New articles on cond-mat

[1] 2009.07848

Fate of Lattice Gauge Theories Under Decoherence

A major test of the capabilities of modern quantum simulators and NISQ devices is the reliable realization of gauge theories, which constitute a gold standard of implementational efficacy. In addition to unavoidable unitary errors, realistic experiments suffer from decoherence, which compromises gauge invariance and, therefore, the gauge theory itself. Here, we study the effect of decoherence on the quench dynamics of a lattice gauge theory. Rigorously identifying the gauge violation as a divergence measure in the gauge sectors, we find at short times that it first grows diffusively $\sim\gamma t$ due to decoherence at environment-coupling strength $\gamma$, before unitary errors at strength $\lambda$ dominate and the violation grows ballistically $\sim\lambda^2t^2$. We further introduce multiple quantum coherences in the context of gauge theories to quantify decoherence effects. Both experimentally accessible measures will be of independent interest beyond the immediate context of this work.

[2] 2009.07849

Dimensionality of superconductivity in the transition metal pnictide WP

We report theoretical and experimental results on transition metal pnictide WP. The theoretical outcomes based on tight-binding calculations and density functional theory indicate that WP exhibits the nonsymmorphic symmetries and is an anisotropic three-dimensional superconductor. This conclusion is supported by magnetoresistance experimental data as well as by the investigation of the superconducting fluctuations of the conductivity in the presence of a magnetic external field, both underlining a three dimensional behavior.

[3] 2009.07853

Building and Probing Spin Liquids in a Programmable Quantum Device

The advent of widely available computing power has spawned a whole research field that we now call computational physics. Today, we may be on the cusp of a similar paradigm shift as programmable qubit devices enable one to run experiments on a platform of actual physical quantum states. Here we use the commercially available D-Wave DW-2000Q device to build and probe a state of matter that has not been observed or fabricated before. The topological phase that we build has been widely sought for many years and is a candidate platform for quantum computation. While we cannot observe the full quantum regime due to the limitations of the current device, we do observe unmistakable signatures of the phase in its classical limit at the endpoint of the quantum annealing protocol. In the process of doing so, we identify additional features that a programmable device of this sort would need in order to implement fully functional topological qubits. It is a testament to technological progress that a handful of theorists can observe and experiment with new physics while being equipped only with remote access to a commercial device.

[4] 2009.07862

Schwinger boson study of superconductivity mediated by antiferromagnetic spin-fluctuations

We study superconductivity in a normal metal, arising from effective electron-electron interactions mediated by spin-fluctuations in a neighboring antiferromagnetic insulator. Introducing a frustrating next-nearest neighbor interaction in a N\'eel antiferromagnet with an uncompensated interface, the superconducting critical temperature is found to be enhanced as the frustration is increased. Further, for sufficiently large next-nearest neighbor interaction, the antiferromagnet is driven into a stripe phase, which can also give rise to attractive electron-electron interactions. For the stripe phase, as previously reported for the N\'eel phase, the superconducting critical temperature is found to be amplified for an uncompensated interface where the normal metal conduction electrons are coupled to only one of the two sublattices of the magnet. The superconducting critical temperature arising from fluctuations in the stripe phase antiferromagnet can be further enhanced by approaching the transition back to the N\'eel phase.

[5] 2009.07864

Unlocking of time reversal, space-time inversion and rotation invariants in magnetic materials

Time reversal ($T$) and space inversion are symmetries of our universe in the low-energy limit. Fundamental theorems relate their corresponding quantum numbers to the spin for elementary particles: $\hat{T}^2=(\hat{P}\hat{T})^2=-1$ for half-odd-integer spins and $\hat{T}^2=(\hat{P}\hat{T})^2=+1$ for integer spins. Here we show that for elementary excitations in magnetic materials, this "locking" between quantum numbers is lifted: $\hat{T}^2$ and $(\hat{P}\hat{T})^2$ take all four combinations of $+1$ and $-1$ regardless of the value of the spin, where $T$ now represents the composite symmetry of time reversal and lattice translation. Unlocked quantum numbers lead to new forms of minimal coupling between these excitations and external fields, enabling novel physical phenomena such as the "cross-Lamor precession", indirectly observable in a proposed light-absorption experiment. We list the magnetic space groups with certain high-symmetry momenta where such excitations may be found.

[6] 2009.07865

Anomalous exciton transport in response to a uniform, in-plane electric field

Excitons are neutral objects, that, naively, should have no response to a uniform, electric field. Could the Berry curvature of the underlying electronic bands alter this conclusion? In this work, we show that Berry curvature can indeed lead to anomalous transport for excitons in 2D materials subject to a uniform, in-plane electric field. By considering the constituent electron and hole dynamics, we demonstrate that there exists a regime for which the corresponding anomalous velocities are in the same direction. We establish the resulting center of mass motion of the exciton through both a semiclassical and fully quantum mechanical analysis, and elucidate the critical role of Bloch oscillations in achieving this effect. We identify transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers as candidate materials to observe the effect.

[7] 2009.07866

Missing links as a source of "variable" constants in complex reaction networks

A major challenge in network science is to determine parameters governing complex network dynamics from experimental observations and theoretical models. In large chemical reaction networks, for example, such as those describing processes in internal combustion engines and power generators, rate constant estimates vary significantly across studies despite substantial experimental efforts. Here, we examine the possibility that variability in measured constants can be largely attributed to the impact of missing network information on parameter estimation. Through the numerical simulation of measurements in incomplete chemical reaction networks, we show that unaccountability of presumably unimportant network links (with local sensitivity amounting to less than two percent of that of a measured link) can create apparent rate constant variations as large as one order of magnitude even if no experimental errors are present in the data. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient between the logarithmic error of the estimate and the cumulative relative sensitivity of the removed reactions was less than $0.5$ in all cases. Thus, for dynamical processes on complex networks, iteratively expanding a model by determining new parameters from data collected under specific conditions is unlikely to produce reliable results.

[8] 2009.07867

Electronic transport in sub-micrometric channels at the LaAlO$_{3}$/SrTiO$_{3}$ interface

Nanoscale channels realized at the conducting interface between LaAlO$_{3}$ and SrTiO$_{3}$ provide a perfect playground to explore the effect of dimensionality on the electronic properties of complex oxides. Here we compare the electric transport properties of devices realized using the AFM-writing technique and conventional photo-lithography. We find that the lateral size of the conducting paths has a strong effect on their transport behavior at low temperature. We observe a crossover from metallic to insulating regime occurring at about 50 K for channels narrower than 100 nm. The insulating upturn can be suppressed by the application of a positive backgate. We compare the behavior of nanometric constrictions in lithographically patterned channels with the result of model calculations and we conclude that the experimental observations are compatible with the physics of a quantum point contact.

[9] 2009.07871

Numerical study of a dual representation of the integer quantum Hall transition

We study the critical properties of the non-interacting integer quantum Hall to insulator transition (IQHIT) in a 'dual' composite-fermion (CF) representation. A key advantage of the CF representation over electron coordinates is that at criticality, $\textit{ CF states are delocalized at all}$ energies. The CF approach thus enables us to study the transition from a new vantage point. Using a lattice representation of CF mean-field theory, we compute the critical and multifractal exponents of the IQHIT. We obtain $\nu = 2.56 \pm 0.02$ and $\eta = 0.51\pm 0.01$, both of which are consistent with the predictions of the Chalker-Coddington network model formulated in the electron representation.

[10] 2009.07877

Network model for higher-order topological insulators

We introduce a two-dimensional network model that realizes a higher-order topological insulator (HOTI) phase. We find that in the HOTI phase a total of 16 corner states are protected by the combination of a four-fold rotation, a phase-rotation, and a particle-hole symmetry. In addition, the model exhibits a strong topological phase at a point of maximal coupling. This behavior is in opposition to conventional network models, which are gapless at this point. By introducing the appropriate topological invariants, we show how a point group symmetry can protect a topological phase in a network. Our work provides the basis for the realization of HOTI systems in alternative experimental platforms implementing the network model.

[11] 2009.07897

Critical properties of the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected model with correlated temporal disorder

In this paper we study the critical properties of the non-equilibrium phase transition of the Susceptible-Exposed-Infected model under the effects of long-range correlated time-varying environmental noise on the Bethe lattice. We show that temporal noise is perturbatively relevant changing the universality class from the (mean-field) dynamical percolation to the exotic infinite-noise universality class of the contact process model. Our analytical results are based on a mapping to the one-dimensional fractional Brownian motion with an absorbing wall and is confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. Unlike the contact process, our theory also predicts that it is quite difficult to observe the associated active temporal Griffiths phase in the long-time limit. Finally, we also show an equivalence between the infinite-noise and the compact directed percolation universality classes by relating the SEI model in the presence of temporal disorder to the Domany-Kinzel cellular automaton in the limit of compact clusters.

[12] 2009.07919

A topologically-derived dislocation theory for twist and stretch moiré superlattices in bilayer graphene

We develop a continuum dislocation description of twist and stretch moire superlattices in 2D material bilayers. The continuum formulation is based on the topological constraints introduced by the periodic dislocation network associated with the moire structure. The approach is based on solving analytically for the structural distortion and displacement fields that satisfy the topological constraints, and which minimize the total energy. The total energy is described by both the strain energy of each individual distorted layer, and a Peierls-Nabarro like interfacial contribution arising from stacking disregistry. The dislocation core emerges naturally within the formalism as a result of the competition between the two contributions. The approach presented here captures the structure and energetics of twist and stretch moire superlattices of dislocations with arbitrary direction and character, without assuming an analytical solution a priori, with no adjustable parameters, while accounting naturally for dislocation-dislocation image interactions. In comparisons to atomistic simulations using classical potentials, the maximum structure deviation is 6%, while the maximum line energy deviation is 0.019 eV/Angstrom. Several applications of our model are shown, including predicting the variation of structure with twist angle, and describing dislocation line tension and junction energies.

[13] 2009.07942

Thermal Properties of Rung Disordered Two-leg Quantum Spin Ladders: Quantum Monte Carlo Study

A two-leg quenched random bond disordered antiferromagnetic spin$-1/2$ Heisenberg ladder system is investigated by means of stochastic series expansion (SSE) quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method. Thermal properties of the uniform and staggered susceptibilities, the structure factor, the specific heat and the spin gap are calculated over a large number of random realizations in a wide range of disorder strength. According to our QMC simulation results, the considered system has a special temperature point at which the specific heat take the same value regardless of the strength of the disorder. Moreover, the uniform susceptibility is shown to display the same character except for a small difference in the location of the special point. Finally, the spin gap values are found to decrease with increasing disorder parameter and the smallest gap value found in this study is well above the weak coupling limit of the clean case.

[14] 2009.07948

Unconventional magnon excitation by off-resonant microwaves

It is widely recognized that a magnetic system can only respond to a periodic driving significantly when the driving frequency matches the normal mode frequency of the magnet, which leads to magnetic resonance. Off-resonant phenomena are rarely considered for the diffculty to realize strong coupling between magnons and off-resonant waves. Here we examine the response of a magnetic system to squeezed light and surprisingly find that the magnons are maximally excited when the effective driving frequency is several orders of magnitude larger than the resonant frequency. The generated magnons are squeezed which brings the advantage of tunable squeezing through an external magnetic field. Further, we demonstrate that such off-resonant quasi-particle excitation is purely a quantum effect, which is rooted in the quantum fluctuations of particles in the squeezed vacuum. Our findings may provide an unconventional route to study off-resonant phenomena in a magnetic system and may further benefit the use of hybrid magnet-light systems in continuous variable quantum information.

[15] 2009.07957

Wave-packet scattering at a normal-superconductor interface in two-dimensional materials: a generalized theoretical approach

A wave-packet time evolution method, based on the split-operator technique, is developed to investigate the scattering of quasi-particles at a normal-superconductor interface of arbitrary profile and shape. As a practical application, we consider a system where low energy electrons can be described as Dirac particles, which is the case for most two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However the method is easily adapted for other cases such as electrons in few layer black phosphorus, or any Schr\"odinger quasi-particles within the effective mass approximation in semiconductors. We employ the method to revisit Andreev reflection in graphene, where specular and retro reflection cases are observed for electrons scattered by a step-like superconducting region. The effect of opening a zero-gap channel across the superconducting region on the electron and hole scattering is also addressed, as an example of the versatility of the technique proposed here.

[16] 2009.07958

Toward precise simulations of the coupled ultrafast dynamics of electrons and atomic vibrations in materials

Ultrafast spectroscopies can access the dynamics of electrons and nuclei at short timescales, shedding light on nonequilibrium phenomena in materials. However, development of accurate calculations to interpret these experiments has lagged behind as widely adopted simulation schemes are limited to sub-picosecond timescales or employ simplified interactions lacking quantitative accuracy. Here we show a precise approach to obtain the time-dependent populations of nonequilibrium electrons and atomic vibrations (phonons) up to tens of picoseconds, with a femtosecond time resolution. Combining first-principles electron-phonon and phonon-phonon interactions with a parallel numerical scheme to time-step the coupled electron and phonon Boltzmann equations, our method provides unprecedented microscopic insight into scattering mechanisms in excited materials. Focusing on graphene as a case study, we demonstrate calculations of ultrafast electron and phonon dynamics, transient optical absorption, structural snapshots and diffuse X-ray scattering. Our first-principles approach paves the way for quantitative atomistic simulations of ultrafast dynamics in materials.

[17] 2009.07962

Heat treatment - microstructure - hardness relationships of new nickel-rich nickel-titanium-hafnium alloys developed for tribological applications

The effects of various heat treatments on the microstructure and hardness of new Ni56Ti41Hf3 and Ni56Ti36Hf8 (atomic %) alloys were studied to evaluate the suitability of these materials for tribological applications. A solid-solution strengthening effect due to Hf atoms was observed for the solution annealed (SA) Ni56Ti36Hf8 alloy (716 HV), resulting in a comparable hardness to the Ni56Ti41Hf3 alloy containing 54 vol.% of Ni4Ti3 precipitates (707 HV). In the Ni56Ti41Hf3 alloy, the maximum hardness (752 HV), achieved after aging at 300C for 12 h, was attributed to dense, semi-coherent precipitation of the Ni4Ti3 phase. Unlike the lenticular morphology usually observed within binary NiTi alloys, a blocky Ni4Ti3 morphology formed within Ni56Ti36Hf3 due to a smaller lattice mismatch in the direction normal to the habit plane at the precipitate/matrix interface. The maximum hardness for Ni56Ti36Hf8 (769 HV) was obtained after applying an intermediate aging step (300C for 12 h) followed by normal aging (550C for 4 h). This two-step aging treatment induces dense nanoscale precipitation of two interspersed precipitate phases, namely H-phase and a new cubic Ni-rich precipitate phase, resulting in the highest hardness exhibited yet by this family alloys. The composition of cubic Ni-rich precipitates was measured using atom probe tomography to be approximately Ni61.5Ti31Hf7.5, while HAADF-STEM revealed a 54 atom motif cubic structure (a= 8.87 Angstroms), and electron diffraction showed that the structure belongs to the pm-3m (No. 221) space group.

[18] 2009.07969

Rolling contact fatigue deformation mechanisms of nickel-rich nickel-titanium-hafnium alloys

The tribological performance and underlying deformation behavior of Ni55Ti45, Ni54Ti45Hf1 and Ni56Ti36Hf8 alloys were studied using rolling contact fatigue (RCF) testing and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results of the as-machined RCF rods, prepared using focus ion beam, revealed some damage very close to the surface. TEM results after initial RCF cycling showed that additional damage was mainly confined to deformation bands that propagated several microns into the sample. These bands formed via localized dislocation slip, possibly on multiple slip systems, within the B2 matrix and/or within transformed B19 prime martensite phase under repeated applied contact stress. Further cycling of Ni55Ti45 and Ni54Ti45Hf1 led to shearing and dissolution of the strengthening precipitates within the deformation bands, followed by formation of nanocrystalline grains and finally amorphization of the remaining matrix material within the bands. The Ni56Ti36Hf8 alloy exhibited a notable increase in RCF performance and a smaller damage zone (1.5 microns) compared to the Ni55Ti45 and Ni54Ti45Hf1 alloys (over 6 microns). This was attributed to the low fraction of B2 matrix phase (less than or equal to 13 %) in the Ni56Ti36Hf8 alloy, leading to formation of narrow deformation bands (less than 11 nm) that were incapable of dissolving the much larger precipitates. Instead, the deformation bands were restricted to narrow channels between the dense cubic NiTiHf and H-phase precipitates. In contrast, broad deformation bands accompanied by shearing and eventual dissolution of the Ni4Ti3 precipitates were observed in the Ni55Ti45 and Ni54Ti45Hf1 alloys due to the high area fractions of B2 matrix phase (~49 %).

[19] 2009.07972

Spatial structure of unstable normal modes in a glass-forming liquid

The phenomenology of glass-forming liquids is often described in terms of their underlying, high-dimensional potential energy surface. In particular, the statistics of stationary points sampled as a function of temperature provides useful insight into the thermodynamics and dynamics of the system. To make contact with the real space physics, however, analysis of the spatial structure of the normal modes is required. In this work, we numerically study the potential energy surface of a glass-forming ternary mixture. Starting from liquid configurations equilibrated over a broad range of temperatures using a swap Monte Carlo method, we locate the nearby stationary points and investigate the spatial architecture and the energetics of the associated unstable modes. Through this spatially-resolved analysis, originally developed to study local minima, we corroborate recent evidence that the nature of the unstable modes changes from delocalized to localized around the mode-coupling temperature. We find that the displacement amplitudes of the delocalized modes have a slowly decaying far field, whereas the localized modes consist of a core with large displacements and a rapidly decaying far field. The fractal dimension of unstable modes around the mobility edge is equal to 1, consistent with the scaling of the participation ratio. Finally, we find that around and below the mode-coupling temperature the unstable modes are localized around structural defects, characterized by a disordered local structure markedly different from the liquid's locally favored structure. These defects are similar to those associated to quasi-localized vibrations in local minima and are good candidates to predict the emergence of localized excitations at low temperature.

[20] 2009.07973

Hidden energy flows in strongly coupled nonequilibrium systems

Quantifying the flow of energy within and through fluctuating nanoscale systems poses a significant challenge to understanding microscopic biological machines. A common approach involves coarse-graining, which allows a simplified description of such systems. This has the side effect of inducing so-called hidden energy and entropy flows (due to sub-resolution dynamics) that complicate the resulting thermodynamics. Here we develop a thermodynamically consistent theory describing the nonequilibrium excess power internal to autonomous systems, and introduce a phenomenological framework to quantify the hidden excess power associated with their operation. We confirm our theoretical predictions in numerical simulations of a minimal model for both a molecular transport motor and a rotary motor.

[21] 2009.07977

Classical dynamical density functional theory: from fundamentals to applications

Classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT) is one of the cornerstones of modern statistical mechanics. It is an extension of the highly successful method of classical density functional theory (DFT) to nonequilibrium systems. Originally developed for the treatment of simple and complex fluids, DDFT is now applied in fields as diverse as hydrodynamics, materials science, chemistry, biology, and plasma physics. In this review, we give a broad overview over classical DDFT. We explain its theoretical foundations and the ways in which it can be derived. The relations between the different forms of deterministic and stochastic DDFT as well as between DDFT and related theories, such as quantum-mechanical time-dependent DFT, mode coupling theory, and phase field crystal models, are clarified. Moreover, we discuss the wide spectrum of extensions of DDFT, which covers methods with additional order parameters (like extended DDFT), exact approaches (like power functional theory), and systems with more complex dynamics (like active matter). Finally, the large variety of applications, ranging from fluid mechanics and polymer physics to solidification, pattern formation, biophysics, and electrochemistry, is presented.

[22] 2009.07993

Topological properties of the dimerized Kitaev chain with long-range hopping and pairing terms

We investigate the topological properties of a dimerized Kitaev chain with long-range interactions, including the intercell hopping and superconducting pairing terms. It is found that even only when the intercell hopping term appears, the size of the energy gap, the proportion of topological phases, and the topological phase transition can be modulated. The notable result is that they lead to a new Kitaev-like phase featured by the twofold-degenerated Majorana zero-energy edge states. Next in the presence of the intercell superconducting pairing term, this kind of Majorana phase can be magnified. This work provides new proposals to realize the twofold degenerated Majorana modes based on the intercell hopping and superconducting pairing terms of the dimerized Kitaev chain.

[23] 2009.08028

Enhanced magnetocaloric effect and magnetic phase diagrams of single-crystal GdCrO$_3$

The crystalline structure, magnetism, and magnetocaloric effect of a GdCrO$_3$ single crystal grown with the laser-diode-heated floating-zone technique have been studied. The GdCrO$_3$ single crystal crystallizes into an orthorhombic structure with the space group $Pmnb$ at room temperature. Upon cooling, under a magnetic field of 0.1 T, it undergoes a magnetic phase transition at $T_{\textrm{N-Cr}} =$ 169.28(2) K with Cr$^{3+}$ ions forming a canted antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure, accompanied by a weak ferromagnetism. Subsequently, a spin reorientation takes place at $T_{\textrm{SR}} =$ 5.18(2) K due to Gd$^{3+}$-Cr$^{3+}$ magnetic couplings. Finally, the long-range AFM order of Gd$^{3+}$ ions establishes at $T_{\textrm{N-Gd}} =$ 2.10(2) K. Taking into account the temperature-(in)dependent components of Cr$^{3+}$ moments, we obtained an ideal model in describing the paramagnetic behavior of Gd$^{3+}$ ions within 30--140 K. We observed a magnetic reversal (positive $\rightarrow$ negative $\rightarrow$ positive) at 50 Oe with a minimum centering around 162 K. In the studied temperature range of 1.8--300 K, there exists a strong competition between magnetic susceptibilities of Gd$^{3+}$ and Cr$^{3+}$ ions, leading to puzzling magnetic phenomena. We have built the magnetic-field-dependent phase diagrams of $T_{\textrm{N-Gd}}$, $T_{\textrm{SR}}$, and $T_{\textrm{N-Cr}}$, shedding light on the nature of the intriguing magnetism. Moreover, we calculated the magnetic entropy change and obtained a maximum value at 6 K and ${\Delta}{\mu}_0H$ = 14 T, i.e., --${\Delta}S_{\textrm{M}} \approx$ 57.5 J/kg.K. Among all RECrO$_3$ (RE = $4f^n$ rare earths, $n =$ 7--14) compounds, the single-crystal GdCrO$_3$ compound exhibits the highest magnetic entropy change, as well as an enhanced adiabatic temperature, casting a prominent magnetocaloric effect for potential application in magnetic refrigeration.

[24] 2009.08031

Granular Segregation Mechanisms by Cyclic Shear

We present an X-ray tomography study of the segregation mechanisms of tracer particles in a three-dimensional cyclically sheared bi-disperse granular medium. Big tracers are dragged by convection to rise to the top surface and then remain trapped there due to the small downward convection cross-section, which leads to segregation. Additionally, we also find that the local structural up-down asymmetry due to arching effect around big tracers will induce the tracers to have a net upward displacement against its smaller neighbors, which is another mechanism for segregation.

[25] 2009.08036

Magnetic and electronic properties of a topological nodal line semimetal candidate: HoSbTe

We report the experimental and theoretical studies of a magnetic topological nodal line semimetal candidate HoSbTe. Single crystals of HoSbTe are grown from Sb flux, crystallizing in a tetragonal layered structure (space group: P4/nmm, no.129), in which the Ho-Te bilayer is separated by the square-net Sb layer. The magnetization and specific heat present distinct anomalies at 4 K related to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition. Meanwhile, with applying magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to the crystallographic c axis, an obvious magnetic anisotropy is observed. Electrical resistivity undergoes a bad-metal-like state below 200 K and reveals a plateau at about 8 K followed by a drop due to the AFM transition. In addition, with the first-principle calculations of band structure, we find that HoSbTe is a topological nodal line semimetal or a weak topological insulator with or without taking the spin-orbit coupling into account, providing a platform to investigate the interplay between magnetic and topological fermionic properties.

[26] 2009.08048

High-Throughput Computational-Experimental Screening Protocol for the Discovery of Bimetallic Catalysts

For decades of catalysis research, the d-band center theory that correlates the d-band center and the adsorbate binding energy has successfully enabled the accelerated discovery of novel catalyst materials. Recent studies indicate that, on top of the d-band center value, the full consideration of the d-band shapes describing higher moments of the d-band as well as sp-band properties can help better capturing surface reactivity. However, the density-of-states (DOS) patterns themselves have never been used as a descriptor in combined computational-experimental studies. Here, we propose the full DOS patterns as a key descriptor in high-throughput screening protocols, and prove its effectiveness. For the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) synthesis as our demo catalytic reaction, the present study focuses on discovering bimetallic catalysts that can replace the prototypic palladium (Pd) one. Through a series of screening processes based on DOS pattern similarities (evaluated using first-principles calculations) and synthetic feasibility, 9 candidates are finally proposed out of 4,350 bimetallic alloy, which then are expected to have a catalytic performance comparable to that of Pd. The subsequent experimental tests demonstrate that 4 bimetallic catalysts (Ni61Pt39, Au51Pd49, Pt52Pd48, Pd52Ni48) indeed exhibit the catalytic properties comparable to those of Pd. Moreover, we discovered a novel bimetallic (Ni-Pt) catalyst, which has not yet been reported for H2O2 direct synthesis. In particular, Ni61Pt39 outperforms the prototypical Pd catalyst for the chemical reaction and exhibits a 9.5-fold enhancement in cost-normalized productivity. This protocol provides a new opportunity for the catalyst discovery for the replacement or reduction in use of the platinum-group metals.

[27] 2009.08050

Anisotropic and extreme magnetoresistance in the magnetic semimetal candidate Erbium monobismuthide

Rare-earth monopnictides display rich physical behaviors, featuring most notably spin and orbital orders in their ground state. Here, we grow ErBi single crystal and study its magnetic, thermal and electrical properties. An analysis of the magnetic entropy and magnetization indicates that the weak magnetic anisotropy in ErBi possibly derives from the mixing effect, namely the anisotropic ground state of Er3+ (4f11) mingles with the isotropic excited state through exchange interaction. At low temperature, an extremely large magnetoresistance (~104%) with a parabolic magnetic-field dependence is observed, which can be ascribed to the nearly perfect electron-hole compensation and ultrahigh carrier mobility. When the magnetic field is rotated in the ab (ac) plane and the current flows in the b axis, the angular magnetoresistance in ErBi shows a twofold (fourfold) symmetry. Similar case has been observed in LaBi where the anisotropic Fermi surface dominates the low-temperature transport. Our theoretical calculation suggests that near the Fermi level ErBi shares similarity with LaBi in the electronic band structures. These findings indicate that the angular magnetoresistance of ErBi could be mainly determined by its anisotropic Fermi surface topology. Besides, contributions from several other possibilities, including the spin-dependent scattering, spin-orbit scattering, and demagnetization correlation to the angular magnetoresistance of ErBi are also discussed.

[28] 2009.08055

Electron ground state $g$-factor in embedded InGaAs quantum dots: An atomistic study

We present atomistic computations within an empirical pseudopotential framework for the electron $s$-shell ground state $g$-tensor of embedded InGaAs quantum dots (QDs). A large structural set consisting of geometry, size, molar fraction and strain variations is worked out. The tensor components are observed to show insignificant discrepancies even for the highly anisotropic shapes. The family of $g$-factor curves associated with these parameter combinations coalesce to a single universal one when plotted as a function of the gap energy, thus confirming a recent assertion using a completely different electronic structure. Moreover, our work extends its validity to alloy QDs with various shapes and finite confinement that allows for penetration to the host matrix as in actual samples. Our set of results for practically relevant InGaAs QDs can help to accomplish through structural control, $g$-near-zero, or other targeted $g$ values for spintronic or electron spin resonance-based direct quantum logic applications.

[29] 2009.08056

Synthesis of Cu mono-component metallic glass by the deposition on amorphous SiO$_2$ substrate: a molecular dynamics study

In this work, we simulated the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of Cu atoms on the amorphous SiO$_2$ substrate. The resulting Cu thin layer exhibit amorphous structure. The Cu liquid quenching from 2000 K to 50 K was also simulated with different cooling rate to form the Cu metallic glass for comparison. The Cu glasses from the two different processes (PVD and quenching) revealed the same radial distribution function but different local structure from the Voronoi tessellation analysis. The PVD glass exhibit higher densities and lower potential energy compared with the melt-quenched counterpart, which corresponded to the properties of ultrastable glasses.

[30] 2009.08073

Hydride growth mechanism in Zircaloy-4: investigation of the partitioning of alloying elements

The long-term safety of water-based nuclear reactors relies in part on the reliability of zirconium-based nuclear fuel. Yet the progressive ingress of hydrogen during service makes zirconium alloys subject to delayed hydride cracking. Here, we use a combination of electron back-scattered diffraction and atom probe tomography to investigate specific microstructural features from the as-received sample and in the blocky-alpha microstructure, before and after electrochemical charging with hydrogen or deuterium followed by a low temperature heat treatment at 400C for 5 hours followed by furnace cooling at a rate of 0. 5C per min. Specimens for atom probe were prepared at cryogenic temperature to avoid the formation of spurious hydrides. We report on the compositional evolution of grains and grain boundaries over the course of the sample's thermal history, as well as the ways the growth of the hydrides modifies locally the composition and the structure of the alloy. We observe a significant amount of deuterium left in the matrix, even after the slow cooling and growth of the hydrides. Stacking faults form ahead of the growth front and Sn segregates at the hydride-matrix interface and on these faults. We propose that this segregation may facilitate further growth of the hydride. Our systematic investigation enables us discuss how the solute distribution affects the evolution of the alloy's properties during its service lifetime.

[31] 2009.08084

Magnetoelectric near fields

We consider near field topological singularities originated from magnetic dipolar mode oscillations in ferrite disk particles.

[32] 2009.08091

Spin-wave focusing induced skyrmion generation

We propose a new method to generate magnetic skyrmions through spin-wave focusing in chiral ferromagnets.A lens is constructed to focus spin waves by a curved interface between two ferromagnetic thin films with different perpendicular magnetic anisotropies. Based on the principle of identical magnonic path length, we derive the lens contour that can be either elliptical or hyperbolical depending on the magnon refractive index. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to verify the theoretical design. It is found that under proper condition magnetic skyrmions emerge near the focus point of the lens where the spin-wave intensity has been significantly enhanced. A close investigation shows that a magnetic droplet first forms and then converts to the skyrmion accompanying with a change of topological charge. Phase diagram about the amplitude and duration-time of the exciting field for skyrmion generation is obtained. Our findings would be helpful for designing novel spintronic devices combining the advantages of skyrmionics and magnonics.

[33] 2009.08095

On the Sign of Fermion-Mediated Interactions

We develop a unified framework for understanding the sign of fermion-mediated interactions by exploiting the symmetry classification of Green's functions. In particular, we establish a theorem regarding the sign of fermion-mediated interactions in systems with chiral symmetry. The strength of the theorem is demonstrated within multiple examples with an emphasis on electron-mediated interactions in materials.

[34] 2009.08122

Nanomechanics of Antimonene Allotropes

Monolayer antimonene has drawn the attention of research communities due to its promising physical properties. But mechanical properties of antimonene is still largely unexplored. In this work, we investigate the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of two stable phases of monolayer antimonene -- the ${\alpha}$ antimonene (${\alpha}$-Sb) and the ${\beta}$ antimonene (${\beta}$-Sb), through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our simulations reveal that stronger chiral effect results in a greater anisotropic elastic behavior in ${\beta}$-antimonene than in ${\alpha}$-antimonene. In this paper we focus on crack-tip stress distribution using local volume averaged virial stress definition and derive the fracture toughness from the crack-line stress. Our calculated crack tip stress distribution ensures the applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) for cracked antimonene allotropes with considerable accuracy up to a pristine structure. We evaluate the effect of temperature, strain rate, crack-length and point-defect concentration on the strength and elastic properties. Tensile strength goes through significant degradation with the increment of temperature, crack length and defect percentage. Elastic modulus is less susceptible to temperature variation but is largely affected by the defect concentration. Strain rate induces a power law relation between strength and fracture strain. Finally, we discuss the fracture mechanisms in the light of crack propagation and establish the links between the fracture mechanism and the observed anisotropic properties.

[35] 2009.08124

Charge Density Waves beyond the Pauli paramagnetic limit in 2D systems

Two-dimensional materials are ideal candidates to host Charge density waves (CDWs) that exhibit paramagnetic limiting behavior, similarly to the well known case of superconductors. Here we study how CDWs in two-dimensional systems can survive beyond the Pauli limit when they are subjected to a strong magnetic field by developing a generalized mean-field theory of CDWs under Zeeman fields that includes incommensurability, imperfect nesting and temperature effects and the possibility of a competing or coexisting Spin density wave (SDW) order. Our numerical calculations yield rich phase diagrams with distinct high-field phases above the Pauli limiting field. For perfectly nested commensurate CDWs, a $q$-modulated CDW phase that is completely analogous to the superconducting Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase appears at high-fields. In the more common case of imperfect nesting, the commensurate CDW groundstate undergoes a series of magnetic-field-induced phase transitions first into a phase where commensurate CDW and SDW coexist and subsequently into another phase where CDW and SDW acquire a $q$-modulation that is however distinct from the pure FFLO CDW phase. The commensurate CDW+SDW phase occurs for fields comparable to but less than the Pauli limit and survives above it. Thus this phase provides a plausible mechanism for the CDW to survive at high fields without the need of forming the more fragile FFLO phase. We suggest that the recently discovered 2D materials like the transition metal dichalcogenides offer a promising platform for observing such exotic field induced CDW phenomena.

[36] 2009.08133

Probing the Meta-Stability of Oxide Core/Shell Nanoparticle Systems at Atomic Resolution

Hybrid nanoparticles allow exploiting the interplay of confinement, proximity between different materials and interfacial effects. However, to harness their properties an in-depth understanding of their (meta)stability and interfacial characteristics is crucial. This is especially the case of nanosystems based on functional oxides working under reducing conditions, which may severely impact their properties. In this work, the in-situ electron-induced selective reduction of Mn3O4 to MnO is studied in magnetic Fe3O4/Mn3O4 and Mn3O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles by means of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Such in-situ transformation allows mimicking the actual processes in operando environments. A multi-stage image analysis using geometric phase analysis combined with particle image velocity enables direct monitoring of the relationship between structure, chemical composition and strain relaxation during the Mn3O4 reduction. In the case of Fe3O4/Mn3O4 core/shell the transformation occurs smoothly without the formation of defects. However, for the inverse Mn3O4/Fe3O4 core/shell configuration the electron beam-induced transformation occurs in different stages that include redox reactions and void formation followed by strain field relaxation via formation of defects. This study highlights the relevance of understanding the local dynamics responsible for changes in the particle composition in order to control stability and, ultimately, macroscopic functionality.

[37] 2009.08134

Interaction induced doublons and embedded topological subspace in a complete flat-band system

In this work, we investigate effects of weak interactions on a bosonic complete flat-band system. By employing a band projection method, the flat-band Hamiltonian with weak interactions is mapped to an effective Hamiltonian. The effective Hamiltonian indicates that doublons behave as well-defined quasi-particles, which acquire itinerancy through the hopping induced by interactions. When we focus on a two-particle system, from the effective Hamiltonian, an effective subspace spanned only by doublon bases emerges. The effective subspace induces spreading of a single doublon and we find an interesting property: The dynamics of a single doublon keeps short-range density-density correlation in sharp contrast to a conventional two-particle spreading. Furthermore, when introducing a modulated weak interaction, we find an interaction induced topological subspace embedded in the full Hilbert space. We elucidate the embedded topological subspace by observing the dynamics of a single doublon, and show that the embedded topological subspace possesses a bulk topological invariant. We further expect that for the system with open boundary the embedded topological subspace has an interaction induced topological edge mode described by the doublon. The bulk--edge--correspondence holds even for the embedded topological subspace.

[38] 2009.08141

Chiral condensates in a polariton hexagonal ring

We model generation of vortex modes in exciton-polariton condensates in semiconductor micropillars, arranged into a hexagonal ring molecule, in the presence of TE-TM splitting. This splitting lifts the degeneracy of azimuthally modulated vortex modes with opposite topological charges supported by this structure, so that a number of non-degenerate vortex states characterized by different combinations of topological charges in two polarization components appears. We present a full bifurcation picture for such vortex modes and show that because they have different energies, they can be selectively excited by coherent pump beams with specific frequencies and spatial configurations. At high pumping intensity, polariton-polariton interactions give rise to the coupling of different vortex resonances and a bistable regime is achieved.

[39] 2009.08144

Affinity, Kinetics, and Pathways of Anisotropic Ligands Binding to Hydrophobic Model Pockets

Using explicit-water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a generic pocket-ligand model we investigate how chemical and shape anisotropy of small ligands influences the affinities, kinetic rates and pathways for their association to hydrophobic binding sites. In particular, we investigate aromatic compounds, all of similar molecular size, but distinct by various hydrophilic or hydrophobic residues. We demonstrate that the most hydrophobic sections are in general desolvated primarily upon binding to the cavity, suggesting that specific hydration of the different chemical units can steer the orientation pathways via a `hydrophobic torque'. Moreover, we find that ligands with bimodal orientation fluctuations have significantly increased kinetic barriers for binding compared to the kinetic barriers previously observed for spherical ligands due to translational fluctuations. We exemplify that these kinetic barriers, which are ligand specific, impact both binding and unbinding times for which we observe considerable differences between our studied ligands.

[40] 2009.08146

Interacting Chern Insulator in Infinite Spatial Dimensions

We study a generic model of a Chern insulator supplemented by a Hubbard interaction in arbitrary even dimension $D$ and demonstrate that the model remains well-defined and nontrivial in the $D \to \infty$ limit. Dynamical mean-field theory is applicable and predicts a phase diagram with a continuum of topologically different phases separating a correlated Mott insulator from the trivial band insulator. We discuss various features, such as the elusive distinction between insulating and semi-metal states, which are unconventional already in the non-interacting case. Topological phases are characterized by a non-quantized Chern density replacing the Chern number as $D\to \infty$.

[41] 2009.08149

Influence of drying conditions on the stress and weight development of capillary suspensions

Cracking of suspensions during drying is a common problem. While additives, e.g. binders and surfactants, can mitigate this problem, some applications, such as printing conductive pastes or sintering green bodies, do not lend themselves to the use of additives. Capillary suspensions provide an alternative formulation without additives. In this work, we use simultaneous stress and weight measurements to investigate the influence of formulation and drying conditions. Capillary suspensions dry more homogeneously and with lower peak stresses, leading to an increased robustness against cracking compared. An increase in dry film porosity is not the key driver for the stress reduction. Instead, the capillary bridges, which create strong particle networks, resist the stress. Increasing the relative humidity enhances this effect, even for pure suspensions. While lower boiling point secondary liquids, e.g. water, persist for very long times during drying, higher boiling point liquids offer further potential to tune the the drying process.

[42] 2009.08160

Some Properties of Sandpile Models as Prototype of Self-Organized Critical Systems

This paper is devoted to the recent advances in self-organized criticality (SOC), and the concepts. The paper contains three parts; in the first part we present some examples of SOC systems, in the second part we add some comments concerning its relation to logarithmic conformal field theory, and in the third part we report on the application of SOC concepts to various systems ranging from cumulus clouds to 2D electron gases.

[43] 2009.08190

Anodic Oxidation of Epitaxial Superconductor-Semiconductor Hybrids

We demonstrate a new fabrication process for hybrid semiconductor-superconductor heterostructures based on anodic oxidation (AO), allowing controlled thinning of epitaxial Al films. Structural and transport studies of oxidized epitaxial Al films grown on insulating GaAs substrates reveal spatial non-uniformity and enhanced critical temperature and magnetic fields. Oxidation of epitaxial Al on hybrid InAs heterostructures with a conducting quantum well show similarly enhanced superconducting properties transferred to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by proximity effect, with critical perpendicular magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. An insulating AlOx film, that passivates the heterostructure from exposure to air, is obtained by complete oxidation of the Al. It simultaneously removes the need to strip Al which damages the underlying semiconductor. AO passivation yielded 2DEG mobilities two times higher than similar devices with Al removed by wet etching. An AO-passivated Hall bar showed quantum Hall features emerging at a transverse field of 2.5 T, below the critical transverse field of thinned films, eventually allowing transparent coupling of quantum Hall effect and superconductivity. AO thinning and passivation are compatible with standard lithographic techniques, giving lateral resolution below <50 nm. We demonstrate local patterning of AO by realizing a semiconductor-based Josephson junction operating up to 0.3 T perpendicular.

[44] 2009.08195

Higher-order topology in monolayer graphene

We show that monolayer graphene intrinsically hosts higher-order topological corner states, in which electrons are localized topologically at atomic sizes. The emergence of the topological corner states in graphene is due to a nontrivial product of the Zak phases for two independent directions, which can be handily calculated graphically by using the bulk wavefunctions. We give an explicit expression that indicates the existence of topological corner states for various geometric edges and corner angles. We also demonstrate the nontrivial localization nature of the topological corner states in graphene by putting an imaginary onsite potential mask.

[45] 2009.08196

Micro- Mechanical assembly of high-quality Fabry-Perot microcavities for the integration with two-dimensional materials

Integrating monolayers of two-dimensional semiconductors in planar, and potentially microstructured microcavities is challenging because of the few, available approaches to overgrow the monolayers without damaging them. Some strategies have been developed, but they either rely on complicated experimental settings, expensive technologies or compromise the available quality factors. As a result, high quality Fabry-Perot microcavities are not widely available to the community focusing on light-matter coupling with atomically thin materials. Here, we provide details on a recently developed technique to micro-mechanically assemble Fabry-Perot Microcavities. Our approach does not rely on difficult or expensive technologies, and yields device characteristics marking the state of the art in cavities with integrated atomically thin semiconductors.

[46] 2009.08201

Peculiar magnetic dynamics across the in-field transition in Ca3Co2O6

The discovery of multiple coexisting magnetic phases in a crystallographically homogeneous compound Ca$_3$Co$_2$O$_6$ has stimulated an ongoing research activity. In recent years the main focus has been on the zero field state properties, where exceedingly long time scales have been established. In this study we report a detailed investigation of static and dynamic properties of Ca$_3$Co$_2$O$_6$ across the magnetic field induced transition around 3.5 T. This region has so far been practically neglected while we argue that in some aspects it represents a simpler version of the transition across the $B = 0$ state. Investigating the frequency dependence of the ac susceptibility we reveal that on the high field side ($B > 3.5$ T) the response corresponds to a relatively narrow distribution of magnetic clusters. The distribution appears very weakly dependent on magnetic field, with an associated energy barrier of around 200 K. Below 3.5 T a second contribution arises, with much smaller characteristic frequencies and a strong temperature and magnetic field dependence. We discuss these findings in the context of intra-chain and inter-chain clustering of magnetic moments.

[47] 2009.08203

The Origin of the Glass-like Thermal Conductivity in Crystalline Metal-Organic Frameworks

It is textbookly regarded that phonons, i.e., an energy quantum of propagating lattice waves, are the main heat carriers in perfect crystals. As a result, in many crystals, e.g., bulk silicon, the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity shows the classical 1/T relationship because of the dominant Umklapp phonon-phonon scattering in the systems. However, the thermal conductivity of many crystalline metal-organic frameworks is very low and shows no, a weakly negative and even a weakly positive temperature dependence (glass-like thermal conductivity). It has been in debate whether the thermal transport can be still described by phonons in metal-organic frameworks. Here, by studying two typical systems, i.e., crystal zeolitic imidazolate framework-4 (cZIF-4) and crystal zeolitic imidazolate framework-62 (c-ZIF62), we prove that the ultralow thermal conductivity in metal-organic frameworks is resulting from the strong phonon intrinsic structure scattering due to the large mass difference and the large cavity between Zn and N atoms. Our mean free path spectrum analysis shows that both propagating and non-propagating anharmonic vibrational modes exist in the systems, and contribute largely to the thermal conductivity. The corresponding weakly negative or positive temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity is stemming from the competition between the propagating and non-propagating anharmonic vibrational modes. Our study here provides a fundamental understanding of thermal transport in metal-organic frameworks and will guide the design of the thermal-related applications using metal-organic frameworks, e.g., inflammable gas storage, chemical catalysis, solar thermal conversion and so on.

[48] 2009.08215

Control of spin-orbit torques by interface engineering in topological insulator heterostructures

(Bi$_{1-x}$Sb$_x$)$_2$Te$_3$ topological insulators (TIs) are gathering increasing attention owing to their large charge-to-spin conversion efficiency and the ensuing spin-orbit torques (SOTs) that can be used to manipulate the magnetization of a ferromagnet (FM). The origin of the torques, however, remains elusive, while the implications of hybridized states and the strong material intermixing at the TI/FM interface are essentially unexplored. By combining interface chemical analysis and spin-transfer ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements, we demonstrate that intermixing plays a critical role in the generation of SOTs. By inserting a suitable normal metal spacer, material intermixing is reduced and the TI properties at the interface are largely improved, resulting in strong variations in the nature of the SOTs. A dramatic enhancement of a field-like torque, opposing and surpassing the Oersted-field torque, is observed, which can be attributed to the non-equilibrium spin density in Rashba-split surface bands and to the suppression of spin memory loss.

[49] 2009.08223

Elucidating the barriers on direct water splitting: Key role of oxygen vacancy density and coordination over PbTiO$_3$ and TiO$_2$

In this work, using the state-of-the-art first principles calculations based on density functional theory, we found that the concentration as well as coordination of surface oxygen vacancies with respect to each other were critical for direct water-splitting reaction on the (001) surfaces of PbTiO$_3$ and TiO$_2$. For the water-splitting reaction to happen on TiO$_2$-terminated surfaces, it is necessary to have two neighboring O-vacancies acting as active sites that host two adsorbing water molecules. However, eventual dissociation of O-H bonds is possible only in the presence of an additional nearest-neighbor O-vacancy. Unfortunately, this necessary third vacancy inhibits the formation of molecular hydrogen by trapping the dissociated H atoms over TiO$_2$-teminated surfaces. Formation of up to 3 O-vacancies, is energetically less costly on both terminations of PbTiO$_3$ (001) surfaces compared with that of TiO$_2$, the presence of Pb leads to weaker O bonds over these surfaces. Molecular hydrogen formation is more favorable over the PbO-terminated surface of PbTiO$_3$, requiring only two neighboring oxygen vacancies. However, hydrogen molecule is retained near the surface by weak van der Waals forces. Our study indicates two barriers leading to low productivity of direct water splitting processes. First and foremost, there is an entropic barrier imposed by the requirement of at least two nearest-neighbor O-vacancies, sterically hindering the process. Furthermore, there are also enthalpic barriers of formation over TiO$_2$-terminated surfaces, or removal of H$_2$ molecules from the PbO-terminated surface.

[50] 2009.08238

Mechanical disorder of sticky-sphere glasses. II. Thermo-mechanical inannealability

Many structural glasses feature static and dynamic mechanical properties that can depend strongly on glass formation history. The degree of universality of this history-dependence, and what it is possibly affected by, are largely unexplored. Here we show that the variability of elastic properties of simple computer glasses under thermal annealing depends strongly on the strength of attractive interactions between the glasses' constituent particles -- referred to here as glass `stickiness'. We find that in stickier glasses the stiffening of the shear modulus with thermal annealing is strongly suppressed, while the thermal-annealing-induced softening of the bulk modulus is enhanced. Our key finding is that the characteristic frequency and density per frequency of soft quasilocalized modes becomes effectively invariant to annealing in very sticky glasses, the latter are therefore deemed `thermo-mechanically inannealable'. The implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.

[51] 2009.08259

On quantum Hall effect, Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, Dirac magnetic monopole, and Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization

We discuss how the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition permeates the relationships between the quantization of Hall effect, the Berezenskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex quantization, the Dirac magnetic monopole, the Haldane phase, the contact resistance in closed mesoscopic circuits of quantum physics. This paper is motivated by the recent derivation by one of the authors of the topological Chern number of the integer quantum Hall effect in electrical conductivity using a novel phase-space nonequilibirum quantum transport approach. The topological invariant in (~p, ~q; E, t)-phase space occurs to first-order in the gradient expansion of the nonequilibrium quantum transport equation. The Berry curvature related to orbital magnetic moment is also calculated leading to the quantization of orbital motion and edge states for 2-D systems. All of the above physical phenomena maybe unified simply from the geometric point of view of the old Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, as a theory of Berry connection or a U (1) gauge theory

[52] 2009.08284

Quantum metasurfaces with periodic arrays of $Λ$-emitters

We study theoretically the optical response of a monolayer comprizing regularly spaced quantum emitters with a doublet in the ground state (the so-called $\Lambda$-emitters). The emitters' self-action through the retarded dipole-dipole interaction provides a positive feedback, interplay of which with the intrinsic nonlinearity of an isolated emitter, leads to an exotic optical dynamics of the system and prominent effects, such as multistability, self-oscillations, and quasi-chaotic behavior. %The bifurcation diagram approach is used to classify different scenarios of the system's behavior. In a certain spectral domain, the monolayer operates as a bistable mirror. The optical response of the monolayer manifests high sensitivity to the doublet splitting and relaxation within the doublet, suggesting the latter to be the key parameters to tailor the monolayer optical response. These properties make such a system very promising for nanophotonic applications. We discuss the relevance of the predicted nonlinear effects for nano-sized all-optical devices.

[53] 2009.08305

Anomalous heat transport in classical many-body systems: overview and perspectives

In this review paper we aim at illustrating recent achievements in anomalous heat diffusion, while highlighting open problems and research perspectives. We briefly recall the main features of the phenomenon for low-dimensional classical anharmonic chains and outline some recent developments on perturbed integrable systems, and on the effect of long-range forces and magnetic fields. Some selected applications to heat transfer in material science at the nanoscale are described. In the second part, we discuss of the role of anomalous conduction on coupled transport and describe how systems with anomalous (thermal) diffusion allow a much better power-efficiency trade-off for the conversion of thermal to particle current.

[54] 2009.08324

Temperature Dependent Non-linear Damping in Palladium Nano-mechanical Resonators

Advances in nano-fabrication techniques has made it feasible to observe damping phenomena beyond the linear regime in nano-mechanical systems. In this work, we report cubic non-linear damping in palladium nano-mechanical resonators. Nano-scale palladium beams exposed to a $H_2$ atmosphere become softer and display enhanced Duffing non-linearity as well as non-linear damping at ultra low temperatures. The damping is highest at the lowest temperatures of $\sim 110\: mK$ and decreases when warmed up-to $\sim 1\textrm{ }K$. We experimentally demonstrate for the first time a temperature dependent non-linear damping in a nano-mechanical system below 1 K. It is consistent with a predicted two phonon mediated non-linear Akhiezer scenario for ballistic phonons with mean free path comparable to the beam thickness. This opens up new possibilities to engineer non-linear phenomena at low temperatures.

[55] 2009.08333

Ozone-based sequential infiltration synthesis of Al2O3 nanostructures in symmetric block copolymer

Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) provides an original strategy to grow inorganic materials by infiltrating gaseous precursors in polymeric films. Combined with micro-phase separated nanostructures resulting from block copoly-mer (BCP) self-assembly, SIS selectively binds the precursors to only one domain mimicking the morphology of the original BCP template. This methodology represents a smart solution for the fabrication of inorganic nanostructures starting from self-assembled BCP thin films, in view of advanced lithographic application and of functional nanostructure synthesis. The SIS process using Trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O precursors in self-assembled PS-b-PMMA BCP thin films established as a model system, where the PMMA phase is selectively infiltrated. However the temperature range allowed by polymeric material restricts the available precursors to highly reactive reagents, such as TMA. In order to extend the SIS methodology and access a wide library of materials, a crucial step is the implementation of processes using reactive reagents that are fully compatible with the initial polymeric template. This work reports a comprehensive morphological (SEM, SE, AFM) and physico-chemical (XPS) investigation of alumina nanostructures synthesized by means of a SIS process using O3 as oxygen precursor in self-assembled PS-b-PMMA thin films with lamellar morphology. The comparison with the H2O-based SIS pro-cess validates the possibility to use O3 as oxygen precursor expanding the possible range of precursors for the fabrication of inorganic nanostructures.

[56] 2009.08342

Metastability in graded and step like variation of field and anisotropy in the Blume-Capel ferromagnet

The metastable behaviour of two dimensional anisotropic Blume-Capel ferromagnet under the influence of graded and stepped magnetic field has been investigated by extensive Monte Carlo simulation using Metropolis single spin flip algorithm. Starting from the initial perfectly ordered state, reversal of magnetisation has been studied in presence of the field. Metastable lifetime or the reversal time of magnetisation for the system having uniform anisotropy and in the presence of both graded and stepped field has been studied. Also the same has been explored for a graded and stepped anisotropic system in presence of a uniform field. Finite size effect is analyzed for the variation of reversal time with gradient of field ($G_h$) and a scaling relation $\langle \tau \rangle \sim L^{-\beta} f(G_h L^\alpha)$ is found out. Spatial variation of density profile for the projection states (i.e., +1, 0 and -1) has also been studied at the moment of reversal of magnetisation. The spatial variation of the number of spin flips per site is studied. Motion of the interface (or domain wall) with the gradient of field and gradient of anisotropy are investigated and are found to follow the hyperbolic tangent like behaviours in both cases. Since, both the anisotropy and the applied field have significant impact on the metastable lifetime, an interesting competitive scenario is observed for a graded anisotropic system in graded field and a stepped anisotropic system in stepped field. A line of marginal competition has been found out for both the cases separating the regions of field dominated reversal and anisotropy dominated reversal.

[57] 2009.08344

Trimethylaluminum Diffusion in PMMA Thin Films during Sequential Infiltration Synthesis: In Situ Dynamic Spectroscopic Ellipsometric Investigation

Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) provides a successful route to grow inorganic materials into polymeric films by penetrating of gaseous precursors into the polymer, both in order to enhance the functional properties of the polymer creating an organic-inorganic hybrid material, and to fabricate inorganic nanostructures when infiltrating in patterned polymer films or in selfassembled block copolymers. A SIS process consists in a controlled sequence of metal organic precursor and co-reactant vapor exposure cycles of the polymer films in an atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. In this work, we present a study of the SIS process of alumina using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O in various polymer films using in situ dynamic spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). In situ dynamic SE enables time-resolved monitoring of the swelling of the polymer, which is relevant to the diffusion and retain of the metal precursor into the polymer itself. Different swelling behaviour of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) was observed when exposed to TMA vapor. PMMA films swell more significantly than PS films do, resulting in very different infiltrated Al2O3 thickness after polymer removal in O2 plasma. PMMA films reach different swollen states upon TMA exposure and reaction with H2O, depending on the TMA dose and on the purge duration after TMA exposure, which correspond to different amounts of metal precursor retained inside the polymer and converted to alumina. Diffusion coefficients of TMA in PMMA were extracted investigating the swelling of pristine PMMA films during TMA infiltration and shown to be dependent on polymer molecular weight. In situ dynamic SE monitoring allows to control the SIS process tuning it from an ALD-like process for long purge to a chemical vapour deposition - like process selectively confined inside the polymer films

[58] 2009.08351

Intrinsic dissipative Floquet superconductors beyond mean-field theory

We study the intrinsic superconductivity in a dissipative Floquet electronic system in the presence of attractive interactions. Based on the functional Keldysh theory beyond the mean-field treatment, we find that the system shows a time-periodic bosonic condensation and reaches an intrinsic dissipative Floquet superconducting (SC) phase. Due to the interplay between dissipations and periodic modulations, the Floquet SC gap becomes "soft" and contains the diffusive fermionic modes with finite lifetime. However, the bosonic modes are still propagating even in the presence of dissipation. Our results also provides a simple and realistic system where the U(1) symmetry is broken spontaneously with dissipative environment.

[59] 2009.08355

Effect of the Density of Reactive Sites in P(S-r-MMA) Film During Al2O3 Growth by Sequential Infiltration Synthesis

Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) consists in a controlled sequence of metal organic precursors and co-reactant vapor exposure cycles of polymer films. Two aspects characterize a SIS process: precursor molecule diffusion within the polymer matrix and precursor molecule entrapment into polymer films via chemical reaction. In this paper, we investigated SIS process for the alumina synthesis using trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O in thin films of poly(styrene-random-methyl methacrylate) (P(S-r-MMA)) with variable MMA content. The amount of alumina grown in the P(S-r-MMA) films linearly depends on MMA content. A relatively low concentration of MMA in the copolymer matrix is enough to guarantee the volumetric growth of alumina in the polymer film. In pure polystyrene, metal oxide seeds grow in the sub-surface region of the film. In-situ dynamic spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) analyses provide quantitative information about TMA diffusivity in pristine P(S-r-MMA) matrices as a function of MMA fraction, allowing further insight into the process kinetics as a function of the density of reactive sites in the polymer film. This work improves the understanding of infiltration synthesis mechanism and provides a practical approach to potentially expand the library of polymers that can be effectively infiltrated by introducing reactive sites in the polymer chain.

[60] 2009.08379

Lifshitz phase transitions in one-dimensional Gamma model

In this paper, we study quantum phase transitions and magnetic properties of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 Gamma model, which describes the off-diagonal exchange interactions between edge-shared octahedra with strong spin-orbit couplings along the sawtooth chain. The competing exchange interactions between the nearest neighbors and the second neighbors stabilize semimetallic ground state in terms of spinless fermions, and give rise to a rich phase diagram, which consists of three gapless phases. We find distinct phases are characterized by the number of Weyl nodes in the momentum space, and such changes in the topology of the Fermi surface without symmetry breaking produce a variety of Lifshitz transitions, in which the Weyl nodes situating at $k=\pi$ interchange from type I to type II. A coexistence of type-I and type-II Weyl nodes is found in phase II. The information measures including concurrence, entanglement entropy and relative entropy can effectively signal the second-order transitions. The results indicate that the Gamma model can act as an exactly solvable model to describe Lifshitz phase transitions in correlated electron systems.

[61] 2009.08382

Reconfigurable Artificial Microswimmers with Internal Feedback

Micron-size self-propelling particles are often proposed as synthetic models for biological microswimmers, yet they lack internally regulated adaptation, which is central to the autonomy of their biological counterparts. Conversely, adaptation and autonomy can be encoded in larger-scale soft-robotic devices, but transferring these capabilities to the colloidal scale remains elusive. Here, we create a new class of responsive microswimmers, powered by induced-charge electrophoresis, which can adapt their motility to external stimuli via an internal feedback. Using sequential capillary assembly, we fabricate deterministic colloidal clusters comprising soft thermoresponsive microparticles, which, upon spontaneous reconfiguration, induce motility changes, such as adaptation of the clusters' propulsion velocity and reversal of its direction. We rationalize the response in terms of a coupling between self-propulsion and variations of particle shape and dielectric properties. Harnessing those allows for strategies to achieve local dynamical control with simple illumination patterns, revealing exciting opportunities for the development of new tactic active materials.

[62] 2009.08393

Non-equilibrium Properties of an Active Nanoparticle in a Harmonic Potential

Active particles break out of thermodynamic equilibrium thanks to their directed motion, which leads to complex and interesting behaviors in the presence of confining potentials. When dealing with active nanoparticles, however, the overwhelming presence of rotational diffusion hinders directed motion, leading to an increase of their effective temperature, but otherwise masking the effects of self-propulsion. Here, we demonstrate an experimental system where an active nanoparticle immersed in a critical solution and held in an optical harmonic potential features far-from-equilibrium behavior beyond an increase of its effective temperature. When increasing the laser power, we observe a cross-over from a Boltzmann distribution to a non-equilibrium state, where the particle performs fast orbital rotations about the beam axis. These findings are rationalized by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for the particle's position and orientation in terms of a moment expansion. The proposed self-propulsion mechanism results from the particle's non-sphericity and the lower critical point of the solute.

[63] 2009.08398

Restoring the Planckian regime via suppression of charge density waves in an underdoped cuprate superconductor

The normal state of cuprates is dominated by the "strange metal" phase that, near optimal doping, shows a linear temperature dependence of the resistivity persisting down to the lowest $T$, when superconductivity is suppressed. For underdoped cuprates this behavior is lost below the pseudogap temperature $T$*, where Charge Density Wave (CDW) together with other intertwined local orders characterize the ground state. Here we show that the $T$-linear resistivity of highly strained, ultrathin and underdoped YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\delta}$ films is restored when the CDW amplitude, detected by Resonant Inelastic X-ray scattering, is suppressed. This observation points towards an intimate connection between the onset of CDW and the departure from $T$-linear resistivity in underdoped cuprates, a link that was missing until now. It also illustrates the potentiality of strain control to manipulate the ground state of quantum materials.

[64] 2009.08404

Toward a Comprehensive Model of Snow Crystal Growth: 8. Characterizing Structure-Dependent Attachment Kinetics near -14 C

In this paper I examine snow crystal growth near -14 C in comparison with a comprehensive model that includes Structure-Dependent Attachment Kinetics (SDAK). Analyzing a series of ice-growth observations in air, I show that the data strongly support the model, which stipulates that basal growth is described by classical terrace nucleation on faceted surfaces in this temperature region. In contrast, prism growth exhibits a pronounced "SDAK dip" that substantially reduces the nucleation barrier on narrow prism facets (relative to that found on broad prism facets). I use these measurements to further characterize and refine the SDAK model, which effectively explains the robust formation of platelike snow crystals in air near 14 C.

[65] 2009.08408

Thermodynamics of Energy Magnetization

We construct the thermodynamics of energy magnetization in the presence of gravitomagnetic field. We show that the free energy must be modified to account for the modification of the energy current operator in the presence of a confining potential. The explicit expression of the energy magnetization is derived for a periodic system, and the Streda formula for the thermal Hall conductivity is rigorously established. We demonstrate our theory of the energy magnetization and the Streda formula in a Chern insulator.

[66] 2009.08415

Steady state entropy production rate for scalar Langevin field theories

The entropy production rate (EPR) offers a quantitative measure of time reversal symmetry breaking in non-equilibrium systems. It can be defined either at particle level or at the level of coarse-grained fields such as density; the EPR for the latter quantifies the extent to which these coarse-grained fields behave irreversibly. In this work, we first develop a general method to compute the EPR of scalar Langevin field theories with additive noise. This large class of theories includes active versions of Model A (non-conserved density dynamics) and Model B (conserved) and also models where both types of dynamics are simultaneously present (such as Model AB). Treating the scalar field $\phi$ (and its time derivative $\dot\phi$) as the sole observable(s), we arrive at an expression for the EPR that is non-negative for every field configuration and is quadratic in the time-antisymmetric component of the dynamics. Our general expression is a function of the quasipotential, which determines the full probability distribution for configurations, and is not generally calculable. To alleviate this difficulty, we present a small-noise expansion of the EPR, which only requires knowledge of the deterministic (mean-field) solution for the scalar field in steady state, which generally is calculable, at least numerically. We demonstrate this calculation for the case of Model AB. We then present a similar EPR calculation for Model AB with the conservative and non-conservative contributions to $\dot\phi = \dot\phi_{\rm A} + \dot\phi_{\rm B}$ viewed as separately observable quantities. The results are qualitatively different, confirming that the field-level EPR depends on the choice of coarse-grained information retained within the dynamical description.

[67] 2009.08425

Superuniversality of superdiffusion

Anomalous finite-temperature transport has recently been observed in numerical studies of various integrable models in one dimension; these models share the feature of being invariant under a continuous non-abelian global symmetry. This work offers a comprehensive group-theoretic account of this elusive phenomenon. For an integrable quantum model invariant under a global non-abelian simple Lie group $G$, we find that finite-temperature transport of Noether charges associated with symmetry $G$ in thermal states that are invariant under $G$ is universally superdiffusive and characterized by dynamical exponent $z = 3/2$. This conclusion holds regardless of the Lie algebra symmetry, local degrees of freedom (on-site representations), Lorentz invariance, or particular realization of microscopic interactions: we accordingly dub it as superuniversal. The anomalous transport behavior is attributed to long-lived giant quasiparticles dressed by thermal fluctuations. We provide an algebraic viewpoint on the corresponding dressing transformation and elucidate formal connections to fusion identities amongst the quantum-group characters. We identify giant quasiparticles with nonlinear soliton modes of classical field theories that describe low-energy excitations above ferromagnetic vacua. Our analysis of these field theories also provides a complete classification of the low-energy (i.e., Goldstone-mode) spectra of quantum isotropic ferromagnetic chains.

[68] 2009.07878

Entanglement robustness and spin relaxation in thermal states of two-dimensional dissipative spin system in an inhomogeneous magnetic field

We consider a finite two-dimensional Heisenberg triangular spin lattice at different degrees of anisotropy coupled to a dissipative Lindblad environment obeying the Born-Markovian constrain at finite temperature. We show how applying an inhomogeneous magnetic field to the system may significantly affect the entanglement distribution and properties among the spins in the asymptotic steady state of the system. Particularly, applying an inhomogeneous field with an inward (growing) gradient toward the central spin is found to considerably enhance the nearest neighbor entanglement and its robustness to the thermal dissipative decay effect in the completely anisotropic (Ising) system, whereas all the beyond nearest neighbor entanglements vanish entirely. Applying the same field to a partially anisotropic (XYZ) system, does not only enhance the nearest neighbor entanglements and their robustness but also all the beyond nearest neighbor ones. Nevertheless, the inhomogeneity of the field shows no effect on the asymptotic behavior of the entanglement in the isotropic (XXX) system, which vanishes under any system configuration. Moreover, the same inhomogeneous field exhibits the most influential impact, compared with the other ones, on the the spin dynamics as well. Although in the isotropic system the spins relax to a separable (disentangled) steady state with all the spins reaching a common spin state regardless of the field inhomogeneity, the spins in the steady state of the completely anisotropic system reach different distinguished spin states depending on their positions in the lattice. However, in the XYZ system, though the anisotropy is lower, the spin states become even more distinguished, accompanying the long range quantum correlation across the system, which is a sign of a critical behavior taking place at this combination of system anisotropy and field inhomogeneity.

[69] 2009.07959

Quantum weak invariants: Dynamical evolution of fluctuations and correlations

Weak invariants are time-dependent observables with conserved expectation values. Their fluctuations, however, do not remain constant in time. On the assumption that time evolution of the state of an open quantum system is given in terms of a completely positive map, the fluctuations monotonically grow even if the map is not unital, in contrast to the fact that monotonic increases of both the von Neumann entropy and R\'enyi entropy require the map to be unital. In this way, the weak invariants describe temporal asymmetry in a manner different from the entropies. A formula is presented for time evolution of the covariance matrix associated with the weak invariants in the case when the system density matrix obeys the Gorini-Kossakowski-Lindblad-Sudarshan equation.

[70] 2009.08079

Magnetic Gradient Fluctuations from Quadrupolar $^{73}$Ge in Si/SiGe Exchange-Only Qubits

We study the time-fluctuating magnetic gradient noise mechanisms in pairs of Si/SiGe quantum dots using exchange echo noise spectroscopy. We find through a combination of spectral inversion and correspondence to theoretical modeling that quadrupolar precession of the $^{73}$Ge nuclei play a key role in the spin-echo decay time $T_2$, with a characteristic dependence on magnetic field and the width of the Si quantum well. The $^{73}$Ge noise peaks appear at the fundamental and first harmonic of the $^{73}$Ge Larmor resonance, superimposed over $1/f$ noise due to $^{29}$Si dipole-dipole dynamics, and are dependent on material epitaxy and applied magnetic field. These results may inform the needs of dynamical decoupling when using Si/SiGe quantum dots as qubits in quantum information processing devices.

[71] 2009.08200

Analysis of a density matrix renormalization group approach for transport in open quantum systems

Understanding the intricate properties of one-dimensional quantum systems coupled to multiple reservoirs poses a challenge to both analytical approaches and simulation techniques. Fortunately, density matrix renormalization group-based tools, which have been widely used in the study of closed systems, have also been recently extended to the treatment of open systems. We present an implementation of such method based on state-of-the-art matrix product state (MPS) and tensor network methods, that produces accurate results for a variety of combinations of parameters. Unlike most approaches, which use the time-evolution to reach the steady-state, we focus on an algorithm that is time-independent and focuses on recasting the problem in exactly the same language as the standard Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) algorithm, initially put forward by M. C. Ba\~nuls et al. in Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 220601 (2015). Hence, it can be readily exported to any of the available DMRG platforms. We show that this implementation is suited for studying thermal transport in one-dimensional systems. As a case study, we focus on the XXZ quantum spin chain and benchmark our results by comparing the spin current and magnetization profiles with analytical results. We then explore beyond what can be computed analytically. Our code is freely available on github at

[72] 2009.08204

Resonant Excitation and Purcell Enhancement of Coherent Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers Coupled to a Fabry-Pérot Micro-Cavity

The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been established as a prime building block for quantum networks. However, scaling beyond a few network nodes is currently limited by low spin-photon entanglement rates, resulting from the NV center's low probability of coherent photon emission and collection. Integration into a cavity can boost both values via the Purcell effect, but poor optical coherence of near-surface NV centers has so far prevented their resonant optical control, as would be required for entanglement generation. Here, we overcome this challenge, and demonstrate resonant addressing of individual, fiber-cavity-coupled NV centers, and collection of their Purcell-enhanced coherent photon emission. Utilizing off-resonant and resonant addressing protocols, we extract Purcell factors of up to 4, consistent with a detailed theoretical model. This model predicts that the probability of coherent photon detection per optical excitation can be increased to 10% for realistic parameters - an improvement over state-of-the art solid immersion lens collection systems by two orders of magnitude. The resonant operation of an improved optical interface for single coherent quantum emitters in a closed-cycle cryogenic system at T $\sim$ 4 K is an important result towards extensive quantum networks with long coherence.

[73] 2009.08328

Review: Deep Learning in Electron Microscopy

Deep learning is transforming most areas of science and technology, including electron microscopy. This review paper offers a practical perspective aimed at developers with limited familiarity. For context, we review popular applications of deep learning in electron microscopy. Following, we discuss hardware and software needed to get started with deep learning and interface with electron microscopes. We then review neural network components, popular architectures, and their optimization. Finally, we discuss future directions of deep learning in electron microscopy.

[74] 2009.08368

A new front-tracking Lagrangian model for the modeling of dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization

A new method for the simulation of evolving multi-domains problems has been introduced in previous works (RealIMotion), Florez et al. (2020) and further developed in parallel in the context of isotropic Grain Growth (GG) with no consideration for the effects of the Stored Energy (SE) due to dislocations. The methodology consists in a new front-tracking approach where one of the originality is that not only interfaces between grains are discretized but their bulks are also meshed and topological changes of the domains are driven by selective local remeshing operations performed on the Finite Element (FE) mesh. In this article, further developments and studies of the model will be presented, mainly on the development of a model taking into account grain boundary migration by (GBM) SE. Further developments for the nucleation of new grains will be presented, allowing to model Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) and Post-Dynamic Recrystallization (PDRX) phenomena. The accuracy and the performance of the numerical algorithms have been proven to be very promising in Florez et al. (2020). Here the results for multiple test cases will be given in order to validate the accuracy of the model taking into account GG and SE. The computational performance will be evaluated for the DRX and PDRX mechanisms and compared to a classical Finite Element (FE) framework using a Level-Set (LS) formulation.

[75] 2009.08381

Demultiplexing infrasound phonons with tunable magnetic lattices

Controlling infrasound signals is crucial to many processes ranging from predicting atmospheric events and seismic activities to sensing nuclear detonations. These waves can be manipulated through phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials. However, at such ultra-low frequencies, the size (usually on the order of meters) and the mass (usually on the order of many kilograms) of these materials can hinder its potential applications in the infrasonic domain. Here, we utilize tunable lattices of repelling magnets to guide and sort infrasound waves into different channels based on their frequencies. We construct our lattices by confining meta-atoms (free-floating macroscopic disks with embedded magnets) within a magnetic boundary. By changing the confining boundary, we control the meta-atoms' spacing and therefore the intensity of their coupling potentials and wave propagation characteristics. As a demonstration of principle, we present the first experimental realization of an infrasound phonon demultiplexer (i.e., guiding ultra-low frequency waves into different channels based on their frequencies). The realized platform can be utilized to manipulate ultra-low frequency waves, within a relatively small volume, while utilizing negligible mass. In addition, the self-assembly nature of the meta-atoms can be key in creating re-programmable materials with exceptional nonlinear properties.