New articles on astro-ph


[1] 2010.15119

QUBIC II: Spectro-Polarimetry with Bolometric Interferometry

Bolometric Interferometry is a novel technique that has the ability to perform spectro-imaging. A Bolometric Interferometer observes the sky in a wide frequency band and can reconstruct sky maps in several sub-bands within the physical band. This provides a powerful spectral method to discriminate between the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and astrophysical foregrounds. In this paper, the methodology is illustrated with examples based on the Q \& U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) which is a ground-based instrument designed to measure the B-mode polarization of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. We consider the specific cases of point source reconstruction and Galactic dust mapping and we characterize the Point Spread Function as a function of frequency. We study the noise properties of spectro-imaging, especially the correlations between sub-bands, using end-to-end simulations together with a fast noise simulator. We conclude showing that spectro-imaging performance are nearly optimal up to five sub-bands in the case of QUBIC.


[2] 2010.15121

21cmFAST v3: A Python-integrated C code forgenerating 3D realizations of the cosmic 21cm signal

This brief code paper presents a new Python-wrapped version of the popular 21cm cosmology simulator, 21cmFAST. The new version, v3+, maintains the same core functionality of previous versions of 21cmFAST, but features a simple and intuitive interface, and a great deal more flexibility. This evolution represents the work of a formalized collaboration, and the new version, available publicly on GitHub, provides a single point-of-reference for all future upgrades and community-added features. In this paper, we describe simple usage of 21cmFAST, some of its new features, and provide a simple performance benchmark.


[3] 2010.15122

Excitation of Spin-Orbit Misalignments in Stellar Binaries with Circumbinary Disks: Application to DI Herculis

The large spin-orbit misalignments in the DI Herculis stellar binary system have resolved the decades-long puzzle of the anomalously slow apsidal precession rate, but raise new questions regarding the origin of the obliquities. This paper investigates obliquity evolution in stellar binaries hosting modestly-inclined circumbinary disks. As the disk and binary axes undergo mutual precession, each oblate star experiences a torque from its companion star, so that the spin and orbital axes undergo mutual precession. As the disk loses mass through a combination of winds and accretion, the system may be captured into a high-obliquity Cassini state (a spin-orbit resonance). The final obliquity depends on the details of the disk dispersal. We construct a simple disk model to emulate disk dispersal due to viscous accretion and photoevaporation, and identify the necessary disk properties for producing the observed obliquities in DI Herculis. The disk must be massive (at least $10 \%$ of the binary mass). If accretion onto the binary is suppressed, the observed high stellar obliquities are reproduced with a binary-disk inclination of $\sim 5^\circ - 10^\circ$, but if substantial accretion occurs, the inclination must be larger, $\sim 20^\circ - 30^\circ$. If moderate accretion occurs, initially the disk must lose its mass slowly, but eventually lose its remaining mass abruptly, analogous to the observed two-timescale behavior for disks around T-Tauri stars. The spin feedback on the binary orbit causes the binary-disk inclination to decay as the obliquity evolves, a feature that is absent from the standard Cassini state treatment.


[4] 2010.15123

Measuring the mass and concentration of dark matter halos from the velocity dispersion profile of their stars

We use the IllustrisTNG (TNG) cosmological, hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation to measure the velocity dispersion profiles of dark matter and star particles in Milky Way-mass, galaxy group, and cluster-scale dark matter halos. The mean profile calculated from both dark and luminous tracers are similar in shape, exhibiting a large degree of halo-to-halo scatter around the average profile. The so-called "splashback" radius demarcates the outer boundary of the halo, and manifests as a kink in the velocity dispersion profile, located on average between $\sim 1.0-1.5r_{200m}$, where $r_{200m}$ is the radius within which the enclosed density of the halo equals 200 times the mean background density of the universe at that redshift. Interestingly, we find that this location may also be identified as the radius at which the (stacked) velocity dispersion profile drops to 60% of its peak value (for line-of-sight motions of stellar and dark matter particles in TNG halos). We further show that the scatter in the velocity dispersion profiles may be attributed to the variations in the assembly history of the host halos. In particular, this segregates the profile into two regimes: one within $\sim0.1r_{200m}$, where the scatter in the velocity dispersion within is set by the early assembly history of the halo, and the other beyond this radius where the scatter in the velocity dispersion is influenced more strongly by its late-time assembly. Finally, we show that a two-parameter model can be used to fit the measured velocity dispersion profiles and the fit parameters can be related directly to two fundamental halo properties: mass and concentration. We describe a simple model which allows us to express the stellar velocity dispersion profile in terms of the mass and concentration of the host halo as the only free parameters.


[5] 2010.15128

[NII] fine-structure emission at 122 and 205um in a galaxy at z=2.6: a globally dense star-forming interstellar medium

We present new observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array of the 122um and 205um fine-structure line emission of singly-ionised nitrogen in a strongly lensed starburst galaxy at z=2.6. The 122/205um [NII] line ratio is sensitive to electron density, n_e, in the ionised interstellar medium, and we use this to measure n_e~300cm^-3 averaged across the galaxy. This is over an order of magnitude higher than the Milky Way average, but comparable to localised Galactic star-forming regions. Combined with observations of the atomic carbon (CI(1-0)) and carbon monoxide (CO(4-3)) in the same system, we reveal the conditions in this intensely star-forming system. The majority of the molecular interstellar medium has been driven to high density, and the resultant conflagration of star formation produces a correspondingly dense ionised phase, presumably co-located with myriad HII regions that litter the gas-rich disk.


[6] 2010.15131

Exploring the hot gaseous halo around an extremely massive and relativistic jet launching spiral galaxy with XMM-Newton

We present a deep XMM-Newton observation of the extremely massive, rapidly rotating, relativistic-jet-launching spiral galaxy 2MASX J23453268-0449256. Diffuse X-ray emission from the hot gaseous halo around the galaxy is robustly detected out to a radius of 160 kpc, corresponding roughly to 35 per cent of the virial radius ($\approx 450$ kpc). We fit the X-ray emission with the standard isothermal $\beta$ model, and it is found that the enclosed gas mass within 160 kpc is $1.15_{-0.24}^{+0.22} \times 10^{11} \, \rm{M}_{\odot}$. Extrapolating the gas mass profile out to the virial radius, the estimated gas mass is $8.25_{-1.77}^{+1.62} \times 10^{11} \, \rm{M}_{\odot}$, which makes up roughly 65 per cent of the total baryon mass content of the galaxy. When the stellar mass is considered and accounting for the statistical and systematic uncertainties, the baryon mass fraction within the virial radius is $0.121_{-0.043}^{+0.043}$, in agreement with the universal baryon fraction. The baryon mass fraction is consistent with all baryons falling within $r_{200}$, or with only half of the baryons falling within $r_{200}$. Similar to the massive spiral galaxies NGC 1961 and NGC 6753, we find a low value for the metal abundance of $\approx 0.1 {\rm{Z}}_{\odot}$, which appears uniform with radius. We also detect diffuse X-ray emission associated with the northern and southern lobes, possibly attributed to inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. The estimated energy densities of the electrons and magnetic field in these radio lobes suggest that they are electron-dominated by a factor of 10$-$200, depending on the choice of the lower cut-off energy of the electron spectrum.


[7] 2010.15132

Seeding Supermassive Black Holes with Self-Interacting Dark Matter

Observations show that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with a mass of $\sim10^9 M_\odot$ exist when the Universe was just 6% of its current age. We propose a scenario where a self-interacting dark matter halo experiences gravothermal instability and its central region collapses into a seed black hole. The presence of baryons in protogalaxies could significantly accelerate the gravothermal evolution of the halo and shorten collapse timescales. The central halo could dissipate its angular momentum remnant via viscosity induced by the self-interactions. The host halo must be on high tails of density fluctuations, implying that high-z SMBHs are expected to be rare in this scenario, and the predicted host mass broadly agrees with the dynamical mass inferred from observations. We further derive conditions for triggering general relativistic instability of the collapsed region. Our results indicate that self-interacting dark matter can provide a unified explanation for diverse dark matter distributions in galaxies today and the origin of SMBHs at redshifts $z\sim6-7$.


[8] 2010.15135

A case of simultaneous star and planet formation

While it is widely accepted that planets are formed in protoplanetary disks, there is still much debate on when this process happens. In a few cases protoplanets have been directly imaged, but for the vast majority of systems, disk gaps and cavities -- seen especially in dust continuum observations -- have been the strongest evidence of recent or on-going planet formation. We present ALMA observations of a nearly edge-on ($i = 75^{\circ}$) disk containing a giant gap seen in dust but not in $^{12}$CO gas. Inside the gap, the molecular gas has a warm (100 K) component coinciding in position with a tentative free-free emission excess observed with the VLA. Using 1D hydrodynamic models, we find the structure of the gap is consistent with being carved by a planet with 4-70 $M_{\rm Jup}$. The coincidence of free-free emission inside the planet-carved gap points to the planet being very young and/or still accreting. In addition, the $^{12}$CO observations reveal low-velocity large scale filaments aligned with the disk major axis and velocity coherent with the disk gas that we interpret as ongoing gas infall from the local ISM. This system appears to be an interesting case where both a star (from the environment and the disk) and a planet (from the disk) are growing in tandem.


[9] 2010.15136

Non-thermal neutrinos created by shock acceleration in successful and failed core-collapse supernova

We present a comprehensive study of neutrino shock acceleration in core-collapse supernova (CCSN). The leading players are heavy leptonic neutrinos, $\nu_{\mu}$ and $\nu_{\tau}$; the former and latter potentially gain the energy up to $\sim 100$ MeV and $\sim 200$ MeV, respectively, through the shock acceleration. Demonstrating the neutrino shock acceleration by Monte Carlo neutrino transport, we make a statement that it commonly occurs in the early post bounce phase ($\lesssim 50$ ms after bounce) for all massive stellar collapse experiencing nuclear bounce and would reoccur in the late phase ($\gtrsim 100$ ms) for failed CCSNe. This opens up a new possibility to detect high energy neutrinos by terrestrial detectors from Galactic CCSNe; hence, we estimate the event counts for Hyper(Super)-Kamiokande, DUNE, and JUNO. We find that the event count with the energy of $\gtrsim 80$ MeV is a few orders of magnitude higher than that of the thermal neutrinos regardless of the detectors, and muon production may also happen in these detectors by $\nu_{\mu}$ with the energy of $\gtrsim 100$ MeV. The neutrino signals provide a precious information on deciphering the inner dynamics of CCSN and placing a constraint on the physics of neutrino oscillation; indeed, the detection of the high energy neutrinos through charged current reaction channels will be a smoking gun evidence of neutrino flavor conversion.


[10] 2010.15139

Properties of gas phases around cosmic filaments at z=0 in the Illustris-TNG simulation

We present the study of gas phases around cosmic-web filaments detected in the TNG300-1 hydro-dynamical simulation at redshift z=0. We separate the gas in five different phases according to temperature and density. We show that filaments are essentially dominated by gas in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), which accounts for more than 86% of the baryon budget at r~1 Mpc. Apart from WHIM gas, cores of filaments (r<1 Mpc) also host large contributions other hotter and denser gas phases, whose fractions depend on the filament population. By building temperature and pressure profiles, we find that gas in filaments is isothermal up to r~1.5 Mpc, with average temperatures of T_core = 4-13 * 10^5 K, depending on the large scale environment. Pressure at cores of filaments is on average P_core = 4-12 * 10^(-7) keV.cm^(-3), which is ~1000 times lower than pressure measured in observed clusters. We also estimate that the observed Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal from cores of filaments should range between 0.5 < y < 4.1 * 10^(-8), and these results are compared with recent observations. Our findings show that the state of the gas in filaments depend on the presence of haloes, and on the large scale environment.


[11] 2010.15140

The Distribution of Neutral Hydrogen in the Color-Magnitude Plane of Galaxies

We present the conditional HI (neutral hydrogen) Mass Function (HIMF) conditioned on observed optical properties, $M_{\text{r}}$ ($r$-band absolute magnitude) and $C_{\text{ur}}$ ($u-r$ color), for a sample of 7709 galaxies from ALFALFA (40% data release - $\alpha.40$) which overlaps with a common volume in SDSS DR7. Based on the conditional HIMF we find that the luminous red, luminous blue and faint blue populations dominate the total HIMF at the high-mass end, knee and the low-mass end respectively. We use the conditional HIMF to derive the underlying distribution function of $\Omega_{\text{HI}}$ (HI density parameter), $p(\Omega_{\text{HI}})$, in the color-magnitude plane of galaxies. The distribution, $p(\Omega_{\text{HI}})$, peaks in the blue cloud at $M_{\text{r}}^{\text{max}}=$ $-19.25, C_{\text{ur}}^{\text{max}}=1.44$ but is skewed. It has a long tail towards faint blue galaxies and luminous red galaxies. We argue that $p(\Omega_{\text{HI}})$ can be used to reveal the underlying relation between cold gas, stellar mass and the star formation rate (SFR) in an unbiased way; that is the derived relation does not suffer from survey or sample selection.


[12] 2010.15141

High-accuracy estimation of magnetic field strength in the interstellar medium from dust polarization

Dust polarization is a powerful tool for studying the magnetic field properties in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, it does not provide a direct measurement of its strength. Different methods havebeen developed which employ both polarization and spectroscopic data in order to infer the field strength. The most widely applied methods have been developed by Davis (1951), Chandrasekhar & Fermi (1953) (DCF), Hildebrand et al. (2009) and Houde et al.(2009) (HH09). They rely on the assumption that isotropic turbulent motions initiate the propagation of Alvf\'en waves. Observations,however, indicate that turbulence in the ISM is anisotropic and non-Alfv\'enic (compressible) modes may be important. Our goal is to develop a new method for estimating the field strength in the ISM, which includes the compressible modes and does not contradict the anisotropic properties of turbulence. We use simple energetics arguments that take into account the compressible modes to estimate the strength of the magnetic field. We derive the following equation: $B_{0}=\sqrt{2 \pi\rho} \delta v /\sqrt{\delta \theta}$, where $\rho$ is the gas density, $\delta v$ is the rms velocity as derived from the spread of emission lines, and $\delta \theta$ is the dispersion of polarization angles. We produce synthetic observations from 3D MHD simulationsand we assess the accuracy of our method by comparing the true field strength with the estimates derived from our equation. We find a mean relative deviation of $17 \%$. The accuracy of our method does not depend on the turbulence properties of the simulated model. In contrast DCF and HH09 systematically overestimate the field strength. HH09 produces accurate results only for simulations with high sonic Mach numbers.


[13] 2010.15142

Processing GOTO data with the Rubin Observatory LSST Science Pipelines I : Production of coadded frames

The past few decades have seen the burgeoning of wide field, high cadence surveys, the most formidable of which will be the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) to be conducted by the Vera C. Rubin Observatory. So new is the field of systematic time-domain survey astronomy, however, that major scientific insights will continue to be obtained using smaller, more flexible systems than the LSST. One such example is the Gravitational-wave Optical Transient Observer (GOTO), whose primary science objective is the optical follow-up of Gravitational Wave events. The amount and rate of data production by GOTO and other wide-area, high-cadence surveys presents a significant challenge to data processing pipelines which need to operate in near real-time to fully exploit the time-domain. In this study, we adapt the Rubin Observatory LSST Science Pipelines to process GOTO data, thereby exploring the feasibility of using this "off-the-shelf" pipeline to process data from other wide-area, high-cadence surveys. In this paper, we describe how we use the LSST Science Pipelines to process raw GOTO frames to ultimately produce calibrated coadded images and photometric source catalogues. After comparing the measured astrometry and photometry to those of matched sources from PanSTARRS DR1, we find that measured source positions are typically accurate to sub-pixel levels, and that measured L-band photometries are accurate to $\sim50$ mmag at $m_L\sim16$ and $\sim200$ mmag at $m_L\sim18$. These values compare favourably to those obtained using GOTO's primary, in-house pipeline, GOTOPHOTO, in spite of both pipelines having undergone further development and improvement beyond the implementations used in this study. Finally, we release a generic "obs package" that others can build-upon should they wish to use the LSST Science Pipelines to process data from other facilities.


[14] 2010.15143

WASP-127b: A misaligned planet with a partly cloudy atmosphere and tenuous sodium signature seen by ESPRESSO

The study of exoplanet atmospheres is essential to understand the formation, evolution and composition of exoplanets. The transmission spectroscopy technique is playing a significant role in this domain. In particular, the combination of state-of-the-art spectrographs at low- and high-spectral resolution is key to our understanding of atmospheric structure and composition. Two transits of the close-in sub Saturn-mass planet,WASP-127b, have been observed with ESPRESSO in the frame of the Guaranteed Time Observations Consortium. Transit observations allow us to study simultaneously the system architecture and the exoplanet atmosphere. We found that this planet is orbiting its slowly rotating host star (veq sin(i)=0.53+/-0.07 km/s) on a retrograde misaligned orbit (lambda=-128.41+/-5.60 deg). We detected the sodium line core at the 9-sigma confidence level with an excess absorption of 0.3+/-0.04%, a blueshift of 2.7+/-0.79 km/s and a FWHM of 15.18+/-1.75 km/s. However, we did not detect the presence of other atomic species but set upper-limits of only few scale heights. Finally, we put a 3-sigma upper limit, to the average depth of the 1600 strongest water lines at equilibrium temperature in the visible band, of 38 ppm. This constrains the cloud-deck pressure between 0.3 and 0.5 mbar by combining our data with low-resolution data in the near-infrared and models computed for this planet. To conclude, WASP-127b, with an age of about 10 Gyr, is an unexpected exoplanet by its orbital architecture but also by the small extension of its sodium atmosphere (~7 scale heights). ESPRESSO allows us to take a step forward in the detection of weak signals, thus bringing strong constraints on the presence of clouds in exoplanet atmospheres. The framework proposed in this work can be applied to search for molecular species and study cloud-decks in other exoplanets.


[15] 2010.15145

Periodic structure in the FRB 121102 spectra

Reiterating publically available data, we discover a remarkable periodic structure in the spectra of repeating Fast Radio Burst (FRB) 121102: a set of $(95\pm 16)$ MHz-equidistant peaks with seemingly frequency-independent interpeak distance. These peaks can be explained by diffractive lensing of the FRB wave, either by a compact gravitating object of mass $10^{-4}\, M_\odot$ or by a plasma cloud with smooth profile. The periodic structure is hidden in the sea of erratic interstellar scintillations with $(3.3\pm 0.6)$ MHz decorrelation bandwidth. In addition, we reveal a new slowly evolving spectral pattern on GHz scale which may be attributed to wide-band scintillations or other wide-band interference phenomena. The spectra also include a large peak at 7.1 GHz that can be caused by propagation of the FRB signal through a plasma lens. Using the propagation effects as landmarks, we give a convincing argument that the FRB progenitor has a narrow-band spectrum of GHz width and its central frequency changes from burst to burst. With this paper we advance methods for studying periodic spectral structures and separating them from scintillations.


[16] 2010.15147

Survivor bias: divergent fates of the Solar System's ejected vs. persisting planetesimals

The orbital architecture of the Solar System is thought to have been sculpted by a dynamical instability among the giant planets. During the instability a primordial outer disk of planetesimals was destabilized and ended up on planet-crossing orbits. Most planetesimals were ejected into interstellar space but a fraction were trapped on stable orbits in the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud. We use a suite of N-body simulations to map out the diversity of planetesimals' dynamical pathways. We focus on two processes: tidal disruption from very close encounters with a giant planet, and loss of surface volatiles from repeated passages close to the Sun. We show that the rate of tidal disruption is more than a factor of two higher for ejected planetesimals than for surviving objects in the Kuiper belt or Oort cloud. Ejected planetesimals are preferentially disrupted by Jupiter and surviving ones by Neptune. Given that the gas giants contracted significantly as they cooled but the ice giants did not, taking into account the thermal evolution of the giant planets decreases the disruption rate of ejected planetesimals. The frequency of volatile loss and extinction is far higher for ejected planetesimals than for surviving ones and is not affected by the giant planets' contraction. Even if all interstellar objects were ejected from Solar System-like systems, our analysis suggests that their physical properties should be more diverse than those of Solar System small bodies as a result of their divergent dynamical histories. This is consistent with the characteristics of the two currently-known interstellar objects.


[17] 2010.15152

Temperature inversions on hot super-Earths: the case of CN in nitrogen-rich atmospheres

We show that in extremely irradiated atmospheres of hot super-Earths shortwave absorption of CN can cause strong temperature inversions. We base this study on previous observations of 55 Cancri e, which lead us to believe that ultra-short-period super-Earths can sustain volatile atmospheres, rich in nitrogen and/or carbon. We compute our model atmospheres in a radiative-convective equilibrium for a variety of nitrogen-rich cases and orbital parameters. We demonstrate the effects caused by thermal inversions on the chemistry and compute low resolution synthetic emission spectra for a range of 0.5 - 28 micron. Our results indicate that dueto shortwave absorption of CN, atmospheres with temperatures above 2000 K and C/O $\geq$ 1.0 are prone to thermal inversions. CN is one of the few molecules that is extremely stable at large temperatures occurring on the day side of short period super-Earths. The emission spectrum of such atmospheres will differ substantially from non-inverted cases. In the case of inversions, absorption features become inverted, showing higher than expected flux. We propose that inversions in hot atmospheres should be the expected norm. Hot super-Earths are some of the most extreme natural laboratories for testing predictions of atmospheric chemistry and structure. They are frequently occurring, bright in emission and have short orbital periods. All these factors make them perfect candidates to be observed with JWST and ARIEL missions.


[18] 2010.15164

Science Extraction from TESS Observations of Known Exoplanet Hosts

The transit method of exoplanet discovery and characterization has enabled numerous breakthroughs in exoplanetary science. These include measurements of planetary radii, mass-radius relationships, stellar obliquities, bulk density constraints on interior models, and transmission spectroscopy as a means to study planetary atmospheres. The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has added to the exoplanet inventory by observing a significant fraction of the celestial sphere, including many stars already known to host exoplanets. Here we describe the science extraction from TESS observations of known exoplanet hosts during the primary mission. These include transit detection of known exoplanets, discovery of additional exoplanets, detection of phase signatures and secondary eclipses, transit ephemeris refinement, and asteroseismology as a means to improve stellar and planetary parameters. We provide the statistics of TESS known host observations during Cycle 1 & 2, and present several examples of TESS photometry for known host stars observed with a long baseline. We outline the major discoveries from observations of known hosts during the primary mission. Finally, we describe the case for further observations of known exoplanet hosts during the TESS extended mission and the expected science yield.


[19] 2010.15173

Predictions for Strong Lens Detections with the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope

Strong gravitational lensing is an ideal tool for mapping the distribution of dark matter and for testing the values of cosmological parameters. Forthcoming surveys such as Euclid and the Rubin Observatory LSST should increase the number of known strong lensing systems significantly, with for example over 100,000 such systems predicted in the Euclid wide survey. In this short research note we predict that approximately 17,000 strong gravitational lenses will also be detectible in the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope 2000 square degree survey, using the LensPop gravitational lensing model. We present predicted distributions in source and deflector redshifts, magnitudes, and magnifications. Although this survey is not primarily designed as a strong lensing detection experiment, it will still provide a large complementary catalogue to shallower, wider-area forthcoming lensing discovery projects.


[20] 2010.15176

Probing jet launching in neutron star X-ray binaries: the variable and polarized jet of SAX J1808.4-3658

We report on an optical photometric and polarimetric campaign on the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) SAX J1808.4-3658 during its 2019 outburst. The emergence of a low-frequency excess in the spectral energy distribution in the form of a red excess above the disc spectrum (seen most prominently in z, i and R-bands) is observed as the outburst evolves. This is indicative of optically thin synchrotron emission due to a jet, as seen previously in this source and in other AMXPs during outburst. At the end of the outburst decay, the source entered a reflaring state. The low-frequency excess is still observed during the reflares. Our optical (BVRI) polarimetric campaign shows variable linear polarization (LP) throughout the outburst. We show that this is intrinsic to the source, with low-level but significant detections (0.2-2%) in all bands. The LP spectrum is red during both the main outburst and the reflaring state, favoring a jet origin for this variable polarization over other interpretations, such as Thomson scattering with free electrons from the disc or the propelled matter. During the reflaring state, a few episodes with stronger LP level (1-2 %) are observed. The low-level, variable LP is suggestive of strongly tangled magnetic fields near the base of the jet. These results clearly demonstrate how polarimetry is a powerful tool for probing the magnetic field structure in X-ray binary jets, similar to AGN jets.


[21] 2010.15183

Rise of the Titans: Gas Excitation and Feedback in a Binary Hyper-Luminous Dusty Starburst Galaxy at z~6

We report new observations toward the hyper-luminous dusty starbursting major merger ADFS-27 (z=5.655), using ATCA and ALMA. We detect CO 2-1, 8-7, 9-8, 10-9 and H2O(321-221) emission, and a P-Cygni-shaped OH+(11-01) absorption/emission feature. We also tentatively detect H2O(321-312) and OH+(12-01) emission and CH+(1-0) absorption. We find a total cold molecular mass of M_gas = (2.1+/-0.2) x 10^11 (alpha_CO/1.0) Msun. We also find that the excitation of the star-forming gas is overall moderate for a z>5 dusty starburst, which is consistent with its moderate dust temperature. A high density, high kinetic temperature gas component embedded in the gas reservoir is required to fully explain the CO line ladder. This component is likely associated with the "maximum starburst" nuclei in the two merging galaxies, which are separated by only (140+/-13) km/s along the line of sight and 9.0 kpc in projection. The kinematic structure of both components is consistent with galaxy disks, but this interpretation remains limited by the spatial resolution of the current data. The OH+ features are only detected towards the northern component, which is also the one that is more enshrouded in dust and thus remains undetected up to 1.6 um even in our sensitive new HST/WFC3 imaging. The absorption component of the OH+ line is blueshifted and peaks near the CO and continuum emission peak while the emission is redshifted and peaks offset by 1.7 kpc from the CO and continuum emission peak, suggesting that the gas is associated with a massive molecular outflow from the intensely star-forming nucleus that supplies 125 Msun/yr of enriched gas to its halo.


[22] 2010.15188

The statistical reliability of 267 GHz JCMT observations of Venus

In the light of the recent announcement of the discovery of the potential biosignature phosphine in the atmosphere of Venus I present an independent reanalysis of the original JCMT data to assess the statistical reliability of the detection. Two line detection methods are explored, low order polynomial fits and higher order multiple polynomial fits. It is found that, similar to other reanalyses of ALMA Venus spectra, the polynomial fitting process results in false positive detections in the JCMT spectrum. Furthermore, a non-parametric bootstrap analysis reveals that neither line detection method is able to recover a statistically significant detection. There is thus no significant evidence for phosphine absorption in the JCMT Venus spectra.


[23] 2010.15190

Testing gravity with the Milky Way: Yukawa potential

We test a Yukawa correction to the Newtonian potential, making use of our own Galaxy - the Milky Way - as a testbed. We include as free parameter the Yukawa strength and range and the dark matter NFW profile parameters, and compare several morphologies for the bulge, gas, and disk components, also using Bayesian model selection criteria. We employ up-to-date datasets for both the visible (baryonic) component of the Milky Way, and for the tracers of the gravitational potential (the Rotation Curve). We find that the data are consistent with the Newtonian potential, and constrain the Yukawa coupling $\beta$ to be negative and $\lambda$ to range along the curve $\lambda = a|\beta|^{c}$ with $a = (0.77 \pm 0.06)$ kpc and $c = -0.503\substack{+0.016 \\ -0.019}$.


[24] 2010.15205

WASP-186 and WASP-187: two hot Jupiters discovered by SuperWASP and SOPHIE with additional observations by TESS

We present the discovery of two new hot Jupiters identified from the WASP survey, WASP-186b and WASP-187b (TOI-1494.01 and TOI-1493.01). Their planetary nature was established from SOPHIE spectroscopic observations, and additional photometry was obtained from TESS. Stellar parameters for the host stars are derived from spectral line, IRFM, and isochrone placement analyses. These parameters are combined with the photometric and radial velocity data in an MCMC method to determine the planetary properties. WASP-186b is a massive Jupiter (4.22 +/- 0.18 M_J, 1.11 +/-0.03 R_J) orbiting a mid-F star on a 5.03 day eccentric (e=0.327 +/- 0.008) orbit. WASP-187b is a low density (0.80 +/- 0.09 M_J, 1.64 +/- 0.05 R_J) planet in a 5.15 day circular orbit around a slightly evolved early F-type star.


[25] 2010.15213

SDSS-IV MaNGA: When is morphology imprinted on galaxies?

It remains an open question as to how long ago the morphology that we see in a present-day galaxy was typically imprinted. Studies of galaxy populations at different redshifts reveal that the balance of morphologies has changed over time, but such snapshots cannot uncover the typical timescales over which individual galaxies undergo morphological transformation, nor which are the progenitors of today's galaxies of different types. However, these studies also show a strong link between morphology and star-formation rate over a large range in redshift, which offers an alternative probe of morphological transformation. We therefore derive the evolution in star-formation rate and stellar mass of a sample of 4342 galaxies in the SDSS-IV MaNGA survey through a stellar population "fossil record" approach, and show that the average evolution of the population shows good agreement with known behaviour from previous studies. Although the correlation between a galaxy's contemporaneous morphology and star-formation rate is strong over a large range of lookback times, we find that a galaxy's present-day morphology only correlates with its relatively recent (~2 Gyr) star-formation history. We therefore find strong evidence that morphological transitions to galaxies' current appearance occurred on timescales as short as a few billion years.


[26] 2010.15235

An environmental dependence of the physical and structural properties in the Hydra Cluster galaxies

The nearby Hydra Cluster ($\sim$50 Mpc) is an ideal laboratory to understand, in detail, the influence of the environment on the morphology and quenching of galaxies in dense environments. We study the Hydra cluster galaxies in the inner regions ($1R_{200}$) of the cluster using data from the Southern Photometric Local Universe Survey (S-PLUS), which uses 12 narrow and broad band filters in the visible region of the spectrum. We analyse structural (S\'ersic index, effective radius) and physical (colours, stellar masses and star formation rates) properties. Based on this analysis, we find that $\sim$88 percent of the Hydra cluster galaxies are quenched. Using the Dressler-Schectman test approach, we also find that the cluster shows possible substructures. Our analysis of the phase-space diagram together with DBSCAN algorithm indicates that Hydra shows an additional substructure that appears to be in front of the cluster centre, which is still falling into it. Our results, thus, suggest that the Hydra Cluster might not be relaxed. We analyse the median S\'ersic index as a function of wavelength and find that for red ($(u-r)\geq$2.3) and early-type galaxies it displays a slight increase towards redder filters (13 and 18 percent, for red and early-type respectively) whereas for blue+green ($(u-r)$<2.3) galaxies it remains constant. Late-type galaxies show a small decrease of the median S\'ersic index toward redder filters. Also, the S\'ersic index of galaxies, and thus their structural properties, do not significantly vary as a function of clustercentric distance and density within the cluster; and this is the case regardless of the filter.


[27] 2010.15238

Astromers: Nuclear Isomers in Astrophysics

We develop a method to compute thermally-mediated transition rates between the ground state and long-lived isomers in nuclei. We also establish criteria delimiting a thermalization temperature above which a nucleus may be considered a single species and below which it must be treated as two separate species: a ground state species, and an astrophysical isomer ("astromer") species. Below the thermalization temperature, the destruction rates dominate the internal transition rates between the ground state and the isomer. If the destruction rates also differ greatly from one another, the nuclear levels fall out of or fail to reach thermal equilibrium. Without thermal equilibrium, there may not be a safe assumption about the distribution of occupation probability among the nuclear levels when computing nuclear reaction rates. In these conditions, the isomer has astrophysical consequences and should be treated a separate astromer species which evolves separately from the ground state in a nucleosynthesis network. We apply our transition rate methods and perform sensitivity studies on a few well-known astromers. We also study transitions in several other isomers of likely astrophysical interest.


[28] 2010.15241

The census of dense cores in the Serpens region from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey

The Herschel Gould Belt survey mapped the nearby (d < 500 pc) star-forming regions to understand better how the prestellar phase influences the star formation process. Here we report a complete census of dense cores in a 15 deg2 area of the Serpens star-forming region located between d=420 pc and 484 pc. The PACS and SPIRE cameras imaged this cloud from 70micron to 500micron. With the multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we extract 833 sources, of which 709 are starless cores and 124 are candidate proto-stellar cores. We obtain temperatures and masses for all the sample, classifying the starless cores in 604 prestellar cores and 105 unbound cores. Our census of sources is 80% complete for masses larger than 0.8 Msun overall. We produce the core mass function (CMF) and compare it with the initial mass function (IMF). The prestellar CMF is consistent with log-normal trend up to 2 Msun, after which it follows a power-law with slope of -2.05+/-0.34. The tail of its CMF is steeper but still compatible with the IMF for the region we studied in this work. We also extract the filaments network of the Serpens region, finding that 81% of prestellar cores lie on filamentary structures. The spatial association between cores and filamentary structure supports the paradigm, suggested by otherHerschelobservations, that prestellar cores mostly form on filaments. Serpens is confirmed to be a young, low-mass and active star-forming region.


[29] 2010.15248

3D NLTE spectral line formation of lithium in late-type stars

Accurately known stellar lithium abundances may be used to shed light on a variety of astrophysical phenomena such as Big Bang nucleosynthesis, radial migration, ages of stars and stellar clusters, and planet engulfment events. We present a grid of synthetic lithium spectra that are computed in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) across the STAGGER grid of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic stellar atmosphere models. This grid covers three Li lines at 610.4 nm, 670.8 nm, and 812.6 nm for stellar parameters representative of FGK-type dwarfs and giants, spanning $T_{\rm{eff}}=4000$-7000 K, $\log g=1.5$-5.0, $[\rm{Fe}/\rm{H}] = -4.0$-0.5, and $\textrm{A(Li)} = -0.5$-4.0. We find that our abundance corrections are up to 0.15 dex more negative than in previous work, due to a previously overlooked NLTE effect of blocking of UV lithium lines by background opacities, which has important implications for a wide range of science cases. We derive a new 3D NLTE solar abundance of $\textrm{A(Li)} = 0.96 \pm 0.05$, which is 0.09 dex lower than the commonly used value. We make our grids of synthetic spectra and abundance corrections publicly available through the Breidablik package. This package includes methods for accurately interpolating our grid to arbitrary stellar parameters through methods based on Kriging (Gaussian process regression) for line profiles, and MLP (Multi-Layer Perceptrons, a class of fully connected feedforward neural networks) for NLTE corrections and 3D NLTE abundances from equivalent widths, achieving interpolation errors of the order 0.01 dex.


[30] 2010.15270

From core collapse to superluminous: The rates of massive stellar explosions from the Palomar Transient Factory

We present measurements of the local core collapse supernova (SN) rate using SN discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We use a Monte Carlo simulation of hundreds of millions of SN light curve realizations coupled with the detailed PTF survey detection efficiencies to forward-model the SN rates in PTF. Using a sample of 86 core collapse SNe, including 26 stripped-envelope SNe (SESNe), we show that the overall core collapse SN volumetric rate is $r^\mathrm{CC}_v=9.10_{-1.27}^{+1.56}\times10^{-5}\,\text{SNe yr}^{-1}\,\text{Mpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$ at $ \langle z \rangle = 0.028$, and the SESN volumetric rate is $r^\mathrm{SE}_v=2.41_{-0.64}^{+0.81}\times10^{-5}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\,\text{Mpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$. We further measure a volumetric rate for hydrogen-free superluminous SNe (SLSNe-I) using 8 events at $z{\le}0.2$ of $r^\mathrm{SLSN-I}_v=35_{-13}^{+25}\, \text{SNe yr}^{-1}\text{Gpc}^{-3}\, h_{70}^{3}$, which represents the most precise SLSN-I rate measurement to date. Using a simple cosmic star-formation history to adjust these volumetric rate measurements to the same redshift, we measure a local ratio of SLSN-I to SESN of $\sim1/810^{+1500}_{-94}$, and of SLSN-I to all CCSN types of $\sim 1/3500^{+2800}_{-720}$. However, using host galaxy stellar mass as a proxy for metallicity, we also show that this ratio is strongly metallicity dependent: in low-mass ($\mathrm{log} M_{*} < 9.5 \mathrm{M}_\odot$) galaxies, which are the only environments that host SLSN-I in our sample, we measure a SLSN-I to SESN fraction of $1/300^{+380}_{-170}$ and $1/1700^{+1800}_{-720}$ for all CCSN. We further investigate the SN rates a function of host galaxy stellar mass and show that the specific rates of all core collapse SNe decrease with increasing stellar mass.


[31] 2010.15278

Testing Gravity on Cosmic Scales: A Case Study of Jordan-Brans-Dicke Theory

We provide an end-to-end exploration of a distinct modified gravitational theory in Jordan-Brans-Dicke (JBD) gravity, from an analytical and numerical description of the background expansion and linear perturbations, to the nonlinear regime captured with a hybrid suite of $N$-body simulations, to the parameter constraints from existing cosmological probes. The nonlinear corrections to the matter power spectrum due to baryons, massive neutrinos, and modified gravity are simultaneously modeled and propagated in the cosmological analysis for the first time. In the combined analysis of the Planck CMB temperature, polarization, and lensing reconstruction, Pantheon supernova distances, BOSS measurements of BAO distances, the Alcock-Paczynski effect, and the growth rate, along with the joint ($3\times2$pt) dataset of cosmic shear, galaxy-galaxy lensing, and overlapping redshift-space galaxy clustering from KiDS and 2dFLenS, we constrain the JBD coupling constant, $\omega_{\rm BD}>1540$ (95% CL), the effective gravitational constant, $G_{\rm matter}/G=0.997\pm0.029$, the sum of neutrino masses, $\sum m_{\nu}<0.12$ eV (95% CL), and the baryonic feedback amplitude, $B<2.8$ (95% CL), all in agreement with the standard model expectation. We show that the uncertainty in the gravitational theory alleviates the tension between KiDS$\times$2dFLenS and Planck to below $1\sigma$ and the tension in the Hubble constant between Planck and the direct measurement of Riess et al. (2019) down to ~$3\sigma$; however, we find no substantial model selection preference for JBD gravity relative to $\Lambda$CDM. We further show that the neutrino mass bound degrades by up to a factor of $3$ as the $\omega_{\rm BD}$ parameterization becomes more restrictive, and that a positive shift in $G_{\rm matter}/G$ suppresses the CMB damping tail in a way that might complicate future inferences of small-scale physics. (Abridged)


[32] 2010.15279

Tidally excited oscillations in hot white dwarfs

We study the flux variation in helium white dwarfs (WDs) induced by dynamical tides for a variety of WD models with effective temperatures ranging from $T$=10 kK to $T$=26 kK. At linear order, we find the dynamical tide can significantly perturb the observed flux in hot WDs. If the temperature $T\gtrsim14$ kK, then the dynamical tide may induce a fractional change in the flux by >1% when the orbital period is $P_{\rm orb}\simeq 20-60\,{\rm min}$. The ratio between the flux modulation due to the dynamical tide and that due to the equilibrium tide (i.e., ellipsoidal variability) increases as the WD's radius decreases, and it could exceed O(10) if the WD has a radius $R\lesssim0.03 R_\odot$. Unlike the ellipsoidal variability which is in phase with the orbital motion, the pulsation caused by the dynamical tide may have a substantial phase shift. A cold WD with $T\lesssim 10$ kK, on the other hand, is unlikely to show observable pulsations due to the dynamical tide. At shorter orbital periods, the dynamical tide may become highly nonlinear. We approximate this regime by treating the waves as one-way traveling waves and find the flux variation is typically reduced to 0.1%-1% and the excess phase is likely to be 90 degrees (though with large uncertainty). Even in the traveling-wave limit, the flux perturbation due to dynamical tide could still exceed the ellipsoidal variability for compact WDs with $R\lesssim0.02 R_\odot$. We further estimate the nonlinear flux perturbations oscillating at four times the orbital frequency dominated by a self-coupled parent g-mode driving low-order daughter p-modes. The nonlinear flux variation could be nearly 50% of the linear variation for very hot WD models with $T\gtrsim26$ kK and 1% linear flux variation. We thus predict both the linear and nonlinear flux variations due to dynamical tides are likely to have significant observational signatures.


[33] 2010.15287

A time-dependent particle acceleration and emission model: Understanding the particle spectral evolution and blazar flares

The jets of blazars are renowned for their multi-wavelength flares and rapid extreme variability; however, there are still some important unanswered questions about the physical processes responsible for these spectral and temporal changes in emission properties. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent particle evolution model for the time-varying emission spectrum of blazars. In the model, we introduce time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, which consistently include the variability of relevant physical quantities in the transport equation. The evolution on the electron distribution is numerically solved from a generalized transport equation that contains the terms describing the electrostatic, first-order and second-order \emph{Fermi} acceleration, escape of particles due to both advection and spatial diffusion, as well as energy losses due to the synchrotron emission and inverse-Compton scattering of both synchrotron and external ambient photon fields. We find that the light curve profiles of blazars are consistent with the particle spectral evolution resulting from time-dependent electric and magnetic fields, rather than the effects of the acceleration or the cooling processes. The proposed model is able to simultaneously account for the variability of both the energy spectrum and the light curve profile of the BL Lac object Mrk 421 with reasonable assumptions about the physical parameters. The results strongly indicate that the magnetic field evolution in the dissipated region of a blazar jet can account for the variabilities.


[34] 2010.15301

Alignment and rotational disruption of dust

We reveal a deep connection between alignment of dust grains by RAdiative torques (RATs) and MEchanical Torques (METs) and rotational disruption of grains introduced by \cite{Hoangetal:2019}. We establish the preferential disruption of grains aligned with attractor points of high angular momentum (high-J). We introduce {\it fast alignment} and {\it fast disruption} for grains that are directly driven to the high-J attractor on a timescale of spin-up, and {\it slow alignment} and {\it slow disruption} for grains that are first moved to the low-J attractor and gradually transported to the high-J attractor by gas collisions. We calculate the fraction of grains that experience fast alignment and disruption, denoted by $f_{\rm high-J}$. The enhancement of grain magnetic susceptibility via iron inclusions expands the parameter space for high-J attractors and increases $f_{\rm high-J}$. The increase in the magnitude of RATs or METs can increase the efficiency of fast alignment and disruption, but counter-intuitively, decreases the effect of slow alignment and disruption by stronger forcing grains towards low-J attractors, whereas the increase in gas density accelerates disruption by faster transporting grains to the high-J attractor. We also show that disruption induced by RATs and METs depends on the angle between the magnetic field and the anisotropic flow, inducing differences in disruption efficiency of grains at the same distance from the radiation source. We find that pinwheel torques can increase the efficiency of {\it fast disruption} but may decrease the efficiency of {\it slow disruption} by delaying the transport of grains from the low-J to high-J attractors via gas collisions. The selective nature of the rotational disruption opens a possibility of observational testing of grain composition as well as physical processes of grain alignment.


[35] 2010.15310

Non-Keplerian spirals, a gas-pressure dust trap and an eccentric gas cavity in the circumbinary disc around HD 142527

We present ALMA observations of the $^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O J=2-1 transitions and the 1.3mm continuum emission for the circumbinary disc around HD 142527, at an angular resolution of $\approx$0.3 arcseconds. We observe multiple spiral structures in intensity, velocity and velocity dispersion for the $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO gas tracers. A newly detected $^{12}$CO spiral originates from the dust horseshoe, and is rotating at super-Keplerian velocity or vertically ascending, whilst the inter-spiral gas is rotating at sub-Keplerian velocities. This new spiral possibly connects to a previously identified spiral, thus spanning > 360$^\circ$. A spatial offset of ~30 au is observed between the $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO spirals, to which we hypothesize that the spirals are surfing on the vertical temperature gradient. Leveraging the varying optical depths between the CO isotopologues, we reconstruct temperature and column density maps of the outer disc. Gas surface density peaks at r$\approx$180au, coincident with the peak of continuum emission. Here the dust grains have a Stokes number of $\approx$1, confirming radial and azimuthal trapping in the horseshoe. We measure a cavity radius at half-maximum surface density of $\approx$100au, and a cavity eccentricity between 0.3 and 0.45.


[36] 2010.15318

Recommended Target Fields for Commissioning the Vera C. Rubin Observatory

The commissioning team for the Vera C. Rubin observatory is planning a set of engineering and science verification observations with the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) commissioning camera and then the Rubin Observatory LSST Camera. The time frame for these observations is not yet fixed, and the commissioning team will have flexibility in selecting fields to observe. In this document, the Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC) Commissioning Working Group presents a prioritized list of target fields appropriate for testing various aspects of DESC-relevant science performance, grouped by season for visibility from Rubin Observatory at Cerro Pachon. Our recommended fields include Deep-Drilling fields (DDFs) to full LSST depth for photo-$z$ and shape calibration purposes, HST imaging fields to full depth for deblending studies, and an $\sim$200 square degree area to 1-year depth in several filters for higher-level validation of wide-area science cases for DESC. We also anticipate that commissioning observations will be needed for template building for transient science over a broad RA range. We include detailed descriptions of our recommended fields along with associated references. We are optimistic that this document will continue to be useful during LSST operations, as it provides a comprehensive list of overlapping data-sets and the references describing them.


[37] 2010.15319

The nearby magnetic cool DZ white dwarf PM J08186-3110

We present an analysis of photometric, spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric data of the nearby, cool, magnetic DZ white dwarf PM J08186-3110. High dispersion spectra show the presence of Zeeman splitted spectral lines due to the presence of a surface average magnetic field of 92 kG. The strong magnesium and calcium lines show extended wings shaped by interactions with neutral helium in a dense, cool helium-rich atmosphere. We found that the abundance of heavy elements varied between spectra taken ten years apart but we could not establish a time-scale for these variations; such variations may be linked to surface abundance variations in the magnetized atmosphere. Finally, we show that volume limited samples reveal that about 40% of DZ white dwarfs with effective temperatures below 7000 K are magnetic.


[38] 2010.15341

A supernova remnant associated with a nascent black hole low-mass X-ray binary

Energy released when the core of a high-mass star collapses into a black hole often powers an explosion that creates a supernova remnant. Black holes have limited windows of observability, and consequently are rarely identified in association with supernova remnants. Analysing multi-messenger data, we show that MAXI J1535-571 is the black hole produced in the stellar explosion that gave rise to the supernova remnant G323.7-1.0, making it the first case of an association between a black hole low-mass X-ray binary and a supernova remnant. Given this connection, we can infer from our modelling that the progenitor system was a close binary whose primary star had an initial mass of approx. 23-35 solar masses with a companion star about 10 times less massive.


[39] 2010.15381

Exploration about the origin of galactic and extragalactic star clusters through simulated H-R diagrams

The present work explores the origin of the formation of star clusters in our Galaxy and in Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) through simulated H-R diagrams and compare those with observed star clusters. The simulation study produces synthetic H-R diagrams by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique using star formation history (SFH), luminosity function (LF), abundance of heavy metal (Z) and a big library of isochrones as basic inputs and compares them with observed H-R diagrams of various star clusters. The distance based comparison between those two diagrams is carried out through two dimensional matching of points in Color-Magnitude Diagram (CMD) after optimal choice of bin size and appropriate distance function. It is found that a poor medium of heavy elements (Z = 0.0004), Gaia LF along with mixture of multiple Gaussian distributions of SFH may be the origin of formation of globular clusters (GCs). On the contrary, enriched medium (Z = 0.019) is favoured with Gaia LF along with double power law (i.e. unimodal) SFH. For SMC clusters, the choice of exponential LF and exponential SFH is a proper combination for poor medium whereas Gaia LF with Beta type SFH is preferred in an enriched medium for the formation of star clusters.


[40] 2010.15383

The rotational influence on solar convection

This paper considers the dominant dynamical, thermal and rotational balances within the solar convection zone. The reasoning is such that: Coriolis forces balance pressure gradients. Background vortex stretching, baroclinic torques and nonlinear advection balance jointly. Turbulent fluxes convey what part of the solar luminosity that radiative diffusion cannot. These four relations determine estimates for the dominant length scales and dynamical amplitudes strictly in terms of known physical quantities. We predict that the dynamical Rossby number for convection is less than unity below the near-surface shear layer, indicating strong rotational constraint. We also predict a characteristic convection length scale of roughly 30 Mm throughout much of the convection zone. These inferences help explain recent observations that reveal weak flow amplitudes at 100-200 Mm scales.


[41] 2010.15401

Multi thermal atmosphere of a mini solar flare during magnetic reconnection observed with IRIS

The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph(IRIS) with its high spatial and temporal resolution brings exceptional plasma diagnostics of solar chromospheric and coronal activity during magnetic reconnection. The aim of this work is to study the fine structure and dynamics of the plasma at a jet base forming a mini flare between two emerging magnetic fluxes (EMFs) observed with IRIS and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) instruments. We proceed to a spatio-temporal analysis of IRIS spectra observed in the spectral ranges of Mg II, C II, and Si IV ions. Doppler velocities from Mg II lines are computed by using a cloud model technique. Strong asymmetric Mg II and C II line profiles with extended blue wings observed at the reconnection site (jet base) are interpreted by the presence of two chromospheric temperature clouds, one explosive cloud with blueshifts at 290 km/s and one cloud with smaller Dopplershift (around 36 km/s). Simultaneously at the same location (jet base), strong emission of several transition region lines (e.g. O IV and Si IV), emission of the Mg II triplet lines of the Balmer-continuum and absorption of identified chromospheric lines in Si IV broad profiles have been observed and analysed. Such observations of IRIS line and continuum emissions allow us to propose a stratification model for the white-light mini flare atmosphere with multiple layers of different temperatures along the line of sight, in a reconnection current sheet. It is the first time that we could quantify the fast speed (possibly Alfv\'enic flows) of cool clouds ejected perpendicularly to the jet direction by using the cloud model technique. We conjecture that the ejected clouds come from plasma which was trapped between the two EMFs before reconnection or be caused by chromospheric-temperature (cool) upflow material like in a surge, during reconnection


[42] 2010.15406

Neutron Stars with realistic EoS in f(R) theories of gravity

In this paper, we examine neutron star structure in perturbative $f(R)$ gravity models with realistic equation of state. We obtain mass-radius relations in two gravity models of the form $f_{1}(R)=R+ \alpha R(e^{-R/R_0}-1)$ and $f_{2}(R)=R+\alpha R^2$. For this purpose, we consider NS with several nucleonic as well as strange EoSs generated in the framework of relativistic mean field models. The strange particles in the core of NS are in the form of $\Lambda$ hyperons and quarks, in addition to the nucleons and leptons. The M-R relation of the chosen EoSs lies well within the observational limit in the case of GR. We show that these EoSs provide the most stringent constraint on the perturbative parameter $\alpha$ and therefore can be considered as important experimental probe for modified gravity at astrophysical level.


[43] 2010.15412

Can supernova shells feed supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei?

We simulate shells created by supernovae expanding into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the nuclear region of a galaxy, and analyze how the shell evolution is influenced by the supernova (SN) position relative to the galactic center, by the interstellar matter (ISM) density, and by the combined gravitational pull of the nuclear star cluster (NSC) and supermassive black hole (SMBH).We adopted simplified hydrodynamical simulations using the infinitesimally thin layer approximation in 3D (code RING) and determined whether and where the shell expansion may bring new gas into the inner parsec around the SMBH. The simulations show that supernovae occurring within a conical region around the rotational axis of the galaxy can feed the central accretion disk surrounding the SMBH. For ambient densities between 10$^3$ and 10$^5$ cm$^{-3}$, the average mass deposited into the central parsec by individual supernovae varies between 10 to 1000 solar masses depending on the ambient density and the spatial distribution of supernova events. Supernova occurring in the aftermath of a starburst event near a galactic center can supply two to three orders of magnitude more mass into the central parsec, depending on the magnitude of the starburst. The deposited mass typically encounters and joins an accretion disk. The fate of that mass is then divided between the growth of the SMBH and an energetically driven outflow from the disk.


[44] 2010.15425

Detection of asteroid trails in Hubble Space Telescope images using Deep Learning

We present an application of Deep Learning for the image recognition of asteroid trails in single-exposure photos taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Using algorithms based on multi-layered deep Convolutional Neural Networks, we report accuracies of above 80% on the validation set. Our project was motivated by the Hubble Asteroid Hunter project on Zooniverse, which focused on identifying these objects in order to localize and better characterize them. We aim to demonstrate that Machine Learning techniques can be very useful in trying to solve problems that are closely related to Astronomy and Astrophysics, but that they are still not developed enough for very specific tasks.


[45] 2010.15442

Voluminous silica precipitated from martian waters during late-stage aqueous alteration

Mars' transition from an early "warm and wet" to the "cold and dry" environment left fingerprints on the geological record of fluvial activity on Mars. The morphological and mineralogical observations of aqueous activity provided varying constraints on the condition and duration of liquid water on martian surface. In this study, we surveyed the mineralogy of martian alluvial fans and deltas and investigated the hydrated silica-bearing deposits associated with these landforms. Using CRISM data, we identified 35 locations across Mars with hydrated silica in proximity to fan/deltas, where the spectral characteristics are consistent with immature or dehydrated opal-A. In a few stepped fan/deltas, we find hydrated silica occurs within the bulk fan deposits and form sedimentary layers correlated with elevation, corroborating the formation of hydrated silica through precipitation. Meanwhile in the older fan/deltas silica mostly occur at distal locations and the relation to primary sedimentary deposits is more complex. We propose that the hydrated silica-bearing deposits in stepped fan/deltas likely formed authigenically from martian surface waters, mainly during the Late Hesperian and Early Amazonian [Hauber et al., 2013]. These silica-bearing deposits could be a tracer for the temperature of water involved in the formation of these deposits, given more precise and detailed observations of the sedimentary context, accessory minerals, the concentration of hydrated silica and sediment-to-water ratio. Therefore, we consider that silica-bearing deposits should be among the most critical samples to investigate for future Mars missions, which are accessible in the landing sites of Mars 2020 and ExoMars missions.


[46] 2010.15447

Multiple stellar populations at less evolved stages: detection of chemical variations among main-sequence dwarfs in NGC 1978

Multiple stellar populations (MPs) with different chemical compositions are not exclusive features of old GCs (older than 10 Gyr). Indeed, recent studies reveal that younger clusters ($\sim$2--6 Gyr-old) in the Magellanic Clouds also exhibit star-to-star chemical variations among evolved stars. However, whether MPs are present among less evolved dwarfs of these intermediate-age clusters is still unclear. In this work, we search for chemical variations among GK-type dwarfs in the $\sim$2 Gyr-old cluster NGC 1978, which is the youngest cluster with MPs. We exploit deep ultraviolet and visual observations from the Hubble Space Telescope to constrain the nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) variations among MS stars. To do this, we compare appropriate photometric diagrams that are sensitive to N and O with synthetic diagrams of simple stellar populations and MPs. We conclude that the G- and K-type MS stars in NGC\,1978 host MPs. Our statistical analysis shows that the fraction of N-rich stars ranges from $\sim$40\% to $\sim$80\%, depending on the detailed distributions of nitrogen and oxygen.


[47] 2010.15448

Effects of capturing a wide-orbit planet on planetary systems: system stability and Habitable Zone bombardment rates

A large fraction of stars are formed in dense clusters. In the cluster, close encounters between stars at distances less than 100 au are common. It has been shown that during close encounters planets can transfer between stars. Such captured planets will be on different orbits compared to planets formed in the system, often on very wide, eccentric and inclined orbits. We examine how these captured planets affect Kuiper-belt like asteroid belts in their new systems, and how this affects habitable planets in the system. We show that these captured planets can destabilize the asteroid belt, and we show that the fraction of the asteroid that make it past the giant planets into the system to impact the habitable planet is independent of the captured planets orbital plane, whereas the fraction of the asteroids that are removed and the rate at which they are removed depend strongly on the captured planets pericentre and inclination. We then examine all possible outcomes of planet capture and find that when a Jupiter-mass planet is captured it will in 40\% of cases destabilize the planets in the system, in 40\% of cases deplete the asteroid belt in a few Myr, i.e. not posing much risk to life on terrestrial planets which would be expected to develop later. In the final 20\% of cases the result will be a flux of impactors 5-10 times greater than that on Earth that can persist for several Gyr, quite detrimental to the development of life on the planet.


[48] 2010.15460

The Dust-to-Gas Ratio and the Role of Radiation Pressure in Luminous Obscured Quasars

The absence of high Eddington ratio, obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in local ($z\lesssim0.1$) samples of moderate luminosity AGN has generally been explained to result from radiation pressure on the dusty gas governing the level of nuclear ($\lesssim10$pc) obscuration. However, very high accretion rates are routinely reported among obscured quasars at higher luminosities, and may require a different feedback mechanism. We compile constraints on obscuration and Eddington ratio for samples of X-ray, optical, infrared, and submm selected AGN at quasar luminosities. Whereas moderate luminosity, obscured AGN in the local universe have a range of lower Eddington ratios ($f_{\rm Edd} \sim 0.001-0.1$), the most luminous ($L_{\rm bol} \gtrsim 10^{46} $erg/s) IR/submm-bright, obscured quasars out to $z\sim3$ commonly have very high Eddington ratios ($f_{\rm Edd} \sim 0.1-1$). This apparent lack of radiation pressure feedback in luminous obscured quasars is likely coupled with AGN timescales, such that a higher fraction of luminous obscured quasars are seen due to the short timescale for which quasars are most luminous. Adopting quasar evolutionary scenarios, extended ($\sim10^{2-3}$pc) obscuration may work together with the shorter timescales to explain the observed fraction of obscured, luminous quasars, while outflows driven by radiation pressure will slowly clear this material over the AGN lifetime.


[49] 2010.15477

Measuring the Mass of Missing Baryons in the Halo of Andromeda Galaxy with Gamma-Ray Observations

One of the biggest mysteries in the modern cosmology and galaxy formation is the hideout of the "missing baryons". The leading theory of galaxy formation predicts that a huge amount of baryons resides around galaxies extending out to their virial radii in the form of diffuse and hot gas of $10^6-10^7\,$K, which is also known as the major component of the circumgalactic medium (CGM). Studies by various groups via different techniques, however, have not reached a consensus on the role of CGM in accounting for the missing baryons, with the estimated contribution ranging from a minor fraction to enclosing the baryon budget of the galaxy. In this work we attempt to measure the mass of missing baryons in CGM with a novel method based on the gamma-ray observations of the extended halo of the Andromeda Galaxy. Since cosmic-ray particles that are generated inside the galaxy will eventually escape to the CGM, they will produce gamma-ray emission via the proton-proton collision with CGM. Different from some traditional measurements which are sensitive only to gas in certain specific temperature range, the hadronic gamma-ray flux is sensitive to baryonic gases in all phases and does not rely on the metallicity in the halo. Our result suggests that the total baryon mass contained within the virial radius is less than $(1.4-5)\times 10^{10}M_\odot$ according to the gamma-ray observation. It implies that the CGM of Andromeda Galaxy may not account for more than $30\%$ of the missing baryons, but the result is subject to uncertainties from the diffusion coefficient of the CRs in the halo as well as the stellar mass and dark matter halo mass of the galaxy. This method will become more constraining provided better understandings on these issues and more sensitive gamma-ray telescopes in the future.


[50] 2010.15566

Luminous Type II Short-Plateau Supernovae 2006Y, 2006ai, and 2016egz: A Transitional Class from Stripped Massive Red Supergiants

The diversity of Type II supernovae (SNe II) is thought to be driven mainly by differences in their progenitor's hydrogen-rich (H-rich) envelope mass, with SNe IIP having long plateaus ($\sim100$ days) and the most massive H-rich envelopes. However, it is an ongoing mystery why SNe II with short plateaus (tens of days) are rarely seen. Here we present optical/near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic observations of luminous Type II short-plateau SNe 2006Y, 2006ai, and 2016egz. Their plateaus of about $50$--$70$ days and luminous optical peaks ($\lesssim-18.4$ mag) indicate significant pre-explosion mass loss resulting in partially-stripped H-rich envelopes and early circumstellar material (CSM) interaction. We compute a large grid of MESA+STELLA single-star progenitor and light-curve models with various progenitor zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) masses, mass-loss efficiencies, explosion energies, $^{56}$Ni masses, and CSM densities. Our model grid shows a continuous population of SNe IIP--IIL--IIb-like light-curve morphology in descending order of H-rich envelope mass. With large $^{56}$Ni masses ($\gtrsim0.05\,M_\odot$), short-plateau SNe II lie in a confined parameter space as a transitional class between SNe IIL and IIb. For SNe 2006Y, 2006ai, and 2016egz, our findings suggest high-mass red supergiant (RSG) progenitors ($M_{\rm ZAMS} \simeq 18$--$22\,M_{\odot}$) with small H-rich envelope masses ($M_{\rm H_{\rm env}} \simeq 1.7\,M_{\odot}$) that experience enhanced mass loss ($\dot{M} \simeq 10^{-2}\,M_{\odot}\,{\rm yr}^{-1}$) for the last few decades before the explosion. If high-mass RSGs result in rare short-plateau SNe II, then these events might ease some of the apparent under-representation of higher-luminosity RSGs in observed SN II progenitor samples.


[51] 2010.15574

Gravitational waves from mountains in newly born millisecond magnetars

In this paper we study the spin-evolution and gravitational-wave luminosity of a newly born millisecond magnetar, formed either after the collapse of a massive star or after the merger of two neutron stars. In both cases we consider the effect of fallback accretion, and consider the evolution of the system due to the different torques acting on the star, namely the spin up torque due to accretion and spin-down torques due to magnetic dipole radiation, neutrino emission, and gravitational wave emission linked to the formation of a `mountain' on the accretion poles. Initially the spin period is mostly affected by the dipole radiation, but at later times accretion spin the star up rapidly. We find that a magnetar formed after the collapse of a massive star can accrete up to 1 M_{\odot} , and survive on the order of 50 s before collapsing to a black hole. The gravitational wave strain, for an object located at 1 Mpc, is h_c \sim 10^{-23} at kHz frequencies, making this a potential target for next generation ground based detectors. A magnetar formed after a binary neutron star merger, on the other hand, accretes at the most 0.2 M_{\odot}, and emits gravitational waves with a lower maximum strain of the order of h_c \sim 10^{-24} , but also survives for much longer times, and may possibly be associated with the X-ray plateau observed in the light curve of a number of short gamma-ray burst.


[52] 2010.15617

Formation of Gaps in Self-Gravitating Debris Disks by Secular Resonance in a Single-planet System I: A Simplified Model

Spatially resolved images of debris disks frequently reveal complex morphologies such as gaps, spirals, and warps. Most existing models for explaining such morphologies focus on the role of massive perturbers (i.e. planets, stellar companions), ignoring the gravitational effects of the disk itself. Here we investigate the secular interaction between an eccentric planet and a massive, external debris disk using a simple analytical model. Our framework accounts for both the gravitational coupling between the disk and the planet, as well as the disk self-gravity -- with the limitation that it ignores the non-axisymmetric component of the disk (self-)gravity. We find generally that even when the disk is less massive than the planet, the system may feature secular resonances within the disk (contrary to what may be naively expected), where planetesimal eccentricities get significantly excited. Given this outcome we propose that double-ringed debris disks, such as those around HD 107146 and HD 92945, could be the result of secular resonances with a yet-undetected planet interior to the disk. We characterize the dependence of the properties of the secular resonances (i.e. locations, timescales, and widths) on the planet and disk parameters, finding that the mechanism is robust provided the disk is massive enough. As an example, we apply our results to HD 107146 and find that this mechanism readily produces $\sim 20$ au wide non-axisymmetric gaps. Our results may be used to set constraints on the total mass of double-ringed debris disks. We demonstrate this for HD 206893, for which we infer a disk mass of $\approx 170$ Earth masses by considering perturbations from the known brown dwarf companion.


[53] 2010.15619

Relativistic Alfvén Waves Entering Charge Starvation in the Magnetospheres of Neutron Stars

Instabilities in a neutron star can generate Alfv\'en waves in its magnetosphere. Propagation along the curved magnetic field lines strongly shears the wave, boosting its electric current $j_{\rm A}$. We derive an analytic expression for the evolution of the wave vector $\boldsymbol{k}$ and the growth of $j_{\rm A}$. In the strongly sheared regime, $j_{\rm A}$ may exceed the maximum current $j_{0}$ that can be supported by the background $e^{\pm}$ plasma. We investigate these "charge-starved" waves, first using a simplified two-fluid analytic model, then with first-principles kinetic simulations. We find that the Alfv\'en wave continues to propagate successfully even when $\kappa \equiv j_{\rm A}/j_{0} \gg 1$. It sustains $j_{\rm A}$ by compressing and advecting the plasma along the magnetic field lines with particle Lorentz factors $\sim \kappa^{1/2}$. The simulations show how plasma instabilities lead to gradual dissipation of the wave energy, giving a dissipation power $L_{\rm diss}\sim 10^{35}(\kappa/100)^{1/2} (B_w/10^{11}\,{\rm G})\,\mathrm{erg/s}$, where $B_w$ is the wave amplitude. Our results imply that dissipation due to charge starvation is not sufficient to power observed fast radio bursts (FRBs), in contrast to recent proposals.


[54] 2010.15627

Multiplicity among the cool supergiants in the Magellanic Clouds

The characterisation of the multiplicity of high-mass stars is of fundamental importance to understand their evolution, the diversity of observed core-collapse supernovae and the formation of gravitational wave progenitor systems. Despite that, until recently, one of the final phases of massive star evolution -- the cool supergiant phase -- has received comparatively little attention. In this study we aim to explore the multiplicity among the cool supergiants (CSGs) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively). To do this we compile extensive archival radial velocity (RV) measurements for over 1000 CSGs from the LMC and SMC, spanning a baseline of over 40 years. By statistically correcting the RV measurements of each stellar catalogue to the Gaia DR2 reference frame we are able to effectively compare these diverse observations. We identify 45 CSGs where RV variations cannot be explained through intrinsic variability, and are hence considered binary systems. We obtain a minimum binary fraction of $15\pm4\%$ for the SMC and of $14\pm5\%$ for the LMC. Combining these results, we determine a minimum binary fraction of $15\pm3\%$ for CSGs. These results are in good agreement with previous results which apply a correction to account for observational biases. These results add strength to the hypothesis that the binary fraction of CSGs is significantly lower than their main-sequence counterparts. Going forward, we stress the need for long-baseline multi-epoch spectroscopic surveys to cover the full parameter space of CSG binary systems.


[55] 2010.15635

Flare Rates, Rotation Periods. and Spectroscopic Activity Indicators of a Volume-Complete Sample of Mid-to-Late M dwarfs within 15 Parsecs

We present a study of flare rates, rotation periods, and spectroscopic activity indicators of 125 single stars within 15 parsecs and with masses between 0.1$-$0.3 $M_\odot$ observed during the first year of the TESS mission, with the goal of elucidating the relationship between these various magnetically connected phenomena. We gathered multi-epoch high resolution spectra of each target and we measured equivalent widths of the activity indicators Helium I D$_3$, $H\alpha$, and the Calcium infrared triplet line at 8542.09 angstroms. We present 18 new rotation periods from MEarth photometry and 19 new rotation periods from TESS photometry. We present a catalog of 1392 flares. After correcting for sensitivity, we find the slope of the flare frequency distribution for all stars to have a standard value of $\alpha$ = 1.98 $\pm$ 0.02. We determine R$_{31.5}$, the rate of flares per day with energies above E = 3.16$\times$10$^{31}$ ergs in the TESS bandpass. We find that below a critical value of $H\alpha$ EW = -0.71 angstroms, log R$_{31.5}$ increases linearly with increasing $H\alpha$ emission; above this value, log R$_{31.5}$ declines rapidly. The stars divide into two groups: 26% have $H\alpha$ in emission, high flare rates with typical values of log R$_{31.5}$ = -1.30 $\pm$ 0.08, and have Rossby numbers $<$ 0.50. The remaining 74% show little to no $H\alpha$ in emission and exhibit log R$_{31.5}$ $<$ -3.86, with the majority of these stars not showing a single flare during the TESS observations.


[56] 2010.15637

$SuperBoRG$: Search for The Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies and Quasars in HST Parallel Imaging Data

The Hubble Space Telescope ($HST$) has been providing tremendous survey efficiency via its pure-parallel mode, by observing another field in parallel with the primary instrument in operation for the primary observation. In this study, we present a new archival project, $SuperBoRG$, which aims at compiling data taken in extragalactic parallel programs of $HST$ with WFC3 in the past decade; including pure-parallel (BoRG, HIPPIES, and COS-GTO) and coordinated-parallel (CLASH and RELICS) programs. The total effective area reaches $\sim0.41$deg$^2$ from 4.1Msec, or 47days, of observing time, which is the largest collection of optical-NIR imaging data of HST for extragalactic science. We reduce all data in a consistent manner with an updated version of our data reduction pipeline. When available, infrared imaging data from the Spitzer Space Telescope are included in photometric analyses. The dataset consists of 316 independent sightlines and is highly effective for identification of high-$z$ luminous sources ($M_\mathrm{UV}<-21$mag) at $z\sim7$ to $12$, helping to minimize the effects of cosmic variance. As a demonstration, we present three new $z>7$ source candidates, including one luminous galaxy candidate at $z_\mathrm{phot}\sim10.4$ with $M_\mathrm{UV}\sim-21.9$ mag; for this object the best-fit spectral energy distribution implies a large amount of stellar mass ($\log M_*/M_\odot \sim 10$) and moderate dust attenuation ($A_V \sim 1.4$mag), though the possibility of it being a low-$z$ interloper cannot completely be rejected ($\sim23\%$) with the current dataset. The dataset presented in this study is also suited for intermediate and low-$z$ science cases.


[57] 2010.15645

Characterizing the Circumgalactic Medium of the Lowest-Mass Galaxies: A Case Study of IC 1613

Using 10 sightlines observed with the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, we study the circumgalactic medium (CGM) and outflows of IC1613, which is a low-mass ($M_*\sim10^8~M_\odot$), dwarf irregular galaxy on the outskirts of the Local Group. Among the sightlines, 4 are pointed towards UV-bright stars in IC1613, and the other 6 sightlines are background QSOs at impact parameters from 6 kpc ($<0.1R_{200}$) to 61 kpc ($0.6R_{200}$). We detect a number of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, and C IV absorbers, most of which have velocities less than the escape velocity of IC1613 and thus are gravitationally bound. The line strengths of these ion absorbers are consistent with the CGM absorbers detected in dwarf galaxies at low redshifts. Assuming that Si II, Si III, and Si IV comprise nearly 100% of the total silicon, we find 3% ($\sim$8$\times$10$^3~{\rm M_\odot}$), 2% ($\sim$7$\times$10$^3~{\rm M_\odot}$), and 32--42% [$\sim$(1.0--1.3)$\times$10$^5~{\rm M_\odot}$] of the silicon mass in the stars, interstellar medium, and within $0.6R_{200}$ of the CGM of IC1613. We also estimate the metal outflow rate to be ${\rm \dot{M}_{out, Z}\geq1.1\times10^{-5}~M_\odot~yr^{-1}}$ and the instantaneous metal mass loading factor to be $\eta_{\rm Z}\geq0.004$, which are in broad agreement with available observation and simulation values. This work is the first time a dwarf galaxy of such low mass is probed by a number of both QSO and stellar sightlines, and it shows that the CGM of low-mass gas-rich galaxies can be a large reservoir enriched with metals from past and ongoing outflows.


[58] 2010.15661

SAGECal performance with large sky models

As astronomical instruments become more sensitive, the requirements for the calibration software become more stringent; without accurate calibration solutions, thermal noise levels in images will not be reached and the scientific output of the instrument is degraded. Calibration requires bright sources with known properties, in particular with respect to their brightnesses as a function of frequency. However, for modern radio telescopes with a huge field of view, a single calibration source does not suffice; instead a sky model with tens of thousands of sources is needed. In this work, we investigate the compute load for such complicated sky models, with up to 50,000 sources, for the SAGECal calibration package. We have chosen half of the sources in these models to be point sources and half of them extended, which we represent by Gaussian profiles.


[59] 2010.15666

Spherical isochrone models revisited

A short derivation of all isochrone models using complex analysis


[60] 2010.15710

MIRISim: A Simulator for the Mid-Infrared Instrument on JWST

The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), has imaging, four coronagraphs and both low and medium resolution spectroscopic modes . Being able to simulate MIRI observations will help commissioning of the instrument, as well as get users familiar with representative data. We designed the MIRI instrument simulator (MIRISim) to mimic the on-orbit performance of the MIRI imager and spectrometers using the Calibration Data Products (CDPs) developed by the MIRI instrument team. The software encorporates accurate representations of the detectors, slicers, distortions, and noise sources along the light path including the telescope's radiative background and cosmic rays. The software also includes a module which enables users to create astronomical scenes to simulate. MIRISim is a publicly available Python package that can be run at the command line, or from within Python. The outputs of MIRISim are detector images in the same uncalibrated data format that will be delivered to MIRI users. These contain the necessary metadata for ingestion by the JWST calibration pipeline.


[61] 2010.15731

Morphology of Gamma-Ray Halos around Middle-Aged Pulsars: Influence of the Pulsar Proper Motion

Recently, \gray halos of a few degree extension have been detected around two middle-aged pulsars, Geminga and PSR B0656+14 by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov observatory (HAWC). The measurements of surface brightness profile of the pulsar halos suggest that the transport of particles therein is dominated by diffusion, and the diffusion coefficient is significantly lower than the average value in the Galactic disk. Since pulsars typically have a proper velocity of $400-500{\,\rm km s^{-1}}$, the displacement of these middle-aged pulsars due to the proper motion could be important in shaping the morphology of the pulsar halos. Motivated by this, we study the morphology of pulsar halos considering proper motion in the diffusion-dominated scenario. We find that the morphology of the pulsar halo can be basically classified into three evolutionary phases, depending on the velocity of the proper motion, cooling of the emitting electrons and the age of the pulsar. Generally, the morphology would appear highly asymmetric at $\lesssim 1\,$TeV while keeps more or less spherical at $\gtrsim 10\,$TeV for middle-aged pulsars. We also study the offset between the position of pulsars and the center of the intensity map of the corresponding halo. We find that proper motion can induce observable offsets seen by Fermi-LAT, HESS, HAWC and LHAASO from GeV up to a few TeV energies provided that the source is located within several kpc from Earth. It is more difficult to produce resolvable offset in the pulsar halo at higher energy due to more rapid cooling of emitting electrons. Our result can provide constraints on the origins of those extended sources at very high energies.


[62] 2010.15735

Tuning Advanced LIGO to kilohertz signals from neutron-star collisions

Gravitational waves produced at kilohertz frequencies in the aftermath of a neutron star collision can shed light on the behavior of matter at extreme temperatures and densities that are inaccessible to laboratory experiments. Gravitational-wave interferometers are limited by quantum noise at these frequencies but can be tuned via their optical configuration to maximize the probability of post-merger signal detection. We compare two such tuning strategies to turn Advanced LIGO into a post-merger-focused instrument: first, a wideband tuning that enhances the instrument's signal-to-noise ratio 40--80\% broadly above \SI{1}{\kHz} relative to the baseline, with a modest sensitivity penalty at lower frequencies; second, a "detuned" configuration that provides even more enhancement than the wideband tuning, but over only a narrow frequency band and at the expense of substantially worse quantum noise performance elsewhere. With an optimistic accounting for instrument loss and uncertainty in post-merger parameters, the detuned instrument has a ${\lesssim}40\%$ sensitivity improvement compared to the wideband instrument.


[63] 2010.15746

Investigation on a Doubly-Averaged Model for the Molniya Satellites Orbits

The aim of this work is to investigate the lunisolar perturbations affecting the long-term dynamics of a Molniya satellite. Some numerical experiments on the doubly-averaged model, including the expansion of the lunisolar disturbing functions up to the third order, are carried out in order to detect the terms dominating the long-term evolution. The analysis focuses on the following significant indicators: the amplitude of the harmonic coefficients, the periods of the arguments involved and, in particular, the ratio between the amplitudes and the corresponding frequency. The results show that the second-order lunisolar perturbation gives the dominant contribution to the long-term dynamics. The second part of this work aims to study the resonant regions associated to the dominant terms identified so far by using both the ideal resonance model and an alternative approach. The results obtained show when the standard method does not catch the main features of the dynamical structure of the resonant regions. Finally, the maximum overlapping region is identified in the proximity of the Molniya orbital environment.


[64] 2010.15762

The intensity and evolution of the extreme storms in January 1938

Major solar eruptions occasionally direct interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) to Earth and cause significant geomagnetic storms and low-latitude aurorae. While single extreme storms are of significant threats to the modern civilization, storms occasionally appear in sequence and, acting synergistically, cause 'perfect storms' at Earth. The stormy interval in January 1938 was one of such cases. Here, we analyze the contemporary records to reveal its time series on their source active regions, solar eruptions, ICMEs, geomagnetic storms, low-latitude aurorae, and cosmic-ray (CR) variations. Geomagnetic records show that three storms occurred successively on 17/18 January (Dcx ~ -171 nT) on 21/22 January (Dcx ~ -328 nT) and on 25/26 January (Dcx ~ -336 nT). The amplitudes of the cosmic-ray variations and sudden storm commencements show the impact of the first ICME as the largest (~ 6% decrease in CR and 72 nT in SSC) and the ICME associated with the storms that followed as more moderate (~ 3% decrease in CR and 63 nT in SSC; ~ 2% decrease in CR and 63 nT in SSC). Interestingly, a significant solar proton event occurred on 16/17 January and the Cheltenham ionization chamber showed a possible ground level enhancement. During the first storm, aurorae were less visible at mid-latitudes, whereas during the second and third storms, the equatorward boundaries of the auroral oval were extended down to 40.3{\deg} and 40.0{\deg} in invariant latitude. This contrast shows that the initial ICME was probably faster, with a higher total magnitude but a smaller southward component.


[65] 2010.15798

The impact of (n,$γ$) reaction rate uncertainties of unstable isotopes on the i-process nucleosynthesis of the elements from Ba to W

The anomalous abundances of n-capture elements in the CEMP-r/s stars agree in many instances very well with simulation predictions of intermediate n-density nucleosynthesis, $N_\mathrm{n}\sim 10^{13}$ - $10^{15} \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$, in rapidly-accreting white dwarfs (RAWDs). We have performed Monte-Carlo simulations of this i-process nucleosynthesis in order to determine the impact of (n,$\gamma$) reaction rate uncertainties of 164 unstable isotopes, from $^{131}$I to $^{189}$Hf, on the prediction of abundances of 18 elements from Ba to W. The impact study is based on two representative one-zone models with constant values of $N_\mathrm{n} = 3.16\times 10^{14}\ \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ and $N_\mathrm{n} = 3.16\times 10^{13}\ \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$ and on a multi-zone simulation based on a realistic stellar evolution model of He-shell convection entraining H in a RAWD model with [Fe/H]$\,=-2.6$. For each of the selected elements, we have identified up to two (n,$\gamma$) reactions having the strongest correlations between their rate variations constrained by Hauser-Feshbach computations and the predicted abundances, with the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients $|r_\mathrm{P}| > 0.15$. We find that the possible discrepancies between the predicted and observed abundances of Ba and Pr in the CEMP-r/s star CS31062-050 could be significantly diminished if the rate of the reaction $^{137}$Cs(n,$\gamma)^{138}$Cs were reduced and the rates of $^{141}$Ba(n,$\gamma)^{142}$Ba or $^{141}$La(n,$\gamma)^{142}$La increased. (abridged)


[66] 2010.15807

A data processing system for balloon-borne telescopes

The JEM-EUSO Collaboration aims at studying Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) from space. To reach this goal, a series of pathfinder missions has been developed to prove the observation principle and to raise the technological readiness level of the instrument. Among these, the EUSO-SPB2 (Extreme Universe Space Observatory on a Super Pressure Balloon, mission two) foresees the launch of two telescopes on an ultra-long duration balloon. One is a fluorescence telescope designed to detect UHECR via the UV fluorescence emission of the showers in the atmosphere. The other one measures direct Cherenkov light emission from lower energy cosmic rays and other optical backgrounds for cosmogenic tau neutrino detection. In this paper, we describe the data processing system which has been designed to perform data management and instrument control for the two telescopes. It is a complex which controls front-end electronics, tags events with arrival time and payload position through a GPS system, provides signals for time synchronization of the event and measures live and dead time of the telescope. In addition, the data processing system manages mass memory for data storage, performs housekeeping monitor, and controls power on and power off sequences. The target flight duration for the NASA super pressure program is 100 days, consequently, the requirements on the electronics and the data handling are quite severe. The system operates at high altitude in unpressurised environment, which introduces a technological challenge for heat dissipation.


[67] 2010.15822

Quintessential $α$-attractor inflation: forecasts for Stage IV galaxy surveys

Single-field models of $\alpha$-attractor quintessential inflation provide a unified picture of the two periods of early- and late-time cosmic acceleration, where both inflation and dark energy are described by a single scalar degree of freedom rolling down a runaway potential. These theoretically well-motivated models have distinct observational predictions that are in agreement with existing cosmological data. We show that the next generation of large-scale structure surveys, even when no other cosmological data sets are considered, will strongly constrain the parameter space of these models, and test them against the standard cosmological model and more conventional non-quintessential inflation. In particular, we expect $\mathcal{O}(10^{-5}\mathrm{-}10^{-4})$ constraints on the present values of the dark energy equation of state and its time derivative, $w_0$ and $w_a$. We also forecast more than one order of magnitude tighter constraints on the spectral index of primordial curvature perturbations $n_s$ compared to the expectations for the standard model. This demonstrates the powerful synergy between the upcoming large-scale structure probes of inflation and those aiming to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ through the observation of $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background.


[68] 2010.15125

Higher Spin Dark Matter

Little is known about dark matter beyond the fact that it does not interact with the standard model or itself, or else does so incredibly weakly. A natural candidate, given the history of no-go theorems against their interactions, are higher spin fields. Here we develop the scenario of higher spin (spin $s>2$) dark matter. We show that the gravitational production of superheavy bosonic higher spin fields during inflation can provide all the dark matter we observe today. We consider the observable signatures, and find a potential characteristic signature of bosonic higher spin dark matter in directional direct detection; we find that there are distinct spin-dependent contributions to the double differential recoil rate, which complement the oscillatory imprint of higher spin fields in the cosmic microwave background. We consider the extension to higher spin fermions and supersymmetric higher spins.


[69] 2010.15129

A Closer Look at CP-Violating Higgs Portal Dark Matter as a Candidate for the GCE

A statistically significant excess of gamma rays has been reported and robustly confirmed in the Galactic Center over the past decade. Large local dark matter densities suggest that this Galactic Center Excess (GCE) may be attributable to new physics, and indeed it has been shown that this signal is well-modelled by annihilations dominantly into $b\bar{b}$ with a WIMP-scale cross section. In this paper, we consider Majorana dark matter annihilating through a Higgs portal as a candidate source for this signal, where a large CP-violation in the Higgs coupling may serve to severely suppress scattering rates. In particular, we explore the phenomenology of two minimal UV completions, a singlet-doublet model and a doublet-triplet model, and map out the available parameter space which can give a viable signal while respecting current experimental constraints.


[70] 2010.15138

papaya2: 2D Irreducible Minkowski Tensor computation

A common challenge in scientific and technical domains is the quantitative description of geometries and shapes, e.g. in the analysis of microscope imagery or astronomical observation data. Frequently, it is desirable to go beyond scalar shape metrics such as porosity and surface to volume ratios because the samples are anisotropic or because direction-dependent quantities such as conductances or elasticity are of interest. Minkowski Tensors are a systematic family of versatile and robust higher-order shape descriptors that allow for shape characterization of arbitrary order and promise a path to systematic structure-function relationships for direction-dependent properties. Papaya2 is a software to calculate 2D higher-order shape metrics with a library interface, support for Irreducible Minkowski Tensors and interpolated marching squares. Extensions to Matlab, JavaScript and Python are provided as well. While the tensor of inertia is computed by many tools, we are not aware of other open-source software which provides higher-rank shape characterization in 2D.


[71] 2010.15151

Eccentricity evolution of compact binaries and applications to gravitational-wave physics

Searches for gravitational waves from compact binaries focus mostly on quasi-circular motion, with the rationale that wave emission circularizes the orbit. Here, we study the generality of this result, when astrophysical environments (e.g., accretion disks) or other fundamental interactions are taken into account. We are motivated by possible electromagnetic counterparts to binary black hole coalescences and orbits, but also by the possible use of eccentricity as a smoking-gun for new physics. We find that: i) backreaction from radiative mechanisms, including scalars, vectors and gravitational waves circularize the orbital motion. ii) by contrast, environmental effects such as accretion and dynamical friction increase the eccentricity of binaries. Thus, it is the competition between radiative mechanisms and environmental effects that dictates the eccentricity evolution. We study this competition within an adiabatic approach, including gravitational radiation and dynamical friction forces. We show that that there is a critical semi-major axis below which gravitational radiation dominates the motion and the eccentricity of the system decreases. However, the eccentricity inherited from the environment-dominated stage can be substantial, and in particular can affect LISA sources. We provide examples for GW190521-like sources.


[72] 2010.15282

Incorporation of Statistical Data Quality Information into the GstLAL Search Analysis

We present updates to GstLAL, a matched filter gravitational-wave search pipeline, in Advanced LIGO and Virgo's third observing run. We discuss the incorporation of statistical data quality information into GstLAL's multi-dimensional likelihood ratio ranking statistic and additional improvements to search for gravitational wave candidates found in only one detector. Statistical data quality information is provided by iDQ, a data quality pipeline that infers the presence of short-duration transient noise in gravitational-wave data using the interferometer's auxiliary state, which has operated in near real-time since before LIGO's first observing run in 2015. We look at the performance and impact on noise rejection by the inclusion of iDQ information in GstLAL's ranking statistic, and discuss GstLAL results in the GWTC-2 catalog, focusing on two case studies; GW190424A, a single-detector gravitational-wave event found by GstLAL and a period of time in Livingston impacted by a thunderstorm.


[73] 2010.15565

Mode Conversion and Period Doubling at Plasma-$β$ Unity in an Alfvén-Wave Experiment with Liquid Rubidium

We report Alfv\'en-wave experiments with liquid rubidium at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD). Reaching up to 63 T, the pulsed magnetic field exceeds the critical value of 54 T at which the Alfv\'en speed becomes equal to the sound speed (plasma-$\beta$ unity). At this threshold we observe a period doubling of an applied 8 kHz CW excitation, a clear footprint for a parametric resonance between magnetosonic waves and Alfv\'en waves.


[74] 2010.15795

Tidal Love Numbers of Kerr Black Holes

The open question of whether a Kerr black hole can become tidally deformed or not has profound implications for fundamental physics and gravitational-wave astronomy. We consider a Kerr black hole embedded in a weak and slowly varying, but otherwise arbitrary, multipolar tidal environment. By solving the static Teukolsky equation for the gauge-invariant Weyl scalar $\psi_0$, and by reconstructing the corresponding metric perturbation in an ingoing radiation gauge, for a general harmonic index $\ell$, we compute the linear response of a Kerr black hole to the tidal field. This linear response vanishes identically for a Schwarzschild black hole and for an axisymmetric perturbation of a spinning black hole. For a nonaxisymmetric perturbation of a spinning black hole, however, the linear response does not vanish, and it contributes to the Geroch-Hansen multipole moments of the perturbed Kerr geometry. As an application, we compute explicitly the rotational black hole tidal Love numbers that couple the induced quadrupole moments to the quadrupolar tidal fields, to linear order in the black hole spin, and we introduce the corresponding notion of tidal Love tensor. Finally, we show that those induced quadrupole moments are closely related to the well-known physical phenomenon of tidal torquing of a spinning body interacting with a tidal gravitational environment.