The Si based TiO2 thin films were prepared via the combination both of Sol-Gel and Spin-Coating method. The films were sintered at 850 degrees Celsius for half an hour, and the resulting films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their phase composition and microstructure. It was found that the films contained silicon, anatase phase, and unknown impurities. There were holes and micro-cracks on the surface of TiO2 films. A program-controllable hot-cold test chamber was successfully developed and used to study the catalytic performance of the thin film for the first time. The results showed that TiO2 thin films had the ability to degrade Rhodamine B dyes. The highest degradation rate of Rhodamine B achieved 37% after 48 cold-hot cycles. Our design and the experimental results presented in this paper strongly highlight the bright prospects of the thermoelectric properties of TiO2 and water environmental disinfection applications.

Fractional Chern insulators (FCI) with crystalline symmetry possess topological invariants that fundamentally have no analog in continuum fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. Here we demonstrate through numerical calculations on model wave functions that FCIs possess a fractionally quantized electric polarization, $\vec{\mathscr{P}}_{\text{o}}$, where $\text{o}$ is a high symmetry point. $\vec{\mathscr{P}}_{\text{o}}$ takes fractional values as compared to the allowed values for integer Chern insulators because of the possibility that anyons carry fractional quantum numbers under lattice translation symmetries. $\vec{\mathscr{P}}_{\text{o}}$, together with the discrete shift $\mathscr{S}_{\text{o}}$, determine fractionally quantized universal contributions to electric charge in regions containing lattice disclinations, dislocations, boundaries, and/or corners, and which are fractions of the minimal anyon charge. We demonstrate how these invariants can be extracted using Monte Carlo computations on model wave functions with lattice defects for 1/2-Laughlin and 1/3-Laughlin FCIs on the square and honeycomb lattice, respectively, obtained using the parton construction. These results comprise a class of fractionally quantized response properties of topologically ordered states that go beyond the known ones discovered over thirty years ago.

The recent experimental observation of quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effects in the rhombohedrally stacked pentalayer graphene has motivated theoretical discussions on the possibility of quantum anomalous Hall crystal (QAHC), a topological version of Wigner crystal. Conventionally Wigner crystal was assumed to have a period $a_{\text{crystal}}=1/\sqrt{n}$ locked to the density $n$. In this work we propose new types of topological Wigner crystals labeled as QAHC-$z$ with period $a_{\text{crystal}}=\sqrt{z/n}$. In rhombohedrally stacked graphene aligned with hexagon boron nitride~(hBN), we find parameter regimes where QAHC-2 and QAHC-3 have lower energy than the conventional QAHC-1 at total filling $\nu=1$ per moir\'e unit cell. These states all have total Chern number $C_\mathrm{tot}=1$ and are consistent with the QAH effect observed in the experiments. The larger period QAHC states have better kinetic energy due to the unique Mexican-hat dispersion of the pentalayer graphene, which can compensate for the loss in the interaction energy. Unlike QAHC-1, QAHC-2 and QAHC-3 also break the moir\'e translation symmetry and are sharply distinct from a moir\'e band insulator. We also briefly discuss the competition between integer QAHC and fractional QAHC states at filling $\nu=2/3$. Besides, we notice the importance of the moir\'e potential. A larger moir\'e potential can greatly change the phase diagram and even favors a QAHC-1 ansatz with $C=2$ Chern band.

Quantum materials governed by emergent topological fermions have become a cornerstone of physics. Dirac fermions in graphene form the basis for moir\'e quantum matter, and Dirac fermions in magnetic topological insulators enabled the discovery of the quantum anomalous Hall effect. In contrast, there are few materials whose electromagnetic response is dominated by emergent Weyl fermions. Nearly all known Weyl materials are overwhelmingly metallic, and are largely governed by irrelevant, conventional electrons. Here we theoretically predict and experimentally observe a semimetallic Weyl ferromagnet in van der Waals (Cr,Bi)$_2$Te$_3$. In transport, we find a record bulk anomalous Hall angle $> 0.5$ along with non-metallic conductivity, a regime sharply distinct from conventional ferromagnets. Together with symmetry analysis, our data suggest a semimetallic Fermi surface composed of two Weyl points, with a giant separation $> 75\%$ of the linear dimension of the bulk Brillouin zone, and no other electronic states. Using state-of-the-art crystal synthesis techniques, we widely tune the electronic structure, allowing us to annihilate the Weyl state and visualize a unique topological phase diagram exhibiting broad Chern insulating, Weyl semimetallic and magnetic semiconducting regions. Our observation of a semimetallic Weyl ferromagnet offers an avenue toward novel correlated states and non-linear phenomena, as well as zero-magnetic-field Weyl spintronic and optical devices.

We investigate the interplay between self-duality and spatially modulated symmetry of generalized $N$-state clock models, which include the transverse-field Ising model and ordinary $N$-state clock models as special cases. The spatially modulated symmetry of the model becomes trivial when the model's parameters satisfy a specific number-theoretic relation. We find that the duality is non-invertible when the spatially modulated symmetry remains nontrivial, and show that this non-invertibility is resolved by introducing a generalized $\mathbb{Z}_N$ toric code, which manifests ultraviolet/infrared mixing, as the bulk topological order. In this framework, the boundary duality transformation corresponds to the boundary action of a bulk symmetry transformation, with the endpoint of the bulk symmetry defect realizing the boundary duality defect. Our results illuminate not only a holographic perspective on dualities but also a relationship between spatially modulated symmetry and ultraviolet/infrared mixing in one higher dimension.

We introduce a theory of "odd viscodiffusive fluids," which exhibit three-dimensional odd transport phenomena through the coupling of viscous and diffusive transport. In these fluids, diffusive fluxes may arise from orthogonal velocity gradients and, reciprocally, stresses may arise from concentration gradients. We examine microscopic fluctuations using the recently proposed "flux hypothesis" to derive Green-Kubo and reciprocal relations for the governing transport coefficients. These relations suggest that only parity symmetry, and not time-reversal symmetry, must be broken at the microscopic scale to observe these couplings. Chiral liquids, whether passive or active, are therefore a natural choice as viscodiffusive fluids. We then introduce two analytically tractable model systems, namely a generator and a corresponding reciprocal engine, which illustrate the nature of viscodiffusive cross-coupling in chiral matter and enable the experimental measurement of the novel transport coefficients. Finally, we make the case for chiral bacterial suspensions to be odd viscodiffusive fluids, and use our theory to predict the behaviors exhibited in prior experimental microfluidic studies involving bacterial migration in response to shearing flows.

Many systems, classical or quantum, closed or open, exhibit universal statistical properties. Exciton-polariton condensates, being intrinsically driven-dissipative, offer a promising platform for observing non-equilibrium universal features. By conducting extensive numerical simulations of an incoherently pumped and interacting condensate coupled to an exciton reservoir we show that the effective nonlinearity of the condensate phase dynamics can be finely adjusted across a broad range, by varying the exciton-polariton interaction strength, allowing one to probe three main universal regimes with parameters accessible in current experiments: the weakly nonlinear Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) regime, where the phase fluctuations dominate, but the phase profile does not become rough, the strongly non-linear Kardar-Parisi-Zhang regime, where the condensate phase fluctuations grow in a superdiffusive manner leading to roughening of the phase, and a vortex-dominated phase emerging at stronger interactions, where both density and phase dynamics play significant roles. Our results provide a unified picture of the phase diagram of 2d exciton-polariton condensates under incoherent pumping, and shed light on recent experimental and numerical observations.

In mixed quantum states, the notion of symmetry is divided into two types: strong and weak symmetry. While spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for a weak symmetry is detected by two-point correlation functions, SSB for a strong symmetry is characterized by the Renyi-2 correlators. In this work, we present a way to construct various SSB phases for strong symmetries, starting from the ground state phase diagram of lattice gauge theory models. In addition to introducing a new type of mixed-state topological phases, we provide models of the criticalities between them, including those with gapless symmetry-protected topological order. We clarify that the ground states of lattice gauge theories are purified states of the corresponding mixed SSB states. Our construction can be applied to any finite gauge theory and offers a framework to study quantum operations between mixed quantum phases.

Skyrmions, topologically stable magnetic solitons characterized by whirling magnetization in nanoscale magnetic elements, show promise information carriers in spintronics and spin-based quantum computing due to their unique properties: small size, stability, and controllability. In this study, we introduce a novel method of skyrmion generation through domain wall deformation dynamics. Our analytical and micromagnetic simulations demonstrate that domain wall motion exceeding the Walker threshold induces topological deformation of magnetic domain walls exhibiting Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This deformation process catalyzes the emergence of skyrmions from magnetic domain wall structure distortion, specifically through the Anchoring of domain walls due to the vertical Bloch line. We elucidate the underlying mechanism of skyrmion generation, correlating it with topological transitions accompanied by burst energy dissipation through spin-wave radiation. Notably, we present robust skyrmion generation conditions through a comprehensive classification of domain wall distortion, including vertical Bloch line generation and annihilation in magnetic domain wall dynamics within a DMI system. These findings provide noble insights into topological behaviors of spin structures and offer a potential pathway for efficient, controlled skyrmion creation in the next-generation spintronic devices.

We report transport studies on the layered van der Waals topological crystalline insulator Ta$_2$Pd$_3$Te$_5$. The temperature-dependent resistance at high temperature is dominated by a bulk insulating gap and tend to saturate at low temperatures. Low temperature magnetotransport shows that Ta$_2$Pd$_3$Te$_5$ exhibits weak antilocatization (WAL) effect in both perpendicular orientation and parallel orientation, suggesting an contribution of the WAL effect from both topological edge states and bulk states. By measuring the anisotropic magnetoconductance and then subtracting the contribution of bulk states, the WAL effect associated with topological edge states can be revealed and analyzed quantitatively based on the two-dimensional Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. Our results have important implications in understanding the WAL phenomena in Ta$_2$Pd$_3$Te$_5$.

Attaining superconducting critical temperatures (Tc) beyond the limit around 14 K observed thus far in spinel compounds AB2X4 (A, B = transition metals, X = O/chalcogen) could elucidate interaction intricacies and inform materials design. This work spotlights CuIr2S4, which exhibits a distinct metal-insulator transition below 230 K, as an unconventional candidate for activation under high pressure. Through transport, diffraction, and spectroscopy experiments conducted at pressures up to 224 GPa, we unveil pressure-tuning that suppressed CuIr2S's transition, yielding two superconducting phases with an un-precedented Tc for spinels. Initially, 3.8 K onset rose monotonically, reaching 18.2 K at 133 GPa. Unexpectedly, a distinct phase with Tc = 2.2 K distinctly emerged at higher pressures, intimating unconventional couplings. Our findings suggest that both geometric frustration and electron-electron interactions play crucial roles in the superconductivity observed in CuIr2S4. The findings stretch perceived temperature limits in spinels and provide structure-property insights to guide the optimiza-tion of quantum materials interactions for tailored targeted functionalities.

In fluids under temperature gradients, long-range correlations (LRCs) emerge generically, leading to enhanced density fluctuations. This phenomenon, characterized by the $\boldsymbol{q}^{-4}$ divergence in the static structure factor (where $\boldsymbol{q}$ is the wavenumber), has been extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, they remain unexplored in Hamiltonian particle systems using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. This Letter reports the first MD study to provide unambiguous observations of the LRCs. We demonstrate this by three distinct approaches: (1) measuring the static structure factor and directly observing the $\boldsymbol{q}^{-4}$ divergence characterizing the LRCs; (2) detecting the corresponding $\boldsymbol{q}^{-4}$ divergence in the dynamic structure factor; (3) establishing a quantitative agreement between MD results and predictions from fluctuating hydrodynamics, the phenomenological theory that predicts the LRCs. Our findings demonstrate that MD simulations offer a powerful complementary tool to theoretical and experimental investigations of LRCs.

Anomalous transverse transport of electrons such as the anomalous Hall effect and the anomalous Nernst effect provide opportunities to realize advanced spintronic and thermoelectric devices. To materialize these opportunities, it is crucial to strengthen the transverse transport. There have been considerable efforts to find new materials that fulfill this goal. Topological materials received a surge of recent attention in this regard. Here we report a different approach to enhance the transverse transport. Instead of searching for new materials, we propose mixing known materials to form composites. We show theoretically that randomly mixed arrays of two materials can exhibit significantly stronger transverse transport than the constituent materials. This enhancement is experimentally demonstrated for mixtures of crystallized and amorphous ferromagnetic metals. We identify the requirement of this enhancement, which can be satisfied by a wide class of materials. Thus, this scheme provides a universal method to strengthen transverse transport, together with rooms to accommodate various engineering requirements for device applications.

Motivated by a recent pseudo-spin model for monolayer-bilayer phase transitions in silver-based honeycomb layered materials, we propose that the critical pseudo-magnetic fields in such systems correspond to both the infinite-channel Feshbach resonance widths of a (Fermi-Dirac/Bose-Einstein/$\textit{etc}.$) condensate in $2$ dimensions, and equivalently to the Lee-Yang zeros of the Ising model of two pseudo-spins with a partition function corresponding to a class of functions that must include the Xi function, $\Xi(z/2) = \xi(s = 1/2 + iz/2)$. Identifying the quantum-mechanical operator that yields the \textit{discontinuous/random/topological} spectrum of the critical pseudo-magnetic fields in such systems offers a tenable realisation of the Hilbert-P\'{o}lya conjecture.

We study the spin-1/2 XX chain with a modulated Gamma interaction (GI), which results from the superposition of uniform and staggered Gamma terms. We diagonalize the Hamiltonian of the model exactly using the Fermionization technique. We then probe the energy gap and identify the gapped and gapless regions. We also examine the staggered chiral, staggered nematic and dimer order parameters to determine the different phases of the ground state phase diagram with their respective long-range orders. Our findings indicate that the model undergoes first-order, second-order, gapless-gapless, and gapped-gapped phase transitions.

Ferrimagnetic semiconductors, integrated with net magnetization, antiferromagnetic coupling and semi-conductivity, have constructed an ideal platform for spintronics. For practical applications, achieving high N$\acute{e}$el temperatures ($T_{\mathrm{N}}$) is very desirable, but remains a significant challenge. Here, via high-throughput density-functional-theory calculations, we identify 19 intrinsic ferrimagnetic semiconductor candidates from nearly 44,000 structures in the Materials Project database, including 10 ferrimagnetic bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS) and 9 ferrimagnetic half semiconductors (HSC). Notably, the BMS \ce{NaFe5O8} possesses a high $T_{\mathrm{N}}$ of 768 K. By element substitutions, we obtain an HSC \ce{NaFe5S8} with a $T_{\mathrm{N}}$ of 957 K and a BMS \ce{LiFe5O8} with a $T_{\mathrm{N}}$ reaching 1059 K. Our results pave a promising avenue toward the development of ferrimagnetic spintronics at ambient temperature.

In recent years, neural networks have increasingly been employed to identify critical points of phase transitions. For the tricritical directed percolation model, its steady-state configurations encompass both first-order and second-order phase transitions. Due to the presence of crossover effects, identifying the critical points of phase transitions becomes challenging. This study utilizes Monte Carlo simulations to obtain steady-state configurations under different probabilities $p$ and $q$, and by calculating the increments in average particle density, we observe first-order transitions, second-order transitions, and regions where both types of transitions interact.These Monte Carlo-generated steady-state configurations are used as input to construct and train a convolutional neural network, from which we determine the critical points $p_{c}$ for different probabilities $q$. Furthermore, by learning the steady-state configurations associated with the superheated point $p=p_u$, we locate the tricritical point at $q_{t}=0.893$. Simultaneously, we employed a three-output CNN model to obtain the phase transition boundaries and the range of the crossover regions. Our method offers a neural network-based approach to capture critical points and distinguish phase transition boundaries, providing a novel solution to this problem.

The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin-glass model used the replica symmetry method to find the phase transition of the system. In 1979-1980, Parisi proposed a solution based on replica symmetry breaking (RSB), which allowed him to identify the underlying phases of complex systems such as spin-glasses. Regardless of the method used for detection, the intrinsic phase of a system exists whether or not replicas are considered. We introduce a single replica method of spin-glass phase detection using the field's variation experienced by each spin in a system configuration. This method focuses on a single replica with quenched random couplings. Each spin inevitably observes a different field from the others. Our results show that the mean and variance of fields named "Spontaneous Configurational Field" experienced by spins are suitable indicators to explore different ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and mixed phases. To classify different phases of the system with defined indicators we have developed an algorithm based on machine learning to analyze the desired samples.

A set of polar rod-shaped liquid crystalline molecules with large dipole moments (mu > 10.4-14.8 D), their molecular structures based on the ferroelectric nematic prototype DIO, are designed, synthesized, and investigated. When the penultimate fluoro-phenyl ring is replaced by phenylpyrimidine moiety, the molecular dipole moment increases from 9.4 D for DIO to 10.4 D for the new molecule and when the terminal fluoro-group is additionally replaced by the nitrile group, the dipole moment rises to 14.8 D. Such a replacement enhances not only the net dipole moment of the molecule, but it also reduces the steric hindrance to rotations of the moieties within the molecule. The superparaelectric nematic (N) and smectic A (SmA) phases of these compounds are found to exhibit colossal dielectric permittivity, obtained both from dielectric spectroscopy, and capacitance measurements using a simple capacitor divider circuit. The electric polarization is measured vs. the field (E). However, no hysteresis in P vs. E is found in the nematic and smectic A phases. The colossal dielectric permittivity persists over the entire fluidic range. The experimental results lead us to conclude that these materials belong to the class of superparaelectrics (SPE) rather than to ferroelectrics due to the absence hysteresis and linear P vs E dependence. The synthesized organic materials are the first fluids for which superparaelectricity is discovered and furthermore these show great potential for the applications in supercapacitors used in storing energy.

Van der Waals heterogeneous interfaces are promising candidates for the scaling up of structural superlubricity to meet practical applications. Several factors, however, have been identified that may eliminate superlubricity. Elasticity is one such intrinsic factor, where shear induced lattice reconstruction leads to local interfacial pinning, even at clean pristine contacts. Here, through detailed atomistic simulations, we reveal that incomplete moir\'e tile pinning at the corners and edges of finite sliders dominates friction from the nano- to the microscales. We further demonstrate that slider shape tailoring and twisting allow to control energy dissipation and its scaling with contact size, thus opening the way to achieve large-scale superlubricity.

In nonlinear topological physics, Thouless pumping of nonlinear excitations is a central topic, often illustrated by scalar solitons. Vector solitons, with the additional spin degree of freedom, exhibit phenomena absent in scalar solitons due to enriched interplay between nonlinearity and topology. Here, we theoretically investigate Thouless pumping of vector solitons in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate confined in spin-dependent optical superlattices, using both numerical solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Lagrangian variational approach. The spin-up and spin-down components experience superlattice potentials that are displaced by a tunable distance $d_r$, leading to a vector soliton state with a relative shift between its components. We demonstrate that $d_r$, as an independent degree of freedom, offers a novel control parameter for manipulating the nonlinear topological phase transition of vector solitons. Specifically, when $d_r=0$, both components are either pumped or arrested, depending on the interaction strength. When fixing the interaction strength and varying $d_r$, remarkably, we find that an arrested vector soliton can re-enter the pumped regime and exhibits a quantized shift. As $d_r$ continues to increase, the vector soliton transitions into a dynamically arrested state; however, with further increases in $d_r$, the quantized shift revives. Our work paves new routes for engineering nonlinear topological pumping of solitons in spinor systems by utilizing the relative motion degrees of freedom between different spin components.

I consider the fluid-mediated approach of a deformable elastic object ("indenter") to a rigid surface at relatively low velocity. As fluid is squeezed between the tip and the rigid substrate, lubrication pressures develop, which in turn deform the indenter leading edge. I study the influence of the tip geometry over the lubrication pressure distribution. "Low velocity" means that the approach happens slow enough for the body to adapt quasi-statically to the transient viscous pressures triggered in the mediating fluid when squeezed. The salient geometrical simplification is that the indenter shape is axisymmetric, and its height profile goes like $\sim r^n$, $r$ being the radial coordinate measured from the tip and $n$ the exponent that controls the leading edge shape. I inquire if the distribution of pressures induced by the thin lubrication film forming before touchdown corresponds to the pressure distribution predicted by an equivalent "dry" contact mechanics problem. Results show striking resemblance for $n \le 2$ while also partial ability to predict the pressure distribution for $n>2$. Still, the analogy is deemed exceedingly insightful.

The freezing of water is one of the major causes of mechanical damage in materials during wintertime; surprisingly this happens even in situations where water only partially saturates the material so that the ice has room to grow. Here we perform freezing experiments in cylindrical glass vials of various sizes and wettability properties, using a dye that exclusively colors the liquid phase; this allows to precisely observe the freezing front. The visualization reveals that damage occurs in partially water-saturated media when a closed liquid inclusion forms within the ice due to the freezing of air/water meniscus. When this water inclusion subsequently freezes, the volume expansion leads to very high pressures leading to the fracture of both the surrounding ice and the glass vial. The pressure can be understood quantitatively based on thermodynamics which correctly predicts that the crystallization pressure is independent of the volume of the liquid pocket. Finally, our results also reveal that by changing the wetting properties of the confining walls, the formation of the liquid pockets that cause the mechanical damage can be avoided.

In a previous theoretical work [arXiv:2205.01461], T. Esslinger group proposed a scheme to realize a spatial-temporal lattice, which possesses dual periodicity on space and time, in a cavity-boson system pumped by a travelling wave laser. However, the prediction was made under the mean-field approximation. In this work, we investigate the dynamics beyond mean-field approximation. By including the fluctuation of the cavity field, we obtain a larger set of equations of motion. Numerical results show that the spatial-temporal lattice is melted in the mean-field level but survives in the quantum fluctuation.

We compute the current and the noise power matrix in a quantum dot connected to two metallic reservoirs by using the Keldysh field theory approach, a non-equilibrium quantum field theory language in the functional integral formalism. We first show how this technique allows us to recover rapidly and straightforwardly well-known results in literature, such as the Meir-Wingreen formula for the average current, resulting extremely effective in dealing with quantum transport problem. We then discuss in detail the electric and thermoelectric properties due to transport of electrons in the case of a single-level and two-level non-interacting quantum dot. In particular, we derive the optimal conditions for maximizing the thermoelectric current, finding an upper limit for the thermoelectric coefficient. Moreover, in the two-level system we show that the zero-temperature linear conductance drops rapidly to zero by a symmetrical removal of the degeneracy at the Fermi energy.

In this work, we explore the magnetic behavior of diluted spin-ice systems, where magnetic moments are randomly removed at various concentrations. We concentrate on features in which the effect of long range dipolar interactions (usually masked by self-screening in these systems) is made visible by dilution. Our initial focus is on the configurations reached after cooling to low temperatures at zero-field, sweeping the whole density range of impurities. We observe that the missing magnetic moments induce a certain type of local, magnetic charge order. Next, using Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the behavior of the magnetization under an applied magnetic field in the [111] crystallographic direction. The inclusion of dipolar interactions allows to account for the main features observed in previous experimental results. Using the dumbbell model, where magnetic moments are represented as pairs of oppositely charged magnetic monopoles, we are able to understand the qualitative behavior of these curves as we increase doping. Additionally, we use this framework to calculate the critical fields corresponding to the phase transition observed in pure samples, and the characteristic fields appearing at very low doping.

Spatial self-similarity is a hallmark of critical phenomena. We investigate the dynamic process of percolation, in which bonds are incrementally inserted to an empty lattice until fully occupied, and track the gaps describing the changes in cluster sizes. Surprisingly, we find that the gap sizes follow a universal power-law distribution throughout the whole or a significant portion of process, revealing a previously unrecognized temporal self-similarity. This phenomenon appears across various percolation models, like standard, explosive and rigidity percolation. Furthermore, in rigidity percolation, we directly observe a cascading cluster-merging dynamics, triggered by single bond insertion, and further obtain a distinct temporal self-similarity in the number of merged clusters, which are hidden in static analyses. Our results also suggest that, for rigidity percolation, the temporal self-similarity is probably more intrinsic than the spatial one. These findings offer a fresh perspective on critical phenomena and broaden potential applications across complex systems.

Quantum magnetism is one of the most active fields for exploring exotic phases and phase transitions. The recently synthesized Na2BaCo(PO4)2 (NBCP) is an ideal material incarnation of the spin-1/2 easy axis triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF). Experimental evidence shows that NBCP hosts the spin supersolid state with a giant magnetocaloric effect. It was also proposed that the applied magnetic field B can drive the system through Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) and other richer quantum phase transitions. However, the detection of these transitions is challenging because they onset at extremely low temperature T at around 60 mK, and the measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of these transitions requires high sensitivity. With the help of our newly developed gradient force magnetometer in a dilution refrigerator, we constructed the contour diagram of the magnetic susceptibility in the B-T phase diagram in T as cold as 30 mK. These results provide a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of the several field-tunable quantum phase transitions and BKT melting of the spin supersolidity, which are especially significant when their giant magnetocaloric effects highlight potential applications for sub-Kelvin refrigeration under concerns about global helium shortages.

h-BCN is an intriguing material system where the bandgap varies considerably depending on the atomic configuration, even at a fixed composition. Exploring stable atomic configurations in this system is crucial for discussing the energetic formability and controllability of desirable configurations. In this study, this challenge is tackled by combining first-principles calculations with Bayesian optimization. An encoding method that represents the configurations as vectors, while incorporating information about the local atomic environments, is proposed for the search. Although the optimization did not function with the conventional one-hot encoding that had been effective in other material systems, the proposed encoding proved efficient in the search. As a result, two interesting semiconductor configurations were discovered. These configurations exhibit qualitatively similar patterns to conventional models, and one of the two is more stable than the conventional ones with the same periodicity. Furthermore, the optimization behavior is discussed through principal component analysis, confirming that the ordered BN network and the C configuration features are well embedded in the search space. The proposed encoding method, which is easy to implement, is expected to expand the applicability of atomic configuration search using Bayesian optimization to a broader range of material systems.

Machine-learned potentials (MLPs) have been extensively used to obtain the lattice thermal conductivity via atomistic simulations. However, the impact of force errors in various MLPs on thermal transport has not been widely recognized and remains to be fully understood. Here, we employ MLP-driven molecular dynamics (MD) and anharmonic lattice dynamics (LD) to systematically investigate how the calculated thermal conductivity varies with the force errors, using boron arsenide as a prototypical material. We consistently observe an underestimation of thermal conductivity in MD simulations with three different MLPs including the neuroevolution potential, deep potential, and moment tensor potential. We provide a robust extrapolation scheme based on controlled force noises via the Langevin thermostat to correct this underestimation. The corrected results achieve a good agreement with previous experimental measurement from 200 K to 600 K. In contrast, the thermal conductivity values from LD calculations with MLPs readily align with the experimental data, which is attributed to the much smaller effects of the force errors on the force-constant calculations.

We present a comprehensive first-principles analysis of the thermoelectric transport properties of hole-doped pyrite FeS$_2$ that includes electron-phonon interactions. This work was motivated by the observed variations in the magnitude of thermopower reported in previous experimental and theoretical studies of hole-doped FeS$_2$ systems. Our calculations reveal that hole-doped FeS$_2$ exhibits large positive room-temperature thermopower across all doping levels, with a room-temperature thermopower of 608 $\mu$V/K at a low hole-doping concentration of 10$^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$. This promising thermopower finding prompted a comprehensive investigation of other key thermoelectric parameters governing the thermoelectric figure of merit $ZT$. The calculated electrical conductivity is modest and remains below 10$^5$ S/m at room-temperature for all doping levels, limiting the achievable power factor. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity is found to be phonon driven, with a high room-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of 40.5 W/mK. Consequently, the calculated $ZT$ remains below 0.1, suggesting that hole-doped FeS$_2$ may not a viable candidate for effective thermoelectric applications despite its promising thermopower.

We present a comprehensive study of the structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties, as well as the adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration (ADR) performance of NaGdP$_2$O$_7$. Although NaGdP$_2$O$_7$ exhibits antiferromagnetic ordering at a N\'eel temperature of $T_{\rm N} = 570$ mK in zero field, ADR experiments achieved a minimum temperature of 220 mK starting from $T = 2$ K under an applied magnetic field of $\mu_0H = 5$ T. The warm-up time back to $T = 2$ K exceeds 60 hours, which is roughly 50 times longer than that of its Yb-based analogue, underscoring the potential of NaGdP$_2$O$_7$ as an efficient precooling stage in double-stage ADR systems. We show that NaGdP$_2$O$_7$ can be seen as a network of ferromagnetic spin chains with antiferromagnetic interchain couplings and also investigate the influence of antiferromagnetic ordering on the magnetic entropy. We find that the temperature dependence of the entropy plays a more dominant role than its magnetic field dependence in the magnetically ordered state.

We study effects of $q$-order antinematic (AN$_q$) interactions on the critical behavior of the antiferromagnetic (AF) $XY$ model on a square lattice. It is found that the evolution of the phase diagram topology of such AF-AN$_q$ models with the parameter $q$ does not follow the same line as for the corresponding FM-N$_q$ models with the ferromagnetic (FM) and $q$-order nematic (N$_q$) interactions. Their phase diagrams are similar only for odd values of the parameter $q$. In such cases the respective phases reported in the FM-N$_q$ models are observed in the AF-AN$_q$ models on each of the two AF-coupled sublattices and the corresponding phase transitions are concluded to be of the same kind. On the other hand, for even values of $q$ the phase diagrams of the AF-AN$_q$ models are different from the FM-N$_q$ models and their topology does not change with $q$. Besides the pure AF and AN$_q$ phases, observed at higher temperatures in the regions of the dominant respective couplings, at low temperatures there is a new canted (C)AF phase, which results from the competition between the AF and AN$_q$ ordering tendencies and has no counterpart in the FM-N$_q$ model. The phase transitions to the CAF phase from both AF and AN$_q$ phases appear to be of the BKT nature.

The quantum mechanics of three interacting particles gives rise to interesting universal phenomena, such as the staircase of Efimov trimers predicted in the context of nuclear physics and observed in ultracold gases. Here, we observe a novel type of halo trimer using radiofrequency spectroscopy in an ultracold mixture of $^{23}$Na and $^{40}$K atoms. The trimers consist of two light bosons and one heavy fermion, and have the structure of a Feshbach dimer weakly bound to one additional boson. We find that the trimer peak closely follows the dimer resonance over the entire range of explored interaction strengths across an order of magnitude variation of the dimer energy, as reproduced by our theoretical analysis. The presence of this halo trimer is of direct relevance for many-body physics in ultracold mixtures and the association of ultracold molecules.

As implemented in the commercialized device modeling software, the four-state nonradiative multi-phonon model has attracted intensive attention in the past decade for describing the physics in negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) and other reliability issues of Si/SiO$_\text{2}$ MOSFET devices. It was proposed initially based on the assumption that the oxygen vacancy defects (V$_\text{O}$) in SiO$_\text{2}$ dielectric layer are bistable in the Si-dimer and back-projected structures during carrier capture and emission. Through high-throughput first-principles structural search, we found V$_\text{O}$ on non-equivalent O sites in amorphous SiO$_\text{2}$ can take 4 types of structural configurations in neutral state and 7 types of configurations in +1 charged state after capturing holes, which produce a wide range of charge-state transition levels for trapping holes. The finding contrasts the structural-bistability assumption and makes the four-state model invalid for most of O sites. To describe the reliability physics accurately, we propose an all-state model to consider all these structural configurations as well as all the carrier capture/emission transitions and thermal transitions between them. With the all-state model, we show that the V$_\text{O}$ defects play important roles in causing NBTI, which challenges the recent studies that discarded V$_\text{O}$ as a possible hole trap in NBTI. Our systematical calculations on the diversified V$_\text{O}$ properties and the all-state model provide the microscopic foundation for describing the reliability physics of MOSFETs and other transistors accurately.

In transition metal dichalcogenides a plethora of emergent states arise from competing electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. Among these, the non-volatile metallic 'hidden' state of 1T-TaS2 can be induced from its insulating equilibrium charge-density wave ground state using either optical or electrical pulses. Here we report in-operando micro-beam X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, and concurrent transport measurements, allowing us to spatially image the non-thermal hidden state induced by electrical switching of a 1T-TaS2 device. Our findings reveal that the electrically and optically switched hidden states are structurally equivalent. Additionally, we observe a bulk switching channel extending beyond the intergap space to partially underneath the electrodes, suggesting that the non-equilibrium phase is caused by a combination of charge flow and lattice response. Besides identifying strain propagation as an important factor for non-thermal switching of layered materials, our results illustrate the power of non-destructive, three-dimensional X-ray imaging for studying phase-change materials and devices.

The notion of duality -- that a given physical system can have two different mathematical descriptions -- is a key idea in modern theoretical physics. Establishing a duality in lattice statistical mechanics models requires the construction of a dual Hamiltonian and a map from the original to the dual observables. By using simple neural networks to parameterize these maps and introducing a loss function that penalises the difference between correlation functions in original and dual models, we formulate the process of duality discovery as an optimization problem. We numerically solve this problem and show that our framework can rediscover the celebrated Kramers-Wannier duality for the 2d Ising model, reconstructing the known mapping of temperatures. We also discuss an alternative approach which uses known features of the mapping of topological lines to reduce the problem to optimizing the couplings in a dual Hamiltonian, and explore next-to-nearest neighbour deformations of the 2d Ising duality. We discuss future directions and prospects for discovering new dualities within this framework.

We apply density functional theory to explore the magnetoelectric (ME) properties of two-dimensional $\mathrm{Nb}_3\mathrm{(Cl,Br,I)}_8$. These compounds have recently been proposed to exhibit coupled ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order leading to a switchable anomalous valley Hall effect (AVHE). Using both spin-spiral and self-consistent spin-orbit coupled calculations, we predict an in-plane $120^\circ$ cycloid of trimerized spins as the ground state for $\mathrm{Nb}_3\mathrm{Cl}_8$. For $\mathrm{Nb}_3\mathrm{Br}_8$ and $\mathrm{Nb}_3\mathrm{I}_8$ we find long period incommensurate helical order. We calculate a number of magnetic properties such as the exchange constants, orbital magnetization, and Curie-Weiss transition temperatures, which are in good agreement with experimental values for the bulk compounds. It is then shown that, despite having both broken inversion and time-reversal symmetry, the proposed AVHE and linear ME response are forbidden by the presence of helical order in the ground state. In addition, the computed switching trajectory demonstrates that it is unlikely that the polar state of the monolayers can be switched with a homogeneous electric field due to an unusual equation of state of the out-of-plane dipole moment. Nevertheless, we highlight that in the presence of a strong electric field, the trimerized spins in $\mathrm{Nb}_3\mathrm{Cl}_8$ will exhibit a magnetic phase transition from the $120^\circ$ cycloid to out-of-plane ferromagnetic order, which restores the symmetry required for both AVHE and linear ME effects.

Kagome superconductors AV$_{3}$Sb$_{5}$ provide a unique platform for studying the interplay between a variety of electronic orders, including superconductivity, charge density waves, nematic phases and more. Understanding the evolution of the electronic state from the charge density wave to the superconducting transition is essential for unraveling the interplay of charge, spin, and lattice degrees of freedom giving rise to the unusual magnetic properties of these nonmagnetic metals. Previous zero-field and high-field $\mu$SR studies revealed two anomalies in the muon spin relaxation rate, a first change at $T_{CDW} \sim 100$ K and a second steep increase at $T^{*}\sim 40$ K, further enhanced by an applied magnetic field, thus suggesting a contribution of magnetic origin. In this study, we use the avoided level crossing $\mu$SR technique to investigate charge order in near-zero applied field. By tracking the temperature dependence of quadrupolar level-crossing resonances, we examined the evolution of the electric field gradient at V nuclei in the kagome plane. Our results show a significant rearrangement of the charge density starting at $T^{*}$ indicating a transition in the charge distribution, likely electronic in origin, well below $T_{CDW}$. These findings, combined with previous $\mu$SR, STM, and NMR studies, emphasize the intertwined nature of proximate phases in these systems, with the charge rearrangement dominating the additional increase in $\mu$SR relaxation rate below $T^{*}$.

Rare-earth diantimonides display intriguing ground states often associated with structural order, which can be manipulated in thin film geometries. In this study, we report epitaxial synthesis of one such compound, YbSb$_{2}$, on III-V substrates using molecular-beam epitaxy. The synthesized thin films exhibit large, non-saturating, linear magnetoresistance across a wide magnetic field range. Additionally, they demonstrate superconducting properties, with a critical temperature of $\approx$ 1.025 K and a critical field of $\approx$ 83.85 Oe, consistent with the reports in bulk single crystals. While YbSb$_{2}$ has been classified as a Type-I superconductor in its bulk form, our findings provide evidence of a mixed state in the epitaxial thin films. This work paves the way for controlling the electronic ground state in this class of materials through thin film engineering.

Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of fluid flow have highlighted the peculiarities of nanoscale flows compared to classical fluid mechanics. In particular, boundary conditions can deviate from the no-slip behavior at macroscopic scales due to various factors. In this context, we investigate the influence of surface morphology in slit-shaped nanopores on the fluid flow. We demonstrate that the surface morphology effectively controls the slip length, which approaches zero when the molecular structures of the pore wall and the fluid are matched. Using boundary-driven, energy-conserving NEMD simulations with a pump-like driving mechanism, we examine two types of pore walls--mimicking a crystalline and an amorphous material--that exhibit markedly different surface resistances to flow. The resulting flow velocity profiles are consistent with Hagen-Poiseuille theory for incompressible, Newtonian fluids when adjusted for surface slip. For the two pores, we observe partial slip and no-slip behavior, respectively, which correlate with fluid layering and depletion near the surfaces. However, the confinement of the fluid gives rise to an effective viscosity that varies substantially with the pore width. Analysis of the hydrodynamic permeability shows that the simulated flows are in the Darcy regime. Additionally, the thermal isolation of the flow causes a linear increase in fluid temperature along the flow, which we relate to strong viscous dissipation and heat convection, utilizing conservation laws of fluid mechanics. Our findings underscore the need for molecular-scale modeling to accurately capture the fluid dynamics near boundaries and in nanoporous materials, where macroscopic models may not be applicable.

The recent discovery of superconductivity in infinite-layer (IL, ABO$_2$) nickelates has opened a new avenue to deepen the understanding of high-temperature superconductivity. However, progress in this field is slowed by significant challenges in material synthesis and the scarcity of research groups capable of producing high quality superconducting samples. IL nickelates are obtained from a reduction of the perovskite ABO$_3$ phase, typically achieved by annealing using CaH$_2$ as a reducing agent. Here, we present a new method to synthesize superconducting infinite-layer nickelate Pr$_{0.8}$Sr$_{0.2}$NiO$_2$ thin films using an aluminum overlayer deposited by sputtering as a reducing agent. We systematically optimized the aluminum deposition parameters and obtained superconducting samples reduced either in situ or ex situ (after air exposure of the precursor ABO$_3$ films). A comparison of their crystalline quality and transport properties shows that in situ Al reduction enhances the quality of the superconducting Pr$_{0.8}$Sr$_{0.2}$NiO$_2$ thin films, achieving a maximum superconducting transition temperature $T_{c}^{onset}$ of 17 K, in agreement with the optimum value reported for this compound. This simple synthesis route, much more accessible than existing methods, offers better control and reproducibility over the topotactic transformation, opening new opportunities to gain insights into the physics of superconductivity in nickelates.

We provide a complete classification of the integrability and nonintegrability of the spin-1 bilinear-biquadratic model with a uniaxial anisotropic field, which includes the Heisenberg model and the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model. It is rigorously shown that all systems, except for the known integrable systems, are nonintegrable, meaning that they do not have nontrivial local conserved quantities. In particular, this result guarantees the nonintegrability of the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki model, which is a fundamental assumption for quantum many-body scarring. Furthermore, we give simple necessary conditions for integrability in an extended model of the bilinear-biquadratic model with anisotropic interactions. Our result has accomplished a breakthrough in nonintegrability proofs by expanding their scope to spin-1 systems.

In the late 1950's, Eshelby's linear solutions for the deformation field inside an ellipsoidal inclusion and, subsequently, the infinite matrix in which it is embedded were published. The solutions' ability to capture the behavior of an orthotropically symmetric shaped inclusion made it invaluable in efforts to understand the behavior of defects within, and the micromechanics of, metals and other stiff materials throughout the rest of the 20th century. Over half a century later, we wish to understand the analogous effects of microstructure on the behavior of soft materials; both organic and synthetic; but in order to do so, we must venture beyond the linear limit, far into the nonlinear regime. However, no solutions to these analogous problems currently exist for non-spherical inclusions. In this work, we present an accurate semi-inverse solution for the elastic field in an isotropically growing spheroidal inclusion embedded in an infinite matrix, both made of the same incompressible neo-Hookean material. We also investigate the behavior of such an inclusion as it grows infinitely large, demonstrating the existence of a non-spherical asymptotic shape and an associated asymptotic pressure. We call this the isomorphic limit, and the associated pressure the isomorphic pressure.

The electronic band structure, describing the periodic dependence of electronic quantum states on lattice momentum in reciprocal space, is a fundamental concept in solid-state physics. However, it's only well-defined for static nuclei. To account for thermodynamic effects, this concept must be generalized by introducing the temperature-dependent spectral function, which characterizes the finite-width distributions of electronic quantum states at each reciprocal vector. Many-body perturbation theory can compute spectral functions and associated observables, but it approximates the dynamics of nuclei and its coupling to the electrons using the harmonic approximation and linear-order electron-phonon coupling elements, respectively. These approximations may fail at elevated temperatures or for mobile atoms. To avoid inaccuracies, the electronic spectral function can be obtained non-perturbatively, capturing higher-order couplings between electrons and vibrational degrees of freedom. This process involves recovering the representation of supercell bands in the first Brillouin zone of the primitive cell, a process known as unfolding. In this contribution, we describe the implementation of the band-structure unfolding technique in the electronic-structure theory package FHI-aims and the updates made since its original development.

We study a quantum system that consists of two fermionic chains coupled by a driven quantum point contact (QPC). The QPC contains a bond with a periodically varying tunneling amplitude. Initially the left chain is packed with fermions while the right one is empty. We numerically track the evolution of the system and demonstrate that, at frequencies above a critical one, the current through the QPC halts, and the particle imbalance between the chains remains forever. This implies a spectacular breakdown of the Floquet version of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis which predicts a homogeneous particle density profile at large times. We confirm the effect for various driving protocols and interparticle interactions.

We explore the states of matter arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of $\mathbb{Z}_2$ non-onsite symmetries. In one spatial dimension, we construct a frustration-free lattice model exhibiting SSB of a non-onsite symmetry, which features the coexistence of two ground states with distinct symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders. We analytically prove the two-fold ground-state degeneracy and the existence of a finite energy gap. Fixing the symmetry sector yields a long-range entangled ground state that features long-range correlations among non-invertible charged operators. We also present a constant-depth measurement-feedback protocol to prepare such a state with a constant success probability in the thermodynamic limit, which may be of independent interest. Under a symmetric deformation, the SSB persists up to a critical point, beyond which a gapless phase characterized by a conformal field theory emerges. In two spatial dimensions, the SSB of 1-form non-onsite symmetries leads to a long-range entangled state (SPT soup) - a condensate of 1d SPT along any closed loops. On a torus, there are four such locally indistinguishable states that exhibit algebraic correlations between local operators, which we derived via a mapping to the critical $O(2)$ loop model. This provides an intriguing example of `topological quantum criticality'. Our work reveals the exotic features of SSB of non-onsite symmetries, which may lie beyond the framework of topological holography (SymTFT).

The enumeration of polymer coverings on two-dimensional rectangular lattices is considered as "intractable". We prove that the number of coverings of $s$ polymer satisfies a simple recurrence relation $ \sum_{i=0}^{2s} (-1)^i \binom{2s}{i} a_{n-i, m-i} = 2^s {(2s)!} / {s!} $ on a $n \times m$ rectangular lattice with open boundary conditions in both directions.

While many statistical properties of deep random quantum circuits can be deduced, often rigorously and other times heuristically, by an approximation to global Haar-random unitaries, the statistics of constant-depth random quantum circuits are generally less well-understood due to a lack of amenable tools and techniques. We circumvent this barrier by considering a related constant-time Brownian circuit model which shares many similarities with constant-depth random quantum circuits but crucially allows for direct calculations of higher order moments of its output distribution. Using mean-field (large-n) techniques, we fully characterize the output distributions of Brownian circuits at shallow depths and show that they follow a Porter-Thomas distribution, just like in the case of deep circuits, but with a truncated Hilbert space. The access to higher order moments allows for studying the expected and typical Linear Cross-entropy (XEB) benchmark scores achieved by an ideal quantum computer versus the state-of-the-art classical spoofers for shallow Brownian circuits. We discover that for these circuits, while the quantum computer typically scores within a constant factor of the expected value, the classical spoofer suffers from an exponentially larger variance. Numerical evidence suggests that the same phenomenon also occurs in constant-depth discrete random quantum circuits, like those defined over the all-to-all architecture. We conjecture that the same phenomenon is also true for random brickwork circuits in high enough spatial dimension.

Creating and manipulating anyons and symmetry defects in topological phases, especially those with a non-Abelian character, constitutes a primitive for topological quantum computation. We provide a physical protocol for implementing the ribbon operators of non-Abelian anyons and symmetry defects. We utilize dualities, in particular the Kramers-Wannier or gauging map, which have previously been used to construct topologically ordered ground states by relating them to simpler states. In this work, ribbon operators are implemented by applying a gauging procedure to a lower-dimensional region of such states. This protocol uses sequential unitary circuits or, in certain cases, constant-depth adaptive circuits. We showcase this for anyons and defects in the $\mathbb{Z}_3$ toric code and $S_3$ quantum double. The general applicability of our method is demonstrated by deriving unitary expressions for ribbon operators of various (twisted) quantum doubles.

The development of programmable quantum devices can be measured by the complexity of manybody states that they are able to prepare. Among the most significant are topologically ordered states of matter, which enable robust quantum information storage and processing. While topological orders are more readily accessible with qudits, experimental realisations have thus far been limited to lattice models of qubits. Here, we prepare a ground state of the Z3 toric code state on 24 qutrits in a trapped ion quantum processor with fidelity per qutrit exceeding 96.5(3)%. We manipulate two types of defects which go beyond the conventional qubit toric code: a parafermion, and its bound state which is related to charge conjugation symmetry. We further demonstrate defect fusion and the transfer of entanglement between anyons and defects, which we use to control topological qutrits. Our work opens up the space of long-range entangled states with qudit degrees of freedom for use in quantum simulation and universal error-correcting codes.

Dynamical quantum systems both driven by unitary evolutions and monitored through measurements have proved to be fertile ground for exploring new dynamical quantum matters. While the entanglement structure and symmetry properties of monitored systems have been intensively studied, the role of topology in monitored dynamics is much less explored. In this work, we investigate novel topological phenomena in the monitored dynamics through the lens of free-fermion systems. Free-fermion monitored dynamics were previously shown to be unified with the Anderson localization problem under the Altland-Zirnbauer symmetry classification. Guided by this unification, we identify the topological area-law-entangled phases in the former setting through the topological classification of disordered insulators and superconductors in the latter. As examples, we focus on 1+1D free-fermion monitored dynamics in two symmetry classes, DIII and A. We construct quantum circuit models to study different topological area-law phases and their domain walls in the respective symmetry classes. We find that the domain wall between topologically distinct area-law phases hosts dynamical topological modes whose entanglement is protected from being quenched by the measurements in the monitored dynamics. We demonstrate how to manipulate these topological modes by programming the domain-wall dynamics. In particular, for topological modes in class DIII, which behave as unmeasured Majorana modes, we devise a protocol to braid them and study the entanglement generated in the braiding process.

Organisms often swim through fluids that are spatially inhomogeneous. If the fluids are polymeric, gradients in polymer concentration may lead to gradients in both fluid viscosity and elasticity. In this letter, we present theoretical results for the dynamics of active particles, biological or otherwise, swimming through spatially inhomogeneous viscoelastic fluids. We model the active particles using the squirmer model, and show that spatial variations in fluid relaxation time lead to a novel mechanism for reorientation and taxis in viscoelastic fluids, which we refer to as a form of durotaxis in fluids.

We investigate the time evolution generated by the two-sided chord Hamiltonian in the double-scaled SYK model, which produces a probability distribution over operators in the double-scaled algebra. Via the bulk-to-boundary map, this distribution translates into dynamic profiles of bulk states within the chord Hilbert space. We derive analytic expressions for these states, valid across a wide parameter range and at all time scales. Additionally, we show how distinct semi-classical behaviors emerge by localizing within specific regions of the energy spectrum in the semi-classical limit. We reformulate the doubled Hilbert space formalism as an isometric map between the one-particle sector of the chord Hilbert space and the doubled zero-particle sector. Using this map, we obtain analytic results for correlation functions and examine the dynamical properties of operator Krylov complexity for chords, establishing an equivalence between the chord number generating function and the crossed four-point correlation function. We also consider finite-temperature effects, showing how operator spreading slows as temperature decreases. In the semi-classical limit, we apply a saddle point analysis and include the one-loop determinant to derive the normalized time-ordered four-point correlation function. The leading correction mirrors the \(1/N\) connected contribution observed in the large-\(p\) SYK model at infinite temperature. Finally, we analyze the time evolution of operator Krylov complexity for a matter chord in the triple-scaled regime, linking it to the renormalized two-sided length in JT gravity with matter.

Inspired by its central role in many biological processes, the transport of biopolymers across nanoscale pores is at the heart of a single-molecule sensing technology aimed at nucleic acid and protein sequencing, as well as biomarker detection. When electrophoretically driven through a pore by an electric potential gradient, a translocating polymer hinders the flow of ions, producing a transient current blockage signature that can be mapped to physicochemical properties of the polymer. Although investigated theoretically and by simulations, few experimental studies have attempted to validate the predicted transport properties, mainly due to the complex nature of the non-equilibrium translocation process. Here, we elucidate these fundamental concepts by constructing a patterned DNA nanostructure whose current signatures allow measurement of the instantaneous velocity throughout the translocation process. With simple physical insights from polymer and fluid dynamics, we show how the resulting molecular velocity profiles can be used to investigate the nanoscale forces at play and their dependence on experimental parameters such as polymer length, pore size and voltage. These results allow testing of theoretical models and outline their limitations. In addition to bridging experiment and theory, knowledge of the velocity fluctuation and force scaling during passage can assist researchers in designing nanopore experiments with optimized sensing performance.

Chiral matter exhibits unique electromagnetic responses due to the macroscopic manifestation of the chiral anomaly as anomalous transport currents. Here, we study the modification of electromagnetic radiation in isotropic chiral matter characterized by an axion coupling that varies linearly over time $\theta(t) = b_0 t$. Using Carroll-Field-Jackiw electrodynamics, we derive the causal Green's function to investigate the stability and radiation properties of the system. Even though the plane-wave modes of isotropic chiral matter exhibit imaginary frequencies for long wavelengths, which might suggest instability in the system, we show that their contribution is confined to the near-field region. Also we find no exponentially growing fields at arbitrarily large times, so that stability is preserved. Under these conditions the radiation yields a positive energy flux, although this is not an inherent property of the general definition. In the case of a fast-moving charge, we confirm the existence of vacuum Cherenkov radiation and show that, for refractive indices $n > 1$, the Cherenkov cone can split into two concentric cones with opposite circular polarizations. This split, governed by the speed of the particle $v$, $n$ and $b_0$, resembles the optical spin-Hall effect and offers potential applications for creating circularly polarized terahertz (THz) light sources. Our Green's function approach provides a general method for analyzing radiation in chiral matter, from Weyl semimetals to quark-gluon plasmas, and can be extended to systems such as oscillating dipoles and accelerated charges.

Discovering new solid-state materials requires rapidly exploring the vast space of crystal structures and locating stable regions. Generating stable materials with desired properties and compositions is extremely difficult as we search for very small isolated pockets in the exponentially many possibilities, considering elements from the periodic table and their 3D arrangements in crystal lattices. Materials discovery necessitates both optimized solution structures and diversity in the generated material structures. Existing methods struggle to explore large material spaces and generate diverse samples with desired properties and requirements. We propose the Symmetry-aware Hierarchical Architecture for Flow-based Traversal (SHAFT), a novel generative model employing a hierarchical exploration strategy to efficiently exploit the symmetry of the materials space to generate crystal structures given desired properties. In particular, our model decomposes the exponentially large materials space into a hierarchy of subspaces consisting of symmetric space groups, lattice parameters, and atoms. We demonstrate that SHAFT significantly outperforms state-of-the-art iterative generative methods, such as Generative Flow Networks (GFlowNets) and Crystal Diffusion Variational AutoEncoders (CDVAE), in crystal structure generation tasks, achieving higher validity, diversity, and stability of generated structures optimized for target properties and requirements.

Characterizing the entanglement structure of ground states of local Hamiltonians is a fundamental problem in quantum information. In this work we study the computational complexity of this problem, given the Hamiltonian as input. Our main result is that to show it is cryptographically hard to determine if the ground state of a geometrically local, polynomially gapped Hamiltonian on qudits ($d=O(1)$) has near-area law vs near-volume law entanglement. This improves prior work of Bouland et al. (arXiv:2311.12017) showing this for non-geometrically local Hamiltonians. In particular we show this problem is roughly factoring-hard in 1D, and LWE-hard in 2D. Our proof works by constructing a novel form of public-key pseudo-entanglement which is highly space-efficient, and combining this with a modification of Gottesman and Irani's quantum Turing machine to Hamiltonian construction. Our work suggests that the problem of learning so-called "gapless" quantum phases of matter might be intractable.

Protein MJ0366 is a hypothetical protein from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii that has a rare and complex knot in its structure. The knot is a right-handed trefoil knot that involves about half of the protein's residues. In this article, we investigate the thermal stability of protein MJ0366 using numerical simulations based on molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods. We compare the results with those of a similar unknotted protein and analyze the effects of the knot on the folding and unfolding processes. We show that the knot in protein MJ0366 increases its thermal stability by creating a topological barrier that prevents the protein from unfolding at high temperatures. We also discuss the possible biological implications of the knot for the function and evolution of protein MJ0366.

Preparing encoded logical states is the first step in a fault-tolerant quantum computation. Standard approaches based on concatenation or repeated measurement incur a significant time overhead. The Raussendorf-Bravyi-Harrington cluster state offers an alternative: a single-shot preparation of encoded states of the surface code, by means of a constant depth quantum circuit, followed by a single round of measurement and classical feedforward. In this work we generalize this approach and prove that single-shot logical state preparation can be achieved for arbitrary quantum LDPC codes. Our proof relies on a minimum-weight decoder and is based on a generalization of Gottesman's clustering-of-errors argument. As an application, we also prove single-shot preparation of the encoded GHZ state in arbitrary quantum LDPC codes. This shows that adaptive noisy constant depth quantum circuits are capable of generating generic robust long-range entanglement.

Finding reliable approximations to the quantum many-body problem is one of the central challenges of modern physics. Elemental to this endeavor is the development of advanced numerical techniques pushing the limits of what is tractable. One such recently proposed numerical technique are neural quantum states. This new type of wavefunction based Ans\"atze utilizes the expressivity of neural networks to tackle fundamentally challenging problems, such as the Mott transition. In this paper we aim to gauge the universalness of one representative of neural network Ans\"atze, the hidden-fermion slater determinant approach. To this end, we study five different fermionic models each displaying volume law scaling of the entanglement entropy. For these, we correlate the effectiveness of the Ansatz with different complexity measures. Each measure indicates a different complexity in the absence of which a conventional Ansatz becomes efficient. We provide evidence that whenever one of the measures indicates proximity to a parameter region in which a conventional approach would work reliable, the neural network approach also works reliable and efficient. This highlights the great potential, but also challenges for neural network approaches: Finding suitable points in theory space around which to construct the Ansatz in order to be able to efficiently treat models unsuitable for their current designs.

We investigate the performance of state-of-the-art spintronic THz emitters (W or Ta)/CoFeB/Pt with non-magnetic underlayer deposited using oblique angle deposition. The THz emission amplitude in the presence or absence of an external magnetic field remains the same and remarkably stable over time. This stability is attributed to the enhanced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic layer, achieved by oblique angle deposition of the underlying non-magnetic layer. Our findings could be used for the development of practical field-free emitters of linearly polarized THz radiation, potentially enabling novel applications in future THz technologies.

We show that the Aharonov-Casher phase is a geometric phase that depends on the details of the path taken by a particle having a magnetic moment that is subjected to an electric field. Consequently, it is not a topological phase. The proof of this assertion is obtained by developing a counterexample that illustrates the dependence of the AC phase on the specifics of the path.

We study the quantum dynamics of the encoding scheme proposed in [Nguyen et al., PRX Quantum 4, 010316 (2023)], which encodes optimization problems on graphs with arbitrary connectivity into Rydberg atom arrays. Here, a graph vertex is represented by a wire of atoms, and the (crossing) crossing-with-edge gadget is placed at the intersection of two wires to (de)couple their degrees of freedom and reproduce the graph connectivity. We consider the fundamental geometry of two vertex-wires intersecting via a single gadget and look at minimum gap scaling with system size along adiabatic protocols. We find that both polynomial and exponential scaling are possible and, by means of perturbation theory, we relate the exponential closing of the minimum gap to an unfavorable localization of the ground-state wavefunction. Then, on the QuEra Aquila neutral atom machine, we observe such localization and its effect on the success probability of finding the correct solution to the encoded optimization problem. Finally, we propose possible strategies to avoid this quantum bottleneck, leading to an exponential improvement in the adiabatic performance.

Floquet systems are periodically driven systems. In this framework, the system Hamiltonian and associated spectra of interest are modified, giving rise to new quantum phases of matter and nonequilibrium dynamics without static counterparts. Here we experimentally demonstrate a self-induced Floquet system in the interacting Rydberg gas. This originates from the motion of photoionized charge particles in a static magnetic field. Importantly, by leveraging the Rydberg electomagnetically induced transparency spectrum, we probe the nonequilibrium dynamics in the bistable regime, where the strong Rydberg atom interaction competes with the internal driving from flying charges, and identify the emergence of a discrete time crystalline phase. Our work fills the experimental gap in the understanding the relation of multistability and dissipative discrete time crystalline phase. In this regard, it constitutes a highly controlled platform for exploring exotic nonequilibrium physics in dissipative interacting systems.

Natural and anomalous diffusion are widely observed and used to explore causes and consequences of movement across organisms, resulting in extensive use of the mean and mean-squared displacement (MSD). Using high-resolution data from over 70 million localizations of young and adult free-ranging Barn Owls (\textit{Tyto alba}), we demonstrate the necessity of a broad spectrum of displacement moments to characterize bird movement across scales. The mean and MSD -- interchangeable with moments $q=1$ and 2 -- are insufficient special cases. We reveal empirical strong anomalous diffusion as a nonlinear growth of displacement moments according to $\left<|x(t)|^q\right> \sim t^{\lambda(q)}$. The moment spectrum function $\lambda(q)$ displays piecewise linearity with a critical moment marking the crossover point between two scaling regimes, linked to a combination of age-specific behavioral modes. A critical timescale of five minutes marks an unexpected transition from a convex $\lambda_s(q)$ to a concave $\lambda_\ell(q)$, related to environmental and behavioral constraints. Using two stochastic models of varying ecological complexity, we demonstrate that strong anomalous diffusion may be widespread in animal movement, underscoring the importance of expanding analysis beyond the average and MSD.

Symmetry is one of the most significant foundational principles underlying nature. The resource theory of asymmetry (RTA) is a resource-theoretic framework for investigating asymmetry as a resource to break constraints imposed by symmetries. It has recently undergone significant developments, resulting in applications in a variety of research areas since symmetry and its breaking are ubiquitous in physics. Nevertheless, the resource conversion theory at the core of RTA remains incomplete. In the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) setup, where identical copies of a state are converted to identical copies of another state, conversion theory among pure states has been completed only for $U(1)$ group and finite groups. Here, we establish an i.i.d. conversion theory among any pure states in RTA for any continuous symmetry described by a compact Lie group, which includes the cases where multiple conserved quantities are involved. We show that the quantum geometric tensor is an asymmetry monotone for pure states that determines the optimal approximate asymptotic conversion rate. Our formulation achieves a unified understanding of conversion rates in prior studies for different symmetries. As a corollary of the formula, we also affirmatively prove the Marvian-Spekkens conjecture on reversible asymptotic convertibility in RTA, which has remained unproven for a decade.

Charge transfer (CT) processes that are electronically non-adiabatic are ubiquitous in chemistry, biology, and materials science, but their theoretical description requires diabatic states or adiabatic excited states. For complex systems, these latter states are more difficult to calculate than the adiabatic ground state. Here, we propose a simple method to obtain diabatic states, including energies and charges, by constraining the atomic charges within the charge equilibration framework. For two-state systems, the exact diabatic coupling can be determined, from which the adiabatic excited-state energy can also be calculated. The method can be viewed as an affordable alternative to constrained density functional theory (CDFT), and so we call it constrained charge equilibration (CQEq). We test the CQEq method on the anthracene-tetracyanoethylene CT complex and the reductive decomposition of ethylene carbonate on a lithium metal surface. We find that CQEq predicts diabatic energies, charges, and adiabatic excitation energies in good agreement with CDFT, and we propose that CQEq is promising for combination with machine learning force fields to study non-adiabatic CT in the condensed phase.

It is widely accepted that noisy quantum devices are limited to logarithmic depth circuits unless mid-circuit measurements and error correction are employed. However, this conclusion holds only for unital error channels, such as depolarizing noise. Building on the idea of the "quantum refrigerator" [Ben-Or, Gottesman and Hassidim (2013)], we improve upon previous results and show that geometrically local circuits in the presence of nonunital noise, in any dimension $d\geq 1$, can correct errors without mid-circuit measurements and extend computation to any depth, with only polylogarithmic overhead in the depth and the number of qubits. This implies that local quantum dynamics subjected to sufficiently weak nonunital noise is computationally universal and nearly as hard to simulate as noiseless dynamics. Additionally, we quantify the contraction property of local random circuits in the presence of nonunital noise.

Open many-body quantum systems can exhibit intriguing nonequilibrium phases of matter, such as time crystals. In these phases, the state of the system spontaneously breaks the time-translation symmetry of the dynamical generator, which typically manifests through persistent oscillations of an order parameter. A paradigmatic model displaying such a symmetry breaking is the boundary time crystal, which has been extensively analyzed experimentally and theoretically. Despite the broad interest in these nonequilibrium phases, their thermodynamics and their fluctuating behavior remain largely unexplored, in particular for the case of coupled time crystals. In this work, we consider two interacting boundary time crystals and derive a consistent interpretation of their thermodynamic behavior. We fully characterize their average dynamics and the behavior of their quantum fluctuations, which allows us to demonstrate the presence of quantum and classical correlations in both the stationary and the time-crystal phases displayed by the system. We furthermore exploit our theoretical derivation to explore possible applications of time crystals as quantum batteries, demonstrating their ability to efficiently store energy.

It is of great interest to understand the thermalization of open quantum many-body systems, and how quantum computers are able to efficiently simulate that process. A recently introduced disispative evolution, inspired by existing models of open system thermalization, has been shown to be efficiently implementable on a quantum computer. Here, we prove that, at high enough temperatures, this evolution reaches the Gibbs state in time scaling logarithmically with system size. The result holds for Hamiltonians that satisfy the Lieb-Robinson bound, such as local Hamiltonians on a lattice, and includes long-range systems. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first results rigorously establishing the rapid mixing property of high-temperature quantum Gibbs samplers, which is known to give the fastest possible speed for thermalization in the many-body setting. We then employ our result to the problem of estimating partition functions at high temperature, showing an improved performance over previous classical and quantum algorithms.

The efficiency of locally generating unitary designs, which capture statistical notions of quantum pseudorandomness, lies at the heart of wide-ranging areas in physics and quantum information technologies. While there are extensive potent methods and results for this problem, the evidently important setting where continuous symmetries or conservation laws (most notably U(1) and SU(d)) are involved is known to present fundamental difficulties. In particular, even the basic question of whether any local symmetric circuit can generate 2-designs efficiently (in time that grows at most polynomially in the system size) remains open with no circuit constructions provably known to do so, despite intensive efforts. In this work, we resolve this long-standing open problem for both U(1) and SU(d) symmetries by explicitly constructing local symmetric quantum circuits which we prove to converge to symmetric unitary 2-designs in polynomial time using a combination of representation theory, graph theory, and Markov chain methods. As a direct application, our constructions can be used to efficiently generate near-optimal random covariant quantum error-correcting codes, confirming a conjecture in [PRX Quantum 3, 020314 (2022)].

We consider quantum circuit models where the gates are drawn from arbitrary gate ensembles given by probabilistic distributions over certain gate sets and circuit architectures, which we call stochastic quantum circuits. Of main interest in this work is the speed of convergence of stochastic circuits with different gate ensembles and circuit architectures to unitary t-designs. A key motivation for this theory is the varying preference for different gates and circuit architectures in different practical scenarios. In particular, it provides a versatile framework for devising efficient circuits for implementing $t$-designs and relevant applications including random circuit and scrambling experiments, as well as benchmarking the performance of gates and circuit architectures. We examine various important settings in depth. A key aspect of our study is an "ironed gadget" model, which allows us to systematically evaluate and compare the convergence efficiency of entangling gates and circuit architectures. Particularly notable results include i) gadgets of two-qubit gates with KAK coefficients $\left(\frac{\pi}{4}-\frac{1}{8}\arccos(\frac{1}{5}),\frac{\pi}{8},\frac{1}{8}\arccos(\frac{1}{5})\right)$ (which we call $\chi$ gates) directly form exact 2- and 3-designs; ii) the iSWAP gate family achieves the best efficiency for convergence to 2-designs under mild conjectures with numerical evidence, even outperforming the Haar-random gate, for generic many-body circuits; iii) iSWAP + complete graph achieve the best efficiency for convergence to 2-designs among all graph circuits. A variety of numerical results are provided to complement our analysis. We also derive robustness guarantees for our analysis against gate perturbations. Additionally, we provide cursory analysis on gates with higher locality and found that the Margolus gate outperforms various other well-known gates.

The recently derived Fourier--Matsubara expansion of imaginary--time correlation functions comprises an exact result of linear response theory for finite-temperature quantum many-body systems. In its density--density version, the expansion facilitates systematic comparisons between quasi-exact \emph{ab initio} path integral Monte Carlo simulations and approximate dielectric formalism schemes at the level of the imaginary--time (density--density) correlation functions and the dynamic Matsubara local field corrections. On this theoretical basis, the dynamic properties of the quantum version of the Singwi--Tosi--Land--Sj\"olander scheme are analyzed for the paramagnetic warm dense uniform electron gas. The marginal improvement compared to the semi-classical version of the Singwi--Tosi--Land--Sj\"olander scheme is attributed to the weak Matsubara order dependence of the approximate dynamic Matsubara local field correction. The evaluation of the ideal density response function at the non-interacting occupation numbers is identified to constitute a general deficiency of the dielectric formalism, which calls for a reformulation in future works.

The Jordan-Schwinger map is widely employed to switch between bosonic or fermionic mode operators and spin observables, with numerous applications ranging from quantum field theories of magnetism and ultracold quantum gases to quantum optics. While the construction of observables obeying the algebra of spin operators across multiple modes is straightforward, a mapping between bosonic or fermionic Fock states and spin states has remained elusive beyond the two-mode case. Here, we generalize the Jordan-Schwinger map by algorithmically constructing complete sets of spin states over several bosonic or fermionic modes, allowing one to describe arbitrary multi-mode systems faithfully in terms of spins. As a byproduct, we uncover a deep link between the degeneracy of multi-mode spin states in the bosonic case and Gaussian polynomials. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach by deriving explicit relations between arbitrary three-mode Fock and spin states, which provide novel interpretations of the genuinely tripartite entangled GHZ and W state classes.

The generalized hydrodynamics (GHD) equation is the equivalent of the Euler equations of hydrodynamics for integrable models. Systems of hyperbolic equations such as the Euler equations usually develop shocks and are plagued by problems of uniqueness. We establish for the first time the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the full GHD equation and the absence of shocks, from a large class of initial conditions with bounded occupation function. We assume only absolute integrability of the two-body scattering shift. In applications to quantum models of fermionic type, this includes all commonly used physical initial states, such as locally thermal states and zero-entropy states. We show in particular that differentiable initial conditions give differentiable solutions at all times and that weak initial conditions such as the Riemann problem have unique weak solutions which preserve entropy. For this purpose, we write the GHD equation as a new fixed-point problem (announced in a companion paper). We show that the fixed point exists, is unique, and is approached, under an iterative solution procedure, in the Banach topology on functions of momenta.

We explore the use of a spatial mode sorter to image a nanomechanical resonator, with the goal of studying the quantum limits of active imaging and extending the toolbox for optomechanical force sensing. In our experiment, we reflect a Gaussian laser beam from a vibrating nanoribbon and pass the reflected beam through a commercial spatial mode demultiplexer (Cailabs Proteus). The intensity in each demultiplexed channel depends on the mechanical mode shapes and encodes information about their displacement amplitudes. As a concrete demonstration, we monitor the angular displacement of the ribbon's fundamental torsion mode by illuminating in the fundamental Hermite-Gauss mode (HG$_{00}$) and reading out in the HG$_{01}$ mode. We show that this technique permits readout of the ribbon's torsional vibration with a precision near the quantum limit. Our results highlight new opportunities at the interface of quantum imaging and quantum optomechanics.

The classification of topological phases of matter is a fundamental challenge in quantum many-body physics, with applications to quantum technology. Recently, this classification has been extended to the setting of Adaptive Finite-Depth Local Unitary (AFDLU) circuits which allow global classical communication. In this setting, the trivial phase is the collection of all topological states that can be prepared via AFDLU. Here, we propose a complete classification of the trivial phase by showing how to prepare all solvable anyon theories that admit a gapped boundary via AFDLU, extending recent results on solvable groups. Our construction includes non-Abelian anyons with irrational quantum dimensions, such as Ising anyons, and more general acyclic anyons. Specifically, we introduce a sequential gauging procedure, with an AFDLU implementation, to produce a string-net ground state in any topological phase described by a solvable anyon theory with gapped boundary. In addition, we introduce a sequential ungauging and regauging procedure, with an AFDLU implementation, to apply string operators of arbitrary length for anyons and symmetry twist defects in solvable anyon theories. We apply our procedure to the quantum double of the group $S_3$ and to several examples that are beyond solvable groups, including the doubled Ising theory, the $\mathbb{Z}_3$ Tambara-Yamagami string-net, and doubled $SU(2)_4$ anyons.

We construct a family of two-dimensional topological stabilizer codes on continuous variable (CV) degrees of freedom, which generalize homological rotor codes and the toric-GKP code. Our topological codes are built using the concept of boson condensation -- we start from a parent stabilizer code based on an $\mathbb{R}$ gauge theory and condense various bosonic excitations. This produces a large class of topological CV stabilizer codes, including ones that are characterized by the anyon theories of $U(1)_{2n}\times U(1)_{-2m}$ Chern-Simons theories, for arbitrary pairs of positive integers $(n,m)$. Most notably, this includes anyon theories that are non-chiral and nevertheless do not admit a gapped boundary. It is widely believed that such anyon theories cannot be realized by any stabilizer model on finite-dimensional systems. We conjecture that these CV codes go beyond codes obtained from concatenating a topological qudit code with a local encoding into CVs, and thus, constitute the first example of topological codes that are intrinsic to CV systems. Moreover, we study the Hamiltonians associated to the topological CV stabilizer codes and show that, although they have a gapless spectrum, they can become gapped with the addition of a quadratic perturbation. We show that similar methods can be used to construct a gapped Hamiltonian whose anyon theory agrees with a $U(1)_2$ Chern-Simons theory. Our work initiates the study of scalable stabilizer codes that are intrinsic to CV systems and highlights how error-correcting codes can be used to design and analyze many-body systems of CVs that model lattice gauge theories.