable differences in the generated outputs; and (3) whether post-edited dialogues influence the outcomes when considering the parameter size of the LMs. To this end we created HED-IT, a large-scale dataset where machine-generated dialogues are paired with the version post-edited by humans. Using both the edited and unedited portions of HED-IT, we fine-tuned three different sizes of an LM. Results from both human and automatic evaluation show that the different quality of training data is clearly perceived and it has an impact also on the models trained on such data. Additionally, our findings indicate that larger models are less sensitive to data quality, whereas this has a crucial impact on smaller models. These results enhance our comprehension of the impact of human intervention on training data in the development of high-quality LMs.

[384] 2406.07289

Can We Achieve High-quality Direct Speech-to-Speech Translation without Parallel Speech Data?

Recently proposed two-pass direct speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) models decompose the task into speech-to-text translation (S2TT) and text-to-speech (TTS) within an end-to-end model, yielding promising results. However, the training of these models still relies on parallel speech data, which is extremely challenging to collect. In contrast, S2TT and TTS have accumulated a large amount of data and pretrained models, which have not been fully utilized in the development of S2ST models. Inspired by this, in this paper, we first introduce a composite S2ST model named ComSpeech, which can seamlessly integrate any pretrained S2TT and TTS models into a direct S2ST model. Furthermore, to eliminate the reliance on parallel speech data, we propose a novel training method ComSpeech-ZS that solely utilizes S2TT and TTS data. It aligns representations in the latent space through contrastive learning, enabling the speech synthesis capability learned from the TTS data to generalize to S2ST in a zero-shot manner. Experimental results on the CVSS dataset show that when the parallel speech data is available, ComSpeech surpasses previous two-pass models like UnitY and Translatotron 2 in both translation quality and decoding speed. When there is no parallel speech data, ComSpeech-ZS lags behind \name by only 0.7 ASR-BLEU and outperforms the cascaded models.

[385] 2406.07291

Joint Learning of Context and Feedback Embeddings in Spoken Dialogue

Short feedback responses, such as backchannels, play an important role in spoken dialogue. So far, most of the modeling of feedback responses has focused on their timing, often neglecting how their lexical and prosodic form influence their contextual appropriateness and conversational function. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of embedding short dialogue contexts and feedback responses in the same representation space using a contrastive learning objective. In our evaluation, we primarily focus on how such embeddings can be used as a context-feedback appropriateness metric and thus for feedback response ranking in U.S. English dialogues. Our results show that the model outperforms humans given the same ranking task and that the learned embeddings carry information about the conversational function of feedback responses.

[386] 2406.07293

Exploring Cognitive Bias Triggers in COVID-19 Misinformation Tweets: A Bot vs. Human Perspective

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the proliferation of misinformation on social media has been rapidly increasing. Automated Bot authors are believed to be significant contributors of this surge. It is hypothesized that Bot authors deliberately craft online misinformation aimed at triggering and exploiting human cognitive biases, thereby enhancing tweet engagement and persuasive influence. This study investigates this hypothesis by studying triggers of biases embedded in Bot-authored misinformation and comparing them with their counterparts, Human-authored misinformation. We complied a Misinfo Dataset that contains COVID-19 vaccine-related misinformation tweets annotated by author identities, Bots vs Humans, from Twitter during the vaccination period from July 2020 to July 2021. We developed an algorithm to computationally automate the extraction of triggers for eight cognitive biase. Our analysis revealed that the Availability Bias, Cognitive Dissonance, and Confirmation Bias were most commonly present in misinformation, with Bot-authored tweets exhibiting a greater prevalence, with distinct patterns in utilizing bias triggers between Humans and Bots. We further linked these bias triggers with engagement metrics, inferring their potential influence on tweet engagement and persuasiveness. Overall, our findings indicate that bias-triggering tactics have been more influential on Bot-authored tweets than Human-authored tweets. While certain bias triggers boosted engagement for Bot-authored tweets, some other bias triggers unexpectedly decreased it. Conversely, triggers of most biases appeared to be unrelated to the engagement of Human-authored tweets. Our work sheds light on the differential utilization and effect of persuasion strategies between Bot-authored and Human-authored misinformation from the lens of human biases, offering insights for the development of effective counter-measures.

[387] 2406.07294

OTO Planner: An Efficient Only Travelling Once Exploration Planner for Complex and Unknown Environments

Autonomous exploration in complex and cluttered environments is essential for various applications. However, there are many challenges due to the lack of global heuristic information. Existing exploration methods suffer from the repeated paths and considerable computational resource requirement in large-scale environments. To address the above issues, this letter proposes an efficient exploration planner that reduces repeated paths in complex environments, hence it is called "Only Travelling Once Planner". OTO Planner includes fast frontier updating, viewpoint evaluation and viewpoint refinement. A selective frontier updating mechanism is designed, saving a large amount of computational resources. In addition, a novel viewpoint evaluation system is devised to reduce the repeated paths utilizing the enclosed sub-region detection. Besides, a viewpoint refinement approach is raised to concentrate the redundant viewpoints, leading to smoother paths. We conduct extensive simulation and real-world experiments to validate the proposed method. Compared to the state-of-the-art approach, the proposed method reduces the exploration time and movement distance by 10%-20% and improves the speed of frontier detection by 6-9 times.

[388] 2406.07295

Multi-objective Reinforcement learning from AI Feedback

This paper presents Multi-Objective Reinforcement Learning from AI Feedback (MORLAIF), a novel approach to improving the alignment and performance of language models trained using reinforcement learning from AI feedback (RLAIF). In contrast to standard approaches that train a single preference model to represent all human preferences, MORLAIF decomposes this task into multiple simpler principles, such as toxicity, factuality, and sycophancy. Separate preference models are trained for each principle using feedback from GPT-3.5-Turbo. These preference model scores are then combined using different scalarization functions to provide a reward signal for Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO) training of the target language model. Our experiments indicate that MORLAIF outperforms the standard RLAIF baselines and that MORLAIF can be used to align larger language models using smaller ones. Surprisingly, the choice of scalarization function does not appear to significantly impact the results.

[389] 2406.07296

Instruct Large Language Models to Drive like Humans

Motion planning in complex scenarios is the core challenge in autonomous driving. Conventional methods apply predefined rules or learn from driving data to plan the future trajectory. Recent methods seek the knowledge preserved in large language models (LLMs) and apply them in the driving scenarios. Despite the promising results, it is still unclear whether the LLM learns the underlying human logic to drive. In this paper, we propose an InstructDriver method to transform LLM into a motion planner with explicit instruction tuning to align its behavior with humans. We derive driving instruction data based on human logic (e.g., do not cause collisions) and traffic rules (e.g., proceed only when green lights). We then employ an interpretable InstructChain module to further reason the final planning reflecting the instructions. Our InstructDriver allows the injection of human rules and learning from driving data, enabling both interpretability and data scalability. Different from existing methods that experimented on closed-loop or simulated settings, we adopt the real-world closed-loop motion planning nuPlan benchmark for better evaluation. InstructDriver demonstrates the effectiveness of the LLM planner in a real-world closed-loop setting. Our code is publicly available at

[390] 2406.07297

Using Single-Neuron Representations for Hierarchical Concepts as Abstractions of Multi-Neuron Representations

Brain networks exhibit complications such as noise, neuron failures, and partial synaptic connectivity. These can make it difficult to model and analyze their behavior. This paper describes a way to address this difficulty, namely, breaking down the models and analysis using levels of abstraction. We describe the approach for the problem of recognizing hierarchically-structured concepts. Realistic models for representing hierarchical concepts use multiple neurons to represent each concept [10,1,7,3]. These models are intended to capture some behaviors of actual brains; however, their analysis can be complicated. Mechanisms based on single-neuron representations can be easier to understand and analyze [2,4], but are less realistic. Here we show that these two types of models are compatible, and in fact, networks with single-neuron representations can be regarded as formal abstractions of networks with multi-neuron representations. We do this by relating networks with multi-neuron representations like those in [3] to networks with single-neuron representations like those in [2]. Specifically, we consider two networks, H and L, with multi-neuron representations, one with high connectivity and one with low connectivity. We define two abstract networks, A1 and A2, with single-neuron representations, and prove that they recognize concepts correctly. Then we prove correctness of H and L by relating them to A1 and A2. In this way, we decompose the analysis of each multi-neuron network into two parts: analysis of abstract, single-neuron networks, and proofs of formal relationships between the multi-neuron network and single-neuron networks. These examples illustrate what we consider to be a promising, tractable approach to analyzing other complex brain mechanisms.

[391] 2406.07298

Enhanced In-Flight Connectivity for Urban Air Mobility via LEO Satellite Networks

Urban Air Mobility (UAM) is the envisioned future of inter-city aerial transportation. This paper presents a novel, in-flight connectivity link allocation method for UAM, which dynamically switches between terrestrial cellular and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks based on real-time conditions. Our approach prefers cellular networks for cost efficiency, switching to LEO satellites under poor cellular conditions to ensure continuous UAM connectivity. By integrating real-time metrics like signal strength, network congestion, and flight trajectory into the selection process, our algorithm effectively balances cost, minimum data rate requirements, and continuity of communication. Numerical results validate minimization of data-loss while ensuring an optimal selection from the set of available above-threshold data rates at every time sample. Furthermore, insights derived from our study emphasize the importance of hybrid connectivity solutions in ensuring seamless, uninterrupted communication for future urban aerial vehicles.

[392] 2406.07299

Exploring Large Language Models for Relevance Judgments in Tetun

The Cranfield paradigm has served as a foundational approach for developing test collections, with relevance judgments typically conducted by human assessors. However, the emergence of large language models (LLMs) has introduced new possibilities for automating these tasks. This paper explores the feasibility of using LLMs to automate relevance assessments, particularly within the context of low-resource languages. In our study, LLMs are employed to automate relevance judgment tasks, by providing a series of query-document pairs in Tetun as the input text. The models are tasked with assigning relevance scores to each pair, where these scores are then compared to those from human annotators to evaluate the inter-annotator agreement levels. Our investigation reveals results that align closely with those reported in studies of high-resource languages.

[393] 2406.07301

Optimal Scheduling of Battery Storage Systems in the Swedish Multi-FCR Market Incorporating Battery Degradation and Technical Requirements

This paper develops a novel mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for optimal participation of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in the Swedish frequency containment reserve (FCR) markets. The developed model aims to maximize the battery owner's potential profit by considering battery degradation and participation in multiple FCR markets, i.e., FCR in normal operation (FCR-N), and FCR in disturbances (FCR-D) for up- and down-regulations. Accordingly, a precise formulation of a detailed battery degradation model and adherence to the technical requirements of the Swedish FCR markets are incorporated into the developed model. To achieve more practical results, simulations are conducted based on one minute time step realistic data for the whole year 2022. The results show a potential profit of 708 thousand Euros for a 1MW/1MWh BESS by participating in multi-FCR market. Analyzing the impact of considering degradation in the optimization problem has shown that the annual battery aging cost could decrease by 5%-29% without a significant effect on profit. The proposed model can be practically used by flexibility asset owners to achieve profitable and sustainable operation strategies that reduce battery degradation.

[394] 2406.07302

BertaQA: How Much Do Language Models Know About Local Culture?

Large Language Models (LLMs) exhibit extensive knowledge about the world, but most evaluations have been limited to global or anglocentric subjects. This raises the question of how well these models perform on topics relevant to other cultures, whose presence on the web is not that prominent. To address this gap, we introduce BertaQA, a multiple-choice trivia dataset that is parallel in English and Basque. The dataset consists of a local subset with questions pertinent to the Basque culture, and a global subset with questions of broader interest. We find that state-of-the-art LLMs struggle with local cultural knowledge, even as they excel on global topics. However, we show that continued pre-training in Basque significantly improves the models' performance on Basque culture, even when queried in English. To our knowledge, this is the first solid evidence of knowledge transfer from a low-resource to a high-resource language. Our analysis sheds light on the complex interplay between language and knowledge, and reveals that some prior findings do not fully hold when reassessed on local topics. Our dataset and evaluation code are available under open licenses at

[395] 2406.07303

Minimal-norm solution to the Fredholm integral equations of the first kind via the H-HK formulation

The Fredholm integral equations of the first kind is a typical ill-posed problem, so that it is usually difficult to obtain its analytical minimal-norm solution. This paper gives a closed-form minimal-norm solution for the degenerate kernel equations based on the H-HK formulation. Furthermore, it has been shown that the structure of solutions to degenerate kernel equations and matrix equations are consistent. Subsequently, the obtained results are extended to non-degenerate integral equations. Finally, the validity and applicability of the proposed method are demonstrated by some examples.

[396] 2406.07314

Rethinking the impact of noisy labels in graph classification: A utility and privacy perspective

Graph neural networks based on message-passing mechanisms have achieved advanced results in graph classification tasks. However, their generalization performance degrades when noisy labels are present in the training data. Most existing noisy labeling approaches focus on the visual domain or graph node classification tasks and analyze the impact of noisy labels only from a utility perspective. Unlike existing work, in this paper, we measure the effects of noise labels on graph classification from data privacy and model utility perspectives. We find that noise labels degrade the model's generalization performance and enhance the ability of membership inference attacks on graph data privacy. To this end, we propose the robust graph neural network approach with noisy labeled graph classification. Specifically, we first accurately filter the noisy samples by high-confidence samples and the first feature principal component vector of each class. Then, the robust principal component vectors and the model output under data augmentation are utilized to achieve noise label correction guided by dual spatial information. Finally, supervised graph contrastive learning is introduced to enhance the embedding quality of the model and protect the privacy of the training graph data. The utility and privacy of the proposed method are validated by comparing twelve different methods on eight real graph classification datasets. Compared with the state-of-the-art methods, the RGLC method achieves at most and at least 7.8% and 0.8% performance gain at 30% noisy labeling rate, respectively, and reduces the accuracy of privacy attacks to below 60%.

[397] 2406.07315

Fetch-A-Set: A Large-Scale OCR-Free Benchmark for Historical Document Retrieval

This paper introduces Fetch-A-Set (FAS), a comprehensive benchmark tailored for legislative historical document analysis systems, addressing the challenges of large-scale document retrieval in historical contexts. The benchmark comprises a vast repository of documents dating back to the XVII century, serving both as a training resource and an evaluation benchmark for retrieval systems. It fills a critical gap in the literature by focusing on complex extractive tasks within the domain of cultural heritage. The proposed benchmark tackles the multifaceted problem of historical document analysis, including text-to-image retrieval for queries and image-to-text topic extraction from document fragments, all while accommodating varying levels of document legibility. This benchmark aims to spur advancements in the field by providing baselines and data for the development and evaluation of robust historical document retrieval systems, particularly in scenarios characterized by wide historical spectrum.

[398] 2406.07318

Embedded Graph Convolutional Networks for Real-Time Event Data Processing on SoC FPGAs

The utilisation of event cameras represents an important and swiftly evolving trend aimed at addressing the constraints of traditional video systems. Particularly within the automotive domain, these cameras find significant relevance for their integration into embedded real-time systems due to lower latency and energy consumption. One effective approach to ensure the necessary throughput and latency for event processing systems is through the utilisation of graph convolutional networks (GCNs). In this study, we introduce a series of hardware-aware optimisations tailored for PointNet++, a GCN architecture designed for point cloud processing. The proposed techniques result in more than a 100-fold reduction in model size compared to Asynchronous Event-based GNN (AEGNN), one of the most recent works in the field, with a relatively small decrease in accuracy (2.3% for N-Caltech101 classification, 1.7% for N-Cars classification), thus following the TinyML trend. Based on software research, we designed a custom EFGCN (Event-Based FPGA-accelerated Graph Convolutional Network) and we implemented it on ZCU104 SoC FPGA platform, achieving a throughput of 13.3 million events per second (MEPS) and real-time partially asynchronous processing with a latency of 4.47 ms. We also address the scalability of the proposed hardware model to improve the obtained accuracy score. To the best of our knowledge, this study marks the first endeavour in accelerating PointNet++ networks on SoC FPGAs, as well as the first hardware architecture exploration of graph convolutional networks implementation for real-time continuous event data processing. We publish both software and hardware source code in an open repository:*** (will be published upon acceptance).

[399] 2406.07320

A Framework for Efficient Model Evaluation through Stratification, Sampling, and Estimation

Model performance evaluation is a critical and expensive task in machine learning and computer vision. Without clear guidelines, practitioners often estimate model accuracy using a one-time random selection of the data. However, by employing tailored sampling and estimation strategies, one can obtain more precise estimates and reduce annotation costs. In this paper, we propose a statistical framework for model evaluation that includes stratification, sampling, and estimation components. We examine the statistical properties of each component and evaluate their efficiency (precision). One key result of our work is that stratification via k-means clustering based on accurate predictions of model performance yields efficient estimators. Our experiments on computer vision datasets show that this method consistently provides more precise accuracy estimates than the traditional simple random sampling, even with substantial efficiency gains of 10x. We also find that model-assisted estimators, which leverage predictions of model accuracy on the unlabeled portion of the dataset, are generally more efficient than the traditional estimates based solely on the labeled data.

[400] 2406.07323

Should XAI Nudge Human Decisions with Explanation Biasing?

This paper reviews our previous trials of Nudge-XAI, an approach that introduces automatic biases into explanations from explainable AIs (XAIs) with the aim of leading users to better decisions, and it discusses the benefits and challenges. Nudge-XAI uses a user model that predicts the influence of providing an explanation or emphasizing it and attempts to guide users toward AI-suggested decisions without coercion. The nudge design is expected to enhance the autonomy of users, reduce the risk associated with an AI making decisions without users' full agreement, and enable users to avoid AI failures. To discuss the potential of Nudge-XAI, this paper reports a post-hoc investigation of previous experimental results using cluster analysis. The results demonstrate the diversity of user behavior in response to Nudge-XAI, which supports our aim of enhancing user autonomy. However, it also highlights the challenge of users who distrust AI and falsely make decisions contrary to AI suggestions, suggesting the need for personalized adjustment of the strength of nudges to make this approach work more generally.

[401] 2406.07324

Lyapunov equations: a (fixed) point of view

The Lyapunov equation is the gateway drug of nonlinear control theory. In these notes we revisit an elegant statement connecting the concepts of asymptotic stability and observability, to the solvability of Lyapunov equations, and discuss how this statement can be proved using the Brouwer fixed-point theorem.

[402] 2406.07325

Beyond Training: Optimizing Reinforcement Learning Based Job Shop Scheduling Through Adaptive Action Sampling

Learned construction heuristics for scheduling problems have become increasingly competitive with established solvers and heuristics in recent years. In particular, significant improvements have been observed in solution approaches using deep reinforcement learning (DRL). While much attention has been paid to the design of network architectures and training algorithms to achieve state-of-the-art results, little research has investigated the optimal use of trained DRL agents during inference. Our work is based on the hypothesis that, similar to search algorithms, the utilization of trained DRL agents should be dependent on the acceptable computational budget. We propose a simple yet effective parameterization, called $\delta$-sampling that manipulates the trained action vector to bias agent behavior towards exploration or exploitation during solution construction. By following this approach, we can achieve a more comprehensive coverage of the search space while still generating an acceptable number of solutions. In addition, we propose an algorithm for obtaining the optimal parameterization for such a given number of solutions and any given trained agent. Experiments extending existing training protocols for job shop scheduling problems with our inference method validate our hypothesis and result in the expected improvements of the generated solutions.

[403] 2406.07327

3D-Properties: Identifying Challenges in DPO and Charting a Path Forward

Aligning large language models (LLMs) with human preference has recently gained tremendous attention, with the canonical yet costly RLHF-PPO and the simple and straightforward Direct Preference Optimization (DPO) as two examples. Despite the efficiency, DPO has rarely be used in the state-of-the-art production-level LLMs, implying its potential pathologies. In this work, we revisit DPO with a comprehensive examination of its empirical efficacy and a systematic comparison with RLHF-PPO. We identify the \textbf{3D}-properties of DPO's learning outcomes: the \textbf{D}rastic drop in the likelihood of rejected responses, the \textbf{D}egradation into LLM unlearning, and the \textbf{D}ispersion effect on unseen responses through experiments with both a carefully designed toy model and practical LLMs on tasks including mathematical problem-solving and instruction following. These findings inherently connect to some observations made by related works and we additionally contribute a plausible theoretical explanation for them. Accordingly, we propose easy regularization methods to mitigate the issues caused by \textbf{3D}-properties, improving the training stability and final performance of DPO. Our contributions also include an investigation into how the distribution of the paired preference data impacts the effectiveness of DPO. We hope this work could offer research directions to narrow the gap between reward-free preference learning methods and reward-based ones.

[404] 2406.07328

Realistic Data Generation for 6D Pose Estimation of Surgical Instruments

Automation in surgical robotics has the potential to improve patient safety and surgical efficiency, but it is difficult to achieve due to the need for robust perception algorithms. In particular, 6D pose estimation of surgical instruments is critical to enable the automatic execution of surgical maneuvers based on visual feedback. In recent years, supervised deep learning algorithms have shown increasingly better performance at 6D pose estimation tasks; yet, their success depends on the availability of large amounts of annotated data. In household and industrial settings, synthetic data, generated with 3D computer graphics software, has been shown as an alternative to minimize annotation costs of 6D pose datasets. However, this strategy does not translate well to surgical domains as commercial graphics software have limited tools to generate images depicting realistic instrument-tissue interactions. To address these limitations, we propose an improved simulation environment for surgical robotics that enables the automatic generation of large and diverse datasets for 6D pose estimation of surgical instruments. Among the improvements, we developed an automated data generation pipeline and an improved surgical scene. To show the applicability of our system, we generated a dataset of 7.5k images with pose annotations of a surgical needle that was used to evaluate a state-of-the-art pose estimation network. The trained model obtained a mean translational error of 2.59mm on a challenging dataset that presented varying levels of occlusion. These results highlight our pipeline's success in training and evaluating novel vision algorithms for surgical robotics applications.

[405] 2406.07329

Cinematic Gaussians: Real-Time HDR Radiance Fields with Depth of Field

Radiance field methods represent the state of the art in reconstructing complex scenes from multi-view photos. However, these reconstructions often suffer from one or both of the following limitations: First, they typically represent scenes in low dynamic range (LDR), which restricts their use to evenly lit environments and hinders immersive viewing experiences. Secondly, their reliance on a pinhole camera model, assuming all scene elements are in focus in the input images, presents practical challenges and complicates refocusing during novel-view synthesis. Addressing these limitations, we present a lightweight method based on 3D Gaussian Splatting that utilizes multi-view LDR images of a scene with varying exposure times, apertures, and focus distances as input to reconstruct a high-dynamic-range (HDR) radiance field. By incorporating analytical convolutions of Gaussians based on a thin-lens camera model as well as a tonemapping module, our reconstructions enable the rendering of HDR content with flexible refocusing capabilities. We demonstrate that our combined treatment of HDR and depth of field facilitates real-time cinematic rendering, outperforming the state of the art.

[406] 2406.07330

CTC-based Non-autoregressive Textless Speech-to-Speech Translation

Direct speech-to-speech translation (S2ST) has achieved impressive translation quality, but it often faces the challenge of slow decoding due to the considerable length of speech sequences. Recently, some research has turned to non-autoregressive (NAR) models to expedite decoding, yet the translation quality typically lags behind autoregressive (AR) models significantly. In this paper, we investigate the performance of CTC-based NAR models in S2ST, as these models have shown impressive results in machine translation. Experimental results demonstrate that by combining pretraining, knowledge distillation, and advanced NAR training techniques such as glancing training and non-monotonic latent alignments, CTC-based NAR models achieve translation quality comparable to the AR model, while preserving up to 26.81$\times$ decoding speedup.

[407] 2406.07331

Text Information Retrieval in Tetun: A Preliminary Study

Tetun is one of Timor-Leste's official languages alongside Portuguese. It is a low-resource language with over 932,400 speakers that started developing when Timor-Leste restored its independence in 2002. The media mainly uses Tetun, and more than ten national online newspapers actively broadcast news in Tetun every day. However, since information retrieval-based solutions for Tetun do not exist, finding Tetun information on the internet is challenging. This work aims to investigate and develop solutions that can enable the application of information retrieval techniques to develop search solutions for Tetun. We present a preliminary result of an experiment conducted on the task of ad-hoc retrieval in Tetun.

[408] 2406.07332

Minimizing Energy Costs in Deep Learning Model Training: The Gaussian Sampling Approach

Computing the loss gradient via backpropagation consumes considerable energy during deep learning (DL) model training. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to efficiently compute DL models' gradients to mitigate the substantial energy overhead associated with backpropagation. Exploiting the over-parameterized nature of DL models and the smoothness of their loss landscapes, we propose a method called {\em GradSamp} for sampling gradient updates from a Gaussian distribution. Specifically, we update model parameters at a given epoch (chosen periodically or randomly) by perturbing the parameters (element-wise) from the previous epoch with Gaussian ``noise''. The parameters of the Gaussian distribution are estimated using the error between the model parameter values from the two previous epochs. {\em GradSamp} not only streamlines gradient computation but also enables skipping entire epochs, thereby enhancing overall efficiency. We rigorously validate our hypothesis across a diverse set of standard and non-standard CNN and transformer-based models, spanning various computer vision tasks such as image classification, object detection, and image segmentation. Additionally, we explore its efficacy in out-of-distribution scenarios such as Domain Adaptation (DA), Domain Generalization (DG), and decentralized settings like Federated Learning (FL). Our experimental results affirm the effectiveness of {\em GradSamp} in achieving notable energy savings without compromising performance, underscoring its versatility and potential impact in practical DL applications.

[409] 2406.07333

Global-Regularized Neighborhood Regression for Efficient Zero-Shot Texture Anomaly Detection

Texture surface anomaly detection finds widespread applications in industrial settings. However, existing methods often necessitate gathering numerous samples for model training. Moreover, they predominantly operate within a close-set detection framework, limiting their ability to identify anomalies beyond the training dataset. To tackle these challenges, this paper introduces a novel zero-shot texture anomaly detection method named Global-Regularized Neighborhood Regression (GRNR). Unlike conventional approaches, GRNR can detect anomalies on arbitrary textured surfaces without any training data or cost. Drawing from human visual cognition, GRNR derives two intrinsic prior supports directly from the test texture image: local neighborhood priors characterized by coherent similarities and global normality priors featuring typical normal patterns. The fundamental principle of GRNR involves utilizing the two extracted intrinsic support priors for self-reconstructive regression of the query sample. This process employs the transformation facilitated by local neighbor support while being regularized by global normality support, aiming to not only achieve visually consistent reconstruction results but also preserve normality properties. We validate the effectiveness of GRNR across various industrial scenarios using eight benchmark datasets, demonstrating its superior detection performance without the need for training data. Remarkably, our method is applicable for open-set texture defect detection and can even surpass existing vanilla approaches that require extensive training.

[410] 2406.07335

Undecided State Dynamics with Stubborn Agents

In the classical Approximate Majority problem with two opinions there are agents with Opinion 1 and with Opinion 2. The goal is to reach consensus and to agree on the majority opinion if the bias is sufficiently large. It is well known that the problem can be solved efficiently using the Undecided State Dynamics (USD) where an agent interacting with an agent of the opposite opinion becomes undecided. In this paper, we consider a variant of the USD with a preferred Opinion 1. That is, agents with Opinion 1 behave stubbornly -- they preserve their opinion with probability $p$ whenever they interact with an agent having Opinion 2. Our main result shows a phase transition around the stubbornness parameter $p \approx 1-x_1/x_2$. If $x_1 = \Theta(n)$ and $p \geq 1-x_1/x_2 + o(1)$, then all agents agree on Opinion 1 after $O(n\cdot \log n)$ interactions. On the other hand, for $p \leq 1-x_1/x_2 - o(1)$, all agents agree on Opinion 2, again after $O(n\cdot \log n)$ interactions. Finally, if $p \approx 1-x_1/x_2$, then all agents do agree on one opinion after $O(n\cdot \log^2 n)$ interactions, but either of the two opinions can survive. All our results hold with high probability.

[411] 2406.07337

Transferring Knowledge from Large Foundation Models to Small Downstream Models

How do we transfer the relevant knowledge from ever larger foundation models into small, task-specific downstream models that can run at much lower costs? Standard transfer learning using pre-trained weights as the initialization transfers limited information and commits us to often massive pre-trained architectures. This procedure also precludes combining multiple pre-trained models that learn complementary information. To address these shortcomings, we introduce Adaptive Feature Transfer (AFT). Instead of transferring weights, AFT operates purely on features, thereby decoupling the choice of the pre-trained model from the smaller downstream model. Rather than indiscriminately compressing all pre-trained features, AFT adaptively transfers pre-trained features that are most useful for performing the downstream task, using a simple regularization that adds minimal overhead. Across multiple vision, language, and multi-modal datasets, AFT achieves significantly better downstream performance compared to alternatives with a similar computational cost. Furthermore, AFT reliably translates improvement in pre-trained models into improvement in downstream performance, even if the downstream model is over $50\times$ smaller, and can effectively transfer complementary information learned by multiple pre-trained models.

[412] 2406.07338

Capacity Credit Evaluation of Generalized Energy Storage Considering Endogenous Uncertainty

Generalized energy storage (GES), encompassing both physical and virtual energy storage, can provide remarkable but uncertain adequacy flexibility. When assessing GES's contribution to resource adequacy, the literature typically considers exogenous uncertainties (e.g., failures and stochastic response) but overlooks endogenous uncertainties, such as self-scheduling in liberal markets and decision-dependent uncertainty (DDU). In this regard, this paper proposes a novel capacity credit evaluation framework to accurately quantify GES's contribution to resource adequacy, where a sequential coordinated dispatch method is proposed to capture realistic GES operations by coordinating self-scheduling in the day-ahead energy market and real-time adequacy-oriented dispatch in the capacity market. To incorporate DDU of GES (i.e., responsiveness affected by dispatch decisions and prices in capacity market), we present a chance-constrained optimization approach and tractable solution methodologies for real-time dispatch. We propose a practical adequacy assessment method to quantify the impact of DDU on capacity credit by evaluating the consequence of ignoring DDU. Additionally, a novel capacity credit index called equivalent storage capacity substitution is introduced to quantify the equivalent deterministic storage capacity of the uncertain virtual energy storage. Simulations show that the proposed method yields reliable and accurate capacity credit values by accounting for self-scheduling of GES and managing the risk from DDU. Finally, key impact factors of GES's capacity credit are thoroughly discussed, offering valuable insights for the decision-making of capacity market operators.

[413] 2406.07340

Formally Verified Approximate Policy Iteration

We formally verify an algorithm for approximate policy iteration on Factored Markov Decision Processes using the interactive theorem prover Isabelle/HOL. Next, we show how the formalized algorithm can be refined to an executable, verified implementation. The implementation is evaluated on benchmark problems to show its practicability. As part of the refinement, we develop verified software to certify Linear Programming solutions. The algorithm builds on a diverse library of formalized mathematics and pushes existing methodologies for interactive theorem provers to the limits. We discuss the process of the verification project and the modifications to the algorithm needed for formal verification.

[414] 2406.07342

EdgeTimer: Adaptive Multi-Timescale Scheduling in Mobile Edge Computing with Deep Reinforcement Learning

In mobile edge computing (MEC), resource scheduling is crucial to task requests' performance and service providers' cost, involving multi-layer heterogeneous scheduling decisions. Existing schedulers typically adopt static timescales to regularly update scheduling decisions of each layer, without adaptive adjustment of timescales for different layers, resulting in potentially poor performance in practice. We notice that the adaptive timescales would significantly improve the trade-off between the operation cost and delay performance. Based on this insight, we propose EdgeTimer, the first work to automatically generate adaptive timescales to update multi-layer scheduling decisions using deep reinforcement learning (DRL). First, EdgeTimer uses a three-layer hierarchical DRL framework to decouple the multi-layer decision-making task into a hierarchy of independent sub-tasks for improving learning efficiency. Second, to cope with each sub-task, EdgeTimer adopts a safe multi-agent DRL algorithm for decentralized scheduling while ensuring system reliability. We apply EdgeTimer to a wide range of Kubernetes scheduling rules, and evaluate it using production traces with different workload patterns. Extensive trace-driven experiments demonstrate that EdgeTimer can learn adaptive timescales, irrespective of workload patterns and built-in scheduling rules. It obtains up to 9.1x more profit than existing approaches without sacrificing the delay performance.

[415] 2406.07348

DR-RAG: Applying Dynamic Document Relevance to Retrieval-Augmented Generation for Question-Answering

Retrieval-Augmented Generation (RAG) has significantly demonstrated the performance of Large Language Models (LLMs) in the knowledge-intensive tasks, such as Question-Answering (QA). RAG expands the query context by incorporating external knowledge bases to enhance the response accuracy. However, it would be inefficient to access LLMs multiple times for each query and unreliable to retrieve all the relevant documents by a single query. We find that even though there is low relevance between some critical documents and query, it is possible to retrieve the remaining documents by combining parts of the documents with the query. To mine the relevance, a two-stage retrieval framework called Dynamic-Relevant Retrieval-Augmented Generation (DR-RAG) is proposed to improve document retrieval recall and the accuracy of answers while maintaining efficiency. Also, a small classifier is applied to two different selection strategies to determine the contribution of the retrieved documents to answering the query and retrieve the relatively relevant documents. Meanwhile, DR-RAG call the LLMs only once, which significantly improves the efficiency of the experiment. The experimental results on multi-hop QA datasets show that DR-RAG can significantly improve the accuracy of the answers and achieve new progress in QA systems.

[416] 2406.07349

Erasing Radio Frequency Fingerprinting via Active Adversarial Perturbation

Radio Frequency (RF) fingerprinting is to identify a wireless device from its uniqueness of the analog circuitry or hardware imperfections. However, unlike the MAC address which can be modified, such hardware feature is inevitable for the signal emitted to air, which can possibly reveal device whereabouts, e.g., a sniffer can use a pre-trained model to identify a nearby device when receiving its signal. Such fingerprint may expose critical private information, e.g., the associated upper-layer applications or the end-user. In this paper, we propose to erase such RF feature for wireless devices, which can prevent fingerprinting by actively perturbation from the signal perspective. Specifically, we consider a common RF fingerprinting scenario, where machine learning models are trained from pilot signal data for identification. A novel adversarial attack solution is designed to generate proper perturbations, whereby the perturbed pilot signal can hide the hardware feature and misclassify the model. We theoretically show that the perturbation would not affect the communication function within a tolerable perturbation threshold. We also implement the pilot signal fingerprinting and the proposed perturbation process in a practical LTE system. Extensive experiment results demonstrate that the RF fingerprints can be effectively erased to protect the user privacy.

[417] 2406.07352

Stochastic Analysis of Homogeneous Wireless Networks Assisted by Intelligent Reflecting Surfaces

In this paper, we study the impact of the existence of multiple IRSs in a homogeneous wireless network, in which all BSs, users (U), and IRSs are spatially distributed by an independent homogeneous PPP, with density $\lambda_{{\rm BS}}\rm{[BS/m^2]}$, $\lambda_{{\rm U}}\rm{[U/m^2]}$, and $\lambda_{{\rm IRS}}\rm{[IRS/m^2]}$, respectively. We utilize a uniformly random serving strategy for BS and IRS to create stochastic symmetry in the network. We analyze the performance of the network and study the effect of the existence of the IRS on the network performance. To this end, for a typical user in the system, we derive analytical upper and lower bounds on the expectation of the power (second statistical moment) of the desired signal and the interference caused by BSs and other users. After that, we obtain analytical upper bounds on the decay of the probability of the power of the desired signal and the interference for the typical user (which results in a lower bound for the cumulative distribution function (CDF)). Moreover, we derive upper bounds on the decay of the probability of the capacity of one typical user, which results in a lower bound for the outage probability. In the numerical results, we observe that the numerical calculation of the power of the desired signal and the interference is near the derived lower bounds and we show that the increment of the parameter ${(\lambda_{\rm IRS})}$ causes increment in powers of both the desired and interference signals. We also observe that the increment of the parameter ${\lambda_{\rm IRS}}$ causes the decrement of outage probability.

[418] 2406.07353

Toxic Memes: A Survey of Computational Perspectives on the Detection and Explanation of Meme Toxicities

Internet memes, channels for humor, social commentary, and cultural expression, are increasingly used to spread toxic messages. Studies on the computational analyses of toxic memes have significantly grown over the past five years, and the only three surveys on computational toxic meme analysis cover only work published until 2022, leading to inconsistent terminology and unexplored trends. Our work fills this gap by surveying content-based computational perspectives on toxic memes, and reviewing key developments until early 2024. Employing the PRISMA methodology, we systematically extend the previously considered papers, achieving a threefold result. First, we survey 119 new papers, analyzing 158 computational works focused on content-based toxic meme analysis. We identify over 30 datasets used in toxic meme analysis and examine their labeling systems. Second, after observing the existence of unclear definitions of meme toxicity in computational works, we introduce a new taxonomy for categorizing meme toxicity types. We also note an expansion in computational tasks beyond the simple binary classification of memes as toxic or non-toxic, indicating a shift towards achieving a nuanced comprehension of toxicity. Third, we identify three content-based dimensions of meme toxicity under automatic study: target, intent, and conveyance tactics. We develop a framework illustrating the relationships between these dimensions and meme toxicities. The survey analyzes key challenges and recent trends, such as enhanced cross-modal reasoning, integrating expert and cultural knowledge, the demand for automatic toxicity explanations, and handling meme toxicity in low-resource languages. Also, it notes the rising use of Large Language Models (LLMs) and generative AI for detecting and generating toxic memes. Finally, it proposes pathways for advancing toxic meme detection and interpretation.

[419] 2406.07357

PSMC: Provable and Scalable Algorithms for Motif Conductance Based Graph Clustering

Higher-order graph clustering aims to partition the graph using frequently occurring subgraphs. Motif conductance is one of the most promising higher-order graph clustering models due to its strong interpretability. However, existing motif conductance based graph clustering algorithms are mainly limited by a seminal two-stage reweighting computing framework, needing to enumerate all motif instances to obtain an edge-weighted graph for partitioning. However, such a framework has two-fold vital defects: (1) It can only provide a quadratic bound for the motif with three vertices, and whether there is provable clustering quality for other motifs is still an open question. (2) The enumeration procedure of motif instances incurs prohibitively high costs against large motifs or large dense graphs due to combinatorial explosions. Besides, expensive spectral clustering or local graph diffusion on the edge-weighted graph also makes existing methods unable to handle massive graphs with millions of nodes. To overcome these dilemmas, we propose a Provable and Scalable Motif Conductance algorithm PSMC, which has a fixed and motif-independent approximation ratio for any motif. Specifically, PSMC first defines a new vertex metric Motif Resident based on the given motif, which can be computed locally. Then, it iteratively deletes the vertex with the smallest motif resident value very efficiently using novel dynamic update technologies. Finally, it outputs the locally optimal result during the above iterative process. To further boost efficiency, we propose several effective bounds to estimate the motif resident value of each vertex, which can greatly reduce computational costs. Empirical results show that our proposed algorithms achieve 3.2-32 times speedup and improve the quality by at least 12 times than the baselines.

[420] 2406.07358

AI Sandbagging: Language Models can Strategically Underperform on Evaluations

Trustworthy capability evaluations are crucial for ensuring the safety of AI systems, and are becoming a key component of AI regulation. However, the developers of an AI system, or the AI system itself, may have incentives for evaluations to understate the AI's actual capability. These conflicting interests lead to the problem of sandbagging $\unicode{x2013}$ which we define as "strategic underperformance on an evaluation". In this paper we assess sandbagging capabilities in contemporary language models (LMs). We prompt frontier LMs, like GPT-4 and Claude 3 Opus, to selectively underperform on dangerous capability evaluations, while maintaining performance on general (harmless) capability evaluations. Moreover, we find that models can be fine-tuned, on a synthetic dataset, to hide specific capabilities unless given a password. This behaviour generalizes to high-quality, held-out benchmarks such as WMDP. In addition, we show that both frontier and smaller models can be prompted, or password-locked, to target specific scores on a capability evaluation. Even more, we found that a capable password-locked model (Llama 3 70b) is reasonably able to emulate a less capable model (Llama 2 7b). Overall, our results suggest that capability evaluations are vulnerable to sandbagging. This vulnerability decreases the trustworthiness of evaluations, and thereby undermines important safety decisions regarding the development and deployment of advanced AI systems.

[421] 2406.07359

GLIMPSE: Pragmatically Informative Multi-Document Summarization for Scholarly Reviews

Scientific peer review is essential for the quality of academic publications. However, the increasing number of paper submissions to conferences has strained the reviewing process. This surge poses a burden on area chairs who have to carefully read an ever-growing volume of reviews and discern each reviewer's main arguments as part of their decision process. In this paper, we introduce \sys, a summarization method designed to offer a concise yet comprehensive overview of scholarly reviews. Unlike traditional consensus-based methods, \sys extracts both common and unique opinions from the reviews. We introduce novel uniqueness scores based on the Rational Speech Act framework to identify relevant sentences in the reviews. Our method aims to provide a pragmatic glimpse into all reviews, offering a balanced perspective on their opinions. Our experimental results with both automatic metrics and human evaluation show that \sys generates more discriminative summaries than baseline methods in terms of human evaluation while achieving comparable performance with these methods in terms of automatic metrics.

[422] 2406.07361

Deep Implicit Optimization for Robust and Flexible Image Registration

Deep Learning in Image Registration (DLIR) methods have been tremendously successful in image registration due to their speed and ability to incorporate weak label supervision at training time. However, DLIR methods forego many of the benefits of classical optimization-based methods. The functional nature of deep networks do not guarantee that the predicted transformation is a local minima of the registration objective, the representation of the transformation (displacement/velocity field/affine) is fixed, and the networks are not robust to domain shift. Our method aims to bridge this gap between classical and learning methods by incorporating optimization as a layer in a deep network. A deep network is trained to predict multi-scale dense feature images that are registered using a black box iterative optimization solver. This optimal warp is then used to minimize image and label alignment errors. By implicitly differentiating end-to-end through an iterative optimization solver, our learned features are registration and label-aware, and the warp functions are guaranteed to be local minima of the registration objective in the feature space. Our framework shows excellent performance on in-domain datasets, and is agnostic to domain shift such as anisotropy and varying intensity profiles. For the first time, our method allows switching between arbitrary transformation representations (free-form to diffeomorphic) at test time with zero retraining. End-to-end feature learning also facilitates interpretability of features, and out-of-the-box promptability using additional label-fidelity terms at inference.

[423] 2406.07362

AI.vs.Clinician: Unveiling Intricate Interactions Between AI and Clinicians through an Open-Access Database

Artificial Intelligence (AI) plays a crucial role in medical field and has the potential to revolutionize healthcare practices. However, the success of AI models and their impacts hinge on the synergy between AI and medical specialists, with clinicians assuming a dominant role. Unfortunately, the intricate dynamics and interactions between AI and clinicians remain undiscovered and thus hinder AI from being translated into medical practice. To address this gap, we have curated a groundbreaking database called AI.vs.Clinician. This database is the first of its kind for studying the interactions between AI and clinicians. It derives from 7,500 collaborative diagnosis records on a life-threatening medical emergency -- Sepsis -- from 14 medical centers across China. For the patient cohorts well-chosen from MIMIC databases, the AI-related information comprises the model property, feature input, diagnosis decision, and inferred probabilities of sepsis onset presently and within next three hours. The clinician-related information includes the viewed examination data and sequence, viewed time, preliminary and final diagnosis decisions with or without AI assistance, and recommended treatment.

[424] 2406.07365

BvSP: Broad-view Soft Prompting for Few-Shot Aspect Sentiment Quad Prediction

Aspect sentiment quad prediction (ASQP) aims to predict four aspect-based elements, including aspect term, opinion term, aspect category, and sentiment polarity. In practice, unseen aspects, due to distinct data distribution, impose many challenges for a trained neural model. Motivated by this, this work formulates ASQP into the few-shot scenario, which aims for fast adaptation in real applications. Therefore, we first construct a few-shot ASQP dataset (FSQP) that contains richer categories and is more balanced for the few-shot study. Moreover, recent methods extract quads through a generation paradigm, which involves converting the input sentence into a templated target sequence. However, they primarily focus on the utilization of a single template or the consideration of different template orders, thereby overlooking the correlations among various templates. To tackle this issue, we further propose a Broadview Soft Prompting (BvSP) method that aggregates multiple templates with a broader view by taking into account the correlation between the different templates. Specifically, BvSP uses the pre-trained language model to select the most relevant k templates with Jensen-Shannon divergence. BvSP further introduces soft prompts to guide the pre-trained language model using the selected templates. Then, we aggregate the results of multi-templates by voting mechanism. Empirical results demonstrate that BvSP significantly outperforms the stateof-the-art methods under four few-shot settings and other public datasets. Our code and dataset are available at

[425] 2406.07368

When Linear Attention Meets Autoregressive Decoding: Towards More Effective and Efficient Linearized Large Language Models

Autoregressive Large Language Models (LLMs) have achieved impressive performance in language tasks but face two significant bottlenecks: (1) quadratic complexity in the attention module as the number of tokens increases, and (2) limited efficiency due to the sequential processing nature of autoregressive LLMs during generation. While linear attention and speculative decoding offer potential solutions, their applicability and synergistic potential for enhancing autoregressive LLMs remain uncertain. We conduct the first comprehensive study on the efficacy of existing linear attention methods for autoregressive LLMs, integrating them with speculative decoding. We introduce an augmentation technique for linear attention that ensures compatibility with speculative decoding, enabling more efficient training and serving of LLMs. Extensive experiments and ablation studies involving seven existing linear attention models and five encoder/decoder-based LLMs consistently validate the effectiveness of our augmented linearized LLMs. Notably, our approach achieves up to a 6.67 reduction in perplexity on the LLaMA model and up to a 2$\times$ speedup during generation compared to prior linear attention methods. Codes and models are available at

[426] 2406.07369

A qualitative field study on explainable AI for lay users subjected to AI cyberattacks

In this paper we present results from a qualitative field study on explainable AI (XAI) for lay users (n = 18) who were subjected to AI cyberattacks. The study was based on a custom-built smart heating application called Squid and was conducted over seven weeks in early 2023. Squid combined a smart radiator valve installed in participant homes with a web application that implemented an AI feature known as setpoint learning, which is commonly available in consumer smart thermostats. Development of Squid followed the XAI principle of interpretability-by-design where the AI feature was implemented using a simple glass-box machine learning model with the model subsequently exposed to users via the web interface (e.g. as interactive visualisations). AI attacks on users were simulated by injecting malicious training data and by manipulating data used for model predictions. Research data consisted of semi-structured interviews, researcher field notes, participant diaries, and application logs. In our analysis we reflect on the impact of XAI on user satisfaction and user comprehension as well as its use as a tool for diagnosing AI attacks. Our results show only limited engagement with XAI features and suggest that, for Squid users, common assumptions found in the XAI literature were not aligned to reality. On the positive side, users appear to have developed better mental models of the AI feature compared to previous work, and there is evidence that users did make some use of XAI as a diagnostic tool.

[427] 2406.07371

iMESA: Incremental Distributed Optimization for Collaborative Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

This paper introduces a novel incremental distributed back-end algorithm for Collaborative Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (C-SLAM). For real-world deployments, robotic teams require algorithms to compute a consistent state estimate accurately, within online runtime constraints, and with potentially limited communication. Existing centralized, decentralized, and distributed approaches to solving C-SLAM problems struggle to achieve all of these goals. To address this capability gap, we present Incremental Manifold Edge-based Separable ADMM (iMESA) a fully distributed C-SLAM back-end algorithm that can provide a multi-robot team with accurate state estimates in real-time with only sparse pair-wise communication between robots. Extensive evaluation on real and synthetic data demonstrates that iMESA is able to outperform comparable state-of-the-art C-SLAM back-ends.

[428] 2406.07375

Improving the realism of robotic surgery simulation through injection of learning-based estimated errors

The development of algorithms for automation of subtasks during robotic surgery can be accelerated by the availability of realistic simulation environments. In this work, we focus on one aspect of the realism of a surgical simulator, which is the positional accuracy of the robot. In current simulators, robots have perfect or near-perfect accuracy, which is not representative of their physical counterparts. We therefore propose a pair of neural networks, trained by data collected from a physical robot, to estimate both the controller error and the kinematic and non-kinematic error. These error estimates are then injected within the simulator to produce a simulated robot that has the characteristic performance of the physical robot. In this scenario, we believe it is sufficient for the estimated error used in the simulation to have a statistically similar distribution to the actual error of the physical robot. This is less stringent, and therefore more tenable, than the requirement for error compensation of a physical robot, where the estimated error should equal the actual error. Our results demonstrate that error injection reduces the mean position and orientation differences between the simulated and physical robots from 5.0 mm / 3.6 deg to 1.3 mm / 1.7 deg, respectively, which represents reductions by factors of 3.8 and 2.1.

[429] 2406.07377

COLoRIS: Localization-agnostic Smart Surfaces Enabling Opportunistic ISAC in 6G Networks

The integration of Smart Surfaces in 6G communication networks, also dubbed as Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RISs), is a promising paradigm change gaining significant attention given its disruptive features. RISs are a key enabler in the realm of 6G Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) systems where novel services can be offered together with the future mobile networks communication capabilities. This paper addresses the critical challenge of precisely localizing users within a communication network by leveraging the controlled-reflective properties of RIS elements without relying on more power-hungry traditional methods, e.g., GPS, adverting the need of deploying additional infrastructure and even avoiding interfering with communication efforts. Moreover, we go one step beyond: we build COLoRIS, an Opportunistic ISAC approach that leverages localization agnostic RIS configurations to accurately position mobile users via trained learning models. Extensive experimental validation and simulations in large-scale synthetic scenarios show 5% positioning errors (with respect to field size) under different conditions. Further, we show that a low-complexity version running in a limited off-the-shelf (embedded, low-power) system achieves positioning errors in the 11% range at a negligible +2% energy expense with respect to the classical RIS.

[430] 2406.07378

Large Language Models for Constrained-Based Causal Discovery

Causality is essential for understanding complex systems, such as the economy, the brain, and the climate. Constructing causal graphs often relies on either data-driven or expert-driven approaches, both fraught with challenges. The former methods, like the celebrated PC algorithm, face issues with data requirements and assumptions of causal sufficiency, while the latter demand substantial time and domain knowledge. This work explores the capabilities of Large Language Models (LLMs) as an alternative to domain experts for causal graph generation. We frame conditional independence queries as prompts to LLMs and employ the PC algorithm with the answers. The performance of the LLM-based conditional independence oracle on systems with known causal graphs shows a high degree of variability. We improve the performance through a proposed statistical-inspired voting schema that allows some control over false-positive and false-negative rates. Inspecting the chain-of-thought argumentation, we find causal reasoning to justify its answer to a probabilistic query. We show evidence that knowledge-based CIT could eventually become a complementary tool for data-driven causal discovery.

[431] 2406.07379

Politics in Games -- An Overview and Classification

The representation of politics in media influences societal perceptions and attitudes. Video games, as a pervasive form of media, contribute significantly to this phenomenon. In this work, we explore political themes within video games by analyzing politically-themed games on game distribution platforms including Steam. We conducted a statistical examination of games with political context to identify patterns and use this as a basis to introduce a first taxonomy to categorize and better understand the interplay between politics and video games. This taxonomy offers a first framework for analyzing political content in games and also sets a foundation for future research in this field.

[432] 2406.07380

Addressing Sustainability-IN Software Challenges

In this position paper we address the Software Sustainability from the IN perspective, so that the Software Engineering (SE) community is aware of the need to contribute towards sustainable software companies, which need to adopt a holistic approach to sustainability considering all its dimensions (human, economic and environmental). A series of important challenges to be considered in the coming years are presented, in order that advances in involved SE communities on the subject can be harmonised and used to contribute more effectively to this field of great interest and impact on society.

[433] 2406.07381

World Models with Hints of Large Language Models for Goal Achieving

Reinforcement learning struggles in the face of long-horizon tasks and sparse goals due to the difficulty in manual reward specification. While existing methods address this by adding intrinsic rewards, they may fail to provide meaningful guidance in long-horizon decision-making tasks with large state and action spaces, lacking purposeful exploration. Inspired by human cognition, we propose a new multi-modal model-based RL approach named Dreaming with Large Language Models (DLLM). DLLM integrates the proposed hinting subgoals from the LLMs into the model rollouts to encourage goal discovery and reaching in challenging tasks. By assigning higher intrinsic rewards to samples that align with the hints outlined by the language model during model rollouts, DLLM guides the agent toward meaningful and efficient exploration. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the DLLM outperforms recent methods in various challenging, sparse-reward environments such as HomeGrid, Crafter, and Minecraft by 27.7\%, 21.1\%, and 9.9\%, respectively.

[434] 2406.07385

Disrupting Bipartite Trading Networks: Matching for Revenue Maximization

We model the role of an online platform disrupting a market with unit-demand buyers and unit-supply sellers. Each seller can transact with a subset of the buyers whom she already knows, as well as with any additional buyers to whom she is introduced by the platform. Given these constraints on trade, prices and transactions are induced by a competitive equilibrium. The platform's revenue is proportional to the total price of all trades between platform-introduced buyers and sellers. In general, we show that the platform's revenue-maximization problem is computationally intractable. We provide structural results for revenue-optimal matchings and isolate special cases in which the platform can efficiently compute them. Furthermore, in a market where the maximum increase in social welfare that the platform can create is $\Delta W$, we prove that the platform can attain revenue $\Omega(\Delta W/\log(\min\{n,m\}))$, where $n$ and $m$ are the numbers of buyers and sellers, respectively. When $\Delta W$ is large compared to welfare without the platform, this gives a polynomial-time algorithm that guarantees a logarithmic approximation of the optimal welfare as revenue. We also show that even when the platform optimizes for revenue, the social welfare is at least an $O(\log(\min\{n,m\}))$-approximation to the optimal welfare. Finally, we prove significantly stronger bounds for revenue and social welfare in homogeneous-goods markets.

[435] 2406.07387

Machine Learning-Based Channel Prediction for RIS-assisted MIMO Systems With Channel Aging

Reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs) have emerged as a promising technology to enhance the performance of sixth-generation (6G) and beyond communication systems. The passive nature of RISs and their large number of reflecting elements pose challenges to the channel estimation process. The associated complexity further escalates when the channel coefficients are fast-varying as in scenarios with user mobility. In this paper, we propose an extended channel estimation framework for RIS-assisted multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) integrated with an autoregressive (AR) predictor. The implemented framework is designed for identifying the aging pattern and predicting enhanced estimates of the wireless channels in correlated fast-fading environments. Insightful simulation results demonstrate that our proposed CNN-AR approach is robust to channel aging, exhibiting a high-precision estimation accuracy. The results also show that our approach can achieve high spectral efficiency and low pilot overhead compared to traditional methods.

[436] 2406.07389

Robust Image Semantic Coding with Learnable CSI Fusion Masking over MIMO Fading Channels

Though achieving marvelous progress in various scenarios, existing semantic communication frameworks mainly consider single-input single-output Gaussian channels or Rayleigh fading channels, neglecting the widely-used multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, which hinders the application into practical systems. One common solution to combat MIMO fading is to utilize feedback MIMO channel state information (CSI). In this paper, we incorporate MIMO CSI into system designs from a new perspective and propose the learnable CSI fusion semantic communication (LCFSC) framework, where CSI is treated as side information by the semantic extractor to enhance the semantic coding. To avoid feature fusion due to abrupt combination of CSI with features, we present a non-invasive CSI fusion multi-head attention module inside the Swin Transformer. With the learned attention masking map determined by both source and channel states, more robust attention distribution could be generated. Furthermore, the percentage of mask elements could be flexibly adjusted by the learnable mask ratio, which is produced based on the conditional variational interference in an unsupervised manner. In this way, CSI-aware semantic coding is achieved through learnable CSI fusion masking. Experiment results testify the superiority of LCFSC over traditional schemes and state-of-the-art Swin Transformer-based semantic communication frameworks in MIMO fading channels.

[437] 2406.07393

Limited Out-of-Context Knowledge Reasoning in Large Language Models

Large Language Models (LLMs) have demonstrated strong capabilities as knowledge bases and significant in-context reasoning capabilities. However, previous work challenges their out-of-context reasoning ability, i.e., the ability to infer information from their training data, instead of from the context or prompt. This paper focuses on a significant facet of out-of-context reasoning: Out-of-Context Knowledge Reasoning (OCKR), which is to combine multiple knowledge to infer new knowledge. We designed a synthetic dataset with seven representative OCKR tasks to systematically assess the OCKR capabilities of LLMs. Using this dataset, we evaluated the LLaMA2-13B-chat model and discovered that its proficiency in this aspect is limited, regardless of whether the knowledge is trained in a separate or adjacent training settings. Moreover, training the model to reason with complete reasoning data did not result in significant improvement. Training the model to perform explicit knowledge retrieval helps in only one of the tasks, indicating that the model's limited OCKR capabilities are due to difficulties in retrieving relevant knowledge. Furthermore, we treat cross-lingual knowledge transfer as a distinct form of OCKR, and evaluate this ability. Our results show that the evaluated model also exhibits limited ability in transferring knowledge across languages. The dataset used in this study is available at

[438] 2406.07394

Accessing GPT-4 level Mathematical Olympiad Solutions via Monte Carlo Tree Self-refine with LLaMa-3 8B

This paper introduces the MCT Self-Refine (MCTSr) algorithm, an innovative integration of Large Language Models (LLMs) with Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS), designed to enhance performance in complex mathematical reasoning tasks. Addressing the challenges of accuracy and reliability in LLMs, particularly in strategic and mathematical reasoning, MCTSr leverages systematic exploration and heuristic self-refine mechanisms to improve decision-making frameworks within LLMs. The algorithm constructs a Monte Carlo search tree through iterative processes of Selection, self-refine, self-evaluation, and Backpropagation, utilizing an improved Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) formula to optimize the exploration-exploitation balance. Extensive experiments demonstrate MCTSr's efficacy in solving Olympiad-level mathematical problems, significantly improving success rates across multiple datasets, including GSM8K, GSM Hard, MATH, and Olympiad-level benchmarks, including Math Odyssey, AIME, and OlympiadBench. The study advances the application of LLMs in complex reasoning tasks and sets a foundation for future AI integration, enhancing decision-making accuracy and reliability in LLM-driven applications.

[439] 2406.07398

Visual Representation Learning with Stochastic Frame Prediction

Self-supervised learning of image representations by predicting future frames is a promising direction but still remains a challenge. This is because of the under-determined nature of frame prediction; multiple potential futures can arise from a single current frame. To tackle this challenge, in this paper, we revisit the idea of stochastic video generation that learns to capture uncertainty in frame prediction and explore its effectiveness for representation learning. Specifically, we design a framework that trains a stochastic frame prediction model to learn temporal information between frames. Moreover, to learn dense information within each frame, we introduce an auxiliary masked image modeling objective along with a shared decoder architecture. We find this architecture allows for combining both objectives in a synergistic and compute-efficient manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework on a variety of tasks from video label propagation and vision-based robot learning domains, such as video segmentation, pose tracking, vision-based robotic locomotion, and manipulation tasks. Code is available on the project webpage:

[440] 2406.07399

Redefining Automotive Radar Imaging: A Domain-Informed 1D Deep Learning Approach for High-Resolution and Efficient Performance

Millimeter-wave (mmWave) radars are indispensable for perception tasks of autonomous vehicles, thanks to their resilience in challenging weather conditions. Yet, their deployment is often limited by insufficient spatial resolution for precise semantic scene interpretation. Classical super-resolution techniques adapted from optical imaging inadequately address the distinct characteristics of radar signal data. In response, our study redefines radar imaging super-resolution as a one-dimensional (1D) signal super-resolution spectra estimation problem by harnessing the radar signal processing domain knowledge, introducing innovative data normalization and a domain-informed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-guided loss function. Our tailored deep learning network for automotive radar imaging exhibits remarkable scalability, parameter efficiency and fast inference speed, alongside enhanced performance in terms of radar imaging quality and resolution. Extensive testing confirms that our SR-SPECNet sets a new benchmark in producing high-resolution radar range-azimuth images, outperforming existing methods across varied antenna configurations and dataset sizes. Source code and new radar dataset will be made publicly available online.

[441] 2406.07400

Guiding LLM Temporal Logic Generation with Explicit Separation of Data and Control

Temporal logics are powerful tools that are widely used for the synthesis and verification of reactive systems. The recent progress on Large Language Models (LLMs) has the potential to make the process of writing such specifications more accessible. However, writing specifications in temporal logics remains challenging for all but the most expert users. A key question in using LLMs for temporal logic specification engineering is to understand what kind of guidance is most helpful to the LLM and the users to easily produce specifications. Looking specifically at the problem of reactive program synthesis, we explore the impact of providing an LLM with guidance on the separation of control and data--making explicit for the LLM what functionality is relevant for the specification, and treating the remaining functionality as an implementation detail for a series of pre-defined functions and predicates. We present a benchmark set and find that this separation of concerns improves specification generation. Our benchmark provides a test set against which to verify future work in LLM generation of temporal logic specifications.

[442] 2406.07402

A Survey on Recent Random Walk-based Methods for Embedding Knowledge Graphs

Machine learning, deep learning, and NLP methods on knowledge graphs are present in different fields and have important roles in various domains from self-driving cars to friend recommendations on social media platforms. However, to apply these methods to knowledge graphs, the data usually needs to be in an acceptable size and format. In fact, knowledge graphs normally have high dimensions and therefore we need to transform them to a low-dimensional vector space. An embedding is a low-dimensional space into which you can translate high dimensional vectors in a way that intrinsic features of the input data are preserved. In this review, we first explain knowledge graphs and their embedding and then review some of the random walk-based embedding methods that have been developed recently.

[443] 2406.07404

Enhancing Tabular Data Optimization with a Flexible Graph-based Reinforced Exploration Strategy

Tabular data optimization methods aim to automatically find an optimal feature transformation process that generates high-value features and improves the performance of downstream machine learning tasks. Current frameworks for automated feature transformation rely on iterative sequence generation tasks, optimizing decision strategies through performance feedback from downstream tasks. However, these approaches fail to effectively utilize historical decision-making experiences and overlook potential relationships among generated features, thus limiting the depth of knowledge extraction. Moreover, the granularity of the decision-making process lacks dynamic backtracking capabilities for individual features, leading to insufficient adaptability when encountering inefficient pathways, adversely affecting overall robustness and exploration efficiency. To address the limitations observed in current automatic feature engineering frameworks, we introduce a novel method that utilizes a feature-state transformation graph to effectively preserve the entire feature transformation journey, where each node represents a specific transformation state. During exploration, three cascading agents iteratively select nodes and idea mathematical operations to generate new transformation states. This strategy leverages the inherent properties of the graph structure, allowing for the preservation and reuse of valuable transformations. It also enables backtracking capabilities through graph pruning techniques, which can rectify inefficient transformation paths. To validate the efficacy and flexibility of our approach, we conducted comprehensive experiments and detailed case studies, demonstrating superior performance in diverse scenarios.

[444] 2406.07407

Private Geometric Median

In this paper, we study differentially private (DP) algorithms for computing the geometric median (GM) of a dataset: Given $n$ points, $x_1,\dots,x_n$ in $\mathbb{R}^d$, the goal is to find a point $\theta$ that minimizes the sum of the Euclidean distances to these points, i.e., $\sum_{i=1}^{n} \|\theta - x_i\|_2$. Off-the-shelf methods, such as DP-GD, require strong a priori knowledge locating the data within a ball of radius $R$, and the excess risk of the algorithm depends linearly on $R$. In this paper, we ask: can we design an efficient and private algorithm with an excess error guarantee that scales with the (unknown) radius containing the majority of the datapoints? Our main contribution is a pair of polynomial-time DP algorithms for the task of private GM with an excess error guarantee that scales with the effective diameter of the datapoints. Additionally, we propose an inefficient algorithm based on the inverse smooth sensitivity mechanism, which satisfies the more restrictive notion of pure DP. We complement our results with a lower bound and demonstrate the optimality of our polynomial-time algorithms in terms of sample complexity.

[445] 2406.07408

ADDOPT: An Additive Manufacturing Optimal Control Framework Demonstrated in Minimizing Layer-Level Thermal Variance in Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion

Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques hold promise but face significant challenges in process planning and optimization. The large temporal and spatial variations in temperature that can occur in layer-wise AM lead to thermal excursions, resulting in property variations and defects. These variations cannot always be fully mitigated by simple static parameter search. To address this challenge, we propose a general approach based on modeling AM processes on the part-scale in state-space and framing AM process planning as a numerical optimal control problem. We demonstrate this approach on the problem of minimizing thermal variation in a given layer in the electron beam powder bed fusion (EB-PBF) AM process, and are able to compute globally optimal dynamic process plans. These optimized process plans are then evaluated in simulation, achieving an 87% and 86% reduction in cumulative variance compared to random spot melting and a uniform power field respectively, and are further validated in experiment. This one-shot feedforward planning approach expands the capabilities of AM technology by minimizing the need for experimentation and iteration to achieve process optimization. Further, this work opens the possibility for the application of optimal control theory to part-scale optimization and control in AM.

[446] 2406.07411

VersiCode: Towards Version-controllable Code Generation

Significant research has focused on improving the performance of large language model on code-related tasks due to their practical importance. Although performance is typically evaluated using public benchmark datasets, the existing datasets do not account for the concept of \emph{version}, which is crucial in professional software development. In this paper, we introduce VersiCode, the first comprehensive dataset designed to assess the ability of large language models to generate verifiable code for specific library versions. VersiCode encompasses 300 libraries across more than 2,000 versions spanning 9 years. We design two dedicated evaluation tasks: version-specific code completion (VSCC) and version-aware code editing (VACE). Comprehensive experiments are conducted to benchmark the performance of LLMs, revealing the challenging nature of these tasks and VersiCode, that even state-of-the-art LLMs struggle to generate version-correct code. This dataset, together with the proposed tasks, sheds light on LLMs' capabilities and limitations in handling version-specific code generation, and opens up an important new area of research for further investigation. The resources can be found at

[447] 2406.07413

Holistic Memory Diversification for Incremental Learning in Growing Graphs

This paper addresses the challenge of incremental learning in growing graphs with increasingly complex tasks. The goal is to continually train a graph model to handle new tasks while retaining its inference ability on previous tasks. Existing methods usually neglect the importance of memory diversity, limiting in effectively selecting high-quality memory from previous tasks and remembering broad previous knowledge within the scarce memory on graphs. To address that, we introduce a novel holistic Diversified Memory Selection and Generation (DMSG) framework for incremental learning in graphs, which first introduces a buffer selection strategy that considers both intra-class and inter-class diversities, employing an efficient greedy algorithm for sampling representative training nodes from graphs into memory buffers after learning each new task. Then, to adequately rememorize the knowledge preserved in the memory buffer when learning new tasks, we propose a diversified memory generation replay method. This method first utilizes a variational layer to generate the distribution of buffer node embeddings and sample synthesized ones for replaying. Furthermore, an adversarial variational embedding learning method and a reconstruction-based decoder are proposed to maintain the integrity and consolidate the generalization of the synthesized node embeddings, respectively. Finally, we evaluate our model on node classification tasks involving increasing class numbers. Extensive experimental results on publicly accessible datasets demonstrate the superiority of DMSG over state-of-the-art methods.

[448] 2406.07418

Enhanced Gene Selection in Single-Cell Genomics: Pre-Filtering Synergy and Reinforced Optimization

Recent advancements in single-cell genomics necessitate precision in gene panel selection to interpret complex biological data effectively. Those methods aim to streamline the analysis of scRNA-seq data by focusing on the most informative genes that contribute significantly to the specific analysis task. Traditional selection methods, which often rely on expert domain knowledge, embedded machine learning models, or heuristic-based iterative optimization, are prone to biases and inefficiencies that may obscure critical genomic signals. Recognizing the limitations of traditional methods, we aim to transcend these constraints with a refined strategy. In this study, we introduce an iterative gene panel selection strategy that is applicable to clustering tasks in single-cell genomics. Our method uniquely integrates results from other gene selection algorithms, providing valuable preliminary boundaries or prior knowledge as initial guides in the search space to enhance the efficiency of our framework. Furthermore, we incorporate the stochastic nature of the exploration process in reinforcement learning (RL) and its capability for continuous optimization through reward-based feedback. This combination mitigates the biases inherent in the initial boundaries and harnesses RL's adaptability to refine and target gene panel selection dynamically. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we conducted detailed comparative experiments, case studies, and visualization analysis.

[449] 2406.07420

Graph Reasoning for Explainable Cold Start Recommendation

The cold start problem, where new users or items have no interaction history, remains a critical challenge in recommender systems (RS). A common solution involves using Knowledge Graphs (KG) to train entity embeddings or Graph Neural Networks (GNNs). Since KGs incorporate auxiliary data and not just user/item interactions, these methods can make relevant recommendations for cold users or items. Graph Reasoning (GR) methods, however, find paths from users to items to recommend using relations in the KG and, in the context of RS, have been used for interpretability. In this study, we propose GRECS: a framework for adapting GR to cold start recommendations. By utilizing explicit paths starting for users rather than relying only on entity embeddings, GRECS can find items corresponding to users' preferences by navigating the graph, even when limited information about users is available. Our experiments show that GRECS mitigates the cold start problem and outperforms competitive baselines across 5 standard datasets while being explainable. This study highlights the potential of GR for developing explainable recommender systems better suited for managing cold users and items.

[450] 2406.07421

A Comprehensive Investigation on Speaker Augmentation for Speaker Recognition

Data augmentation (DA) has played a pivotal role in the success of deep speaker recognition. Current DA techniques primarily focus on speaker-preserving augmentation, which does not change the speaker trait of the speech and does not create new speakers. Recent research has shed light on the potential of speaker augmentation, which generates new speakers to enrich the training dataset. In this study, we delve into two speaker augmentation approaches: speed perturbation (SP) and vocal tract length perturbation (VTLP). Despite the empirical utilization of both methods, a comprehensive investigation into their efficacy is lacking. Our study, conducted using two public datasets, VoxCeleb and CN-Celeb, revealed that both SP and VTLP are proficient at generating new speakers, leading to significant performance improvements in speaker recognition. Furthermore, they exhibit distinct properties in sensitivity to perturbation factors and data complexity, hinting at the potential benefits of their fusion. Our research underscores the substantial potential of speaker augmentation, highlighting the importance of in-depth exploration and analysis.

[451] 2406.07423

Beyond ELBOs: A Large-Scale Evaluation of Variational Methods for Sampling

Monte Carlo methods, Variational Inference, and their combinations play a pivotal role in sampling from intractable probability distributions. However, current studies lack a unified evaluation framework, relying on disparate performance measures and limited method comparisons across diverse tasks, complicating the assessment of progress and hindering the decision-making of practitioners. In response to these challenges, our work introduces a benchmark that evaluates sampling methods using a standardized task suite and a broad range of performance criteria. Moreover, we study existing metrics for quantifying mode collapse and introduce novel metrics for this purpose. Our findings provide insights into strengths and weaknesses of existing sampling methods, serving as a valuable reference for future developments. The code is publicly available here.

[452] 2406.07424

MINERS: Multilingual Language Models as Semantic Retrievers

Words have been represented in a high-dimensional vector space that encodes their semantic similarities, enabling downstream applications such as retrieving synonyms, antonyms, and relevant contexts. However, despite recent advances in multilingual language models (LMs), the effectiveness of these models' representations in semantic retrieval contexts has not been comprehensively explored. To fill this gap, this paper introduces the MINERS, a benchmark designed to evaluate the ability of multilingual LMs in semantic retrieval tasks, including bitext mining and classification via retrieval-augmented contexts. We create a comprehensive framework to assess the robustness of LMs in retrieving samples across over 200 diverse languages, including extremely low-resource languages in challenging cross-lingual and code-switching settings. Our results demonstrate that by solely retrieving semantically similar embeddings yields performance competitive with state-of-the-art approaches, without requiring any fine-tuning.

[453] 2406.07428

GemNet: Menu-Based, Strategy-Proof Multi-Bidder Auctions Through Deep Learning

Differentiable economics uses deep learning for automated mechanism design. Despite strong progress, it has remained an open problem to learn multi-bidder, general, and fully strategy-proof (SP) auctions. We introduce GEneral Menu-based NETwork (GemNet), which significantly extends the menu-based approach of RochetNet [D\"utting et al., 2023] to the multi-bidder setting. The challenge in achieving SP is to learn bidder-independent menus that are feasible, so that the optimal menu choices for each bidder do not over-allocate items when taken together (we call this menu compatibility). GemNet penalizes the failure of menu compatibility during training, and transforms learned menus after training through price changes, by considering a set of discretized bidder values and reasoning about Lipschitz smoothness to guarantee menu compatibility on the entire value space. This approach is general, leaving undisturbed trained menus that already satisfy menu compatibility and reducing to RochetNet for a single bidder. Mixed-integer linear programs are used for menu transforms and through a number of optimizations, including adaptive grids and methods to skip menu elements, we scale to large auction design problems. GemNet learns auctions with better revenue than affine maximization methods, achieves exact SP whereas previous general multi-bidder methods are approximately SP, and offers greatly enhanced interpretability.

[454] 2406.07429

Making 'syscall' a Privilege not a Right

Browsers, Library OSes, and system emulators rely on sandboxes and in-process isolation to emulate system resources and securely isolate untrusted components. All access to system resources like system calls (syscall) need to be securely mediated by the application. Otherwise system calls may allow untrusted components to evade the emulator or sandbox monitor, and hence, escape and attack the entire application or system. Existing approaches, such as ptrace, require additional context switches between kernel and userspace, which introduce high performance overhead. And, seccomp-bpf supports only limited policies, which restricts its functionality, or it still requires ptrace to provide assistance. In this paper, we present nexpoline, a secure syscall interception mechanism combining Memory Protection Keys (MPK) and Seccomp or Syscall User Dispatch (SUD). Our approach transforms an application's syscall instruction into a privilege reserved for the trusted monitor within the address space, allowing flexible user defined policy. To execute a syscall, the application must switch contexts via nexpoline. It offers better efficiency than secure interception techniques like ptrace, as nexpoline can intercept syscalls through binary rewriting securely. Consequently, nexpoline ensures the safety, flexibility and efficiency for syscall interception. Notably, it operates without kernel modifications, making it viable on current Linux systems without needing root privileges. Our benchmarks demonstrate improved performance over ptrace in interception overhead while achieving the same security guarantees. When compared to similarly performing firejail, nexpoline supports more complex policies and enables the possibility to emulate system resources.

[455] 2406.07430

Learning Domain-Invariant Features for Out-of-Context News Detection

Multimodal out-of-context news is a common type of misinformation on online media platforms. This involves posting a caption, alongside an invalid out-of-context news image. Reflecting its importance, researchers have developed models to detect such misinformation. However, a common limitation of these models is that they only consider the scenario where pre-labeled data is available for each domain, failing to address the out-of-context news detection on unlabeled domains (e.g., unverified news on new topics or agencies). In this work, we therefore focus on domain adaptive out-of-context news detection. In order to effectively adapt the detection model to unlabeled news topics or agencies, we propose ConDA-TTA (Contrastive Domain Adaptation with Test-Time Adaptation) which applies contrastive learning and maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) to learn the domain-invariant feature. In addition, it leverages target domain statistics during test-time to further assist domain adaptation. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms baselines in 5 out of 7 domain adaptation settings on two public datasets, by as much as 2.93% in F1 and 2.08% in accuracy.

[456] 2406.07431

Active Scout: Multi-Target Tracking Using Neural Radiance Fields in Dense Urban Environments

We study pursuit-evasion games in highly occluded urban environments, e.g. tall buildings in a city, where a scout (quadrotor) tracks multiple dynamic targets on the ground. We show that we can build a neural radiance field (NeRF) representation of the city -- online -- using RGB and depth images from different vantage points. This representation is used to calculate the information gain to both explore unknown parts of the city and track the targets -- thereby giving a completely first-principles approach to actively tracking dynamic targets. We demonstrate, using a custom-built simulator using Open Street Maps data of Philadelphia and New York City, that we can explore and locate 20 stationary targets within 300 steps. This is slower than a greedy baseline which which does not use active perception. But for dynamic targets that actively hide behind occlusions, we show that our approach maintains, at worst, a tracking error of 200m; the greedy baseline can have a tracking error as large as 600m. We observe a number of interesting properties in the scout's policies, e.g., it switches its attention to track a different target periodically, as the quality of the NeRF representation improves over time, the scout also becomes better in terms of target tracking.

[457] 2406.07432

Matryoshka Representation Learning for Recommendation

Representation learning is essential for deep-neural-network-based recommender systems to capture user preferences and item features within fixed-dimensional user and item vectors. Unlike existing representation learning methods that either treat each user preference and item feature uniformly or categorize them into discrete clusters, we argue that in the real world, user preferences and item features are naturally expressed and organized in a hierarchical manner, leading to a new direction for representation learning. In this paper, we introduce a novel matryoshka representation learning method for recommendation (MRL4Rec), by which we restructure user and item vectors into matryoshka representations with incrementally dimensional and overlapping vector spaces to explicitly represent user preferences and item features at different hierarchical levels. We theoretically establish that constructing training triplets specific to each level is pivotal in guaranteeing accurate matryoshka representation learning. Subsequently, we propose the matryoshka negative sampling mechanism to construct training triplets, which further ensures the effectiveness of the matryoshka representation learning in capturing hierarchical user preferences and item features. The experiments demonstrate that MRL4Rec can consistently and substantially outperform a number of state-of-the-art competitors on several real-life datasets. Our code is publicly available at

[458] 2406.07435

Beware of Aliases -- Signal Preservation is Crucial for Robust Image Restoration

Image restoration networks are usually comprised of an encoder and a decoder, responsible for aggregating image content from noisy, distorted data and to restore clean, undistorted images, respectively. Data aggregation as well as high-resolution image generation both usually come at the risk of involving aliases, i.e.~standard architectures put their ability to reconstruct the model input in jeopardy to reach high PSNR values on validation data. The price to be paid is low model robustness. In this work, we show that simply providing alias-free paths in state-of-the-art reconstruction transformers supports improved model robustness at low costs on the restoration performance. We do so by proposing BOA-Restormer, a transformer-based image restoration model that executes downsampling and upsampling operations partly in the frequency domain to ensure alias-free paths along the entire model while potentially preserving all relevant high-frequency information.

[459] 2406.07436

McEval: Massively Multilingual Code Evaluation

Code large language models (LLMs) have shown remarkable advances in code understanding, completion, and generation tasks. Programming benchmarks, comprised of a selection of code challenges and corresponding test cases, serve as a standard to evaluate the capability of different LLMs in such tasks. However, most existing benchmarks primarily focus on Python and are still restricted to a limited number of languages, where other languages are translated from the Python samples (e.g. MultiPL-E) degrading the data diversity. To further facilitate the research of code LLMs, we propose a massively multilingual code benchmark covering 40 programming languages (McEval) with 16K test samples, which substantially pushes the limits of code LLMs in multilingual scenarios. The benchmark contains challenging code completion, understanding, and generation evaluation tasks with finely curated massively multilingual instruction corpora McEval-Instruct. In addition, we introduce an effective multilingual coder mCoder trained on McEval-Instruct to support multilingual programming language generation. Extensive experimental results on McEval show that there is still a difficult journey between open-source models and closed-source LLMs (e.g. GPT-series models) in numerous languages. The instruction corpora, evaluation benchmark, and leaderboard are available at \url{}.

[460] 2406.07437

Graph-based multi-Feature fusion method for speech emotion recognition

Exploring proper way to conduct multi-speech feature fusion for cross-corpus speech emotion recognition is crucial as different speech features could provide complementary cues reflecting human emotion status. While most previous approaches only extract a single speech feature for emotion recognition, existing fusion methods such as concatenation, parallel connection, and splicing ignore heterogeneous patterns in the interaction between features and features, resulting in performance of existing systems. In this paper, we propose a novel graph-based fusion method to explicitly model the relationships between every pair of speech features. Specifically, we propose a multi-dimensional edge features learning strategy called Graph-based multi-Feature fusion method for speech emotion recognition. It represents each speech feature as a node and learns multi-dimensional edge features to explicitly describe the relationship between each feature-feature pair in the context of emotion recognition. This way, the learned multi-dimensional edge features encode speech feature-level information from both the vertex and edge dimensions. Our Approach consists of three modules: an Audio Feature Generation(AFG)module, an Audio-Feature Multi-dimensional Edge Feature(AMEF) module and a Speech Emotion Recognition (SER) module. The proposed methodology yielded satisfactory outcomes on the SEWA dataset. Furthermore, the method demonstrated enhanced performance compared to the baseline in the AVEC 2019 Workshop and Challenge. We used data from two cultures as our training and validation sets: two cultures containing German and Hungarian on the SEWA dataset, the CCC scores for German are improved by 17.28% for arousal and 7.93% for liking. The outcomes of our methodology demonstrate a 13% improvement over alternative fusion techniques, including those employing one dimensional edge-based feature fusion approach.

[461] 2406.07438

DeformTime: Capturing Variable Dependencies with Deformable Attention for Time Series Forecasting

In multivariate time series (MTS) forecasting, existing state-of-the-art deep learning approaches tend to focus on autoregressive formulations and overlook the information within exogenous indicators. To address this limitation, we present DeformTime, a neural network architecture that attempts to capture correlated temporal patterns from the input space, and hence, improve forecasting accuracy. It deploys two core operations performed by deformable attention blocks (DABs): learning dependencies across variables from different time steps (variable DAB), and preserving temporal dependencies in data from previous time steps (temporal DAB). Input data transformation is explicitly designed to enhance learning from the deformed series of information while passing through a DAB. We conduct extensive experiments on 6 MTS data sets, using previously established benchmarks as well as challenging infectious disease modelling tasks with more exogenous variables. The results demonstrate that DeformTime improves accuracy against previous competitive methods across the vast majority of MTS forecasting tasks, reducing the mean absolute error by 10% on average. Notably, performance gains remain consistent across longer forecasting horizons.

[462] 2406.07440

Textual Similarity as a Key Metric in Machine Translation Quality Estimation

Machine Translation (MT) Quality Estimation (QE) assesses translation reliability without reference texts. This study introduces "textual similarity" as a new metric for QE, using sentence transformers and cosine similarity to measure semantic closeness. Analyzing data from the MLQE-PE dataset, we found that textual similarity exhibits stronger correlations with human scores than traditional metrics (hter, model evaluation etc.). Employing GAMMs as a statistical tool, we demonstrated that textual similarity consistently outperforms other metrics across multiple language pairs in predicting human scores. We also found that "hter" actually failed to predict human scores in QE. Our findings highlight the effectiveness of textual similarity as a robust QE metric, recommending its integration with other metrics into QE frameworks and MT system training for improved accuracy and usability.

[463] 2406.07441

GPU Accelerated Implicit Kinetic Meshfree Method based on Modified LU-SGS

This report presents the GPU acceleration of implicit kinetic meshfree methods using modified LU-SGS algorithms. The meshfree scheme is based on the least squares kinetic upwind method (LSKUM). In the existing matrix-free LU-SGS approaches for kinetic meshfree methods, the products of split flux Jacobians and increments in conserved vectors are approximated by increments in the split fluxes. In our modified LU-SGS approach, the Jacobian vector products are computed exactly using algorithmic differentiation (AD). The implicit GPU solvers with exact and approximate computation of the Jacobian vector products are applied to the standard test cases for two-dimensional inviscid flows. Numerical results have shown that the GPU solvers with the exact computation of the Jacobian vector products are computationally more efficient and yield better convergence rates than the solvers with approximations to the Jacobian vector products. Benchmarks are presented to assess the performance of implicit GPU solvers compared to the explicit GPU solver and the implicit serial LSKUM solver.

[464] 2406.07444

On the Robustness of Document-Level Relation Extraction Models to Entity Name Variations

Driven by the demand for cross-sentence and large-scale relation extraction, document-level relation extraction (DocRE) has attracted increasing research interest. Despite the continuous improvement in performance, we find that existing DocRE models which initially perform well may make more mistakes when merely changing the entity names in the document, hindering the generalization to novel entity names. To this end, we systematically investigate the robustness of DocRE models to entity name variations in this work. We first propose a principled pipeline to generate entity-renamed documents by replacing the original entity names with names from Wikidata. By applying the pipeline to DocRED and Re-DocRED datasets, we construct two novel benchmarks named Env-DocRED and Env-Re-DocRED for robustness evaluation. Experimental results show that both three representative DocRE models and two in-context learned large language models consistently lack sufficient robustness to entity name variations, particularly on cross-sentence relation instances and documents with more entities. Finally, we propose an entity variation robust training method which not only improves the robustness of DocRE models but also enhances their understanding and reasoning capabilities. We further verify that the basic idea of this method can be effectively transferred to in-context learning for DocRE as well.

[465] 2406.07450

Benchmarking Vision-Language Contrastive Methods for Medical Representation Learning

We perform a comprehensive benchmarking of contrastive frameworks for learning multimodal representations in the medical domain. Through this study, we aim to answer the following research questions: (i) How transferable are general-domain representations to the medical domain? (ii) Is multimodal contrastive training sufficient, or does it benefit from unimodal training as well? (iii) What is the impact of feature granularity on the effectiveness of multimodal medical representation learning? To answer these questions, we investigate eight contrastive learning approaches under identical training setups, and train them on 2.8 million image-text pairs from four datasets, and evaluate them on 25 downstream tasks, including classification (zero-shot and linear probing), image-to-text and text-to-image retrieval, and visual question-answering. Our findings suggest a positive answer to the first question, a negative answer to the second question, and the benefit of learning fine-grained features. Finally, we make our code publicly available.

[466] 2406.07451

An Optimism-based Approach to Online Evaluation of Generative Models

Existing frameworks for evaluating and comparing generative models typically target an offline setting, where the evaluator has access to full batches of data produced by the models. However, in many practical scenarios, the goal is to identify the best model using the fewest generated samples to minimize the costs of querying data from the models. Such an online comparison is challenging with current offline assessment methods. In this work, we propose an online evaluation framework to find the generative model that maximizes a standard assessment score among a group of available models. Our method uses an optimism-based multi-armed bandit framework to identify the model producing data with the highest evaluation score, quantifying the quality and diversity of generated data. Specifically, we study the online assessment of generative models based on the Fr\'echet Inception Distance (FID) and Inception Score (IS) metrics and propose the FID-UCB and IS-UCB algorithms leveraging the upper confidence bound approach in online learning. We prove sub-linear regret bounds for these algorithms and present numerical results on standard image datasets, demonstrating their effectiveness in identifying the score-maximizing generative model.

[467] 2406.07453

HTVM: Efficient Neural Network Deployment On Heterogeneous TinyML Platforms

Optimal deployment of deep neural networks (DNNs) on state-of-the-art Systems-on-Chips (SoCs) is crucial for tiny machine learning (TinyML) at the edge. The complexity of these SoCs makes deployment non-trivial, as they typically contain multiple heterogeneous compute cores with limited, programmer-managed memory to optimize latency and energy efficiency. We propose HTVM - a compiler that merges TVM with DORY to maximize the utilization of heterogeneous accelerators and minimize data movements. HTVM allows deploying the MLPerf(TM) Tiny suite on DIANA, an SoC with a RISC-V CPU, and digital and analog compute-in-memory AI accelerators, at 120x improved performance over plain TVM deployment.

[468] 2406.07454

Reserve Provision from Electric Vehicles: Aggregate Boundaries and Stochastic Model Predictive Control

Controlled charging of electric vehicles, EVs, is a major potential source of flexibility to facilitate the integration of variable renewable energy and reduce the need for stationary energy storage. To offer system services from EVs, fleet aggregators must address the uncertainty of individual driving and charging behaviour. This paper introduces a means of forecasting the service volume available from EVs by considering several EV batteries as one conceptual battery with aggregate power and energy boundaries. This avoids the impossible task of predicting individual driving behaviour by taking advantage of the law of large numbers. The forecastability of the boundaries is demonstrated in a multiple linear regression model which achieves an $R^2$ of 0.7 for a fleet of 1,000 EVs. A two-stage stochastic model predictive control algorithm is used to schedule reserve services on a day-ahead basis addressing risk trade-offs by including Conditional Value-at-Risk in the objective function. A case study with 1.2 million domestic EV charge records from Great Britain shows that increasing fleet size improves prediction accuracy, thereby increasing reserve revenues and decreasing effective charging costs. For fleet sizes of 400 or above, charging cost reductions plateau at 60\%, with an average of 1.8kW of reserve provided per vehicle.

[469] 2406.07455

Reinforcement Learning from Human Feedback without Reward Inference: Model-Free Algorithm and Instance-Dependent Analysis

In this paper, we study reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) under an episodic Markov decision process with a general trajectory-wise reward model. We developed a model-free RLHF best policy identification algorithm, called $\mathsf{BSAD}$, without explicit reward model inference, which is a critical intermediate step in the contemporary RLHF paradigms for training large language models (LLM). The algorithm identifies the optimal policy directly from human preference information in a backward manner, employing a dueling bandit sub-routine that constantly duels actions to identify the superior one. $\mathsf{BSAD}$ adopts a reward-free exploration and best-arm-identification-like adaptive stopping criteria to equalize the visitation among all states in the same decision step while moving to the previous step as soon as the optimal action is identifiable, leading to a provable, instance-dependent sample complexity $\tilde{\mathcal{O}}(c_{\mathcal{M}}SA^3H^3M\log\frac{1}{\delta})$ which resembles the result in classic RL, where $c_{\mathcal{M}}$ is the instance-dependent constant and $M$ is the batch size. Moreover, $\mathsf{BSAD}$ can be transformed into an explore-then-commit algorithm with logarithmic regret and generalized to discounted MDPs using a frame-based approach. Our results show: (i) sample-complexity-wise, RLHF is not significantly harder than classic RL and (ii) end-to-end RLHF may deliver improved performance by avoiding pitfalls in reward inferring such as overfit and distribution shift.

[470] 2406.07456

fKAN: Fractional Kolmogorov-Arnold Networks with trainable Jacobi basis functions

Recent advancements in neural network design have given rise to the development of Kolmogorov-Arnold Networks (KANs), which enhance speed, interpretability, and precision. This paper presents the Fractional Kolmogorov-Arnold Network (fKAN), a novel neural network architecture that incorporates the distinctive attributes of KANs with a trainable adaptive fractional-orthogonal Jacobi function as its basis function. By leveraging the unique mathematical properties of fractional Jacobi functions, including simple derivative formulas, non-polynomial behavior, and activity for both positive and negative input values, this approach ensures efficient learning and enhanced accuracy. The proposed architecture is evaluated across a range of tasks in deep learning and physics-informed deep learning. Precision is tested on synthetic regression data, image classification, image denoising, and sentiment analysis. Additionally, the performance is measured on various differential equations, including ordinary, partial, and fractional delay differential equations. The results demonstrate that integrating fractional Jacobi functions into KANs significantly improves training speed and performance across diverse fields and applications.

[471] 2406.07457

Estimating the Hallucination Rate of Generative AI

This work is about estimating the hallucination rate for in-context learning (ICL) with Generative AI. In ICL, a conditional generative model (CGM) is prompted with a dataset and asked to make a prediction based on that dataset. The Bayesian interpretation of ICL assumes that the CGM is calculating a posterior predictive distribution over an unknown Bayesian model of a latent parameter and data. With this perspective, we define a \textit{hallucination} as a generated prediction that has low-probability under the true latent parameter. We develop a new method that takes an ICL problem -- that is, a CGM, a dataset, and a prediction question -- and estimates the probability that a CGM will generate a hallucination. Our method only requires generating queries and responses from the model and evaluating its response log probability. We empirically evaluate our method on synthetic regression and natural language ICL tasks using large language models.

[472] 2406.07466

Multimodal Belief Prediction

Recognizing a speaker's level of commitment to a belief is a difficult task; humans do not only interpret the meaning of the words in context, but also understand cues from intonation and other aspects of the audio signal. Many papers and corpora in the NLP community have approached the belief prediction task using text-only approaches. We are the first to frame and present results on the multimodal belief prediction task. We use the CB-Prosody corpus (CBP), containing aligned text and audio with speaker belief annotations. We first report baselines and significant features using acoustic-prosodic features and traditional machine learning methods. We then present text and audio baselines for the CBP corpus fine-tuning on BERT and Whisper respectively. Finally, we present our multimodal architecture which fine-tunes on BERT and Whisper and uses multiple fusion methods, improving on both modalities alone.

[473] 2406.07467

Anomaly Detection on Unstable Logs with GPT Models

Log-based anomaly detection has been widely studied in the literature as a way to increase the dependability of software-intensive systems. In reality, logs can be unstable due to changes made to the software during its evolution. This, in turn, degrades the performance of downstream log analysis activities, such as anomaly detection. The critical challenge in detecting anomalies on these unstable logs is the lack of information about the new logs, due to insufficient log data from new software versions. The application of Large Language Models (LLMs) to many software engineering tasks has revolutionized various domains. In this paper, we report on an experimental comparison of a fine-tuned LLM and alternative models for anomaly detection on unstable logs. The main motivation is that the pre-training of LLMs on vast datasets may enable a robust understanding of diverse patterns and contextual information, which can be leveraged to mitigate the data insufficiency issue in the context of software evolution. Our experimental results on the two-version dataset of LOGEVOL-Hadoop show that the fine-tuned LLM (GPT-3) fares slightly better than supervised baselines when evaluated on unstable logs. The difference between GPT-3 and other supervised approaches tends to become more significant as the degree of changes in log sequences increases. However, it is unclear whether the difference is practically significant in all cases. Lastly, our comparison of prompt engineering (with GPT-4) and fine-tuning reveals that the latter provides significantly superior performance on both stable and unstable logs, offering valuable insights into the effective utilization of LLMs in this domain.

[474] 2406.07468

On functions of low differential uniformity in characteristic 2: A close look (I)

We introduce a new concept, the APN-defect, which can be thought of as measuring the distance of a given function $G:\mathbb{F}_{2^n} \rightarrow \mathbb{F}_{2^n}$ to the set of almost perfect nonlinear (APN) functions. This concept is motivated by the detailed analysis of the differential behaviour of non-APN functions (of low differential uniformity) $G$ using the so-called difference squares. We describe the relations between the APN-defect and other recent concepts of similar nature. Upper and lower bounds for the values of APN-defect for several classes of functions of interest, including Dembowski-Ostrom polynomials are given. Its exact values in some cases are also calculated. The difference square corresponding to a modification of the inverse function is determined, its APN-defect depending on $n$ is evaluated and the implications are discussed. In the forthcoming second part of this work we further examine modifications of the inverse function. We also study modifications of classes of functions of low uniformity over infinitely many extensions of $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$. We present quantitative results on their differential behaviour, especially in connection with their APN-defects.

[475] 2406.07471

OphNet: A Large-Scale Video Benchmark for Ophthalmic Surgical Workflow Understanding

Surgical scene perception via videos are critical for advancing robotic surgery, telesurgery, and AI-assisted surgery, particularly in ophthalmology. However, the scarcity of diverse and richly annotated video datasets has hindered the development of intelligent systems for surgical workflow analysis. Existing datasets for surgical workflow analysis, which typically face challenges such as small scale, a lack of diversity in surgery and phase categories, and the absence of time-localized annotations, limit the requirements for action understanding and model generalization validation in complex and diverse real-world surgical scenarios. To address this gap, we introduce OphNet, a large-scale, expert-annotated video benchmark for ophthalmic surgical workflow understanding. OphNet features: 1) A diverse collection of 2,278 surgical videos spanning 66 types of cataract, glaucoma, and corneal surgeries, with detailed annotations for 102 unique surgical phases and 150 granular operations; 2) It offers sequential and hierarchical annotations for each surgery, phase, and operation, enabling comprehensive understanding and improved interpretability; 3) Moreover, OphNet provides time-localized annotations, facilitating temporal localization and prediction tasks within surgical workflows. With approximately 205 hours of surgical videos, OphNet is about 20 times larger than the largest existing surgical workflow analysis benchmark. Our dataset and code have been made available at: \url{}.

[476] 2406.07472

4Real: Towards Photorealistic 4D Scene Generation via Video Diffusion Models

Existing dynamic scene generation methods mostly rely on distilling knowledge from pre-trained 3D generative models, which are typically fine-tuned on synthetic object datasets. As a result, the generated scenes are often object-centric and lack photorealism. To address these limitations, we introduce a novel pipeline designed for photorealistic text-to-4D scene generation, discarding the dependency on multi-view generative models and instead fully utilizing video generative models trained on diverse real-world datasets. Our method begins by generating a reference video using the video generation model. We then learn the canonical 3D representation of the video using a freeze-time video, delicately generated from the reference video. To handle inconsistencies in the freeze-time video, we jointly learn a per-frame deformation to model these imperfections. We then learn the temporal deformation based on the canonical representation to capture dynamic interactions in the reference video. The pipeline facilitates the generation of dynamic scenes with enhanced photorealism and structural integrity, viewable from multiple perspectives, thereby setting a new standard in 4D scene generation.

[477] 2406.07473

Choreographing the Rhythms of Observation: Dynamics for Ranged Observer Bipartite-Unipartite SpatioTemporal (ROBUST) Networks

Existing network analysis methods struggle to optimize observer placements in dynamic environments with limited visibility. This dissertation introduces the novel ROBUST (Ranged Observer Bipartite-Unipartite SpatioTemporal) framework, offering a significant advancement in modeling, analyzing, and optimizing observer networks within complex spatiotemporal domains. ROBUST leverages a unique bipartite-unipartite approach, distinguishing between observer and observable entities while incorporating spatial constraints and temporal dynamics. This research extends spatiotemporal network theory by introducing novel graph-based measures, including myopic degree, spatial closeness centrality, and edge length proportion. These measures, coupled with advanced clustering techniques like Proximal Recurrence, provide insights into network structure, resilience, and the effectiveness of observer placements. The ROBUST framework demonstrates superior resource allocation and strategic responsiveness compared to conventional models. Case studies in oceanographic monitoring, urban safety networks, and multi-agent path planning showcases its practical applicability and adaptability. Results demonstrate significant improvements in coverage, response times, and overall network efficiency. This work paves the way for future research in incorporating imperfect knowledge, refining temporal pathing methodologies, and expanding the scope of applications. By bridging theoretical advancements with practical solutions, ROBUST stands as a significant contribution to the field, promising to inform and inspire ongoing and future endeavors in network optimization and multi-agent system planning.

[478] 2406.07475

Partially Observed Trajectory Inference using Optimal Transport and a Dynamics Prior

Trajectory inference seeks to recover the temporal dynamics of a population from snapshots of its (uncoupled) temporal marginals, i.e. where observed particles are not tracked over time. Lavenant et al. arXiv:2102.09204 addressed this challenging problem under a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model with a gradient-driven drift in the observed space, introducing a minimum entropy estimator relative to the Wiener measure. Chizat et al. arXiv:2205.07146 then provided a practical grid-free mean-field Langevin (MFL) algorithm using Schr\"odinger bridges. Motivated by the overwhelming success of observable state space models in the traditional paired trajectory inference problem (e.g. target tracking), we extend the above framework to a class of latent SDEs in the form of observable state space models. In this setting, we use partial observations to infer trajectories in the latent space under a specified dynamics model (e.g. the constant velocity/acceleration models from target tracking). We introduce PO-MFL to solve this latent trajectory inference problem and provide theoretical guarantees by extending the results of arXiv:2102.09204 to the partially observed setting. We leverage the MFL framework of arXiv:2205.07146, yielding an algorithm based on entropic OT between dynamics-adjusted adjacent time marginals. Experiments validate the robustness of our method and the exponential convergence of the MFL dynamics, and demonstrate significant outperformance over the latent-free method of arXiv:2205.07146 in key scenarios.

[479] 2406.07476

VideoLLaMA 2: Advancing Spatial-Temporal Modeling and Audio Understanding in Video-LLMs

In this paper, we present the VideoLLaMA 2, a set of Video Large Language Models (Video-LLMs) designed to enhance spatial-temporal modeling and audio understanding in video and audio-oriented tasks. Building upon its predecessor, VideoLLaMA 2 incorporates a tailor-made Spatial-Temporal Convolution (STC) connector, which effectively captures the intricate spatial and temporal dynamics of video data. Additionally, we integrate an Audio Branch into the model through joint training, thereby enriching the multimodal understanding capabilities of the model by seamlessly incorporating audio cues. Comprehensive evaluations on multiple-choice video question answering (MC-VQA), open-ended video question answering (OE-VQA), and video captioning (VC) tasks demonstrate that VideoLLaMA 2 consistently achieves competitive results among open-source models and even gets close to some proprietary models on several benchmarks. Furthermore, VideoLLaMA 2 exhibits reasonable improvements in audio-only and audio-video question-answering (AQA & OE-AVQA) benchmarks over existing models. These advancements underline VideoLLaMA 2's superior performance in multimodal comprehension, setting a new standard for intelligent video analysis systems. All models are public to facilitate further research.

[480] 2406.07480

Image Neural Field Diffusion Models

Diffusion models have shown an impressive ability to model complex data distributions, with several key advantages over GANs, such as stable training, better coverage of the training distribution's modes, and the ability to solve inverse problems without extra training. However, most diffusion models learn the distribution of fixed-resolution images. We propose to learn the distribution of continuous images by training diffusion models on image neural fields, which can be rendered at any resolution, and show its advantages over fixed-resolution models. To achieve this, a key challenge is to obtain a latent space that represents photorealistic image neural fields. We propose a simple and effective method, inspired by several recent techniques but with key changes to make the image neural fields photorealistic. Our method can be used to convert existing latent diffusion autoencoders into image neural field autoencoders. We show that image neural field diffusion models can be trained using mixed-resolution image datasets, outperform fixed-resolution diffusion models followed by super-resolution models, and can solve inverse problems with conditions applied at different scales efficiently.

[481] 2406.07481

The end of multiple choice tests: using AI to enhance assessment

Effective teaching relies on knowing what students know-or think they know. Revealing student thinking is challenging. Often used because of their ease of grading, even the best multiple choice (MC) tests, those using research based distractors (wrong answers) are intrinsically limited in the insights they provide due to two factors. When distractors do not reflect student beliefs they can be ignored, increasing the likelihood that the correct answer will be chosen by chance. Moreover, making the correct choice does not guarantee that the student understands why it is correct. To address these limitations, we recommend asking students to explain why they chose their answer, and why "wrong" choices are wrong. Using a discipline-trained artificial intelligence-based bot it is possible to analyze their explanations, identifying the concepts and scientific principles that maybe missing or misapplied. The bot also makes suggestions for how instructors can use these data to better guide student thinking. In a small "proof of concept" study, we tested this approach using questions from the Biology Concepts Instrument (BCI). The result was rapid, informative, and provided actionable feedback on student thinking. It appears that the use of AI addresses the weaknesses of conventional MC test. It seems likely that incorporating AI-analyzed formative assessments will lead to improved overall learning outcomes.

[482] 2406.07482

Comparing Deep Learning Models for Rice Mapping in Bhutan Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

The Bhutanese government is increasing its utilization of technological approaches such as including Remote Sensing-based knowledge in their decision-making process. This study focuses on crop type and crop extent in Paro, one of the top rice-yielding districts in Bhutan, and employs publicly available NICFI high-resolution satellite imagery from Planet. Two Deep Learning (DL) approaches, point-based (DNN) and patch-based (U-Net), models were used in conjunction with cloud-computing platforms. Three different models per DL approaches (DNN and U-Net) were trained: 1) RGBN channels from Planet; 2) RGBN and elevation data (RGBNE); 3) RGBN and Sentinel-1 (S1) data (RGBNS), and RGBN with E and S1 data (RGBNES). From this comprehensive analysis, the U-Net displayed higher performance metrics across both model training and model validation efforts. Among the U-Net model sets, the RGBN, RGBNE, RGBNS, and RGBNES models had an F1-score of 0.8546, 0.8563, 0.8467, and 0.8500 respectively. An independent model evaluation was performed and found a high level of performance variation across all the metrics. For this independent model evaluation, the U-Net RGBN, RGBNE, RGBNES, and RGBN models displayed the F1-scores of 0.5935, 0.6154, 0.5882, and 0.6582, suggesting U-Net RGBNES as the best model. The study shows that the DL approaches can predict rice. Also, DL methods can be used with the survey-based approaches currently utilized by the Bhutan Department of Agriculture. Further, this study demonstrated the usage of regional land cover products such as SERVIR's RLCMS as a weak label approach to capture different strata addressing the class imbalance problem and improving the sampling design for DL application. Finally, through preliminary model testing and comparisons outlined it was shown that using additional features such as NDVI, EVI, and NDWI did not drastically improve model performance.

[483] 2406.07483

Advancing Annotation of Stance in Social Media Posts: A Comparative Analysis of Large Language Models and Crowd Sourcing

In the rapidly evolving landscape of Natural Language Processing (NLP), the use of Large Language Models (LLMs) for automated text annotation in social media posts has garnered significant interest. Despite the impressive innovations in developing LLMs like ChatGPT, their efficacy, and accuracy as annotation tools are not well understood. In this paper, we analyze the performance of eight open-source and proprietary LLMs for annotating the stance expressed in social media posts, benchmarking their performance against human annotators' (i.e., crowd-sourced) judgments. Additionally, we investigate the conditions under which LLMs are likely to disagree with human judgment. A significant finding of our study is that the explicitness of text expressing a stance plays a critical role in how faithfully LLMs' stance judgments match humans'. We argue that LLMs perform well when human annotators do, and when LLMs fail, it often corresponds to situations in which human annotators struggle to reach an agreement. We conclude with recommendations for a comprehensive approach that combines the precision of human expertise with the scalability of LLM predictions. This study highlights the importance of improving the accuracy and comprehensiveness of automated stance detection, aiming to advance these technologies for more efficient and unbiased analysis of social media.

[484] 2406.07484

Towards Generalized Hydrological Forecasting using Transformer Models for 120-Hour Streamflow Prediction

This study explores the efficacy of a Transformer model for 120-hour streamflow prediction across 125 diverse locations in Iowa, US. Utilizing data from the preceding 72 hours, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, and discharge values, we developed a generalized model to predict future streamflow. Our approach contrasts with traditional methods that typically rely on location-specific models. We benchmarked the Transformer model's performance against three deep learning models (LSTM, GRU, and Seq2Seq) and the Persistence approach, employing Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), Kling-Gupta Efficiency (KGE), Pearson's r, and Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) as metrics. The study reveals the Transformer model's superior performance, maintaining higher median NSE and KGE scores and exhibiting the lowest NRMSE values. This indicates its capability to accurately simulate and predict streamflow, adapting effectively to varying hydrological conditions and geographical variances. Our findings underscore the Transformer model's potential as an advanced tool in hydrological modeling, offering significant improvements over traditional and contemporary approaches.

[485] 2406.07485

PITCH: Productivity and Mental Well-being Coaching through Daily Conversational Interaction

Efficient task planning is essential for productivity and mental well-being, yet individuals often struggle to create realistic plans and reflect upon their productivity. Leveraging the advancement in artificial intelligence (AI), conversational agents have emerged as a promising tool for enhancing productivity. Our work focuses on externalizing plans through conversation, aiming to solidify intentions and foster focused action, thereby positively impacting their productivity and mental well-being. We share our plan of designing a conversational agent to offer insightful questions and reflective prompts for increasing plan adherence by leveraging the social interactivity of natural conversations. Previous studies have shown the effectiveness of such agents, but many interventions remain static, leading to decreased user engagement over time. To address this limitation, we propose a novel rotation and context-aware prompting strategy, providing users with varied interventions daily. Our system, PITCH, utilizes large language models (LLMs) to facilitate externalization and reflection on daily plans. Through this study, we investigate the impact of externalizing tasks with conversational agents on productivity and mental well-being, and the effectiveness of a rotation strategy in maintaining user engagement.

[486] 2406.07487

GLAD: Towards Better Reconstruction with Global and Local Adaptive Diffusion Models for Unsupervised Anomaly Detection

Diffusion models have shown superior performance on unsupervised anomaly detection tasks. Since trained with normal data only, diffusion models tend to reconstruct normal counterparts of test images with certain noises added. However, these methods treat all potential anomalies equally, which may cause two main problems. From the global perspective, the difficulty of reconstructing images with different anomalies is uneven. Therefore, instead of utilizing the same setting for all samples, we propose to predict a particular denoising step for each sample by evaluating the difference between image contents and the priors extracted from diffusion models. From the local perspective, reconstructing abnormal regions differs from normal areas even in the same image. Theoretically, the diffusion model predicts a noise for each step, typically following a standard Gaussian distribution. However, due to the difference between the anomaly and its potential normal counterpart, the predicted noise in abnormal regions will inevitably deviate from the standard Gaussian distribution. To this end, we propose introducing synthetic abnormal samples in training to encourage the diffusion models to break through the limitation of standard Gaussian distribution, and a spatial-adaptive feature fusion scheme is utilized during inference. With the above modifications, we propose a global and local adaptive diffusion model (abbreviated to GLAD) for unsupervised anomaly detection, which introduces appealing flexibility and achieves anomaly-free reconstruction while retaining as much normal information as possible. Extensive experiments are conducted on three commonly used anomaly detection datasets (MVTec-AD, MPDD, and VisA) and a printed circuit board dataset (PCB-Bank) we integrated, showing the effectiveness of the proposed method.

[487] 2406.07488

ReduceFormer: Attention with Tensor Reduction by Summation

Transformers have excelled in many tasks including vision. However, efficient deployment of transformer models in low-latency or high-throughput applications is hindered by the computation in the attention mechanism which involves expensive operations such as matrix multiplication and Softmax. To address this, we introduce ReduceFormer, a family of models optimized for efficiency with the spirit of attention. ReduceFormer leverages only simple operations such as reduction and element-wise multiplication, leading to greatly simplified architecture and improved inference performance, with up to 37% reduction in latency and 44% improvement in throughput, while maintaining competitive accuracy comparable to other recent methods. The proposed model family is suitable for edge devices where compute resource and memory bandwidth are limited, as well as for cloud computing where high throughput is sought after.

[488] 2406.07492

Paraphrasing in Affirmative Terms Improves Negation Understanding

Negation is a common linguistic phenomenon. Yet language models face challenges with negation in many natural language understanding tasks such as question answering and natural language inference. In this paper, we experiment with seamless strategies that incorporate affirmative interpretations (i.e., paraphrases without negation) to make models more robust against negation. Crucially, our affirmative interpretations are obtained automatically. We show improvements with CondaQA, a large corpus requiring reasoning with negation, and five natural language understanding tasks.

[489] 2406.07494

CADS: A Systematic Literature Review on the Challenges of Abstractive Dialogue Summarization

Abstractive dialogue summarization is the task of distilling conversations into informative and concise summaries. Although reviews have been conducted on this topic, there is a lack of comprehensive work detailing the challenges of dialogue summarization, unifying the differing understanding of the task, and aligning proposed techniques, datasets, and evaluation metrics with the challenges. This article summarizes the research on Transformer-based abstractive summarization for English dialogues by systematically reviewing 1262 unique research papers published between 2019 and 2024, relying on the Semantic Scholar and DBLP databases. We cover the main challenges present in dialog summarization (i.e., language, structure, comprehension, speaker, salience, and factuality) and link them to corresponding techniques such as graph-based approaches, additional training tasks, and planning strategies, which typically overly rely on BART-based encoder-decoder models. We find that while some challenges, like language, have seen considerable progress, mainly due to training methods, others, such as comprehension, factuality, and salience, remain difficult and hold significant research opportunities. We investigate how these approaches are typically assessed, covering the datasets for the subdomains of dialogue (e.g., meeting, medical), the established automatic metrics and human evaluation approaches for assessing scores and annotator agreement. We observe that only a few datasets span across all subdomains. The ROUGE metric is the most used, while human evaluation is frequently reported without sufficient detail on inner-annotator agreement and annotation guidelines. Additionally, we discuss the possible implications of the recently explored large language models and conclude that despite a potential shift in relevance and difficulty, our described challenge taxonomy remains relevant.

[490] 2406.07496

TextGrad: Automatic "Differentiation" via Text

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift, with breakthroughs achieved by systems orchestrating multiple large language models (LLMs) and other complex components. As a result, developing principled and automated optimization methods for compound AI systems is one of the most important new challenges. Neural networks faced a similar challenge in its early days until backpropagation and automatic differentiation transformed the field by making optimization turn-key. Inspired by this, we introduce TextGrad, a powerful framework performing automatic ``differentiation'' via text. TextGrad backpropagates textual feedback provided by LLMs to improve individual components of a compound AI system. In our framework, LLMs provide rich, general, natural language suggestions to optimize variables in computation graphs, ranging from code snippets to molecular structures. TextGrad follows PyTorch's syntax and abstraction and is flexible and easy-to-use. It works out-of-the-box for a variety of tasks, where the users only provide the objective function without tuning components or prompts of the framework. We showcase TextGrad's effectiveness and generality across a diverse range of applications, from question answering and molecule optimization to radiotherapy treatment planning. Without modifying the framework, TextGrad improves the zero-shot accuracy of GPT-4o in Google-Proof Question Answering from $51\%$ to $55\%$, yields $20\%$ relative performance gain in optimizing LeetCode-Hard coding problem solutions, improves prompts for reasoning, designs new druglike small molecules with desirable in silico binding, and designs radiation oncology treatment plans with high specificity. TextGrad lays a foundation to accelerate the development of the next-generation of AI systems.

[491] 2406.07497

A pilot protocol and cohort for the investigation of non-pathological variability in speech

Background Speech-based biomarkers have potential as a means for regular, objective assessment of symptom severity, remotely and in-clinic in combination with advanced analytical models. However, the complex nature of speech and the often subtle changes associated with health mean that findings are highly dependent on methodological and cohort choices. These are often not reported adequately in studies investigating speech-based health assessment Objective To develop and apply an exemplar protocol to generate a pilot dataset of healthy speech with detailed metadata for the assessment of factors in the speech recording-analysis pipeline, including device choice, speech elicitation task and non-pathological variability. Methods We developed our collection protocol and choice of exemplar speech features based on a thematic literature review. Our protocol includes the elicitation of three different speech types. With a focus towards remote applications, we also choose to collect speech with three different microphone types. We developed a pipeline to extract a set of 14 exemplar speech features. Results We collected speech from 28 individuals three times in one day, repeated at the same times 8-11 weeks later, and from 25 healthy individuals three times in one week. Participant characteristics collected included sex, age, native language status and voice use habits of the participant. A preliminary set of 14 speech features covering timing, prosody, voice quality, articulation and spectral moment characteristics were extracted that provide a resource of normative values. Conclusions There are multiple methodological factors involved in the collection, processing and analysis of speech recordings. Consistent reporting and greater harmonisation of study protocols are urgently required to aid the translation of speech processing into clinical research and practice.

[492] 2406.07498

RaD-Net 2: A causal two-stage repairing and denoising speech enhancement network with knowledge distillation and complex axial self-attention

In real-time speech communication systems, speech signals are often degraded by multiple distortions. Recently, a two-stage Repair-and-Denoising network (RaD-Net) was proposed with superior speech quality improvement in the ICASSP 2024 Speech Signal Improvement (SSI) Challenge. However, failure to use future information and constraint receptive field of convolution layers limit the system's performance. To mitigate these problems, we extend RaD-Net to its upgraded version, RaD-Net 2. Specifically, a causality-based knowledge distillation is introduced in the first stage to use future information in a causal way. We use the non-causal repairing network as the teacher to improve the performance of the causal repairing network. In addition, in the second stage, complex axial self-attention is applied in the denoising network's complex feature encoder/decoder. Experimental results on the ICASSP 2024 SSI Challenge blind test set show that RaD-Net 2 brings 0.10 OVRL DNSMOS improvement compared to RaD-Net.

[493] 2406.07499

Trim 3D Gaussian Splatting for Accurate Geometry Representation

In this paper, we introduce Trim 3D Gaussian Splatting (TrimGS) to reconstruct accurate 3D geometry from images. Previous arts for geometry reconstruction from 3D Gaussians mainly focus on exploring strong geometry regularization. Instead, from a fresh perspective, we propose to obtain accurate 3D geometry of a scene by Gaussian trimming, which selectively removes the inaccurate geometry while preserving accurate structures. To achieve this, we analyze the contributions of individual 3D Gaussians and propose a contribution-based trimming strategy to remove the redundant or inaccurate Gaussians. Furthermore, our experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that a relatively small Gaussian scale is a non-negligible factor in representing and optimizing the intricate details. Therefore the proposed TrimGS maintains relatively small Gaussian scales. In addition, TrimGS is also compatible with the effective geometry regularization strategies in previous arts. When combined with the original 3DGS and the state-of-the-art 2DGS, TrimGS consistently yields more accurate geometry and higher perceptual quality. Our project page is

[494] 2406.07500

SPIN: Spacecraft Imagery for Navigation

Data acquired in space operational conditions is scarce due to the costs and complexity of space operations. This poses a challenge to learning-based visual-based navigation algorithms employed in autonomous spacecraft navigation. Existing datasets, which largely depend on computer-simulated data, have partially filled this gap. However, the image generation tools they use are proprietary, which limits the evaluation of methods to unseen scenarios. Furthermore, these datasets provide limited ground-truth data, primarily focusing on the spacecraft's translation and rotation relative to the camera. To address these limitations, we present SPIN (SPacecraft Imagery for Navigation), an open-source realistic spacecraft image generation tool for relative navigation between two spacecrafts. SPIN provides a wide variety of ground-truth data and allows researchers to employ custom 3D models of satellites, define specific camera-relative poses, and adjust various settings such as camera parameters and environmental illumination conditions. For the task of spacecraft pose estimation, we compare the results of training with a SPIN-generated dataset against existing synthetic datasets. We show a %50 average error reduction in common testbed data (that simulates realistic space conditions). Both the SPIN tool (and source code) and our enhanced version of the synthetic datasets will be publicly released upon paper acceptance on GitHub

[495] 2406.07502

Image Textualization: An Automatic Framework for Creating Accurate and Detailed Image Descriptions

Image description datasets play a crucial role in the advancement of various applications such as image understanding, text-to-image generation, and text-image retrieval. Currently, image description datasets primarily originate from two sources. One source is the scraping of image-text pairs from the web. Despite their abundance, these descriptions are often of low quality and noisy. Another is through human labeling. Datasets such as COCO are generally very short and lack details. Although detailed image descriptions can be annotated by humans, the high annotation cost limits the feasibility. These limitations underscore the need for more efficient and scalable methods to generate accurate and detailed image descriptions. In this paper, we propose an innovative framework termed Image Textualization (IT), which automatically produces high-quality image descriptions by leveraging existing multi-modal large language models (MLLMs) and multiple vision expert models in a collaborative manner, which maximally convert the visual information into text. To address the current lack of benchmarks for detailed descriptions, we propose several benchmarks for comprehensive evaluation, which verifies the quality of image descriptions created by our framework. Furthermore, we show that LLaVA-7B, benefiting from training on IT-curated descriptions, acquire improved capability to generate richer image descriptions, substantially increasing the length and detail of their output with less hallucination.

[496] 2406.07503

Hybrid Machine Learning Approach for Cyberattack Mitigation of Parallel Converters in a DC Microgrid

Cyberattack susceptibilities are introduced as the communication requirement increases with the incorporation of more renewable energy sources into DC microgrids. Parallel DC-DC converters are utilized to provide high current and supply the load. Nevertheless, these systems are susceptible to cyberattacks that have the potential to disrupt operations and jeopardize stability. Voltage instability may result from the manipulation of communication commands and low-layer control signals. Therefore, in this paper, a cyberattack that specifically targets parallel DC-DC converters is examined in a DC microgrid. A hybrid machine learning-based detection and mitigation strategy is suggested as a means to counteract this threat. The false data injection (FDI) attack targeting the converters is investigated within a DC microgrid. The efficacy of the suggested approach is verified via simulations executed for various scenarios within the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The technique successfully identifies and blocks FDI attacks, preventing cyberattacks and ensuring the safe operation of the DC microgrid.

[497] 2406.07504

Just Because We Camp, Doesn't Mean We Should: The Ethics of Modelling Queer Voices

Modern voice cloning models claim to be able to capture a diverse range of voices. We test the ability of a typical pipeline to capture the style known colloquially as "gay voice" and notice a homogenisation effect: synthesised speech is rated as sounding significantly "less gay" (by LGBTQ+ participants) than its corresponding ground-truth for speakers with "gay voice", but ratings actually increase for control speakers. Loss of "gay voice" has implications for accessibility. We also find that for speakers with "gay voice", loss of "gay voice" corresponds to lower similarity ratings. However, we caution that improving the ability of such models to synthesise ``gay voice'' comes with a great number of risks. We use this pipeline as a starting point for a discussion on the ethics of modelling queer voices more broadly. Collecting "clean" queer data has safety and fairness ramifications, and the resulting technology may cause harms from mockery to death.

[498] 2406.07505

THaLLE: Text Hyperlocally Augmented Large Language Extension -- Technical Report

Recent advancements in Large Language Models (LLMs) have revealed new capabilities and opportunities across the technological landscape. However, the practicality of very large LLMs is challenged by their high compute cost, which does not justify the benefits given their limited capability compared to humans. While smaller, more practical LLMs have shown potential in financial analysis, though they are not yet fully proficient, as evidenced by their near-passing performance on the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) exam. In this work, we present Financial Analyst Extension to our Text Hyperlocally Augmented Large Language Extension (THaLLE), a series of 8B LLMs consistently achieving highest performance on mock CFA exams against models of comparable size. We thoroughly document the fine-tuning techniques used to facilitate future research. Additionally, we introduce the use of Flare CFA, a publicly available dataset for evaluating LLMs as a financial advisor.

[499] 2406.07506

Understanding Visual Concepts Across Models

Large multimodal models such as Stable Diffusion can generate, detect, and classify new visual concepts after fine-tuning just a single word embedding. Do models learn similar words for the same concepts (i.e. <orange-cat> = orange + cat)? We conduct a large-scale analysis on three state-of-the-art models in text-to-image generation, open-set object detection, and zero-shot classification, and find that new word embeddings are model-specific and non-transferable. Across 4,800 new embeddings trained for 40 diverse visual concepts on four standard datasets, we find perturbations within an $\epsilon$-ball to any prior embedding that generate, detect, and classify an arbitrary concept. When these new embeddings are spliced into new models, fine-tuning that targets the original model is lost. We show popular soft prompt-tuning approaches find these perturbative solutions when applied to visual concept learning tasks, and embeddings for visual concepts are not transferable. Code for reproducing our work is available at:

[500] 2406.07507

Flow Map Matching

Generative models based on dynamical transport of measure, such as diffusion models, flow matching models, and stochastic interpolants, learn an ordinary or stochastic differential equation whose trajectories push initial conditions from a known base distribution onto the target. While training is cheap, samples are generated via simulation, which is more expensive than one-step models like GANs. To close this gap, we introduce flow map matching -- an algorithm that learns the two-time flow map of an underlying ordinary differential equation. The approach leads to an efficient few-step generative model whose step count can be chosen a-posteriori to smoothly trade off accuracy for computational expense. Leveraging the stochastic interpolant framework, we introduce losses for both direct training of flow maps and distillation from pre-trained (or otherwise known) velocity fields. Theoretically, we show that our approach unifies many existing few-step generative models, including consistency models, consistency trajectory models, progressive distillation, and neural operator approaches, which can be obtained as particular cases of our formalism. With experiments on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet 32x32, we show that flow map matching leads to high-quality samples with significantly reduced sampling cost compared to diffusion or stochastic interpolant methods.

[501] 2406.07513

Accurate Current Sharing in a DC Microgrid Using Modified Droop Control Algorithm

Due to the increasing popularity of DC loads and the potential for higher efficiency, DC microgrids are gaining significant attention. DC microgrids utilize multiple parallel converters to deliver sufficient power to the load. However, a key challenge arises when connecting these converters to a common DC bus: maintaining voltage regulation and accurate current sharing. Unequal cable resistances can cause uneven power sharing and lead to power losses. Conventional droop control methods, which employ a virtual resistor to address this issue, have limitations in achieving good performance across the entire converter operating range. This paper proposes a modified droop control algorithm to address this issue. This method modifies the virtual resistor in a way that ensures power sharing aligns with each converter-rated capacity. The algorithm is simple to implement and uses local measurements to update the droop gain. This paper presents simulation studies and experimental tests to analyze the performance of the proposed method, considering scenarios with equal and unequal converter ratings. The results successfully validate the accuracy and effectiveness of this innovative approach.

[502] 2406.07515

Beyond Model Collapse: Scaling Up with Synthesized Data Requires Reinforcement

Synthesized data from generative models is increasingly considered as an alternative to human-annotated data for fine-tuning Large Language Models. This raises concerns about model collapse: a drop in performance of models fine-tuned on generated data. Considering that it is easier for both humans and machines to tell between good and bad examples than to generate high-quality samples, we investigate the use of feedback on synthesized data to prevent model collapse. We derive theoretical conditions under which a Gaussian mixture classification model can achieve asymptotically optimal performance when trained on feedback-augmented synthesized data, and provide supporting simulations for finite regimes. We illustrate our theoretical predictions on two practical problems: computing matrix eigenvalues with transformers and news summarization with large language models, which both undergo model collapse when trained on model-generated data. We show that training from feedback-augmented synthesized data, either by pruning incorrect predictions or by selecting the best of several guesses, can prevent model collapse, validating popular approaches like RLHF.

[503] 2406.07516

Instant 3D Human Avatar Generation using Image Diffusion Models

We present AvatarPopUp, a method for fast, high quality 3D human avatar generation from different input modalities, such as images and text prompts and with control over the generated pose and shape. The common theme is the use of diffusion-based image generation networks that are specialized for each particular task, followed by a 3D lifting network. We purposefully decouple the generation from the 3D modeling which allow us to leverage powerful image synthesis priors, trained on billions of text-image pairs. We fine-tune latent diffusion networks with additional image conditioning to solve tasks such as image generation and back-view prediction, and to support qualitatively different multiple 3D hypotheses. Our partial fine-tuning approach allows to adapt the networks for each task without inducing catastrophic forgetting. In our experiments, we demonstrate that our method produces accurate, high-quality 3D avatars with diverse appearance that respect the multimodal text, image, and body control signals. Our approach can produce a 3D model in as few as 2 seconds, a four orders of magnitude speedup w.r.t. the vast majority of existing methods, most of which solve only a subset of our tasks, and with fewer controls, thus enabling applications that require the controlled 3D generation of human avatars at scale. The project website can be found at

[504] 2406.07520

Neural Gaffer: Relighting Any Object via Diffusion

Single-image relighting is a challenging task that involves reasoning about the complex interplay between geometry, materials, and lighting. Many prior methods either support only specific categories of images, such as portraits, or require special capture conditions, like using a flashlight. Alternatively, some methods explicitly decompose a scene into intrinsic components, such as normals and BRDFs, which can be inaccurate or under-expressive. In this work, we propose a novel end-to-end 2D relighting diffusion model, called Neural Gaffer, that takes a single image of any object and can synthesize an accurate, high-quality relit image under any novel environmental lighting condition, simply by conditioning an image generator on a target environment map, without an explicit scene decomposition. Our method builds on a pre-trained diffusion model, and fine-tunes it on a synthetic relighting dataset, revealing and harnessing the inherent understanding of lighting present in the diffusion model. We evaluate our model on both synthetic and in-the-wild Internet imagery and demonstrate its advantages in terms of generalization and accuracy. Moreover, by combining with other generative methods, our model enables many downstream 2D tasks, such as text-based relighting and object insertion. Our model can also operate as a strong relighting prior for 3D tasks, such as relighting a radiance field.

[505] 2406.07521

Faster Spectral Density Estimation and Sparsification in the Nuclear Norm

We consider the problem of estimating the spectral density of the normalized adjacency matrix of an $n$-node undirected graph. We provide a randomized algorithm that, with $O(n\epsilon^{-2})$ queries to a degree and neighbor oracle and in $O(n\epsilon^{-3})$ time, estimates the spectrum up to $\epsilon$ accuracy in the Wasserstein-1 metric. This improves on previous state-of-the-art methods, including an $O(n\epsilon^{-7})$ time algorithm from [Braverman et al., STOC 2022] and, for sufficiently small $\epsilon$, a $2^{O(\epsilon^{-1})}$ time method from [Cohen-Steiner et al., KDD 2018]. To achieve this result, we introduce a new notion of graph sparsification, which we call nuclear sparsification. We provide an $O(n\epsilon^{-2})$-query and $O(n\epsilon^{-2})$-time algorithm for computing $O(n\epsilon^{-2})$-sparse nuclear sparsifiers. We show that this bound is optimal in both its sparsity and query complexity, and we separate our results from the related notion of additive spectral sparsification. Of independent interest, we show that our sparsification method also yields the first deterministic algorithm for spectral density estimation that scales linearly with $n$ (sublinear in the representation size of the graph).

[506] 2406.07522

Samba: Simple Hybrid State Space Models for Efficient Unlimited Context Language Modeling

Efficiently modeling sequences with infinite context length has been a long-standing problem. Past works suffer from either the quadratic computation complexity or the limited extrapolation ability on length generalization. In this work, we present Samba, a simple hybrid architecture that layer-wise combines Mamba, a selective State Space Model (SSM), with Sliding Window Attention (SWA). Samba selectively compresses a given sequence into recurrent hidden states while still maintaining the ability to precisely recall memories with the attention mechanism. We scale Samba up to 3.8B parameters with 3.2T training tokens and show that Samba substantially outperforms the state-of-the-art models based on pure attention or SSMs on a wide range of benchmarks. When trained on 4K length sequences, Samba can be efficiently extrapolated to 256K context length with perfect memory recall and show improved token predictions up to 1M context length. As a linear-time sequence model, Samba enjoys a 3.73x higher throughput compared to Transformers with grouped-query attention when processing user prompts of 128K length, and 3.64x speedup when generating 64K tokens with unlimited streaming. A sample implementation of Samba is publicly available in

[507] 2406.07524

Simple and Effective Masked Diffusion Language Models

While diffusion models excel at generating high-quality images, prior work reports a significant performance gap between diffusion and autoregressive (AR) methods in language modeling. In this work, we show that simple masked discrete diffusion is more performant than previously thought. We apply an effective training recipe that improves the performance of masked diffusion models and derive a simplified, Rao-Blackwellized objective that results in additional improvements. Our objective has a simple form -- it is a mixture of classical masked language modeling losses -- and can be used to train encoder-only language models that admit efficient samplers, including ones that can generate arbitrary lengths of text semi-autoregressively like a traditional language model. On language modeling benchmarks, a range of masked diffusion models trained with modern engineering practices achieves a new state-of-the-art among diffusion models, and approaches AR perplexity. We release our code at:

[508] 2406.07528

QuickLLaMA: Query-aware Inference Acceleration for Large Language Models

The capacity of Large Language Models (LLMs) to comprehend and reason over long contexts is pivotal for advancements in diverse fields. Yet, they still stuggle with capturing long-distance dependencies within sequences to deeply understand semantics. To address this issue, we introduce Query-aware Inference for LLMs (Q-LLM), a system designed to process extensive sequences akin to human cognition. By focusing on memory data relevant to a given query, Q-LLM can accurately capture pertinent information within a fixed window size and provide precise answers to queries. It doesn't require extra training and can be seamlessly integrated with any LLMs. Q-LLM using LLaMA3 (QuickLLaMA) can read Harry Potter within 30s and accurately answer the questions. Q-LLM improved by 7.17% compared to the current state-of-the-art on LLaMA3, and by 3.26% on Mistral on the $\infty$-bench. In the Needle-in-a-Haystack task, On widely recognized benchmarks, Q-LLM improved upon the current SOTA by 7.0% on Mistral and achieves 100% on LLaMA3. Our code can be found in

[509] 2406.07529

MAP: Low-compute Model Merging with Amortized Pareto Fronts via Quadratic Approximation

Model merging has emerged as an effective approach to combine multiple single-task models, fine-tuned from the same pre-trained model, into a multitask model. This process typically involves computing a weighted average of the model parameters without any additional training. Existing model-merging methods focus on enhancing average task accuracy. However, interference and conflicts between the objectives of different tasks can lead to trade-offs during model merging. In real-world applications, a set of solutions with various trade-offs can be more informative, helping practitioners make decisions based on diverse preferences. In this paper, we introduce a novel low-compute algorithm, Model Merging with Amortized Pareto Front (MAP). MAP identifies a Pareto set of scaling coefficients for merging multiple models to reflect the trade-offs. The core component of MAP is approximating the evaluation metrics of the various tasks using a quadratic approximation surrogate model derived from a pre-selected set of scaling coefficients, enabling amortized inference. Experimental results on vision and natural language processing tasks show that MAP can accurately identify the Pareto front. To further reduce the required computation of MAP, we propose (1) a Bayesian adaptive sampling algorithm and (2) a nested merging scheme with multiple stages.

[510] 2406.07532

Hearing Anything Anywhere

Recent years have seen immense progress in 3D computer vision and computer graphics, with emerging tools that can virtualize real-world 3D environments for numerous Mixed Reality (XR) applications. However, alongside immersive visual experiences, immersive auditory experiences are equally vital to our holistic perception of an environment. In this paper, we aim to reconstruct the spatial acoustic characteristics of an arbitrary environment given only a sparse set of (roughly 12) room impulse response (RIR) recordings and a planar reconstruction of the scene, a setup that is easily achievable by ordinary users. To this end, we introduce DiffRIR, a differentiable RIR rendering framework with interpretable parametric models of salient acoustic features of the scene, including sound source directivity and surface reflectivity. This allows us to synthesize novel auditory experiences through the space with any source audio. To evaluate our method, we collect a dataset of RIR recordings and music in four diverse, real environments. We show that our model outperforms state-ofthe-art baselines on rendering monaural and binaural RIRs and music at unseen locations, and learns physically interpretable parameters characterizing acoustic properties of the sound source and surfaces in the scene.

[511] 2406.07536

Towards Fundamentally Scalable Model Selection: Asymptotically Fast Update and Selection

The advancement of deep learning technologies is bringing new models every day, motivating the study of scalable model selection. An ideal model selection scheme should minimally support two operations efficiently over a large pool of candidate models: update, which involves either adding a new candidate model or removing an existing candidate model, and selection, which involves locating highly performing models for a given task. However, previous solutions to model selection require high computational complexity for at least one of these two operations. In this work, we target fundamentally (more) scalable model selection that supports asymptotically fast update and asymptotically fast selection at the same time. Firstly, we define isolated model embedding, a family of model selection schemes supporting asymptotically fast update and selection: With respect to the number of candidate models $m$, the update complexity is O(1) and the selection consists of a single sweep over $m$ vectors in addition to O(1) model operations. Isolated model embedding also implies several desirable properties for applications. Secondly, we present Standardized Embedder, an empirical realization of isolated model embedding. We assess its effectiveness by using it to select representations from a pool of 100 pre-trained vision models for classification tasks and measuring the performance gaps between the selected models and the best candidates with a linear probing protocol. Experiments suggest our realization is effective in selecting models with competitive performances and highlight isolated model embedding as a promising direction towards model selection that is fundamentally (more) scalable.

[512] 2406.07537

Autoregressive Pretraining with Mamba in Vision

The vision community has started to build with the recently developed state space model, Mamba, as the new backbone for a range of tasks. This paper shows that Mamba's visual capability can be significantly enhanced through autoregressive pretraining, a direction not previously explored. Efficiency-wise, the autoregressive nature can well capitalize on the Mamba's unidirectional recurrent structure, enabling faster overall training speed compared to other training strategies like mask modeling. Performance-wise, autoregressive pretraining equips the Mamba architecture with markedly higher accuracy over its supervised-trained counterparts and, more importantly, successfully unlocks its scaling potential to large and even huge model sizes. For example, with autoregressive pretraining, a base-size Mamba attains 83.2\% ImageNet accuracy, outperforming its supervised counterpart by 2.0\%; our huge-size Mamba, the largest Vision Mamba to date, attains 85.0\% ImageNet accuracy (85.5\% when finetuned with $384\times384$ inputs), notably surpassing all other Mamba variants in vision. The code is available at \url{}.

[513] 2406.07539

BAKU: An Efficient Transformer for Multi-Task Policy Learning

Training generalist agents capable of solving diverse tasks is challenging, often requiring large datasets of expert demonstrations. This is particularly problematic in robotics, where each data point requires physical execution of actions in the real world. Thus, there is a pressing need for architectures that can effectively leverage the available training data. In this work, we present BAKU, a simple transformer architecture that enables efficient learning of multi-task robot policies. BAKU builds upon recent advancements in offline imitation learning and meticulously combines observation trunks, action chunking, multi-sensory observations, and action heads to substantially improve upon prior work. Our experiments on 129 simulated tasks across LIBERO, Meta-World suite, and the Deepmind Control suite exhibit an overall 18% absolute improvement over RT-1 and MT-ACT, with a 36% improvement on the harder LIBERO benchmark. On 30 real-world manipulation tasks, given an average of just 17 demonstrations per task, BAKU achieves a 91% success rate. Videos of the robot are best viewed at

[514] 2406.07540

Ctrl-X: Controlling Structure and Appearance for Text-To-Image Generation Without Guidance

Recent controllable generation approaches such as FreeControl and Diffusion Self-guidance bring fine-grained spatial and appearance control to text-to-image (T2I) diffusion models without training auxiliary modules. However, these methods optimize the latent embedding for each type of score function with longer diffusion steps, making the generation process time-consuming and limiting their flexibility and use. This work presents Ctrl-X, a simple framework for T2I diffusion controlling structure and appearance without additional training or guidance. Ctrl-X designs feed-forward structure control to enable the structure alignment with a structure image and semantic-aware appearance transfer to facilitate the appearance transfer from a user-input image. Extensive qualitative and quantitative experiments illustrate the superior performance of Ctrl-X on various condition inputs and model checkpoints. In particular, Ctrl-X supports novel structure and appearance control with arbitrary condition images of any modality, exhibits superior image quality and appearance transfer compared to existing works, and provides instant plug-and-play functionality to any T2I and text-to-video (T2V) diffusion model. See our project page for an overview of the results:

[515] 2406.07541

CDSA: Conservative Denoising Score-based Algorithm for Offline Reinforcement Learning

Distribution shift is a major obstacle in offline reinforcement learning, which necessitates minimizing the discrepancy between the learned policy and the behavior policy to avoid overestimating rare or unseen actions. Previous conservative offline RL algorithms struggle to generalize to unseen actions, despite their success in learning good in-distribution policy. In contrast, we propose to use the gradient fields of the dataset density generated from a pre-trained offline RL algorithm to adjust the original actions. We decouple the conservatism constraints from the policy, thus can benefit wide offline RL algorithms. As a consequence, we propose the Conservative Denoising Score-based Algorithm (CDSA) which utilizes the denoising score-based model to model the gradient of the dataset density, rather than the dataset density itself, and facilitates a more accurate and efficient method to adjust the action generated by the pre-trained policy in a deterministic and continuous MDP environment. In experiments, we show that our approach significantly improves the performance of baseline algorithms in D4RL datasets, and demonstrate the generalizability and plug-and-play capability of our model across different pre-trained offline RL policy in different tasks. We also validate that the agent exhibits greater risk aversion after employing our method while showcasing its ability to generalize effectively across diverse tasks.

[516] 2406.07542

Cognitive Insights Across Languages: Enhancing Multimodal Interview Analysis

Cognitive decline is a natural process that occurs as individuals age. Early diagnosis of anomalous decline is crucial for initiating professional treatment that can enhance the quality of life of those affected. To address this issue, we propose a multimodal model capable of predicting Mild Cognitive Impairment and cognitive scores. The TAUKADIAL dataset is used to conduct the evaluation, which comprises audio recordings of clinical interviews. The proposed model demonstrates the ability to transcribe and differentiate between languages used in the interviews. Subsequently, the model extracts audio and text features, combining them into a multimodal architecture to achieve robust and generalized results. Our approach involves in-depth research to implement various features obtained from the proposed modalities.

[517] 2406.07543

Vision Model Pre-training on Interleaved Image-Text Data via Latent Compression Learning

Recently, vision model pre-training has evolved from relying on manually annotated datasets to leveraging large-scale, web-crawled image-text data. Despite these advances, there is no pre-training method that effectively exploits the interleaved image-text data, which is very prevalent on the Internet. Inspired by the recent success of compression learning in natural language processing, we propose a novel vision model pre-training method called Latent Compression Learning (LCL) for interleaved image-text data. This method performs latent compression learning by maximizing the mutual information between the inputs and outputs of a causal attention model. The training objective can be decomposed into two basic tasks: 1) contrastive learning between visual representation and preceding context, and 2) generating subsequent text based on visual representation. Our experiments demonstrate that our method not only matches the performance of CLIP on paired pre-training datasets (e.g., LAION), but can also leverage interleaved pre-training data (e.g., MMC4) to learn robust visual representation from scratch, showcasing the potential of vision model pre-training with interleaved image-text data. Code is released at

[518] 2406.07544

Situational Awareness Matters in 3D Vision Language Reasoning

Being able to carry out complicated vision language reasoning tasks in 3D space represents a significant milestone in developing household robots and human-centered embodied AI. In this work, we demonstrate that a critical and distinct challenge in 3D vision language reasoning is situational awareness, which incorporates two key components: (1) The autonomous agent grounds its self-location based on a language prompt. (2) The agent answers open-ended questions from the perspective of its calculated position. To address this challenge, we introduce SIG3D, an end-to-end Situation-Grounded model for 3D vision language reasoning. We tokenize the 3D scene into sparse voxel representation and propose a language-grounded situation estimator, followed by a situated question answering module. Experiments on the SQA3D and ScanQA datasets show that SIG3D outperforms state-of-the-art models in situation estimation and question answering by a large margin (e.g., an enhancement of over 30% on situation estimation accuracy). Subsequent analysis corroborates our architectural design choices, explores the distinct functions of visual and textual tokens, and highlights the importance of situational awareness in the domain of 3D question answering.

[519] 2406.07545

Open-LLM-Leaderboard: From Multi-choice to Open-style Questions for LLMs Evaluation, Benchmark, and Arena

Multiple-choice questions (MCQ) are frequently used to assess large language models (LLMs). Typically, an LLM is given a question and selects the answer deemed most probable after adjustments for factors like length. Unfortunately, LLMs may inherently favor certain answer choice IDs, such as A/B/C/D, due to inherent biases of priori unbalanced probabilities, influencing the prediction of answers based on these IDs. Previous research has introduced methods to reduce this ''selection bias'' by simply permutating options on a few test samples and applying to new ones. Another problem of MCQ is the lottery ticket choice by ''random guessing''. The LLM does not learn particular knowledge, but the option is guessed correctly. This situation is especially serious for those small-scale LLMs. To address them, a more thorough approach involves shifting from MCQ to open-style questions, which can fundamentally eliminate selection bias and random guessing issues. However, transitioning causes its own set of challenges in (1) identifying suitable open-style questions and (2) validating the correctness of LLM open-style responses against human-annotated ground-truths. This work aims to tackle these significant difficulties, and establish a new LLM evaluation benchmark through entirely open-style questions. Consequently, we introduce the Open-LLM-Leaderboard to track various LLMs' performance and reflect true capability of them, such as GPT-4o/4/3.5, Claude 3, Gemini, etc. Our code and dataset are available at

[520] 2406.07546

Commonsense-T2I Challenge: Can Text-to-Image Generation Models Understand Commonsense?

We present a novel task and benchmark for evaluating the ability of text-to-image(T2I) generation models to produce images that fit commonsense in real life, which we call Commonsense-T2I. Given two adversarial text prompts containing an identical set of action words with minor differences, such as "a lightbulb without electricity" v.s. "a lightbulb with electricity", we evaluate whether T2I models can conduct visual-commonsense reasoning, e.g. produce images that fit "the lightbulb is unlit" vs. "the lightbulb is lit" correspondingly. Commonsense-T2I presents an adversarial challenge, providing pairwise text prompts along with expected outputs. The dataset is carefully hand-curated by experts and annotated with fine-grained labels, such as commonsense type and likelihood of the expected outputs, to assist analyzing model behavior. We benchmark a variety of state-of-the-art (sota) T2I models and surprisingly find that, there is still a large gap between image synthesis and real life photos--even the DALL-E 3 model could only achieve 48.92% on Commonsense-T2I, and the stable diffusion XL model only achieves 24.92% accuracy. Our experiments show that GPT-enriched prompts cannot solve this challenge, and we include a detailed analysis about possible reasons for such deficiency. We aim for Commonsense-T2I to serve as a high-quality evaluation benchmark for T2I commonsense checking, fostering advancements in real life image generation.

[521] 2406.07547

Zero-shot Image Editing with Reference Imitation

Image editing serves as a practical yet challenging task considering the diverse demands from users, where one of the hardest parts is to precisely describe how the edited image should look like. In this work, we present a new form of editing, termed imitative editing, to help users exercise their creativity more conveniently. Concretely, to edit an image region of interest, users are free to directly draw inspiration from some in-the-wild references (e.g., some relative pictures come across online), without having to cope with the fit between the reference and the source. Such a design requires the system to automatically figure out what to expect from the reference to perform the editing. For this purpose, we propose a generative training framework, dubbed MimicBrush, which randomly selects two frames from a video clip, masks some regions of one frame, and learns to recover the masked regions using the information from the other frame. That way, our model, developed from a diffusion prior, is able to capture the semantic correspondence between separate images in a self-supervised manner. We experimentally show the effectiveness of our method under various test cases as well as its superiority over existing alternatives. We also construct a benchmark to facilitate further research.

[522] 2406.07548

Image and Video Tokenization with Binary Spherical Quantization

We propose a new transformer-based image and video tokenizer with Binary Spherical Quantization (BSQ). BSQ projects the high-dimensional visual embedding to a lower-dimensional hypersphere and then applies binary quantization. BSQ is (1) parameter-efficient without an explicit codebook, (2) scalable to arbitrary token dimensions, and (3) compact: compressing visual data by up to 100$\times$ with minimal distortion. Our tokenizer uses a transformer encoder and decoder with simple block-wise causal masking to support variable-length videos as input. The resulting BSQ-ViT achieves state-of-the-art visual reconstruction quality on image and video reconstruction benchmarks with 2.4$\times$ throughput compared to the best prior methods. Furthermore, by learning an autoregressive prior for adaptive arithmetic coding, BSQ-ViT achieves comparable results on video compression with state-of-the-art video compression standards. BSQ-ViT also enables masked language models to achieve competitive image synthesis quality to GAN- and diffusion-based methods.

[523] 2406.07549

A3VLM: Actionable Articulation-Aware Vision Language Model

Vision Language Models (VLMs) have received significant attention in recent years in the robotics community. VLMs are shown to be able to perform complex visual reasoning and scene understanding tasks, which makes them regarded as a potential universal solution for general robotics problems such as manipulation and navigation. However, previous VLMs for robotics such as RT-1, RT-2, and ManipLLM~ have focused on directly learning robot-centric actions. Such approaches require collecting a significant amount of robot interaction data, which is extremely costly in the real world. Thus, we propose A3VLM, an object-centric, actionable, articulation-aware vision language model. A3VLM focuses on the articulation structure and action affordances of objects. Its representation is robot-agnostic and can be translated into robot actions using simple action primitives. Extensive experiments in both simulation benchmarks and real-world settings demonstrate the effectiveness and stability of A3VLM. We release our code and other materials at

[524] 2406.07550

An Image is Worth 32 Tokens for Reconstruction and Generation

Recent advancements in generative models have highlighted the crucial role of image tokenization in the efficient synthesis of high-resolution images. Tokenization, which transforms images into latent representations, reduces computational demands compared to directly processing pixels and enhances the effectiveness and efficiency of the generation process. Prior methods, such as VQGAN, typically utilize 2D latent grids with fixed downsampling factors. However, these 2D tokenizations face challenges in managing the inherent redundancies present in images, where adjacent regions frequently display similarities. To overcome this issue, we introduce Transformer-based 1-Dimensional Tokenizer (TiTok), an innovative approach that tokenizes images into 1D latent sequences. TiTok provides a more compact latent representation, yielding substantially more efficient and effective representations than conventional techniques. For example, a 256 x 256 x 3 image can be reduced to just 32 discrete tokens, a significant reduction from the 256 or 1024 tokens obtained by prior methods. Despite its compact nature, TiTok achieves competitive performance to state-of-the-art approaches. Specifically, using the same generator framework, TiTok attains 1.97 gFID, outperforming MaskGIT baseline significantly by 4.21 at ImageNet 256 x 256 benchmark. The advantages of TiTok become even more significant when it comes to higher resolution. At ImageNet 512 x 512 benchmark, TiTok not only outperforms state-of-the-art diffusion model DiT-XL/2 (gFID 2.74 vs. 3.04), but also reduces the image tokens by 64x, leading to 410x faster generation process. Our best-performing variant can significantly surpasses DiT-XL/2 (gFID 2.13 vs. 3.04) while still generating high-quality samples 74x faster.

[525] 2406.07551

Blur-aware Spatio-temporal Sparse Transformer for Video Deblurring

Video deblurring relies on leveraging information from other frames in the video sequence to restore the blurred regions in the current frame. Mainstream approaches employ bidirectional feature propagation, spatio-temporal transformers, or a combination of both to extract information from the video sequence. However, limitations in memory and computational resources constraints the temporal window length of the spatio-temporal transformer, preventing the extraction of longer temporal contextual information from the video sequence. Additionally, bidirectional feature propagation is highly sensitive to inaccurate optical flow in blurry frames, leading to error accumulation during the propagation process. To address these issues, we propose \textbf{BSSTNet}, \textbf{B}lur-aware \textbf{S}patio-temporal \textbf{S}parse \textbf{T}ransformer Network. It introduces the blur map, which converts the originally dense attention into a sparse form, enabling a more extensive utilization of information throughout the entire video sequence. Specifically, BSSTNet (1) uses a longer temporal window in the transformer, leveraging information from more distant frames to restore the blurry pixels in the current frame. (2) introduces bidirectional feature propagation guided by blur maps, which reduces error accumulation caused by the blur frame. The experimental results demonstrate the proposed BSSTNet outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the GoPro and DVD datasets.

[526] 2406.03848

OceanCastNet: A Deep Learning Ocean Wave Model with Energy Conservation

Traditional wave forecasting models, although based on energy conservation equations, are computationally expensive. On the other hand, existing deep learning geophysical fluid models, while computationally efficient, often suffer from issues such as energy dissipation in long-term forecasts. This paper proposes a novel energy-balanced deep learning wave forecasting model called OceanCastNet (OCN). By incorporating wind fields at the current, previous, and future time steps, as well as wave fields at the current and previous time steps as input variables, OCN maintains energy balance within the model. Furthermore, the model employs adaptive Fourier operators as its core components and designs a masked loss function to better handle the impact of land-sea boundaries. A series of experiments on the ERA5 dataset demonstrate that OCN can achieve short-term forecast accuracy comparable to traditional models while exhibiting an understanding of the wave generation process. In comparative experiments under both normal and extreme conditions, OCN consistently outperforms the widely used WaveWatch III model in the industry. Even after long-term forecasting, OCN maintains a stable and energy-rich state. By further constructing a simple meteorological model, OCN-wind, which considers energy balance, this paper confirms the importance of energy constraints for improving the long-term forecast performance of deep learning meteorological models. This finding provides new ideas for future research on deep learning geophysical fluid models.

[527] 2406.06531

Quantum Reinforcement Learning in Non-Abelian Environments: Unveiling Novel Formulations and Quantum Advantage Exploration

This paper delves into recent advancements in Quantum Reinforcement Learning (QRL), particularly focusing on non-commutative environments, which represent uncharted territory in this field. Our research endeavors to redefine the boundaries of decision-making by introducing formulations and strategies that harness the inherent properties of quantum systems. At the core of our investigation characterization of the agent's state space within a Hilbert space ($\mathcal{H}$). Here, quantum states emerge as complex superpositions of classical state introducing non-commutative quantum actions governed by unitary operators, necessitating a reimagining of state transitions. Complementing this framework is a refined reward function, rooted in quantum mechanics as a Hermitian operator on $\mathcal{H}$. This reward function serves as the foundation for the agent's decision-making process. By leveraging the quantum Bellman equation, we establish a methodology for maximizing expected cumulative reward over an infinite horizon, considering the entangled dynamics of quantum systems. We also connect the Quantum Bellman Equation to the Degree of Non Commutativity of the Environment, evident in Pure Algebra. We design a quantum advantage function. This ingeniously designed function exploits latent quantum parallelism inherent in the system, enhancing the agent's decision-making capabilities and paving the way for exploration of quantum advantage in uncharted territories. Furthermore, we address the significant challenge of quantum exploration directly, recognizing the limitations of traditional strategies in this complex environment.

[528] 2406.06537

Interactive Generation of Laparoscopic Videos with Diffusion Models

Generative AI, in general, and synthetic visual data generation, in specific, hold much promise for benefiting surgical training by providing photorealism to simulation environments. Current training methods primarily rely on reading materials and observing live surgeries, which can be time-consuming and impractical. In this work, we take a significant step towards improving the training process. Specifically, we use diffusion models in combination with a zero-shot video diffusion method to interactively generate realistic laparoscopic images and videos by specifying a surgical action through text and guiding the generation with tool positions through segmentation masks. We demonstrate the performance of our approach using the publicly available Cholec dataset family and evaluate the fidelity and factual correctness of our generated images using a surgical action recognition model as well as the pixel-wise F1-score for the spatial control of tool generation. We achieve an FID of 38.097 and an F1-score of 0.71.

[529] 2406.06545

Boosting end-to-end entanglement fidelity in quantum repeater networks via hybridized strategies

Quantum networks are expected to enhance distributed quantum computing and quantum communication over long distances while providing security dependent upon physical effects rather than mathematical assumptions. Through simulation, we show that a quantum network utilizing only entanglement purification or only quantum error correction as error management strategies cannot create Bell pairs with fidelity that exceeds the requirement for a secured quantum key distribution protocol for a broad range of hardware parameters. We propose hybrid strategies utilizing quantum error correction on top of purification and show that they can produce Bell pairs of sufficiently high fidelity. We identify the error parameter regime for gate and measurement errors in which these hybrid strategies are applicable.

[530] 2406.06552

Optimizing Sharpe Ratio: Risk-Adjusted Decision-Making in Multi-Armed Bandits

Sharpe Ratio (SR) is a critical parameter in characterizing financial time series as it jointly considers the reward and the volatility of any stock/portfolio through its variance. Deriving online algorithms for optimizing the SR is particularly challenging since even offline policies experience constant regret with respect to the best expert Even-Dar et al (2006). Thus, instead of optimizing the usual definition of SR, we optimize regularized square SR (RSSR). We consider two settings for the RSSR, Regret Minimization (RM) and Best Arm Identification (BAI). In this regard, we propose a novel multi-armed bandit (MAB) algorithm for RM called UCB-RSSR for RSSR maximization. We derive a path-dependent concentration bound for the estimate of the RSSR. Based on that, we derive the regret guarantees of UCB-RSSR and show that it evolves as O(log n) for the two-armed bandit case played for a horizon n. We also consider a fixed budget setting for well-known BAI algorithms, i.e., sequential halving and successive rejects, and propose SHVV, SHSR, and SuRSR algorithms. We derive the upper bound for the error probability of all proposed BAI algorithms. We demonstrate that UCB-RSSR outperforms the only other known SR optimizing bandit algorithm, U-UCB Cassel et al (2023). We also establish its efficacy with respect to other benchmarks derived from the GRA-UCB and MVTS algorithms. We further demonstrate the performance of proposed BAI algorithms for multiple different setups. Our research highlights that our proposed algorithms will find extensive applications in risk-aware portfolio management problems. Consequently, our research highlights that our proposed algorithms will find extensive applications in risk-aware portfolio management problems.

[531] 2406.06594

Stock Movement Prediction with Multimodal Stable Fusion via Gated Cross-Attention Mechanism

The accurate prediction of stock movements is crucial for investment strategies. Stock prices are subject to the influence of various forms of information, including financial indicators, sentiment analysis, news documents, and relational structures. Predominant analytical approaches, however, tend to address only unimodal or bimodal sources, neglecting the complexity of multimodal data. Further complicating the landscape are the issues of data sparsity and semantic conflicts between these modalities, which are frequently overlooked by current models, leading to unstable performance and limiting practical applicability. To address these shortcomings, this study introduces a novel architecture, named Multimodal Stable Fusion with Gated Cross-Attention (MSGCA), designed to robustly integrate multimodal input for stock movement prediction. The MSGCA framework consists of three integral components: (1) a trimodal encoding module, responsible for processing indicator sequences, dynamic documents, and a relational graph, and standardizing their feature representations; (2) a cross-feature fusion module, where primary and consistent features guide the multimodal fusion of the three modalities via a pair of gated cross-attention networks; and (3) a prediction module, which refines the fused features through temporal and dimensional reduction to execute precise movement forecasting. Empirical evaluations demonstrate that the MSGCA framework exceeds current leading methods, achieving performance gains of 8.1%, 6.1%, 21.7% and 31.6% on four multimodal datasets, respectively, attributed to its enhanced multimodal fusion stability.

[532] 2406.06619

LoRA-Whisper: Parameter-Efficient and Extensible Multilingual ASR

Recent years have witnessed significant progress in multilingual automatic speech recognition (ASR), driven by the emergence of end-to-end (E2E) models and the scaling of multilingual datasets. Despite that, two main challenges persist in multilingual ASR: language interference and the incorporation of new languages without degrading the performance of the existing ones. This paper proposes LoRA-Whisper, which incorporates LoRA matrix into Whisper for multilingual ASR, effectively mitigating language interference. Furthermore, by leveraging LoRA and the similarities between languages, we can achieve better performance on new languages while upholding consistent performance on original ones. Experiments on a real-world task across eight languages demonstrate that our proposed LoRA-Whisper yields a relative gain of 18.5% and 23.0% over the baseline system for multilingual ASR and language expansion respectively.

[533] 2406.06634

Sparse Binarization for Fast Keyword Spotting

With the increasing prevalence of voice-activated devices and applications, keyword spotting (KWS) models enable users to interact with technology hands-free, enhancing convenience and accessibility in various contexts. Deploying KWS models on edge devices, such as smartphones and embedded systems, offers significant benefits for real-time applications, privacy, and bandwidth efficiency. However, these devices often possess limited computational power and memory. This necessitates optimizing neural network models for efficiency without significantly compromising their accuracy. To address these challenges, we propose a novel keyword-spotting model based on sparse input representation followed by a linear classifier. The model is four times faster than the previous state-of-the-art edge device-compatible model with better accuracy. We show that our method is also more robust in noisy environments while being fast. Our code is available at:

[534] 2406.06638

Particle Multi-Axis Transformer for Jet Tagging

Jet tagging is an essential categorization problem in high energy physics. In recent times, Deep Learning has not only risen to the challenge of jet tagging but also significantly improved its performance. In this article, we propose an idea of a new architecture, Particle Multi-Axis transformer (ParMAT) which is a modified version of Particle transformer (ParT). ParMAT contains local and global spatial interactions within a single unit which improves its ability to handle various input lengths. We trained our model on JETCLASS, a publicly available large dataset that contains 100M jets of 10 different classes of particles. By integrating a parallel attention mechanism and pairwise interactions of particles in the attention mechanism,ParMAT achieves robustness and higher accuracy over the ParT and ParticleNet. The scalability of the model to huge datasets and its ability to automatically extract essential features demonstrate its potential for enhancing jet tagging.

[535] 2406.06646

Emotion-Aware Speech Self-Supervised Representation Learning with Intensity Knowledge

Speech Self-Supervised Learning (SSL) has demonstrated considerable efficacy in various downstream tasks. Nevertheless, prevailing self-supervised models often overlook the incorporation of emotion-related prior information, thereby neglecting the potential enhancement of emotion task comprehension through emotion prior knowledge in speech. In this paper, we propose an emotion-aware speech representation learning with intensity knowledge. Specifically, we extract frame-level emotion intensities using an established speech-emotion understanding model. Subsequently, we propose a novel emotional masking strategy (EMS) to incorporate emotion intensities into the masking process. We selected two representative models based on Transformer and CNN, namely MockingJay and Non-autoregressive Predictive Coding (NPC), and conducted experiments on IEMOCAP dataset. Experiments have demonstrated that the representations derived from our proposed method outperform the original model in SER task.

[536] 2406.06649

2DQuant: Low-bit Post-Training Quantization for Image Super-Resolution

Low-bit quantization has become widespread for compressing image super-resolution (SR) models for edge deployment, which allows advanced SR models to enjoy compact low-bit parameters and efficient integer/bitwise constructions for storage compression and inference acceleration, respectively. However, it is notorious that low-bit quantization degrades the accuracy of SR models compared to their full-precision (FP) counterparts. Despite several efforts to alleviate the degradation, the transformer-based SR model still suffers severe degradation due to its distinctive activation distribution. In this work, we present a dual-stage low-bit post-training quantization (PTQ) method for image super-resolution, namely 2DQuant, which achieves efficient and accurate SR under low-bit quantization. The proposed method first investigates the weight and activation and finds that the distribution is characterized by coexisting symmetry and asymmetry, long tails. Specifically, we propose Distribution-Oriented Bound Initialization (DOBI), using different searching strategies to search a coarse bound for quantizers. To obtain refined quantizer parameters, we further propose Distillation Quantization Calibration (DQC), which employs a distillation approach to make the quantized model learn from its FP counterpart. Through extensive experiments on different bits and scaling factors, the performance of DOBI can reach the state-of-the-art (SOTA) while after stage two, our method surpasses existing PTQ in both metrics and visual effects. 2DQuant gains an increase in PSNR as high as 4.52dB on Set5 (x2) compared with SOTA when quantized to 2-bit and enjoys a 3.60x compression ratio and 5.08x speedup ratio. The code and models will be available at

[537] 2406.06650

Predicting the risk of early-stage breast cancer recurrence using H\&E-stained tissue images

Accurate prediction of the likelihood of recurrence is important in the selection of postoperative treatment for patients with early-stage breast cancer. In this study, we investigated whether deep learning algorithms can predict patients' risk of recurrence by analyzing the pathology images of their cancer histology. A total of 125 hematoxylin and eosin stained breast cancer whole slide images labeled with the risk prediction via genomics assays were used, and we obtained sensitivity of 0.857, 0.746, and 0.529 for predicting low, intermediate, and high risk, and specificity of 0.816, 0.803, and 0.972. When compared to the expert pathologist's regional histology grade information, a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.61 was obtained. When we checked the model learned through these studies through the class activation map, we found that it actually considered tubule formation and mitotic rate when predicting different risk groups.

[538] 2406.06664

ASTRA: Aligning Speech and Text Representations for Asr without Sampling

This paper introduces ASTRA, a novel method for improving Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) through text injection.Unlike prevailing techniques, ASTRA eliminates the need for sampling to match sequence lengths between speech and text modalities. Instead, it leverages the inherent alignments learned within CTC/RNNT models. This approach offers the following two advantages, namely, avoiding potential misalignment between speech and text features that could arise from upsampling and eliminating the need for models to accurately predict duration of sub-word tokens. This novel formulation of modality (length) matching as a weighted RNNT objective matches the performance of the state-of-the-art duration-based methods on the FLEURS benchmark, while opening up other avenues of research in speech processing.

[539] 2406.06707

Discovery of differential equations using sparse state and parameter regression

This paper proposes a sparse regression strategy for discovery of ordinary and partial differential equations from incomplete and noisy data. Inference is performed over both equation parameters and state variables using a statistically motivated likelihood function. Sparsity is enforced by a selection algorithm which iteratively removes terms and compares models using statistical information criteria. Large scale optimization is performed using a second-order variant of the Levenberg-Marquardt method, where the gradient and Hessian are computed via automatic differentiation. Illustrations involving canonical systems of ordinary and partial differential equations are used to demonstrate the flexibility and robustness of the approach. Accurate reconstruction of systems is found to be possible even in extreme cases of limited data and large observation noise.

[540] 2406.06749

Federated Nonparametric Hypothesis Testing with Differential Privacy Constraints: Optimal Rates and Adaptive Tests

Federated learning has attracted significant recent attention due to its applicability across a wide range of settings where data is collected and analyzed across disparate locations. In this paper, we study federated nonparametric goodness-of-fit testing in the white-noise-with-drift model under distributed differential privacy (DP) constraints. We first establish matching lower and upper bounds, up to a logarithmic factor, on the minimax separation rate. This optimal rate serves as a benchmark for the difficulty of the testing problem, factoring in model characteristics such as the number of observations, noise level, and regularity of the signal class, along with the strictness of the $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP requirement. The results demonstrate interesting and novel phase transition phenomena. Furthermore, the results reveal an interesting phenomenon that distributed one-shot protocols with access to shared randomness outperform those without access to shared randomness. We also construct a data-driven testing procedure that possesses the ability to adapt to an unknown regularity parameter over a large collection of function classes with minimal additional cost, all while maintaining adherence to the same set of DP constraints.

[541] 2406.06755

Optimal Federated Learning for Nonparametric Regression with Heterogeneous Distributed Differential Privacy Constraints

This paper studies federated learning for nonparametric regression in the context of distributed samples across different servers, each adhering to distinct differential privacy constraints. The setting we consider is heterogeneous, encompassing both varying sample sizes and differential privacy constraints across servers. Within this framework, both global and pointwise estimation are considered, and optimal rates of convergence over the Besov spaces are established. Distributed privacy-preserving estimators are proposed and their risk properties are investigated. Matching minimax lower bounds, up to a logarithmic factor, are established for both global and pointwise estimation. Together, these findings shed light on the tradeoff between statistical accuracy and privacy preservation. In particular, we characterize the compromise not only in terms of the privacy budget but also concerning the loss incurred by distributing data within the privacy framework as a whole. This insight captures the folklore wisdom that it is easier to retain privacy in larger samples, and explores the differences between pointwise and global estimation under distributed privacy constraints.

[542] 2406.06768

Data-Driven Switchback Experiments: Theoretical Tradeoffs and Empirical Bayes Designs

We study the design and analysis of switchback experiments conducted on a single aggregate unit. The design problem is to partition the continuous time space into intervals and switch treatments between intervals, in order to minimize the estimation error of the treatment effect. We show that the estimation error depends on four factors: carryover effects, periodicity, serially correlated outcomes, and impacts from simultaneous experiments. We derive a rigorous bias-variance decomposition and show the tradeoffs of the estimation error from these factors. The decomposition provides three new insights in choosing a design: First, balancing the periodicity between treated and control intervals reduces the variance; second, switching less frequently reduces the bias from carryover effects while increasing the variance from correlated outcomes, and vice versa; third, randomizing interval start and end points reduces both bias and variance from simultaneous experiments. Combining these insights, we propose a new empirical Bayes design approach. This approach uses prior data and experiments for designing future experiments. We illustrate this approach using real data from a ride-sharing platform, yielding a design that reduces MSE by 33% compared to the status quo design used on the platform.

[543] 2406.06774

ComFeAT: Combination of Neural and Spectral Features for Improved Depression Detection

In this work, we focus on the detection of depression through speech analysis. Previous research has widely explored features extracted from pre-trained models (PTMs) primarily trained for paralinguistic tasks. Although these features have led to sufficient advances in speech-based depression detection, their performance declines in real-world settings. To address this, in this paper, we introduce ComFeAT, an application that employs a CNN model trained on a combination of features extracted from PTMs, a.k.a. neural features and spectral features to enhance depression detection. Spectral features are robust to domain variations, but, they are not as good as neural features in performance, suprisingly, combining them shows complementary behavior and improves over both neural and spectral features individually. The proposed method also improves over previous state-of-the-art (SOTA) works on E-DAIC benchmark.

[544] 2406.06781

PERSONA: An Application for Emotion Recognition, Gender Recognition and Age Estimation

Emotion Recognition (ER), Gender Recognition (GR), and Age Estimation (AE) constitute paralinguistic tasks that rely not on the spoken content but primarily on speech characteristics such as pitch and tone. While previous research has made significant strides in developing models for each task individually, there has been comparatively less emphasis on concurrently learning these tasks, despite their inherent interconnectedness. As such in this demonstration, we present PERSONA, an application for predicting ER, GR, and AE with a single model in the backend. One notable point is we show that representations from speaker recognition pre-trained model (PTM) is better suited for such a multi-task learning format than the state-of-the-art (SOTA) self-supervised (SSL) PTM by carrying out a comparative study. Our methodology obviates the need for deploying separate models for each task and can potentially conserve resources and time during the training and deployment phases.

[545] 2406.06798

The Reasonable Effectiveness of Speaker Embeddings for Violence Detection

In this paper, we focus on audio violence detection (AVD). AVD is necessary for several reasons, especially in the context of maintaining safety, preventing harm, and ensuring security in various environments. This calls for accurate AVD systems. Like many related applications in audio processing, the most common approach for improving the performance, would be by leveraging self-supervised (SSL) pre-trained models (PTMs). However, as these SSL models are very large models with million of parameters and this can hinder real-world deployment especially in compute-constraint environment. To resolve this, we propose the usage of speaker recognition models which are much smaller compared to the SSL models. Experimentation with speaker recognition model embeddings with SVM & Random Forest as classifiers, we show that speaker recognition model embeddings perform the best in comparison to state-of-the-art (SOTA) SSL models and achieve SOTA results.

[546] 2406.06802

Satisficing Exploration in Bandit Optimization

Motivated by the concept of satisficing in decision-making, we consider the problem of satisficing exploration in bandit optimization. In this setting, the learner aims at selecting satisficing arms (arms with mean reward exceeding a certain threshold value) as frequently as possible. The performance is measured by satisficing regret, which is the cumulative deficit of the chosen arm's mean reward compared to the threshold. We propose SELECT, a general algorithmic template for Satisficing Exploration via LowEr Confidence bound Testing, that attains constant satisficing regret for a wide variety of bandit optimization problems in the realizable case (i.e., a satisficing arm exists). Specifically, given a class of bandit optimization problems and a corresponding learning oracle with sub-linear (standard) regret upper bound, SELECT iteratively makes use of the oracle to identify a potential satisficing arm with low regret. Then, it collects data samples from this arm, and continuously compares the LCB of the identified arm's mean reward against the threshold value to determine if it is a satisficing arm. As a complement, SELECT also enjoys the same (standard) regret guarantee as the oracle in the non-realizable case. Finally, we conduct numerical experiments to validate the performance of SELECT for several popular bandit optimization settings.

[547] 2406.06825

A local squared Wasserstein-2 method for efficient reconstruction of models with uncertainty

In this paper, we propose a local squared Wasserstein-2 (W_2) method to solve the inverse problem of reconstructing models with uncertain latent variables or parameters. A key advantage of our approach is that it does not require prior information on the distribution of the latent variables or parameters in the underlying models. Instead, our method can efficiently reconstruct the distributions of the output associated with different inputs based on empirical distributions of observation data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method across several uncertainty quantification (UQ) tasks, including linear regression with coefficient uncertainty, training neural networks with weight uncertainty, and reconstructing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with a latent random variable.

[548] 2406.06836

Comparative Study of Quantum Transpilers: Evaluating the Performance of qiskit-braket-provider, qBraid-SDK, and Pytket Extensions

In this study, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of several quantum transpilers, including the qiskit-braket-provider, the qBraid-SDK, and the pytket extensions, focusing on critical metrics such as correctness, failure rate, and transpilation time. Our results demonstrate that the qiskit-braket-provider exhibits superior performance achieving a remarkably low failure rate of 0.2%. the qiskit-braket-provider utilizes a combination of one-to-one transpilation and gate decomposition for unsupported gates, enhancing transpiler capabilities and speed. The qBraid-SDK offers a more generalized approach, suitable for transpilation across multiple SDKs, albeit with slower performance compared to the qiskit-braket-provider. The pytket extensions, while fast, exhibit limitations in handling complex circuits due to their one-to-one transpilation scheme. We also pro