New articles on Astrophysics

[1] 2306.04649

GRB 210619B: first gamma-ray burst detection by the novel polarimeter MOPTOP

GRB~210619B was a bright long gamma-ray burst (GRB) which was optically followed up by the novel polarimeter MOPTOP on the Liverpool Telescope (LT). This was the first GRB detection by the instrument since it began science observations. MOPTOP started observing the GRB 1388 seconds after the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) trigger. The $R$ band light-curve decays following a broken power law with a break time of 2948 s after the trigger. The decay index values are $\alpha_1 = 0.84 \pm 0.03$ (pre-break) and $\alpha_2 = 0.54 \pm 0.02$ (post-break), indicating that the observation was most probably during the forward shock-dominated phase. We find a polarization upper limit of $\sim7$\%. In the forward shock we expect the polarization to mostly come from dust in the local ambient medium which only produces low degrees of polarization. Hence our non-detection of polarization is as expected for this particular burst.

[2] 2306.04669

Spectral variability of photospheric radiation due to faculae II: Facular contrasts for cool main-sequence stars

Magnetic features on the surface of stars, such as spots and faculae, cause stellar spectral variability on time-scales of days and longer. For stars other than the Sun, the spectral signatures of faculae are poorly understood, limiting our ability to account for stellar pollution in exoplanet transit observations. Here we present the first facular contrasts derived from magnetoconvection simulations for K0, M0 and M2 main-sequence stars and compare them to previous calculations for G2 main-sequence stars. We simulate photospheres and immediate subsurface layers of main-sequence spectral types between K0 and M2, with different injected vertical magnetic fields (0 G, 100 G, 300 G and 500 G) using MURaM, a 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code. We show synthetic spectra and contrasts from the UV (300 nm) to the IR (10000 nm) calculated using the ATLAS9 radiative transfer code. The calculations are performed for nine viewing angles to characterise the facular radiation across the disc. The brightness contrasts of magnetic regions are found to change significantly across spectral type, wavelength and magnetic field strength, leading to the conclusion that accurate contrasts cannot be found by scaling solar values. This is due to features of different size, apparent structure and spectral brightness emerging in the presence of a given magnetic field for different spectral types.

[3] 2306.04674

Milky Way satellite velocities reveal the Dark Matter power spectrum at small scales

Dark Matter (DM) properties at small scales remain uncertain. Recent theoretical and observational advances have provided the tools to narrow them down. Here, we show for the first time that the correlation between internal velocities and sizes of dwarf galaxies is a sharp probe of small-scale DM properties. We study modified DM power spectra, motivated by DM production during inflation. Using semi-analytic models and scaling relations, we show that such models can change the kinematics and structure of dwarf galaxies without strongly affecting their total abundance. We analyze data from Milky Way classical satellite galaxies and those discovered with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), finding that the DM power spectrum at comoving scales ${4\, \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1} < k < 37\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}}$ cannot deviate by more than a factor of 2 from scale invariance. Our results are robust against baryonic uncertainties such as the stellar mass-halo mass relation, halo occupation fraction, and subhalo tidal disruption; allowing us to independently constrain them. This work thus opens a window to probe both dwarf galaxy formation models and small-scale DM properties.

[4] 2306.04676

Exoplanet Spectroscopy with JWST NIRISS: Diagnostics and Case Studies

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is ushering in a new era in remote sensing of exoplanetary atmospheres. Atmospheric retrievals of exoplanets can be highly sensitive to high-precision JWST data. It is, therefore, imperative to characterise the instruments and noise sources using early observations to enable robust characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres using JWST-quality spectra. The present work is a step in that direction, focusing on the NIRISS SOSS instrument mode, with a wavelength coverage of 0.6 - 2.8 {\mu}m and R ~ 700. Using a custom-built pipeline, JExoRes, we investigate key diagnostics of NIRISS SOSS with observations of two giant exoplanets, WASP-39 b and WASP-96 b, as case studies. We conduct a detailed evaluation of the different aspects of the data reduction and analysis, including sources of contamination, 1/f noise, and system properties such as limb darkening. The slitless nature of NIRISS SOSS makes it susceptible to contamination due to background sources. We present a method to model and correct for dispersed field stars which can significantly improve the accuracy of the observed spectra. In doing so, we also report an empirically determined throughput function for the instrument. We find significant correlated noise in the derived spectra, which may be attributed to 1/f noise, and discuss its implications for spectral binning. We quantify the covariance matrix which would enable the consideration of correlated noise in atmospheric retrievals. Finally, we conduct a comparative assessment of NIRISS SOSS spectra of WASP-39 b reported using different pipelines and highlight important lessons for exoplanet spectroscopy with JWST NIRISS.

[5] 2306.04679

A Tight Correlation Between Millimeter and X-ray Emission in Accreting Massive Black Holes from <100 Milliarcsecond-resolution ALMA Observations

Recent studies have proposed that the nuclear millimeter continuum emission observed in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be created by the same population of electrons that gives rise to the X-ray emission that is ubiquitously observed in accreting black holes. We present the results of a dedicated high spatial resolution ($\sim$60-100 milliarcsecond) ALMA campaign on a volume-limited ($<50$ Mpc) sample of 26 hard X-ray ($>10$ keV) selected radio-quiet AGN. We find an extremely high detection rate (25/26 or $94^{+3}_{-6}\%$), which shows that nuclear emission at mm-wavelenghts is nearly ubiquitous in accreting SMBHs. Our high-resolution observations show a tight correlation between the nuclear (1-23 pc) 100GHz and the intrinsic X-ray emission (1$\sigma$ scatter of $0.22$ dex). The ratio between the 100GHz continuum and the X-ray emission does not show any correlation with column density, black hole mass, Eddington ratio or star formation rate, which suggests that the 100GHz emission can be used as a proxy of SMBH accretion over a very broad range of these parameters. The strong correlation between 100GHz and X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGN could be used to estimate the column density based on the ratio between the observed 2-10keV ($F^{\rm obs}_{2-10\rm\,keV}$) and 100GHz ($F_{100\rm\,GHz}$) fluxes. Specifically, a ratio $\log (F^{\rm obs}_{2-10\rm\,keV}/F_{100\rm\,GHz})\leq 3.5$ strongly suggests that a source is heavily obscured [$\log (N_{\rm H}/\rm cm^{-2})\gtrsim 23.8$]. Our work shows the potential of ALMA continuum observations to detect heavily obscured AGN (up to an optical depth of one at 100GHz, i.e. $N_{\rm H}\simeq 10^{27}\rm\,cm^{-2}$), and to identify binary SMBHs with separations $<100$ pc, which cannot be probed by current X-ray facilities.

[6] 2306.04684

Alleviating the need for exponential evolution of JWST galaxies in 10$^{10} M_{\odot}$ haloes at $z > 10$ by a modified $Λ$CDM power spectrum

We infer the evolution of the UV luminosities of galaxies in haloes of masses $10^{10} - 10^{11} M_{\odot}$ in the redshift range of $z \sim 9-16$ from the recent JWST data. Within the standard $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model, it is found that the average luminosities in this halo mass range show an exponential evolution with redshift, in excess of that expected from astrophysical considerations including the evolution of UV luminosity from Population III galaxies. We find that an enhancement of power on scales $k \sim 1$ Mpc$^{-1}$, as captured by a cosmological transfer function modified from the $\Lambda$CDM form, is able to alleviate this effect and allow for a non-evolving UV luminosity as a function of redshift at $z > 10$, consistently with the corresponding findings for lower redshifts. We discuss the possible astrophysical and cosmological reasons for such an enhancement.

[7] 2306.04685

RelSIM: A relativistic semi-implicit method for Particle-in-Cell simulations

We present a novel Relativistic Semi-Implicit Method (RelSIM) for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of astrophysical plasmas, implemented in a code framework ready for production runs. While explicit PIC methods have gained widespread recognition in the astrophysical community as a reliable tool to simulate space plasmas, implicit methods have been seldom explored. This is partly due to the lack of a reliable relativistic implicit PIC formulation that is applicable to state-of-the-art simulations. We propose the RelSIM to fill this gap: our new method is relatively simple, being free of nonlinear iterations and only requiring a global linear solve of the field equations. With a set of standardized one- and two-dimensional tests, we demonstrate that the RelSIM produces more accurate results with much smaller numerical errors in the total energy than standard explicit PIC, particularly when characteristic plasma scales (skin depth and plasma frequency) are heavily underresolved on the numerical grid. By construction, the RelSIM also performs much better than the Relativistic Implicit-Moment Method (RelIMM), originally proposed for semi-implicit PIC simulations in the relativistic regime. Our results are promising to conduct large-scale (in terms of duration and domain size) PIC simulations of astrophysical plasmas, potentially reaching physical regimes inaccessible by standard explicit PIC codes.

[8] 2306.04688

The Prevalence of the $α$-bimodality: First JWST $α$-abundance Results in M31

We present initial results from our JWST NIRSpec program to study the $\alpha$-abundances in the M31 disk. The Milky Way has two chemically-defined disks, the low-$\alpha$ and high-$\alpha$ disks, which are closely related to the thin and thick disks, respectively. The origin of the two populations and the $\alpha$-bimodality between them is not entirely clear, although there are now several models that can reproduce the observed features. To help constrain the models and discern the origin, we have undertaken a study of the chemical abundances of the M31 disk using JWST NIRSpec, in order to determine whether stars in M31's disk also show an $\alpha$-abundance bimodality. Approximately 100 stars were observed in our single NIRSpec field at a projected distance of 18 kpc from the M31 center. The 1-D extracted spectra have an average signal-to-noise ratio of 85 leading to statistical metallicity precision of 0.016 dex, $\alpha$-abundance precision of 0.012 dex, and a radial velocity precision 8 km/s. The initial results indicate that, in contrast to the Milky Way, there is no $\alpha$-bimodality in the M31 disk, and no low-$\alpha$ sequence. The entire stellar population falls along a single chemical sequence very similar to the MW's high-alpha component which had a high star formation rate. While this is somewhat unexpected, the result is not that surprising based on other studies that found the M31 disk has a larger velocity dispersion than the MW and is dominated by a thick component. M31 has had a more active accretion and merger history than the MW which might explain the chemical differences.

[9] 2306.04689

Multiscale Flow for Robust and Optimal Cosmological Analysis

We propose Multiscale Flow, a generative Normalizing Flow that creates samples and models the field-level likelihood of two-dimensional cosmological data such as weak lensing. Multiscale Flow uses hierarchical decomposition of cosmological fields via a wavelet basis, and then models different wavelet components separately as Normalizing Flows. The log-likelihood of the original cosmological field can be recovered by summing over the log-likelihood of each wavelet term. This decomposition allows us to separate the information from different scales and identify distribution shifts in the data such as unknown scale-dependent systematics. The resulting likelihood analysis can not only identify these types of systematics, but can also be made optimal, in the sense that the Multiscale Flow can learn the full likelihood at the field without any dimensionality reduction. We apply Multiscale Flow to weak lensing mock datasets for cosmological inference, and show that it significantly outperforms traditional summary statistics such as power spectrum and peak counts, as well as novel Machine Learning based summary statistics such as scattering transform and convolutional neural networks. We further show that Multiscale Flow is able to identify distribution shifts not in the training data such as baryonic effects. Finally, we demonstrate that Multiscale Flow can be used to generate realistic samples of weak lensing data.

[10] 2306.04690

DELVE 6: An Ancient, Ultra-Faint Star Cluster on the Outskirts of the Magellanic Clouds

We present the discovery of DELVE 6, an ultra-faint stellar system identified in the second data release of the DECam Local Volume Exploration (DELVE) survey. Based on a maximum-likelihood fit to its structure and stellar population, we find that DELVE 6 is an old ($\tau > 9.8$ Gyr, at 95% confidence) and metal-poor ($\rm [Fe/H] < -1.17$ dex, at 95% confidence) stellar system with an absolute magnitude of $M_V = -1.5^{+0.4}_{-0.6}$ mag and an azimuthally-averaged half-light radius of $r_{1/2} =10^{+4}_{-3}$ pc. These properties are consistent with the population of ultra-faint star clusters uncovered by recent surveys. Interestingly, DELVE 6 is located at an angular separation of $\sim 10\deg$ from the center of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), corresponding to a three-dimensional physical separation of $\sim 20$ kpc given the system's observed distance ($D_{\odot} = 80$ kpc). This also places the system $\sim 35$ kpc from the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), lying within recent constraints on the size of the LMC's dark matter halo. We tentatively measure the proper motion of DELVE 6 using data from $\textit{Gaia}$, which we find supports a potential association between the system and the LMC/SMC. Although future kinematic measurements will be necessary to determine its origins, we highlight that DELVE 6 may represent only the second or third ancient ($\tau > 9$ Gyr) star cluster associated with the SMC, or one of fewer than two dozen ancient clusters associated with the LMC. Nonetheless, we cannot currently rule out the possibility that the system is a distant Milky Way halo star cluster.

[11] 2306.04691

Classifying IGR J15038-6021 as a magnetic CV with a massive white dwarf

Cataclysmic variables (CVs) are binary systems consisting of a white dwarf (WD) accreting matter from a companion star. Observations of CVs provide an opportunity to learn about accretion disks, the physics of compact objects, classical novae, and the evolution of the binary and the WD that may ultimately end in a type Ia supernova (SN). As type Ia SNe involve a WD reaching the Chandrasekhar limit or merging WDs, WD mass measurements are particularly important for elucidating the path from CV to type Ia SN. For intermediate polar (IP) type CVs, the WD mass is related to the bremsstrahlung temperature of material in the accretion column, which typically peaks at X-ray energies. Thus, the IPs with the strongest hard X-ray emission, such as those discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, are expected to have the highest masses. Here, we report on XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and optical observations of IGR J15038-6021. We find an X-ray periodicity of 1678+/-2s, which we interpret as the WD spin period. From fitting the 0.3-79 keV spectrum with a model that uses the relationship between the WD mass and the post-shock temperature, we measure a WD mass of 1.36+0.04-0.11 Msun. This follows an earlier study of IGR J14091-6108, which also has a WD with a mass approaching the Chandrasekhar limit. We demonstrate that these are both outliers among IPs in having massive WDs and discuss the results in the context of WD mass studies as well as the implications for WD mass evolution.

[12] 2306.04692

Towards cosmological simulations of the magnetized intracluster medium with resolved Coulomb collision scale

We present the first results of one extremely high resolution, non-radiative magnetohydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulation of a massive cluster with a virial mass M$_\mathrm{vir} = 2.0 \times 10^{15}$ solar masses. We adopt a mass resolution of $4 \times 10^5$ M$_{\odot}$ with a maximum spatial resolution of around 250 pc in the central regions of the cluster. We follow the detailed amplification process in a resolved small-scale turbulent dynamo in the Intracluster medium (ICM) with strong exponential growth until redshift 4, after which the field grows weakly in the adiabatic compression limit until redshift 2. The energy in the field is slightly reduced as the system approaches redshift zero in agreement with adiabatic decompression. The field structure is highly turbulent in the center and shows field reversals on a length scale of a few 10 kpc and an anti-correlation between the radial and angular field components in the central region that is ordered by small-scale turbulent dynamo action. The large-scale field on Mpc scales is almost isotropic, indicating that the structure formation process in massive galaxy cluster formation is suppressing memory of both the initial field configuration and the amplified morphology via the turbulent dynamo in the central regions. We demonstrate that extremely high-resolution simulations of the magnetized ICM are in reach that can resolve the small-scale magnetic field structure which is of major importance for the injection of and transport of cosmic rays in the ICM. This work is a major cornerstone for follow-up studies with an on-the-fly treatment of cosmic rays to model in detail electron-synchrotron and gamma-ray emissions.

[13] 2306.04694

Soft X-ray emission from warm gas in IllustrisTNG circum-cluster environments

Context. Whereas X-ray clusters are extensively used for cosmology, their idealistic modelling, through the hypotheses of spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium, are more and more being questioned. Along these lines, the soft X-ray emission detected in tens of clusters with ROSAT was found to be higher than what expected from the idealistic hot gas modelling, pointing to our incomplete understanding of these objects. Aims. Given that cluster environments are at the interface between the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM), warm circum-galactic medium (WCGM) and warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), we aim to explore the relative soft X-ray emission of different gas phases in circum-cluster environments. Method. By using the most massive halos in IllustrisTNG at z=0, we have predicted the hydrodynamical properties of the gas from cluster centers to their outskirts (5 R200), and modelled their X-ray radiation for various plasma phases. Results. First, we found that the radial profile of temperature, density, metallicity and clumpiness of the ICM are in good agreement with recent X-ray observations of clusters. Secondly, we have developed a method to predict the radial profile of soft X-ray emission in different bands, the column density of ions and the X-ray absorption lines (O VIII, O VII, Ne IX, and Ne IX) of warm-hot gas inside and around clusters. Conclusion. The warm gas (in the form of both WCGM and WHIM gas) is a strong emitter in soft X-ray bands, and is qualitatively consistent with the observational measurements. Our results suggest that the cluster soft excess is induced by the thermal emission of warm gas in the circum-cluster environments.

[14] 2306.04697

Cerium features in kilonova near-infrared spectra: implication from a chemically peculiar star

Observations of the kilonova from a neutron star merger event GW170817 opened a way to directly study r-process nucleosynthesis by neutron star mergers. It is, however, challenging to identify the individual elements in the kilonova spectra due to lack of complete atomic data, in particular, at near-infrared wavelengths. In this paper, we demonstrate that spectra of chemically peculiar stars with enhanced heavy element abundances can provide us with an excellent astrophysical laboratory for kilonova spectra. We show that the photosphere of a late B-type chemically peculiar star HR 465 has similar lanthanide abundances and ionization degrees with those in the line forming region in a kilonova at $\sim 2.5$ days after the merger. The near-infrared spectrum of HR 465 taken with Subaru/IRD indicates that Ce III lines give the strongest absorption features around 16,000 A and there are no other comparably strong transitions around these lines. The Ce III lines nicely match with the broad absorption features at 14,500 A observed in GW170817 with a blueshift of v=0.1c, which supports recent identification of this feature as Ce III by Domoto et al. (2022).

[15] 2306.04698

Probing pre-supernova mass loss in double-peaked Type Ibc supernovae from the Zwicky Transient Facility

Eruptive mass loss of massive stars prior to supernova (SN) explosion is key to understanding their evolution and end fate. An observational signature of pre-SN mass loss is the detection of an early, short-lived peak prior to the radioactive-powered peak in the lightcurve of the SN. This is usually attributed to the SN shock passing through an extended envelope or circumstellar medium (CSM). Such an early peak is common for double-peaked Type IIb SNe with an extended Hydrogen envelope but is uncommon for normal Type Ibc SNe with very compact progenitors. In this paper, we systematically study a sample of 14 double-peaked Type Ibc SNe out of 475 Type Ibc SNe detected by the Zwicky Transient Facility. The rate of these events is ~ 3-9 % of Type Ibc SNe. A strong correlation is seen between the peak brightness of the first and the second peak. We perform a holistic analysis of this sample's photometric and spectroscopic properties. We find that six SNe have ejecta mass less than 1.5 Msun. Based on the nebular spectra and lightcurve properties, we estimate that the progenitor masses for these are less than ~ 12 Msun. The rest have an ejecta mass > 2.4 Msun and a higher progenitor mass. This sample suggests that the SNe with low progenitor masses undergo late-time binary mass transfer. Meanwhile, the SNe with higher progenitor masses are consistent with wave-driven mass loss or pulsation-pair instability-driven mass loss simulations.

[16] 2306.04711

Multimessenger Emission from the Accretion Induced Collapse of White Dwarfs

We present fully general-relativistic three-dimensional numerical simulations of accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of white dwarfs (WDs). We evolve three different WD models (nonrotating, rotating at 80% and 99% of the Keplerian mass shedding limit) that collapse due to electron capture. For each of these models, we provide a detailed analysis of their gravitational waves (GWs), neutrinos and electromagnetic counterpart and discuss their detectability. Our results suggest that fast rotating AICs could be detectable up to a distance of 8 Mpc with third-generation GW observatories, and up to 1 Mpc with LIGO. AIC progenitors are expected to have large angular momentum due to their accretion history, which is a determining factor for their stronger GW emission compared to core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Regarding neutrino emission, we found no significant difference between AICs and CCSNe. In the electromagnetic spectrum, we find that AICs are two orders of magnitude fainter than type Ia supernovae. Our work places AICs as realistic targets for future multimessenger searches with third generation ground-based GW detectors.

[17] 2306.04721

SN 2023ixf in Messier 101: Photo-ionization of Dense, Close-in Circumstellar Material in a Nearby Type II Supernova

We present UV/optical observations and models of supernova (SN) 2023ixf, a type II SN located in Messier 101 at 6.9 Mpc. Early-time ("flash") spectroscopy of SN 2023ixf, obtained primarily at Lick Observatory, reveals emission lines of H I, He I/II, C IV, and N III/IV/V with a narrow core and broad, symmetric wings arising from the photo-ionization of dense, close-in circumstellar material (CSM) located around the progenitor star prior to shock breakout. These electron-scattering broadened line profiles persist for $\sim$8 days with respect to first light, at which time Doppler broadened features from the fastest SN ejecta form, suggesting a reduction in CSM density at $r \gtrsim 10^{15}$ cm. The early-time light curve of SN2023ixf shows peak absolute magnitudes (e.g., $M_{u} = -18.6$ mag, $M_{g} = -18.4$ mag) that are $\gtrsim 2$ mag brighter than typical type II supernovae, this photometric boost also being consistent with the shock power supplied from CSM interaction. Comparison of SN 2023ixf to a grid of light curve and multi-epoch spectral models from the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN and the radiation-hydrodynamics code HERACLES suggests dense, solar-metallicity, CSM confined to $r = (0.5-1) \times 10^{15}$ cm and a progenitor mass-loss rate of $\dot{M} = 10^{-2}$ M$_{\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. For the assumed progenitor wind velocity of $v_w = 50$ km s$^{-1}$, this corresponds to enhanced mass-loss (i.e., ``super-wind'' phase) during the last $\sim$3-6 years before explosion.

[18] 2306.04722

SN2023ixf in Messier 101: A Variable Red Supergiant as the Progenitor Candidate to a Type II Supernova

We present pre-explosion optical and infrared (IR) imaging at the site of the type II supernova (SN II) 2023ixf in Messier 101 at 6.9 Mpc. We astrometrically registered a ground-based image of SN 2023ixf to archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer), and ground-based near-IR images. A single point source is detected at a position consistent with the SN at wavelengths ranging from HST $R$-band to Spitzer 4.5 $\mu$m. Fitting to blackbody and red supergiant (RSG) spectral-energy distributions (SEDs), we find that the source is anomalously cool with a significant mid-IR excess. We interpret this SED as reprocessed emission in a 8600 $R_{\odot}$ circumstellar shell of dusty material with a mass $\sim$5$\times10^{-5} M_{\odot}$ surrounding a $\log(L/L_{\odot})=4.74\pm0.07$ and $T_{\rm eff}=3920\substack{+200\\-160}$ K RSG. This luminosity is consistent with RSG models of initial mass 11 $M_{\odot}$, depending on assumptions of rotation and overshooting. In addition, the counterpart was significantly variable in pre-explosion Spitzer 3.6 $\mu$m and 4.5 $\mu$m imaging, exhibiting $\sim$70% variability in both bands correlated across 9 yr and 29 epochs of imaging. The variations appear to have a timescale of 2.8 yr, which is consistent with $\kappa$-mechanism pulsations observed in RSGs, albeit with a much larger amplitude than RSGs such as $\alpha$ Orionis (Betelgeuse).

[19] 2306.04727

Lunar Cold Trap Contamination by Landing Vehicles

Tools have been developed to model and simulate the effects of lunar landing vehicles on the lunar environment, mostly addressing the effects of regolith erosion by rocket plumes and the fate of the ejected lunar soil particles. The KSC Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations Lab tools have now been expanded to address volatile contamination of the lunar surface (Stern, 1999). Landing nearby such a crater will result in the migration of significant exhaust plume gas into the cold trap of the crater, and will also create an unnatural atmosphere over the volatile reservoirs that are to be studied. Our calculations address: 1) the time for the plume-induced local atmosphere above cold traps to decay to normal levels, 2) the efficiency of gas migration into a permanently shadowed crater when the landing is outside it but nearby, and 3) reduction on contamination afforded by moving the landing site further from the crater or by topographically shielding the crater from the direct flux of a lander's ground jet. We also address plume volatiles adsorbed onto and driven inside soil ejecta particles from their residence in the high pressure stagnation region of the engine exhaust plume, and how their mechanical dispersal across the lunar surface contributes to the induced atmosphere. One additional question is whether the collection of soil ejecta along the base of a topographic feature will produce a measurable plume volatile release distinct from the background. We mostly address item 2). Item 3) is obvious from our results excepting that the removal distances may be large, but changes to landing strategy can improve the situation.

[20] 2306.04755

A positivity-preserving adaptive-order finite-difference scheme for GRMHD

We present an adaptive-order positivity-preserving conservative finite-difference scheme that allows a high-order solution away from shocks and discontinuities while guaranteeing positivity and robustness at discontinuities. This is achieved by monitoring the relative power in the highest mode of the reconstructed polynomial and reducing the order when the polynomial series no longer converges. Our approach is similar to the multidimensional optimal order detection (MOOD) strategy, but differs in several ways. The approach is a priori and so does not require retaking a time step. It can also readily be combined with positivity-preserving flux limiters that have gained significant traction in computational astrophysics and numerical relativity. This combination ultimately guarantees a physical solution both during reconstruction and time stepping. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method using a standard suite of very challenging 1d, 2d, and 3d general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics test problems.

[21] 2306.04760

Evidence of Extended Dust and Feedback around z$\approx$1 Quiescent Galaxies via Millimeter Observations

We use public data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) to measure radial profiles of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect and dust emission around massive quiescent galaxies at $z\approx1.$ Using survey data from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Wide-Field infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we selected $387,627$ quiescent galaxies within the ACT field, with a mean stellar $\log_{10}(M_{\star}/\rm{M_{\odot}})$ of $11.40$. A subset of $94,452$ galaxies, with a mean stellar $\log_{10}(M_{\star}/\rm{M_{\odot}})$ of $11.36,$ are also covered by SPT. In $0.5$ arcminute radial bins around these galaxies, we detect the tSZ profile at levels up to $11\sigma$, and dust profile up to $20\sigma.$ Both profiles are extended, and the dust profile slope at large radii is consistent with galaxy clustering. We analyze the thermal energy and dust mass versus stellar mass via integration within $R=2.0$ arcminute circular apertures and fit them with a forward-modeled power-law to correct for our photometric stellar mass uncertainty. At the mean log stellar mass of our overlap and wide-area samples, respectively, we extract thermal energies from the tSZ of $E_{\rm{pk}}=6.45_{-1.52}^{+1.67}\times10^{60}{\rm{ erg}}$ and $8.20_{-0.52}^{+0.52}\times10^{60}{\rm{ erg}},$ most consistent with moderate to high levels of active galactic nuclei feedback acting upon the circumgalactic medium. Dust masses at the mean log stellar mass are $M_{\rm{d,pk}}=6.23_{-0.67}^{+0.67}\times10^{8}\rm{ M_{\odot}}$ and $6.76_{-0.56}^{+0.56}\times10^{8}\rm{ M_{\odot}},$ and we find a greater than linear dust-to-stellar mass relation, which indicates that the more massive galaxies in our study retain more dust. Our work highlights current capabilities of stacking millimeter data around individual galaxies and potential for future use.

[22] 2306.04768

2021 occultations and transits of Linus orbiting (22) Kalliope: I. Polygonal and `cliptracing' algorithm

The satellite Linus orbiting the main-belt asteroid (22) Kalliope exhibited occultation and transit events in late 2021. A photometric campaign was organized and observations were taken by the TRAPPIST-South, SPECULOOS-Artemis, OWL-Net, and BOAO telescopes, with the goal to constrain models of this system. Our dynamical model is complex, with multipoles (up to the order $\ell = 2$), internal tides, and external tides. The model was constrained by astrometry (spanning 2001--2021), occultations, adaptive-optics imaging, calibrated photometry, as well as relative photometry. Our photometric model was substantially improved. A new precise (${<}\,0.1\,{\rm mmag}$) light curve algorithm was implemented, based on polygon intersections, which are computed exactly -- by including partial eclipses and partial visibility of polygons. Moreover, we implemented a `cliptracing' algorithm, based again on polygon intersections, in which partial contributions to individual pixels are computed exactly. Both synthetic light curves and synthetic images are then very smooth. Based on our combined solution, we confirmed the size of Linus, $(28\pm 1)\,{\rm km}$. However, this solution exhibits some tension between the light curves and the PISCO speckle-interferometry dataset. In most solutions, Linus is darker than Kalliope, with the albedos $A_{\rm w} = 0.40$ vs. $0.44$. This is confirmed on deconvolved images. A~detailed revision of astrometric data allowed us to revise also the $J_2 \equiv -C_{20}$ value of Kalliope. Most importantly, a~homogeneous body is excluded. For a differentiated body, two solutions exist: low-oblateness ($C_{20} \simeq -0.12$), with a~spherical iron core, and alternatively, high-oblateness ($C_{20} \simeq -0.22$) with an elongated iron core. These correspond to the low- and high-energy collisions, respectively, studied by means of SPH simulations in our previous work.

[23] 2306.04786

Propagation of very-high-energy $γ$-rays from distant blazars

We re-derive the possible dependence of the redshift with very high energy (VHE) $\gamma$-ray photon index. The results suggest that the universe to VHE $\gamma$-rays is becoming more transparent than usually expected. We introduce the extragalactic background light (EBL) plus the photon to axion-like particle (ALP) oscillations to explain this phenomenon. We concentrate our analysis on 70 blazars up to redshift $z \simeq 1$. Assuming this correlation is solely the result of photon-photon absorption of VHE photons with the EBL, which finds the deviations between the predictions and observations, especially at redshifts $0.2 < z < 1$. We then discuss the implications of photon-ALP oscillations for the VHE $\gamma$-ray spectra of blazars. A strong evidence shows that: 1) the EBL attenuation results that the VHE $\gamma$-ray photon index increases non-linearly at the ranges of redshift, $0.03 < z < 0.2$; 2) the photon-ALP oscillation results in a attractive characteristic in the VHE $\gamma$-ray photon index at the ranges of redshift, $0.2 < z < 1$. We suggest that both the EBL absorption and photon-ALP oscillation can influence on the propagation of VHE $\gamma$-rays from distant blazars.

[24] 2306.04801

Efficiency of MHD Wave Generation in Weakly Ionized Atmospheres

Generation of Alfv\'en and slow magneto-acoustic waves in weakly ionized atmospheres by excitation of the charges-only component of the two fluid (charges and neutrals) plasma is shown to be more or less efficient depending on the energy fraction initially allocated to the three stationary "flow differential" modes which characterize the inter-species drift. This is explained via detailed analysis of the full ten-dimensional spectral description of two-fluid linear magnetohydrodynamics. Excitation via the velocity of the charges only is found to be very inefficient, in accord with previous results, whilst excitation via the magnetic field perturbation alone is highly efficient. All ten eigenvalues and eigenvectors are presented analytically in the high collision frequency regime.

[25] 2306.04804

GHOST Commissioning Science Results: Identifying a new chemically peculiar star in Reticulum II

The Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is the newest high resolution spectrograph to be developed for a large aperture telescope, recently deployed and commissioned at the Gemini-South telescope. In this paper, we present the first science results from the GHOST spectrograph taking during its commissioning runs. We have observed the bright metal-poor benchmark star HD 122563, along with two stars in the ultra faint dwarf galaxy, Ret II, one of which was previously identified as a candidate member, but did not have a previous detailed chemical abundance analysis. This star (GDR3 0928) is found to be a bona fide member of Ret II, and from a spectral synthesis analysis, it is also revealed to be a CEMP-r star, with significant enhancements in the several light elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Si), in addition to featuring an r-process enhancement like many other Ret II stars. The light-element enhancements in this star resemble the abundance patterns seen in the CEMP-no stars of other ultra faint dwarf galaxies, and are thought to have been produced by an independent source from the r-process. These unusual abundance patterns are thought to be produced by faint supernovae, which may be produced by some of the earliest generations of stars.

[26] 2306.04826

The Solar Minimum Eclipse of 2019 July 2. III. Inferring the Coronal $T_e$ with a Radiative Differential Emission Measure Inversion

Differential Emission Measure (DEM) inversion methods use the brightness of a set of emission lines to infer the line-of-sight (LOS) distribution of the electron temperature ($T_e$) in the corona. DEM inversions have been traditionally performed with collisionally excited lines at wavelengths in the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray. However, such emission is difficult to observe beyond the inner corona (1.5 R$_\odot$), particularly in coronal holes. Given the importance of the $T_e$ distribution in the corona for exploring the viability of different heating processes, we introduce an analog of the DEM specifically for radiatively excited coronal emission lines, such as those observed during total solar eclipses (TSEs) and with coronagraphs. This Radiative DEM (R-DEM) inversion utilizes visible and infrared emission lines which are excited by photospheric radiation out to at least 3 R$_\odot$. Specifically, we use the Fe X (637 nm), Fe XI (789 nm), and Fe XIV (530 nm) coronal emission lines observed during the 2019 July 2 TSE near solar minimum. We find that despite a large $T_e$ spread in the inner corona, the distribution converges to an almost isothermal yet bimodal distribution beyond 1.4 R$_\odot$, with $T_e$ ranging from 1.1 to 1.4 in coronal holes, and from 1.4 to 1.65 MK in quiescent streamers. Application of the R-DEM inversion to the Predictive Science Inc. magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation for the 2019 eclipse validates the R-DEM method and yields a similar LOS Te distribution to the eclipse data.

[27] 2306.04827

Early hard X-rays from the nearby core-collapse supernova SN2023ixf

We present NuSTAR observations of the nearby SN 2023ixf in M101 (d=6.9 Mpc) which provide the earliest hard X-ray detection of a non-relativistic stellar explosion to date at $\delta t\approx$4-d and $\delta t\approx$11-d. The spectra are well described by a hot thermal bremsstrahlung continuum with $T>25 \rm{keV}$ shining through a thick neutral medium with a neutral hydrogen column that decreases with time (initial $N_{\rm{Hint}}=2.6\times 10^{23} \rm{cm^{-2}}$). A prominent neutral Fe K$\alpha$ emission line is clearly detected, similar to other strongly interacting SNe such as SN2020jl. The rapidly decreasing intrinsic absorption with time suggests the presence of a dense but confined circumstellar medium (CSM). The absorbed broadband X-ray luminosity (0.3--79 keV) is $L_{X} \approx 2.5 \times 10^{40}$ erg s$^{-1}$ during both epochs, with the increase in overall X-ray flux related to the decrease in the absorbing column. Interpreting these observations in the context of thermal bremsstrahlung radiation originating from the interaction of the SN shock with a dense medium we infer large particle densities in excess of $n_{\rm{CSM}}\approx 4\times 10^{8} \rm{cm^{-3}}$ at $r<10^{15} \rm{cm}$, corresponding to an enhanced progenitor mass-loss rate of $\dot M \approx 3\times 10^{-4}$ M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ for an assumed wind velocity of $v_w=50$ km s$^{-1}$.

[28] 2306.04837

Dear Magellanic Clouds, welcome back!

We propose a scenario in which the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is on its second passage around the Milky Way. Using a series of tailored N-body simulations, we demonstrate that such orbits are consistent with current observational constraints on the mass distribution and relative velocity of both galaxies. The previous pericentre passage of the LMC could have occurred 5-10 Gyr ago at a distance >~100 kpc, large enough to retain its current population of satellites. The perturbations of the Milky Way halo induced by the LMC look nearly identical to the first-passage scenario, however, the distribution of LMC debris is considerably broader in the second-passage model. We examine the likelihood of current and past association with the Magellanic system for dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, and find that in addition to 10-11 current LMC satellites, it could have brought a further 4-6 galaxies that have been lost after the first pericentre passage. In particular, four of the classical dwarfs - Carina, Draco, Fornax and Ursa Minor - each have a ~50% probability of once belonging to the Magellanic system, thus providing a possible explanation for the ``plane of satellites'' conundrum.

[29] 2306.04870

KMT-2022-BLG-2397: Brown Dwarf at the Upper Shore of the Einstein Desert

We measure the Einstein radius of the single-lens microlensing event KMT-2022-BLG-2397 to be theta_E=24.8 +- 3.6 uas, placing it at the upper shore of the Einstein Desert, 9 < theta_E / uas < 25, between free-floating planets (FFPs) and bulge brown dwarfs (BDs). In contrast to the six BD (25 < theta_E < 50) events presented by Gould+22, which all had giant-star source stars, KMT-2022-BLG-2397 has a dwarf-star source, with angular radius theta_* ~ 0.9 uas. This prompts us to study the relative utility of dwarf and giant sources for characterizing FFPs and BDs from finite-source point-lens (FSPL) microlensing events. We find `dwarfs' (including main-sequence stars and subgiants) are likely to yield twice as many theta_E measurements for BDs and a comparable (but more difficult to quantify) improvement for FFPs. We show that neither current nor planned experiments will yield complete mass measurements of isolated bulge BDs, nor will any other planned experiment yield as many theta_E measurements for these objects as KMT. Thus, the currently anticipated 10-year KMT survey will remain the best way to study bulge BDs for several decades to come.

[30] 2306.04888

Double SSA Spectrum and Magnetic Field Strength of the FSRQ 3C 454.3

We present the results of a radio multi-frequency ($\rm 3-340~GHz$) study of the blazar 3C~454.3. After subtracting the quiescent spectrum corresponding to optically thin emission, we found two individual synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) features in the wide-band spectrum. The one SSA had a relatively low turnover frequency ($\nu_{\rm m}$) in the range of $\rm 3-37~GHz$ (lower $\nu_{\rm m}$ SSA spectrum, LSS), and the other one had a relatively high $\nu_{\rm m}$ of $\rm 55-124~GHz$ (higher $\nu_{\rm m}$ SSA spectrum, HSS). Using the SSA parameters, we estimated magnetic field strengths at the surface where optical depth $\tau=1$. The estimated magnetic field strengths were $\rm >7~mG$ and $\rm >0.2~mG$ for the LSS and HSS, respectively. The LSS emitting region was magnetically dominated before the June 2014 $\gamma$-ray flare. The quasi-stationary component (C), $\sim 0.6~{\rm mas}$ apart from the 43 GHz radio core, became brighter than the core with decreasing observing frequency, and we found that component C was related to the LSS. A decrease in jet width was found near component C. As a moving component, K14 approached component C, and the flux density of the component was enhanced while the angular size decreased. The high intrinsic brightness temperature in the fluid frame was obtained as $T_{\rm B, int} \approx (7.0\pm1.0) \times 10^{11}~{\rm K}$ from the jet component after the 2015 August $\gamma$-ray flare, suggesting that component C is a high-energy emitting region. The observed local minimum of jet width and re-brightening behavior suggest a possible recollimation shock in component C.

[31] 2306.04909

Particle acceleration in solar flares with imaging-spectroscopy in soft X-rays

Particles are accelerated to very high, non-thermal energies during explosive energy-release phenomena in space, solar, and astrophysical plasma environments. In the case of solar flares, it has been established that magnetic reconnection plays an important role for releasing the magnetic energy, but it remains unclear if or how magnetic reconnection can further explain particle acceleration during flares. Here we argue that the key issue is the lack of understanding of the precise context of particle acceleration but it can be overcome, in the near future, by performing imaging-spectroscopy in soft X-rays (SXRs). Such observations should be complemented by observations in other wavelengths such as extreme-ultraviolets (EUVs), microwaves, hard X-rays (HXRs), and gamma-rays. Also, numerical simulations will be crucial for further narrowing down the particle acceleration mechanism in the context revealed by the observations. Of all these efforts, imaging-spectroscopy in SXRs, if successfully applied to large limb flares, will be a milestone in our challenge of understanding electron acceleration in solar flares and beyond, i.e. the Plasma Universe.

[32] 2306.04935

High-altitude Magnetospheric Emissions from Two Pulsars

We discover three new weak pulse components in two known pulsars, one in PSR J0304+1932 and two in PSR J1518+4904. These components are emitted about half way between the main emission beam and the interpulse beam (beam from the opposite pole). They are separated from their main pulse peak by $99^{\circ}\pm{3}^{\circ}$ for J0304+1932, $123^{\circ}.6\pm{0^{\circ}.7}$ (leading) and $93^{^{\circ}}\pm 0^{\circ}.4$ (trailing) for J1518+4904, respectively. Their peak-intensity ratios to main pulses are: $\sim$ 0.06% for J0304+1932, $\sim$ 0.17% and $\sim$ 0.83% for J1518+4904. We also analyzed flux fluctuation and profile variation of the emissions for two pulsars. The results show correlations between the weak pulses and their main pulses, indicating that these emissions come from the same pole. We estimated the emission altitude of these weak pulses and derived a height of about half of the pulsar's light-cylinder radius. These pulse components are a unique sample of high-altitude emissions from pulsars, and challenge the current pulsar emission models.

[33] 2306.04943

The Common Fundamental Plane of X-ray Emissions from Pulsars and Magnetars in Quiescence

Magnetars are a unique class of neutron stars characterized by their incredibly strong magnetic fields. Unlike normal pulsars whose X-ray emission was driven by rotational energy loss, magnetars exhibit distinct X-ray emissions thought to be driven by their strong magnetic fields. Here we present the results of magnetar X-ray spectra analysis in their quiescent state. Most of the spectra of magnetars can be fitted with a model consisting of a power-law and a black body component. We found that the luminosity of the power-law component can be described by a function of black body temperature and its emission radius. The same relation was seen in pulsars whose X-ray emission mechanism is thought to be different. The fact that magnetars and pulsars share a common fundamental plane in the space spanned by non-thermal X-ray luminosity, surface temperature, and the radius of the thermally emitting region indicates that further fundamental information is necessary to gain a complete comprehension of the magnetospheric emissions from these two classes of neutron stars.

[34] 2306.04951

Green Bank Telescope Discovery of the Redback Binary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J0212+5321

We report the discovery of a 2.11 ms binary millisecond pulsar during a targeted search of the redback optical candidate coincident with the $\gamma$-ray source 3FGL J0212.5+5320 using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) with the Breakthrough Listen backend at L-band. Over a seven month period, five pointings were made near inferior conjunction of the pulsar in its 20.9 hr orbit, resulting in two detections, lasting 12 and 42 minutes. The pulsar dispersion measure (DM) of 25.7 pc cm$^{-3}$ corresponds to a distance of 1.15 kpc in the NE2001 Galactic electron density model, consistent with the Gaia parallax distance of $1.16\pm0.03$ kpc for the companion star. We suspect the pulsar experiences wide-orbit eclipses, similar to other redbacks, as well as scintillation and DM delays caused by its interaction with its companion and surroundings. Although the pulsar was only detected over $\approx3.7\%$ of the orbit, its measured acceleration is consistent with published binary parameters from optical radial velocity spectroscopy and light-curve modeling of the companion star, and it provides a more precise mass ratio and a projected semi-major axis for the pulsar orbit. We also obtained a refined optical photometric orbit ephemeris, and observed variability of the tidally distorted companion over 7 years. A hard X-ray light curve from NuSTAR shows expected orbit-modulated emission from the intrabinary shock. The pulsar parameters and photometric ephemeris greatly restrict the parameter space required to search for a coherent timing solution including pulsar spin-down rate, either using Fermi $\gamma$-rays, or further radio pulse detections.

[35] 2306.04963

KETJU -- resolving small-scale supermassive black hole dynamics in GADGET-4

We present the new public version of the KETJU supermassive black hole (SMBH) dynamics module, as implemented into GADGET-4. KETJU adds a small region around each SMBH where the dynamics of the SMBHs and stellar particles are integrated using an algorithmically regularised integrator instead of the leapfrog integrator with gravitational softening used by GADGET-4. This enables modelling SMBHs as point particles even during close interactions with stellar particles or other SMBHs, effectively removing the spatial resolution limitation caused by gravitational softening. KETJU also includes post-Newtonian corrections, which allows following the dynamics of SMBH binaries to sub-parsec scales and down to tens of Schwarzschild radii. Systems with multiple SMBHs are also supported, with the code also including the leading non-linear cross terms that appear in the post-Newtonian equations for such systems. We present tests of the code showing that it correctly captures, at sufficient mass resolution, the sinking driven by dynamical friction and binary hardening driven by stellar scattering. We also present an example application demonstrating how the code can be applied to study the dynamics of SMBHs in mergers of multiple galaxies and the effect they have on the properties of the surrounding galaxy. We expect that the presented KETJU SMBH dynamics module can also be straightforwardly incorporated into other codes similar to GADGET-4, which would allow coupling small-scale SMBH dynamics to the rich variety of galactic physics models that exist in the literature.

[36] 2306.04973

Traveling kink oscillations of coronal loops launched by a solar flare

We investigate the traveling kink oscillation triggered by a solar flare on 2022 September 29. The observational data is mainly measured by the Solar Upper Transition Region Imager (SUTRI), the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX). The transverse oscillations with apparent decaying in amplitudes, which are nearly perpendicular to the oscillating loop, are observed in passbands of SUTRI 465 A, AIA 171 A, and 193 A. The decaying oscillation is launched by a solar flare erupted closely to one footpoint of coronal loops, and then it propagates along several loops. Next, the traveling kink wave is evolved to a standing kink oscillation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of a traveling kink pulse to a standing kink wave along coronal loops. The standing kink oscillation along one coronal loop has a similar period of about 6.3 minutes at multiple wavelengths, and the decaying time is estimated to about 9.6-10.6 minutes. Finally, two dominant periods of 5.1 minutes and 2.0 minutes are detected in another oscillating loop, suggesting the coexistence of the fundamental and third harmonics.

[37] 2306.04993

A Model for Confined Solar Eruptions Including External Reconnection

The violent disruption of the coronal magnetic field is often observed to be restricted to the low corona, appearing as a confined eruption. The possible causes of the confinement remain elusive. Here, we model the eruption of a magnetic flux rope in a quadrupolar active region, with the parameters set such that magnetic X-lines exist both below and above the rope. This facilitates the onset of magnetic reconnection in either place but with partly opposing effects on the eruption. The lower reconnection initially adds poloidal flux to the rope, increasing the upward hoop force and supporting the rise of the rope. However, when the flux of the magnetic side lobes enters the lower reconnection, the flux rope is found to separate from the reconnection site and the flux accumulation ceases. At the same time, the upper reconnection begins to reduce the poloidal flux of the rope, decreasing its hoop force; eventually this cuts the rope completely. The relative weight of the two reconnection processes is varied in the model, and it is found that their combined effect and the tension force of the overlying field confine the eruption if the flux ratio of the outer to the inner polarities exceeds a threshold, which is about 1.3 for our Cartesian box and chosen parameters. We hence propose that external reconnection between an erupting flux rope and overlying flux can play a vital role in confining eruptions.

[38] 2306.05013

Dense gas and star formation in the Outer Milky Way

We present maps and spectra of the HCN(1-0) and HCO$^+$(1-0) lines in the extreme outer Galaxy, at galactocentric radii between 14 and 22 kpc, with the 13.7 meter Delingha telescope. The 9 molecular clouds were selected from a CO/$^{13}$CO survey of the outer quadrants. The goal is to better understand the structure of molecular clouds in these poorly studied subsolar metallicity regions and the relation with star formation. The lines are all narrow, less than 2km/s at half power, enabling detection of the HCN hyperfine structure in the stronger sources and allowing us to observationally test hyperfine collision rates. The hyperfine line ratios show that the HCN emission is optically thin with column densities estimated at N(HCN)~$3x10^{12}$\scm. The HCO$^+$ emission is approximately twice as strong as the HCN (taken as the sum of all components), in contrast with the inner Galaxy and nearby galaxies where they are similarly strong. For an abundance ratio $\chi_{HCN}/\chi_{HCO^+} = 3$, this requires a relatively low density solution for the dense gas, with n(H2) $\sim 10^3 - 10^4$\ccm. The $^{12}$CO/$^{13}$CO line ratios are similar to solar neighborhood values, roughly 7.5, despite the low $^{13}$CO abundance expected at such large radii. The HCO$^+$/CO and HCO$^+$/$^{13}$CO integrated intensity ratios are also standard at about 1/35 and 1/5 respectively. HCN is weak compared to the CO emission, with HCN/CO $\sim 1/70$ even after summing all hyperfine components. At the parsec scales observed here, the correlation between star formation, as traced by 24~$\mu$m emission as is standard in extragalactic work, and dense gas via the HCN or HCO$^+$ emission, is poor, perhaps due to the lack of dynamic range. We find that the lowest dense gas fractions are in the sources at high galactic latitude (b>2, h>300pc above the plane), possibly due to lower pressure.

[39] 2306.05038

The magnetic, spectroscopic, and photometric variability of the Wolf-Rayet star WR55

Studies of magnetic fields in the most evolved massive stars, the Wolf-Rayet stars, are of special importance because they are progenitors of certain types of supernovae. The first detection of a magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss in the WN7 star WR55, based on a few FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations, was reported in 2020. In this work we present new FORS2 observations allowing us to detect magnetic and spectroscopic variability with a period of 11.90 h. No significant frequencies were detected in TESS and ASAS-SN photometric observations. Importantly, magnetic field detections are achieved currently only in two Wolf-Rayet stars, WR6 and WR55, both showing the presence of corotating interacting regions.

[40] 2306.05062

A multi-band AGN-SFG classifier for extragalactic radio surveys using machine learning

Extragalactic radio continuum surveys play an increasingly more important role in galaxy evolution and cosmology studies. While radio galaxies and radio quasars dominate at the bright end, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are more common at fainter flux densities. Our aim is to develop a machine learning classifier that can efficiently and reliably separate AGNs and SFGs in radio continuum surveys. We perform supervised classification of SFGs vs AGNs using the Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LGBM) on three LOFAR Deep Fields (Lockman Hole, Bootes and ELAIS-N1), which benefit from a wide range of high-quality multi-wavelength data and classification labels derived from extensive spectral energy distribution (SED) analyses. Our trained model has a precision of 0.92(0.01) and a recall of 0.87(0.02) for SFGs. For AGNs, the model has slightly worse performance, with a precision of 0.87(0.02) and recall of 0.78(0.02). These results demonstrate that our trained model can successfully reproduce the classification labels derived from detailed SED analysis. The model performance decreases towards higher redshifts, mainly due to smaller training sample sizes. To make the classifier more adaptable to other radio galaxy surveys, we also investigate how our classifier performs with a poorer multi-wavelength sampling of the SED. In particular, we find that the far-infrared (FIR) and radio bands are of great importance. We also find that higher S/N in some photometric bands leads to a significant boost in the model's performance. In addition to using the 150 MHz radio data, our model can also be used with 1.4 GHz radio data. Converting 1.4 GHz to 150 MHz radio data reduces performance by about 4% in precision and 3% in recall. The final trained model is publicly available at

[41] 2306.05063

Model Independent Periodogram for Scanning Astrometry

We present a new periodogram for periodicity detection in one-dimensional time-series data from scanning astrometry space missions, like Hipparcos or Gaia. The periodogram is non-parametric and does not rely on a full or approximate orbital solution. Since no specific properties of the periodic signal are assumed, the method is expected to be suitable for the detection of various types of periodic phenomena, from highly eccentric orbits to periodic variability-induced movers. The periodogram is an extension of the phase-distance correlation periodogram (PDC) we introduced in previous papers based on the statistical concept of distance correlation. We demonstrate the performance of the periodogram using publicly available Hipparcos data, as well as simulated data. We also discuss its applicability for Gaia epoch astrometry, to be published in the future data release 4 (DR4).

[42] 2306.05080

FAST reveals new evidence for M94 as a merger

We report the first high-sensitivity HI observation toward the spiral galaxy M94 with the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST). From these observations, we discovered that M94 has a very extended HI disk, twice larger than that observed by THINGS, which is accompanied by an HI filament and seven HVCs (high velocity clouds) at different distances. The projected distances of these clouds and filament are less than 50 kpc from the galactic center. We measured a total integrated flux (including all clouds/filament) of 127.3 ($\pm$1) Jy km s$^{-1}$, corresponding to a H I mass of (6.51$\pm$0.06)$\times$10$^{8}$M$_{\odot}$, which is 63.0% more than that observed by THINGS. By comparing numerical simulations with the HI maps and the optical morphology of M94, we suggest that M94 is likely a remnant of a major merger of two galaxies, and the HVCs and HI filament could be the tidal features originated from the first collision of the merger happened about 5 Gyr ago. Furthermore, we found a seemingly isolated HI cloud at a projection distance of 109 kpc without any optical counterpart detected. We discussed the possibilities of the origin of this cloud, such as dark dwarf galaxy and RELHIC (REionization-Limited HI Cloud). Our results demonstrate that high-sensitivity and wide-field HI imaging is important in revealing the diffuse cold gas structures and tidal debris which is crucial to understanding the dynamical evolution of galaxies.

[43] 2306.05086

Beyond Gaia DR3: tracing the [α/M]-[M/H] bimodality from the inner to the outer Milky Way disc with Gaia RVS and Convolutional Neural-Networks

Gaia DR3 has provided the community with about one million RVS spectra covering the CaII triplet region. In the next Gaia data releases, we anticipate the number of RVS spectra to successively increase from several 10 million spectra to eventually more than 200M spectra. Thus, stellar spectra are produced on an "industrial scale" with numbers well above those for current and anticipated ground based surveys. However, many of these spectra have low S/N (from 15 to 25 per pixel), such that they pose problems for classical spectral analysis pipelines and therefore alternative ways to tap into these large datasets need to be devised. We aim to leverage the versatility/capabilities of machine learning techniques for supercharged stellar parametrization, by combining Gaia RVS spectra with the full set of Gaia products and high-resolution, high-quality spectroscopic reference data sets. We develop a hybrid Convolutional Neural-Network (CNN) which combines the Gaia DR3 RVS spectra, photometry (G, Bp, Rp), parallaxes, and XP coefficients to derive atmospheric parameters (Teff, log(g), and overall [M/H]) and chemical abundances ([Fe/H] and [$\alpha$/M]). We trained the CNN with a high-quality training sample based on APOGEE DR17 labels. With this CNN, we derived homogeneous atmospheric parameters and abundances for 841300 stars, that remarkably compared to external data-sets. The CNN is robust against noise in the RVS data, and very precise labels are derived down to S/N=15. We managed to characterize the [$\alpha$/M]-[M/H] bimodality from the inner regions to the outer parts of the Milky Way, which has never been done using RVS spectra or similar datasets. This work is the first to combine machine-learning with such diverse datasets (spectroscopy, astrometry, and photometry), and paves the way for the large scale machine-learning analysis of Gaia-RVS spectra from future data releases.

[44] 2306.05095

Recurrent mini-outbursts and a magnetic white dwarf in the symbiotic system FN Sgr

AIMS: We investigated the optical variability of the symbiotic binary FN Sgr, with photometric monitoring during $\simeq$55 years and with a high-cadence Kepler light curve lasting 81 days. METHODS: The data obtained in the V and I bands were reduced with standard photometric methods. The Kepler data were divided into subsamples and analyses with the Lomb-Scargle algorithm. RESULTS: The V and I band light curves showed a phenomenon never before observed with such recurrence in any symbiotic system, namely short outbursts, starting between orbital phase 0.3 and 0.5 and lasting about a month, with a fast rise and a slower decline, and amplitude of 0.5-1 mag. In the Kepler light curve we discovered three frequencies with sidebands. We attribute a stable frequency of 127.5 d$^{-1}$ (corresponding to an 11.3 minutes period) to the white dwarf rotation. We suggest that this detection probably implies that the white dwarf accretes through a magnetic stream, like in intermediate polars. The small outbursts may be ascribed to the stream-disc interaction. Another possibility is that they are due to localized thermonuclear burning, perhaps confined by the magnetic field, like recently inferred in intermediate polars, albeit on different timescales. We measured also a second frequency around 116.9 d$^{-1}$ (corresponding to about 137 minutes), which is much less stable and has a drift. It may be due to rocky detritus around the white dwarf, but it is more likely to be caused by an inhomogeneity in the accretion disk. Finally, there is a third frequency close to the first one that appears to correspond to the beating between the rotation and the second frequency.

[45] 2306.05132

Constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field using Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. blazar observations

Magnetic fields in galaxies and galaxy clusters are believed to be the result of the amplification of intergalactic seed fields during the formation of large-scale structures in the universe. However, the origin, strength, and morphology of this intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) remain unknown. Lower limits on (or indirect detection of) the IGMF can be obtained from observations of high-energy gamma rays from distant blazars. Gamma rays interact with the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which can subsequently initiate electromagnetic cascades. The $\gamma$-ray signature of the cascade depends on the IGMF since it deflects the pairs. Here we report on a new search for this cascade emission using a combined data set from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the High Energy Stereoscopic System. Using state-of-the-art Monte Carlo predictions for the cascade signal, our results place a lower limit on the IGMF of $B > 7.1\times10^{-16}$ G for a coherence length of 1 Mpc even when blazar duty cycles as short as 10 yr are assumed. This improves on previous lower limits by a factor of 2. For longer duty cycles of $10^4$ ($10^7$) yr, IGMF strengths below $1.8\times10^{-14}$ G ($3.9\times10^{-14}$ G) are excluded, which rules out specific models for IGMF generation in the early universe.

[46] 2306.05142

A study of the high-inclination population in the Kuiper belt -- IV. High-order mean motion resonances in the classical region

In our previous study of Neptune's 4:7 mean motion resonance (MMR), we discovered that its resonant angle can only librate within a specific eccentricity ($e$) versus inclination ($i$) region, determined by a theoretical limiting curve curve (Li et al. 2020). This ``permissible region'' is independent of time and encompasses the entire possible stable region. We now generalize this theory to investigate all high-order MMRs embedded in the main classical Kuiper belt (MCKB). We first consider the 2nd-order 3:5 MMR in the framework of planet migration and resonance capture, and have further validated our limiting curve theory for both captured and observed 3:5 resonators. It suggests that only the $(e, i)$ pairs inside the individual permissible regions should be chosen as initial conditions for studying the in-situ evolution of high-order resonators. With such a new setting, we proceed to explore the long-term stability (for 4 Gyr) of different resonant populations, and our simulations predict that: (1) the 3:5 and 4:7 resonators are comparable in number, and they could have inclinations up to $40^{\circ}$; (2) the populations of objects in the higher order 5:9, 6:11, 7:12 and 7:13 resonances is about 1/10 of the 3:5 (or 4:7) resonator population, and nearly all of them are found on the less inclined orbits with $i<10^{\circ}$; (3) for these high-order resonances, almost all resonators reside in their individual permissible regions. In summary, our results make predictions for the number and orbital distributions of potential resonant objects that will be discovered in the future throughout the MCKB.

[47] 2306.05190

EUV brightenings in the quiet-Sun: Signatures in spectral and imaging data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

Localised transient EUV brightenings, sometimes named `campfires', occur throughout the quiet-Sun. However, there are still many open questions about such events, in particular regarding their temperature range and dynamics. In this article, we aim to determine whether any transition region response can be detected for small-scale EUV brightenings and, if so, to identify whether the measured spectra correspond to any previously reported bursts in the transition region, such as Explosive Events (EEs). EUV brightenings were detected in a ~29.4 minute dataset sampled by Solar Orbiter's Extreme Ultraviolet Imager on 8 March 2022 using an automated detection algorithm. Any potential transition region response was inferred through analysis of imaging and spectral data sampled through coordinated observations conducted by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). EUV brightenings display a range of responses in IRIS slit-jaw imager (SJI) data. Some events have clear signatures in the Mg II and Si IV SJI filters, whilst others have no discernible counterpart. Both extended and more complex EUV brightenings are found to, sometimes, have responses in IRIS SJI data. Examples of EUI intensities peaking before, during, and after their IRIS counterparts were found in lightcurves constructed co-spatial to EUV brightenings. Importantly, therefore, it is likely that not all EUV brightenings are driven in the same way, with some seemingly being magnetic reconnection driven and others not. A single EUV brightening occurred co-spatial to the IRIS slit, with its spectra matching the properties of EEs. EUV brightenings is a term used to describe a range of small-scale event in the solar corona. The physics responsible for all EUV brightenings is likely not the same and, therefore, more research is required to assess their importance towards global questions in the field, such as coronal heating.

[48] 2306.05213

Investigating the OH-H2 relation in diffuse Galactic clouds

We investigate the correlation between OH and H2 column densities in diffuse Galactic clouds, in order to identify potential molecular tracers of interstellar H2. For this, we analyse near-UV spectra extracted from the ESO/VLT archives towards seventeen sightlines (five of them new) with known N(H2), along with nine sightlines with no H2 information. N(OH) shows only marginal correlation with N(H2) (10$^{20}$ to 2 x 10$^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$), at the 95 per cent confidence level. We use orthogonal distance regression analysis to obtain N(OH)/N(H2) = (1.32+/-0.15) x 10$^{-7}$, which is ~ 33 per cent higher than the previous estimates based on near-UV data. We also obtain N(CH)/N(H2) = (3.83+/-0.23) x 10$^{-8}$ and a significant correlation between N(OH) and N(CH), with N(OH) = (2.61+/-0.19) x N(CH), both of which are consistent with previous results. Comparison with predictions of numerical models indicate that OH absorption arises from diffuse gas (nH ~ 50 cm$^{-3}$) illuminated by radiation fields ~ 0.5-5 G0, while CH is associated with higher density of 500 cm$^{-3}$. We posit that the apparent dichotomy in the properties of the diffuse clouds giving rise to OH and CH absorption could be due to either (a) the presence of multiple spectroscopically unresolved clouds along the line-of-sight, or, (b) density gradients along the line-of-sight within a single cloud.

[49] 2306.05251

Carbon-oxygen ultra-massive white dwarfs in general relativity

We employ the La Plata stellar evolution code, LPCODE, to compute the first set of constant rest-mass carbon-oxygen ultra-massive white dwarf evolutionary sequences for masses higher than 1.29 Msun that fully take into account the effects of general relativity on their structural and evolutionary properties. In addition, we employ the LP-PUL pulsation code to compute adiabatic g-mode Newtonian pulsations on our fully relativistic equilibrium white dwarf models. We find that carbon-oxygen white dwarfs more massive than 1.382 Msun become gravitationally unstable with respect to general relativity effects, being this limit higher than the 1.369 Msun we found for oxygen-neon white dwarfs. As the stellar mass approaches the limiting mass value, the stellar radius becomes substantially smaller compared with the Newtonian models. Also, the thermo-mechanical and evolutionary properties of the most massive white dwarfs are strongly affected by general relativity effects. We also provide magnitudes for our cooling sequences in different passbands. Finally, we explore for the first time the pulsational properties of relativistic ultra-massive white dwarfs and find that the period spacings and oscillation kinetic energies are strongly affected in the case of most massive white dwarfs. We conclude that the general relativity effects should be taken into account for an accurate assessment of the structural, evolutionary, and pulsational properties of white dwarfs with masses above 1.30 Msun.

[50] 2306.05252

Disentangling physics and chemistry in AGB outflows: revealing degeneracies when adding complexity

Observations of the outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars continue to reveal their chemical and dynamical complexity. Spherical asymmetries, such as spirals and disks, are prevalent and thought to be caused by binary interaction with a (sub)stellar companion. Furthermore, high density outflows show evidence of dust-gas interactions. The classical chemical model of these outflows - a gas-phase only, spherically symmetric chemical kinetics model - is hence not appropriate for a majority of observed outflows. We have included several physical and chemical advancements step-by-step: a porous density distribution, dust-gas chemistry, and internal UV photons originating from a close-by stellar companion. Now, we combine these layers of complexity into the most chemically and physically advanced chemical kinetics model of AGB outflows to date. By varying over all model parameters, we obtain a holistic view of the outflow's composition and how it (inter)depends on the different complexities. A stellar companion has the largest influence, especially when combined with a porous outflow. We compile sets of gas-phase molecules that trace the importance of dust-gas chemistry and allow us to infer the presence of a companion and porosity of the outflow. This shows that our new chemical model can be used to infer physical and chemical properties of specific outflows, as long as a suitable range of molecules is observed.

[51] 2306.05295

The Star-forming and Ionizing Properties of Dwarf z~6-9 Galaxies in JADES: Insights on Bursty Star Formation and Ionized Bubble Growth

Reionization is thought to be driven by faint star-forming galaxies, but characterizing this population in detail has long remained very challenging. Here we utilize deep nine-band NIRCam imaging from JADES to study the star-forming and ionizing properties of 756 $z\sim6-9$ galaxies, including hundreds of very UV-faint objects ($M_\mathrm{UV}>-18$). The faintest ($m\sim30$) galaxies in our sample typically have stellar masses of $M_\ast\sim(1-3)\times10^7$ $M_\odot$ and young light-weighted ages ($\sim$50 Myr), though some show strong Balmer breaks implying much older ages ($\sim$500 Myr). We find no evidence for extremely massive galaxies ($>3\times10^{10}$ $M_\odot$) in our sample. We infer a strong (factor $>$2) decline in the typical [OIII]$+$H$\beta$ EWs towards very faint $z\sim6-9$ galaxies, yet a weak UV luminosity dependence on the H$\alpha$ EWs at $z\sim6$. We demonstrate that these EW trends can be explained if fainter galaxies have systematically lower metallicities as well as more recently-declining star formation histories relative to the most UV-luminous galaxies in our sample. Our data provide evidence that the brightest galaxies are frequently experiencing a recent strong upturn in SFR. We also discuss how the EW trends may be influenced by a strong correlation between $M_\mathrm{UV}$ and Lyman continuum escape fraction. This alternative explanation has dramatically different implications for the contribution of galaxies along the luminosity function to cosmic reionization, highlighting the need for deep spectroscopic follow-up. Finally, we quantify the photometric overdensities around two $z>7$ strong Ly$\alpha$ emitters in the JADES footprint. One Ly$\alpha$ emitter lies close to a strong photometric overdensity while the other shows no significant nearby overdensity, perhaps implying that not all strong $z>7$ Ly$\alpha$ emitters reside in large ionized bubbles.

[52] 2306.05308

TOI-4010: A System of Three Large Short-Period Planets With a Massive Long-Period Companion

We report the confirmation of three exoplanets transiting TOI-4010 (TIC-352682207), a metal-rich K dwarf observed by TESS in Sectors 24, 25, 52, and 58. We confirm these planets with HARPS-N radial velocity observations and measure their masses with 8 - 12% precision. TOI-4010 b is a sub-Neptune ($P = 1.3$ days, $R_{p} = 3.02_{-0.08}^{+0.08}~R_{\oplus}$, $M_{p} = 11.00_{-1.27}^{+1.29}~M_{\oplus}$) in the hot Neptune desert, and is one of the few such planets with known companions. Meanwhile, TOI-4010 c ($P = 5.4$ days, $R_{p} = 5.93_{-0.12}^{+0.11}~R_{\oplus}$, $M_{p} = 20.31_{-2.11}^{+2.13}~M_{\oplus}$) and TOI-4010 d ($P = 14.7$ days, $R_{p} = 6.18_{-0.14}^{+0.15}~R_{\oplus}$, $M_{p} = 38.15_{-3.22}^{+3.27}~M_{\oplus}$) are similarly-sized sub-Saturns on short-period orbits. Radial velocity observations also reveal a super-Jupiter-mass companion called TOI-4010 e in a long-period, eccentric orbit ($P \sim 762$ days and $e \sim 0.26$ based on available observations). TOI-4010 is one of the few systems with multiple short-period sub-Saturns to be discovered so far.

[53] 2306.05322

The MUSCLES Extension for Atmospheric and Transmission Spectroscopy: UV and X-ray Host-star Observations for JWST ERS & GTO Targets

X-ray through infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are essential for understanding a star's effect on exoplanet atmospheric composition and evolution. We present a catalog of panchromatic SEDs, hosted on the Barbara A. Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST), for 11 exoplanet hosting stars which have guaranteed JWST observation time as part of the ERS or GTO programs but have no previous UV characterization. The stars in this survey range from spectral type F4-M6 (0.14-1.57 M$_\odot$), rotation periods of ~4-132 days, and ages of approximately 0.5-11.4 Gyr. The SEDs are composite spectra using data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton, the Hubble Space Telescope, BT-Settl stellar atmosphere models, and scaled spectra of proxy stars of similar spectral type and activity. From our observations, we have measured a set of UV and X-ray fluxes as indicators of stellar activity level. We compare the chromospheric and coronal activity indicators of our exoplanet-hosting stars to the broader population of field stars and find that a majority of our targets have activity levels lower than the average population of cool stars in the solar neighborhood. This suggests that using SEDs of stars selected from exoplanet surveys to compute generic exoplanet atmosphere models may underestimate the typical host star's UV flux by an order of magnitude or more, and consequently, that the observed population of exoplanetary atmospheres receive lower high-energy flux levels than the typical planet in the solar neighborhood.

[54] 2306.05332

A self-gravity module for the PLUTO code

We present a novel implementation of an iterative solver for the solution of the Poisson equation in the PLUTO code for astrophysical fluid dynamics. Our solver relies on a relaxation method in which convergence is sought as the steady-state solution of a parabolic equation, whose time-discretization is governed by the \textit{Runge-Kutta-Legendre} (RKL) method. Our findings indicate that the RKL-based Poisson solver, which is both fully parallel and rapidly convergent, has the potential to serve as a practical alternative to conventional iterative solvers such as the \textit{Gauss-Seidel} (GS) and \textit{successive over-relaxation} (SOR) methods. Additionally, it can mitigate some of the drawbacks of these traditional techniques. We incorporate our algorithm into a multigrid solver to provide a simple and efficient gravity solver that can be used to obtain the gravitational potentials in self-gravitational hydrodynamics. We test our implementation against a broad range of standard self-gravitating astrophysical problems designed to examine different aspects of the code. We demonstrate that the results match excellently with the analytical predictions (when available), and the findings of similar previous studies.

[55] 2306.05347

First constraints on the strength of the extragalactic magnetic field from $γ$-ray observations of GRB 221009A

The extragalactic magnetic field (EGMF) could be probed with $\gamma$-ray observations of distant sources. Primary very high energy (VHE) $\gamma$-rays from these sources absorb on extragalactic background light photons, and secondary electrons/positrons from the pair production acts create cascade $\gamma$-rays. These cascade $\gamma$-rays could be detected with space $\gamma$-ray telescopes such as Fermi-LAT. The $\gamma$-ray burst GRB 221009A was an exceptionally bright transient well suited for intergalactic $\gamma$-ray propagation studies. Using publicly-available Fermi-LAT data, we obtain upper limits on the spectrum of delayed emission from GRB 221009A during the time window of 30 days after the burst, and compare these with model spectra calculated for various EGMF strengths $B$, obtaining lower limits on $B$. We show that the values of $B < 10^{-18}$ G are excluded. For some optimistic models of the VHE spectrum of GRB 221009A, the values of $B < 10^{-17}$ G are excluded.

[56] 2306.05354

The correlations between galaxy properties in different environments of the cosmic web

We study the correlations between galaxy properties in different environments of the cosmic web using a volume limited sample from the SDSS. We determine the geometric environment at the location of each galaxy using the eigenvalues of the tidal tensor. The correlations are then separately analyzed in different cosmic web environments. We use the Pearson correlation coefficient and the normalized mutual information for measuring the correlations. Using a two-tailed t-test, we find that the correlations between the galaxy properties are sensitive to the geometric environments. The stellar mass can be an important link between the galaxy properties and the environment. We repeat the analysis after matching the stellar mass distributions in different environments and find that the conclusions remain unchanged for most of the relations. Our study suggests that the galaxy properties and their interrelationships are susceptible to the geometric environments of the cosmic web.

[57] 2306.05364

An inflation model for massive primordial black holes to interpret the JWST observations

The first observations of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) have identified six massive galaxy candidates with the stellar masses $M_\ast\gtrsim 10^{10}\,M_\odot$ at high redshifts $7.4\lesssim z\lesssim 9.1$, with two most massive high-$z$ objects having the cumulative comoving number densities $n_{\rm G}$ up to $1.6\times 10^{-5}\, {\rm Mpc}^{-3}$. The presence of such massive sources in the early universe challenges the standard $\Lambda$CDM model since the needed star formation efficiency is unrealistically high. This tension can be alleviated via the accretion of massive primordial black holes (PBHs). In this work, with the updated data from the first JWST observations, we find that the PBHs with mass $10^8\,M_\odot\lesssim M_{\rm PBH}\lesssim 10^{11}\,M_\odot$ can act as the seeds of extremely massive galaxies even with a low abundance $10^{-7}\lesssim f_{\rm PBH}\lesssim 10^{-3}$. We construct an ultraslow-roll inflation model and investigate its possibility of producing the required PBHs. We explore the model in two cases, depending on whether there is a perfect plateau on the inflaton potential. If the plateau is allowed to incline slightly, our model can produce the PBHs that cover the required PBH mass and abundance range to explain the JWST data.

[58] 2306.05383

Algorithm to Produce a Density Field with Given Two, Three, and Four-Point Correlation Functions

Here we show how to produce a 3D density field with a given set of higher-order correlation functions. Our algorithm enables producing any desired two-point, three-point, and four-point functions, including odd-parity for the latter. We also outline how to generalize the algorithm to i) N-point correlations with $N>4$, ii) dimensions other than 3, and iii) beyond scalar quantities. This algorithm should find use in verifying analysis pipelines for higher-order statistics in upcoming galaxy redshift surveys such as DESI, Euclid, Roman, and Spherex, as well as intensity mapping

[59] 2306.05388

Hybrid data-driven magnetofrictional and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an eruptive solar active region

We present first results of the hybrid data-driven magnetofrictional (MF) and data-constrained magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of solar active region NOAA 11158, which produced an X-class flare and coronal mass ejection on 2011 February 15. First, we apply the MF approach to build the coronal magnetic configuration corresponding to the SDO/HMI photospheric magnetograms by using the JSOC PDFI SS electric field inversions at the bottom boundary of the simulation domain. We then use the pre-eruptive MF state at about 1.5 hour before the observed X-class flare as the initial state for the MHD simulation, assuming a stratified polytropic solar corona. The MHD run shows that the initial magnetic configuration containing twisted magnetic fluxes and a 3D magnetic null point is out of equilibrium. We find the eruption of a complex magnetic structure consisting of two magnetic flux ropes, as well as the development of flare ribbons, with their morphology being in good agreement with observations. We conclude that the combination of the data-driven MF and data-constrained MHD simulations is a useful practical tool for understanding the 3D magnetic structures of real solar ARs that are unobservable otherwise.

[60] 2306.05397

Implications of atmospheric non-detections for Trappist-1 inner planets on atmospheric retention prospects for outer planets

JWST secondary eclipse observations of Trappist-1b seemingly disfavor atmospheres >~1 bar since heat redistribution is expected to yield dayside emission temperature below the ~500 K observed. Given the similar densities of Trappist-1 planets, and the theoretical potential for atmospheric erosion around late M-dwarfs, this observation might be assumed to imply substantial atmospheres are also unlikely for the outer planets. However, the processes governing atmosphere erosion and replenishment are fundamentally different for inner and outer planets. Here, an atmosphere-interior evolution model is used to show that an airless Trappist-1b (and c) only weakly constrains stellar evolution, and that the odds of outer planets e and f retaining substantial atmospheres remain largely unchanged. This is true even if the initial volatile inventories of planets in the Trappist-1 system are highly correlated. The reason for this result is that b and c sit unambiguously interior to the runaway greenhouse limit, and so have potentially experienced ~8 Gyr of XUV-driven hydrodynamic escape; complete atmospheric erosion in this environment only weakly constrains stellar evolution and escape parameterizations. In contrast, e and f reside within the habitable zone, and likely experienced a comparatively short steam atmosphere during Trappist-1's pre-main sequence, and consequently complete atmospheric erosion remains unlikely across a broad swath of parameter space (e and f retain atmospheres in ~98% of model runs). Naturally, it is still possible that all Trappist-1 planets formed volatile-poor and are all airless today. But the airlessness of b (and c) does not require this, and as such, JWST transit spectroscopy of e and f remains the best near-term opportunity to characterize the atmospheres of habitable zone terrestrial planets.

[61] 2306.05403

The FRB20190520B Sightline Intersects Foreground Galaxy Clusters

The repeating fast radio burst FRB20190520B is an anomaly of the FRB population thanks to its high dispersion measure (DM$=1205\,pc\,cm^{-3}$) despite its low redshift of $z_\mathrm{frb}=0.241$. This excess has been attributed to a host contribution of ${DM_{host}} \approx 900\,\mathrm{pc\,cm^{-3}}$, far larger than any other known FRB. In this paper, we describe spectroscopic observations of the FRB20190520B field obtained as part of the FLIMFLAM survey on the 2dF/AAOmega facility, which yielded 701 galaxies redshifts in a field of $\approx 3\,\mathrm{deg}^2$. Applying a friends-of-friends group finder reveals multiple galaxy groups and clusters, for which we then estimated halo masses by comparing their richness with forward-modeled mocks from numerical simulations. We discover two separate $M_\mathrm{halo} >10^{14}\,M_\odot$ galaxy clusters, at $z=0.1867$ and $z=0.2170$, respectively, that are directly intersected by the FRB sightline within their characteristic radius $r_{200}$. Subtracting off their estimated DM contributions as well that of the diffuse intergalactic medium, we estimate a host contribution of $DM_{host}=467^{+140}_{-230}\,\mathrm{pc\,cm^{-3}}$ or ${DM_{host}} = 339^{+122}_{-174}\,\mathrm{pc\,cm^{-3}}$ (observed frame) depending on whether we assume the halo gas extends to $r_{200}$ or $2\times r_{200}$. This significantly smaller $DM_{host}$ -- no longer the largest known value -- is now consistent with H$\alpha$ emission measure estimates of the host galaxy without having to invoke unusually high gas temperatures. We also re-estimate the turbulent fluctuation and geometric amplification factor of the scattering layer to be $FG \approx 3.9 - 7.5\,(\mathrm{pc^2\;km})^{-1/3}$. This result illustrates the importance of incorporating foreground data for FRB analyses, both for understanding the nature of FRBs and to realize their potential as a cosmological probe.

[62] 2306.04671

Higgs Inflation and the Electroweak Gauge Sector

We introduce a new method that allows for the Higgs to be the inflaton. That is, we let the Higgs be a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson of a global coset symmetry $G/H$ that spontaneously breaks at an energy scale $\sim 4\pi f$ and give it a suitable $SU(2) \subset G$ Chern-Simons interaction, with $\beta$ the dimensionless Chern-Simons coupling strength and $f$ an $SU(2)$ decay constant. As a result, slow-roll inflation occurs via $SU(2)$-induced friction down a steep sinusoidal potential. In order to obey electroweak $SU(2)_{\rm L}\times U(1)_Y$ symmetry, the lowest-order Chern-Simons interaction is required to be quadratic in the Higgs with coupling strength $\propto \beta^2/f^2$. Higher-order interaction terms keep the full Lagrangian nearly invariant under the approximate pNG shift symmetry. Employing the simplest symmetry coset $SU(5)/SO(5)$, $N$ $e$-folds of inflation occur when $N \approx 60 \left(g/0.64\right)^2\left[\beta/\left(3\times 10^6\right)\right]^{8/3}\left[f/\left(5\times 10^{11}\ {\rm GeV}\right)\right]^{2/3}$, with $g$ the weak isospin gauge coupling constant. Small values of the decay constant, $f \lesssim 5 \times 10^{11} {\rm GeV}$, which are needed to address the Higgs hierarchy problem, are ruled out by electric dipole measurements and so successfully explaining inflation requires large $\beta$. We discuss possible methods to achieve such large couplings and other alternative Higgs inflation scenarios outside the standard modified-gravity framework.

[63] 2306.04678

Heavy QCD axion dark matter from avoided level crossing

The QCD axion offers a natural resolution to the strong CP problem and provides a compelling dark matter candidate. If the QCD axion constitutes all the dark matter, the simplest models pick out a narrow range of masses around $100\,\mu{\rm eV}$. We point out a natural production mechanism for QCD axion dark matter with masses up to the astrophysical bound of $1 \,{\rm eV}$. If the QCD axion mixes with a sterile axion, the relative temperature dependence of their potentials can lead to an avoided level crossing of their mass eigenstates. This leads to a near-total transfer of energy density from the sterile axion to the QCD axion, resulting in a late-time QCD axion abundance sufficient to make up all of present-day dark matter. Our result provides additional theoretical motivation for several direct detection experiments that will probe this part of parameter space in the near future.

[64] 2306.04680

Gravitational waves from phase transitions and cosmic strings in neutrino mass models with multiple Majorons

We explore the origin of Majorana masses within the Majoron model and how this can lead to the generation of a distinguishable primordial stochastic background of gravitational waves. We first show how in the simplest Majoron model only a contribution from cosmic string can be within the reach of planned experiments. We then consider extensions containing multiple complex scalars, demonstrating how in this case a spectrum comprising contributions from both a strong first order phase transition and cosmic strings can naturally emerge. We show that the interplay between multiple scalar fields can amplify the phase transition signal, potentially leading to double peaks over the wideband sloped spectrum from cosmic strings. We also underscore the possibility of observing such a gravitational wave background to provide insights into the reheating temperature of the universe. We conclude highlighting how the model can be naturally combined with scenarios addressing the origin of matter of the universe, where baryogenesis occurs via leptogenesis and a right-handed neutrino plays the role of dark matter.

[65] 2306.04703

An octupolar test of general relativity

Compact binaries with unequal masses and whose orbits are not aligned with the observer's line of sight are excellent probes of gravitational radiation beyond the quadrupole approximation. Among the compact binaries observed so far, strong evidence of octupolar modes is seen in GW190412 and GW190814, two binary black holes observed during the first half of the third observing run of LIGO/Virgo observatories. These two events, therefore, provide a unique opportunity to test the consistency of the octupolar modes with the predictions of general relativity (GR). In the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation to GR, the gravitational-wave phasing has known dependencies on different radiative multipole moments, including the mass octupole. This permits the use of publicly released posteriors of the PN phase deformation parameters for placing constraints on the deformations to the different PN components of the radiative mass octupole denoted by $\delta \mu_{3n}$. Combining the posteriors on $\delta \mu_{3n}$ from these two events, we deduce a joint bound (at 90% credibility) on the first three PN order terms in the radiative octupoles to be $\delta \mu_{30}=-0.07^{+0.11}_{-0.12}$, $\delta \mu_{32}=0.48^{+0.93}_{-1.15}$, and $\delta \mu_{33}=-0.32^{+1.67}_{-0.62}$, consistent with GR predictions. Among these, the measurement of $\delta \mu_{33}$ for the first time confirms the well-known octupolar tail contribution, a novel nonlinear effect due to the scattering of the octupolar radiation by the background spacetime, is consistent with the predictions of GR. Detection of similar systems in the future observing runs should further tighten these constraints.

[66] 2306.04773

The Temperature, Electron, and Pressure Characteristics of Switchbacks: Parker Solar Probe Observations

Parker Solar Probe (PSP) observes unexpectedly prevalent switchbacks, which are rapid magnetic field reversals that last from seconds to hours, in the inner heliosphere, posing new challenges to understanding their nature, origin, and evolution. In this work, we investigate the thermal states, electron pitch angle distributions, and pressure signatures of both inside and outside switchbacks, separating a switchback into spike, transition region (TR), and quiet period (QP). Based on our analysis, we find that the proton temperature anisotropies in TRs seem to show an intermediate state between spike and QP plasmas. The proton temperatures are more enhanced in spike than in TR and QP, but the alpha temperatures and alpha-to-proton temperature ratios show the opposite trends, implying that the preferential heating mechanisms of protons and alphas are competing in different regions of switchbacks. Moreover, our results suggest that the electron integrated intensities are almost the same across the switchbacks but the electron pitch angle distributions are more isotropic inside than outside switchbacks, implying switchbacks are intact structures but strong scattering of electrons happens inside switchbacks. In addition, the examination of pressures reveals that the total pressures are comparable through a switchback, confirming switchbacks are pressure-balanced structures. These characteristics could further our understanding of ion heating, electron scattering, and the structure of switchbacks.

[67] 2306.04881

Mediation of Collisionless Turbulent Dissipation Through Cyclotron Resonance

The dissipation of magnetized turbulence is fundamental to understanding energy transfer and heating in astrophysical systems. Collisionless interactions, such as resonant wave-particle process, are known to play a role in shaping turbulent astrophysical environments. Here, we present evidence for the mediation of turbulent dissipation in the solar wind by ion-cyclotron waves. Our results show that ion-cyclotron waves interact strongly with magnetized turbulence, indicating that they serve as a major pathway for the dissipation of large-scale electromagnetic fluctuations. We further show that the presence of cyclotron waves significantly weakens observed signatures of intermittency in sub-ion-kinetic turbulence, which are known to be another pathway for dissipation. These observations results suggest that in the absence of cyclotron resonant waves, non-Gaussian, coherent structures are able to form at sub-ion-kinetic scales, and are likely responsible for turbulent heating. We further find that the cross helicity, i.e. the level of Alfv\'enicity of the fluctuations, correlates strongly with the presence of ion-scale waves, demonstrating that dissipation of collisionless plasma turbulence is not a universal process, but that the pathways to heating and dissipation at small scales are controlled by the properties of the large-scale turbulent fluctuations. We argue that these observations support the existence of a helicity barrier, in which highly Alfv\'enic, imbalanced, turbulence is prevented from cascading to sub-ion scales thus resulting in significant ion-cyclotron resonant heating. Our results may serve as a significant step in constraining the nature of turbulent heating in a wide variety of astrophysical systems.

[68] 2306.04991

Neutral bremsstrahlung electroluminescence in noble liquids revisited

Recent discovery of neutral bremsstrahlung (NBrS) mechanism of electroluminescence (EL) in noble gases in two-phase detectors for dark matter searches has led to a prediction that NBrS EL should be present in noble liquids as well. A rigorous theory of NBrS EL in noble liquids was developed accordingly in the framework of Cohen-Leckner and Atrazhev formalism. It has been recently followed by the first experimental observation of NBrS EL in liquid argon, which however deviates significantly from the previous theory. Given these results, we revise previous theoretical calculations of EL NBrS in noble liquids to be consistent with experiment. In particular, NBrS EL yield and spectra were calculated in this work for argon, krypton and xenon with momentum-transfer cross section of electron-atom scattering (instead of energy-transfer one) being used for calculation of NBrS cross section. The results for light noble liquids, helium and neon, are also reexamined.

[69] 2306.04992

The hadronic equation of state of HESS J1731-347 from the relativistic mean-field model with tensor coupling

A recent report has identified a central compact object (CCO) within the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347, with a mass and radius of $M=0.77^{+0.20}_{-0.17}M{\odot}$ and $R=10.4^{+0.86}_{-0.78}$ km, respectively. To investigate this light compact star, a density-dependent relativistic mean-field (DDRMF) model, specifically the DDVT model, has been employed. The DDVT model incorporates tensor couplings of vector mesons, which {can} successfully describe the properties of finite nuclei, such as charge radius, binding energy, and spin-orbit splitting. The introduction of tensor coupling reduces the influence of scalar mesons and generates a softer equation of state (EOS) in the outer core of the neutron star. Moreover, it has been found that the crust segment plays a crucial role in reproducing the mass-radius relation of HESS J1731-347, indicating a preference for a soft crust EOS. By manipulating the coupling strength of the isovector meson in the DDVT parameter set, a reasonable hadronic EOS has been obtained, satisfying the constraints from the gravitational-wave signal GW170817, the simultaneous mass-radius measurements from the NICER collaboration, and the properties of finite nuclei. Notably, the mass-radius relations derived from this hadronic EOS also accurately describe the observables of HESS J1731-347. Therefore, based on our estimation, the CCO in HESS J1731-347 may represent the lightest known neutron star.

[70] 2306.05280

Chiral EFT calculation of neutrino reactions in warm neutron-rich matter

Neutrino scattering and absorption rates of relevance to supernovae and neutron star mergers are obtained from nuclear matter dynamical structure functions that encode many-body effects from nuclear mean fields and correlations. We employ nuclear interactions from chiral effective field theory to calculate the density, spin, isospin, and spin-isospin response functions of warm beta-equilibrium nuclear matter. We include corrections to the single-particle energies in the mean field approximation as well as vertex corrections resummed in the random phase approximation (RPA), including, for the first time, both direct and exchange diagrams. We find that correlations included through the RPA redistribute the strength of the response to higher energy for neutrino absorption and lower energy for antineutrino absorption. This tends to suppress the absorption rate of electron neutrinos across all relevant energy scales. In contrast, the inclusion of RPA correlations enhances the electron antineutrino absorption rate at low energy and supresses the rate at high energy. These effects are especially important at high-density and in the vicinity of the neutrino decoupling region. Implications for heavy element nucleosynthesis, electromagnetic signatures of compact object mergers, supernova dynamics, and neutrino detection from galactic supernovae are discussed briefly.

[71] 2306.05282

Weakly Lensed Gravitational Waves: Probing Cosmic Structures with Wave-Optics Features

Every signal propagating through the universe is at least weakly lensed by the intervening gravitational field. In some situations, wave-optics phenomena (diffraction, interference) can be observed as frequency-dependent modulations of the waveform of gravitational waves (GWs). We will denote these signatures as Wave-Optics Features (WOFs) and analyze them in detail. Our framework can efficiently and accurately compute WOF in the single-image regime, of which weak lensing is a limit. The phenomenology of WOF is rich and offers valuable information: the dense cusps of individual halos appear as peaks in Green's function for lensing. If resolved, these features probe the number, effective masses, spatial distribution and inner profiles of substructures. High signal-to-noise GW signals reveal WOFs well beyond the Einstein radius, leading to a fair probability of observation by upcoming detectors such as LISA. Potential applications of WOF include reconstruction of the lens' projected density, delensing standard sirens and inferring large-scale structure morphology and the halo mass function. Because WOF are sourced by light halos with negligible baryonic content, their detection (or lack thereof) holds promise to test dark matter scenarios.

[72] 2306.05389

Towards distinguishing Dirac from Majorana neutrino mass with gravitational waves

We propose to distinguish the nature of neutrino masses, Dirac vs Majorana, from the spectrum of gravitational waves generated. We study two simple models of Majorana and Dirac mass genesis motivated by generating small neutrino masses without assuming tiny Yukawa couplings. For Majorana neutrinos, spontaneous breaking of the gauged $B-L$ symmetry gives a cosmic string induced gravitational wave signal flat over a large range of frequencies, whereas for Dirac neutrinos, spontaneous and soft-breaking of a $Z_2$ symmetry generate a peaked gravitational wave spectrum from annihilation of domain walls. The striking difference between the shape of the spectra in the two cases can help differentiate between Dirac vs Majorana neutrino masses in the two class of models considered, complementing results of neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.