New articles on Astrophysics

[1] 2406.06667

The Spectra of IceCube Neutrino (SIN) candidate sources -- V. Modeling and interpretation of multiwavelength and neutrino data

A correlation has been reported between the arrival directions of high-energy IceCube events and gamma-ray blazars classified as intermediate- and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacs. Subsequent studies have investigated the optical properties of these sources, analyzed public multiwavelength data, and constrained their individual neutrino emission based on public IceCube data. In this work, we provide a theoretical interpretation of public multiwavelength and neutrino point source data for the 32 BL Lac objects in the sample previously associated with an IceCube alert event. We have performed particle interaction modeling using open-source numerical simulation software. We constrained the model parameters using a novel and unique approach that simultaneously describes the host galaxy contribution, the observed synchrotron peak, the multiwavelength fluxes, and the IceCube point source constraints. We show that a single-zone leptohadronic model can describe the multiwavelength fluxes from the 32 IceCube candidates. In some cases, the model suggests that hadronic emission may contribute a considerable fraction of the gamma-ray flux. The required power in relativistic protons ranges from a few percent to a factor of ten of the Eddington luminosity, which is energetically less demanding compared to other leptohadronic blazar models in recent literature. The model can describe the 68% confidence level IceCube flux for a large fraction of the masquerading BL Lacs in the sample, including TXS 0506+056; whereas, for true BL Lacs, the model predicts a low neutrino flux in the IceCube sensitivity range. The predicted neutrino flux peaks between a few PeV and 100 PeV and scales positively with the flux in the GeV, MeV, X-ray, and optical bands. Based on these results, we provide a list of the brightest neutrino emitters, which can be used for future searches targeting the 10-100 PeV regime.

[2] 2406.06672

The Manhattan Suite: Accelerated galaxy evolution in the early Universe

Observational advances have allowed the detection of galaxies, protoclusters, and galaxy clusters at higher and higher redshifts, opening a new view into extreme galaxy evolution. I present an argument that the high redshift, massive galaxies discovered over the last decade are really the most massive galaxies within protocluster-cores of galaxy clusters at $z\sim2$, and that they are the partial descendants of same galaxies discovered by JWST at $z\sim9$. To that end, I present $\textit{The Manhattan Suite}$, a set of $100$ high resolution zoom-in simulations of the most massive galaxy clusters, out to $9\,R_\mathrm{vir}$, selected at $z = 2$ from a ($1.5\,\mathrm{cGpc})^3$ parent volume, and simulated using the $\textit{Simba}$ model. Unlike other cluster suites, my selection at $z = 2$ ensures that these systems are biased in a similar fashion to observations, in that they should be the brightest and the most massive by construction at $z \gtrsim 2$. I show that my sample is able to reproduce extremely star-bursting protoclusters such as SPT2349-56, high redshift galaxy clusters XLSSC122 and JKCS0249, and the wealth of massive (sometimes quenched) galaxies at $z \gtrsim 3$ and up to $z \sim 9$. I argue that these systems are intimately linked, and represent the same evolutionary history.

[3] 2406.06674

Systematic Collapse of the Accretion Disc Across the Supermassive Black Hole Population

The structure of the accretion flow onto supermassive black holes (SMBH) is not well understood. Standard disc models match to zeroth order in predicting substantial energy dissipation within optically-thick material producing a characteristic strong blue/UV continuum. However they fail at reproducing more detailed comparisons to the observed spectral shapes along with their observed variability. Based on stellar mass black holes within our galaxy, accretion discs should undergo a transition into an X-ray hot, radiatively inefficient flow, below a (mass scaled) luminosity of $\sim 0.02\,L_{\rm{Edd}}$. While this has been seen in limited samples of nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN) and a few rare changing-look AGN, it is not at all clear whether this transition is present in the wider AGN population across cosmic time. A key issue is the difficulty in disentangling a change in spectral state from increased dust obscuration and/or host galaxy contamination, effectively drowning out the AGN emission. Here we use the new eROSITA eFEDS Survey to identify unobscured AGN from their X-ray emission, matched to excellent optical imaging from Subaru's Hyper Suprime-Cam; allowing the subtraction of the host galaxy contamination. The resulting, uncontaminated, AGN spectra reveal a smooth transition from a strongly disc dominated state in bright AGN, to the collapse of the disc into an inefficient X-ray plasma in the low luminosity AGN, with the transition occurring at $\sim 0.02\,L_{\rm{Edd}}$; revealing fundamental aspects of accretion physics in AGN.

[4] 2406.06675

A Breakdown of the Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Local Active Galaxies

We investigate the relation between black hole (BH) mass and bulge stellar mass for a sample of 117 local ($z \sim 0$) galaxies hosting low-luminosity, broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our sample comes from Reines & Volonteri (2015), who found that, for a given $total$ stellar mass, these AGNs have BH masses more than an order of magnitude smaller than those in early-type galaxies with quiescent BHs. Here we aim to determine whether or not this AGN sample falls on the canonical BH-to-$bulge$ mass relation by utilizing bulge-disk decompositions and determining bulge stellar masses using color-dependent mass-to-light ratios. We find that our AGN sample remains offset by more than an order of magnitude from the $M_\mathrm{BH}-M_\mathrm{bulge}$ relation defined by early-type galaxies with dynamically detected BHs. We caution that using canonical BH-to-bulge mass relations for galaxies other than ellipticals and bulge-dominated systems may lead to highly biased interpretations. This work bears directly to predictions for gravitational wave detections and cosmological simulations that are tied to the local BH-to-bulge mass relations.

[5] 2406.06678

Kinematics and Dynamics of the Galactic Bar revealed by Gaia Long Period Variables

We take low-amplitude, long period variable (LA-LPV) candidates in Gaia DR3 as tracers of the kinematics and dynamics of the Milky Way bar. LA-LPVs, like other LPVs, have high luminosities and follow a tight period-luminosity relation, but unlike e.g. Mira variables, their radial velocity measurements are reliable due to their smaller pulsation amplitudes. We supplement the Gaia astrometric and radial velocity measurements with distance moduli assigned using a period-luminosity relation to acquire full 6D phase space information. The assigned distances are validated by comparing to geometric distances and StarHorse distances, which shows biases less than $\sim5\%$. Our sample provides an unprecedented panoramic picture of the inner Galaxy with minimal selection function effects. We map the kinematics of the inner Milky Way and find a significant kinematic signature corresponding to the Galactic bar. We measure the pattern speed of the Galactic bar using the continuity equation and find $\Omega_{\rm b}=34.1\pm2.4$ km s$^{-1}$ kpc$^{-1}$. We develop a simple, robust and model-independent method to measure the dynamical length of the bar using only kinematics and find $R_{\rm b}\sim4.0$ kpc. We validate both measurements using N-body simulations. Assuming knowledge of the gravitational potential of the inner Milky Way, we analyse the orbital structure of the Galactic bar using orbital frequency ratios. The $x_1$ orbits are the dominant bar-supporting orbital family in our sample. Amongst the selected bar stars, the $x_1 v_1$ or "banana" orbits constitute a larger fraction ($\sim 15\%$) than other orbital families in the bar, implying that they are the dominant family contributing to the Galactic X-shape, although contributions from other orbital families are present.

[6] 2406.06683

Discrepancies between spectroscopy and HST photometry in tagging multiple stellar populations in 22 globular clusters

Multiple populations (MPs) in globular clusters (GCs) are stars distinct by their abundances of light elements. The MPs can be directly separated by measuring abundances of C, N, O, Na, Al, Mg with spectroscopy or indirectly from photometric sequences created by the impact of different chemistry on band passes of particular filters, such as the HST pseudo-colours in the ultraviolet. An attempt to link HST pseudo-colours maps (PCMs) and spectroscopy was done by Marino et al. (2019), using abundances mostly from our FLAMES survey. However, we uncovered that an incomplete census of stars in common was used in their population tagging. We correct the situation by building our own PCMs and matching them with our abundances in 20 GCs, plus two GCs from other sources, doubling the sample with spectroscopic abundances available. We found that the pseudo-colour (magF275W-2*magF336W+magF438W) does not have a monotonic trend with Na abundances, enhanced by proton-capture reactions in MPs. Moreover, on average about 16% of stars with spectroscopic Na abundances show a discrepant tagging of MPs with respect to the HST photometry. Stars with chemistry of second generation (SG) are mistaken for first generation (FG) objects according to HST photometry and vice versa. In general, photometric indices tend to overestimate the fraction of FG stars, in particular in low mass GCs. We offer a simple explanation for these findings. Finally, we publish all our PCMs, with more than 31,800 stars in 22 GCs, with star ID and coordinates, for easy check and reproduction, as it should be in science papers.

[7] 2406.06684

Search for neutrino emission from hard X-ray AGN with IceCube

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are promising candidate sources of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos since they provide environments rich in matter and photon targets where cosmic ray interactions may lead to the production of gamma rays and neutrinos. We searched for high-energy neutrino emission from AGN using the $\textit{Swift}$-BAT Spectroscopic Survey (BASS) catalog of hard X-ray sources and 12 years of IceCube muon track data. First, upon performing a stacked search, no significant emission was found. Second, we searched for neutrinos from a list of 43 candidate sources and found an excess from the direction of two sources, Seyfert galaxies NGC 1068 and NGC 4151. We observed NGC 1068 at flux $\phi_{\nu_{\mu}+\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}$ = $4.02_{-1.52}^{+1.58} \times 10^{-11}$ TeV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ normalized at 1 TeV, with power-law spectral index, $\gamma$ = 3.10$^{+0.26}_{-0.22}$, consistent with previous IceCube results. The observation of a neutrino excess from the direction of NGC 4151 is at a post-trial significance of 2.9$\sigma$. If interpreted as an astrophysical signal, the excess observed from NGC 4151 corresponds to a flux $\phi_{\nu_{\mu}+\bar{\nu}_{\mu}}$ = $1.51_{-0.81}^{+0.99} \times 10^{-11}$ TeV$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ normalized at 1 TeV and $\gamma$ = 2.83$^{+0.35}_{-0.28}$.

[8] 2406.06687

CombineHarvesterFlow: Joint Probe Analysis Made Easy with Normalizing Flows

We show how to efficiently sample the joint posterior of two non-covariant experiments with a large set of nuisance parameters. Specifically, we train an ensemble of normalizing flows to learn the the posterior distribution of both experiments. Once trained, we can use the flows to draw $\mathcal{O} (10^9)$ samples from the joint posterior of two independent cosmological measurements in seconds -- saving up to $\mathcal{O}(1)$ ton of $\text{CO}_2$ per Monte Carlo run. Using this new technique we find joint constraints between the Dark Energy Survey $3 \times 2$ point measurement, South Pole Telescope and Planck CMB lensing and a BOSS direct fit full shape analyses, for the first time. We find $\Omega_{\rm m} = 0.32^{+0.01}_{-0.01}$ and $S_8 = 0.79 ^ {+0.01}_ {-0.01}$. We release a public package called {\tt CombineHarvesterFlow} ( which performs these calculations.

[9] 2406.06688

9 new M Dwarf Planet Candidates from TESS Including 5 Gas Giants

We present the detection of 9 new planet candidates orbiting M dwarfs, identified using an independent search and vetting pipeline applied to TESS Full-Frame Image (FFI) data from Sectors 1 to 63. Our candidates include planets as small as 1.4 $R_{\oplus}$, with orbital periods up to 20 days. Among the 9 new candidates, we identified 5 gas giants, which represent a rare and unexpected outcome of planet formation. Our findings add to the growing sample of giant planets around M dwarfs found by TESS. We discuss their follow-up potential for mass measurements through radial velocity observations and atmospheric characterization through transmission spectroscopy. We highlight TIC 12999193.01 as a particularly unique gas giant candidate in an eccentric orbit and excellent potential for atmospheric characterisation.

[10] 2406.06689

A spatially resolved radio spectral study of the galaxy M 51

Radio continuum emission from galaxies at gigahertz frequencies can be used as an extinction-free tracer of star formation. However, at frequencies of a few hundred megahertz, there is evidence for low-frequency spectral flattening. We wish to better understand the origin of this low-frequency flattening and, to this end, perform a spatially resolved study of the nearby spiral galaxy M 51. We explore the different effects that can cause flattening of the spectrum towards lower frequencies, such as free-free absorption and cosmic-ray ionisation losses. We used radio continuum intensity maps between 54 and 8350 MHz at eight different frequencies, with observations at 240 MHz from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope presented for the first time. We corrected for contribution from thermal free-free emission using an H$\alpha$ map that has been extinction-corrected with 24 $\mu$m data. We fitted free-free absorption models to the radio spectra to determine the emission measure (EM) as well as polynomial functions to measure the non-thermal spectral curvature. The non-thermal low-frequency radio continuum spectrum between 54 and 144 MHz is very flat and even partially inverted, particularly in the spiral arms; contrary, the spectrum at higher frequencies shows the typical non-thermal radio continuum spectrum. However, we do not find any correlation between the EMs calculated from radio and from H$\alpha$ observations; instead, the non-thermal spectral curvature weakly correlates with the HI gas mass surface density. This suggests that cosmic-ray ionisation losses play an important role in the low-frequency spectral flattening. The observed spectral flattening towards low frequencies in M 51 is caused by a combination of ionisation losses and free-free absorption. The reasons for this flattening need to be understood in order to use sub-GHz frequencies as a star-formation tracer.

[11] 2406.06691

An empirical isochrone archive for nearby open clusters

The ages of star clusters and co-moving stellar groups contain essential information about the Milky Way. Their special properties make them excellent tracers of galactic structure and key components to unlocking its star formation history. Yet, even though the importance of stellar population ages has been widely recognized, their determination remains a challenging task often associated with highly model-dependent and uncertain results. We propose a new approach to this problem, which relies on empirical isochrones of known clusters extracted from high-quality observational data. These purely observation-based data products open up the possibility of relative age determination, free of stellar evolution model assumptions. For the derivation of the empirical isochrones, we used a combination of the statistical analysis tool principal component analysis for preprocessing and the supervised machine learning method support vector regression for curve extraction. To improve the statistical reliability of our result, we defined the empirical isochrone of a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a cluster as the median calculated from a set of bootstrapped curves. We provide empirical isochrones in all Gaia DR2 and DR3 color combinations for 83 nearby clusters, paving the way for a relative comparison between individual stellar populations based on an age-scaling ladder of empirical isochrones of known clusters. Due to the precision of the available observational data, we report accurate lower main sequence empirical isochrones for many clusters in our sample, which are of special interest as this region is known to be especially complex to model. We validate our results by comparing the extracted empirical isochrones to cluster ages in the literature. We also investigate the added information that empirical isochrones covering the lower main sequence can provide on two case studies.

[12] 2406.06692

Foam: A Python package for forward asteroseismic modelling of gravity modes

Asteroseismology, the study of stellar pulsations, offers insights into the internal structures and evolution of stars. Analysing the variations in a star's brightness allows the determination of fundamental properties such as mass, radius, age, and chemical composition. Asteroseismology heavily relies on computational tools, but a significant number of them are closed-source, thus inaccessible to the broader astronomic community. This manuscript presents Foam, a Python package designed to perform forward asteroseismic modelling of stars exhibiting gravity modes. It automates and streamlines a considerable fraction of the modelling process, comparing grids of theoretical stellar models and their oscillation frequencies to observed frequency sets in stars. Foam offers the flexibility to employ diverse modelling approaches, allowing users to choose different methodologies for matching theoretically predicted oscillations to observations. It provides options to utilise various sets of observables for comparison with their theoretical counterparts, employ different merit functions for assessing goodness of fit, and to incorporate nested subgrids in a statistically rigorous manner. For applications of these methodologies in modelling observed gravity modes, refer to Michielsen et al. (2021) and Michielsen et al. (2023).

[13] 2406.06693

The measurement of the splashback radius of dark matter halo

In the hierarchical evolution framework of cosmology, larger halos grow through matter accretion and halo mergers. To clarify the halo evolution, we need to define the halo mass and radius physically. However, the pseudo-evolution problem makes the process difficult. Thus, we aim to measure the splashback radius, a physically defined halo radius for a large number of halos with various mass and redshift, and to determine the most important parameters to affect it. We use the typical definition of splashback radius (Rsp) as the radius with the steepest radial density profile. In this work, we measure Rsp of dark matter halos within the mass of 1e13-3e15Msun and redshifts spanning 0.08-0.65. This is the measurement of the Rsp in the largest range of halo mass and redshift. Using the shear catalog of the DECaLS DR8, we investigate Rsp of halos associated with galaxies and galaxy clusters identified in the various catalogs. Our finding reveals a trend wherein massive halos demonstrate a larger Rsp, and the normalized splashback radius (Rsp/R200m) shows a U-shaped mass evolution. The upturn in these relations mainly comes from the contribution of massive halos with low redshifts. We further find Rsp increases with the peak height, while Rsp/R200m has a negative relation with the peak height. We also find the Rsp >~R200m for most halos, indicating their low accretion rates. Our result is consistent with previous literature across a wide range of mass, redshift, and peak height, as well as the simulation work from More et al. (2015).

[14] 2406.06697

A quasar-galaxy merger at $z\sim 6.2$: rapid host growth via accretion of two massive satellite galaxies

We present JWST/NIRSpec Integral Field Spectroscopy in the rest-frame optical bands of the system PJ308-21, a quasar at $z=6.2342$ caught as its host galaxy interacts with companion galaxies. We detect spatially extended emission of several emission lines (H$\alpha$, H$\beta$, [OIII], [NII], [SII], HeII), which we use to study the properties of the ionized phase of the interstellar medium: the source and hardness of the photoionizing radiation field, metallicity, dust reddening, electron density and temperature, and star formation. We also marginally detect continuum starlight emission associated with the companion sources. We find that at least two independent satellite galaxies are part of the system. While the quasar host appears highly enriched and obscured, with AGN-like photoionization conditions, the western companion shows minimal dust extinction, low metallicity ($Z\sim0.4$ Z$_\odot$), and star-formation driven photoionization. The eastern companion shows higher extinction and metallicity ($Z\sim0.8$ Z$_\odot$) compared to the western companion, and it is at least partially photoionized by the nearby quasar. We do not find any indication of AGN in the companion sources. Our study shows that while the quasar host galaxy is already very massive ($M_{\rm dyn}>10^{11}$ M$_\odot$), it is still rapidly building up by accreting two relatively massive ($M_{\rm star}\sim 10^{10}$ M$_\odot$) companion sources. This dataset showcases the power of JWST in exposing the build-up of massive galaxies in the first Gyr of the Universe.

[15] 2406.06701

The XMM-SERVS X-ray eXtended Galaxy Cluster (XVXGC) catalog

To explain the well-known tension between cosmological parameter constraints obtained from the primary CMB and those drawn from galaxy cluster samples, we propose a possible explanation for the incompleteness of detected clusters are higher than estimated. We aim to search for galaxy groups and clusters with particularly extended surface brightness distributions by creating a new X-ray-selected catalog of extended galaxy clusters from the XMM-SERVS data, based on a dedicated source detection and characterization algorithm that is optimized for extended sources. Our state-of-the-art algorithm is composed of wavelet filtering, source detection, and characterization. We make a visual inspection of the optical image, and spatial distribution of galaxies within the same redshift layer to confirm the existence of clusters and estimate the cluster redshift with the spectroscopic and photometric redshifts of galaxies. The growth curve analysis is used to characterize the detections. We report a catalog of extended X-ray galaxy clusters detected from the XMM-SERVS data, named the XMM- SERVS X-ray eXtended Galaxy Cluster (XVXGC) catalog. It includes 141 cluster candidates. Specifically, there are 52 clusters previously identified as clusters with the intra-cluster medium (ICM) emission (class 3), 37 ones previously known as optical or infrared clusters but detected as X-ray clusters for the first time (class 2), and 52 identified as clusters for the first time (class 1). Compared with the class3 sample, the 'class1+2' sample is systematically fainter, and exhibits a flatter surface brightness profile. The median flux in [0.1-2.4]keV band for 'class1+2' and class3 sample is 2.336e-14 and 3.163e-14erg/s/cm2, respectively. The median slope of surface brightness profile are 0.502 and 0.577 for the 'class1+2' and class 3 samples, respectively.

[16] 2406.06702

NEATH III: a molecular line survey of a simulated star-forming cloud

We present synthetic line observations of a simulated molecular cloud, utilising a self-consistent treatment of the dynamics and time-dependent chemical evolution. We investigate line emission from the three most common CO isotopologues ($^{12}$CO, $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O) and six supposed tracers of dense gas (NH$_3$, HCN, N$_2$H$^+$, HCO$^+$, CS, HNC). Our simulation produces a range of line intensities consistent with that observed in real molecular clouds. The HCN-to-CO intensity ratio is relatively invariant with column density, making HCN (and chemically-similar species such as CS) a poor tracer of high-density material in the cloud. The ratio of N$_2$H$^+$ to HCN or CO, on the other hand, is highly selective of regions with densities above $10^{22} \, {\rm cm^{-2}}$, and the N$_2$H$^+$ line is a very good tracer of the dynamics of high volume density ($>10^4 \, {\rm cm^{-3}}$) material. Focusing on cores formed within the simulated cloud, we find good agreement with the line intensities of an observational sample of prestellar cores, including reproducing observed CS line intensities with an undepleted elemental abundance of sulphur. However, agreement between cores formed in the simulation, and models of isolated cores which have otherwise-comparable properties, is poor. The formation from and interaction with the large-scale environment has a significant impact on the line emission properties of the cores, making isolated models unsuitable for interpreting observational data.

[17] 2406.06705

The largest metallicity difference in twin systems: high-precision abundance analysis of the benchmark pair Krios & Kronos

Aims.We conduct a high-precision differential abundance analysis of the remarkable binary system HD 240429/30 (Krios and Kronos, respectively), whose difference in metallicity is one of the highest detected in systems with similar components to date (approximately 0.20 dex). A condensation temperature TC trend study was performed to search for possible chemical signatures of planet formation. In addition, other potential scenarios have been proposed to explain this disparity. Methods. Fundamental atmospheric parameters (Te f f , log g, [Fe/H], vturb) were calculated using the latest version of the FUNDPAR code employing high resolution MAROON-X spectra. We applied a full line-by-line differential technique to measure the abundances of 26 elements in both stars with equivalent widths and spectral synthesis taking advantage of the non-solar scaled opacities. Results.We found a difference in metallicity of approximately 0.230 dex, being Kronos more metal rich than Krios. The analysis encompassed the examination of the diffusion effect and primordial chemical differences, concluding that the observed chemical discrepancies in the binary system cannot be solely attributed to any of these processes. The results also shown a noticeable excess of Li by approximately 0.56 dex in Kronos, and an enhancement of refractories with respect to Krios. A photometric study with TESS data was carried out, without finding any signal of possible transiting planets around the stars. Several potential planet formation scenarios were also explored to account for the observed excess in both metallicity and lithium in Kronos. Planetary engulfment is a plausible explanation, considering the ingestion of an exceptionally large mass, approximately approximately 27.8M_Earth, but no scenario is definitively ruled out.

[18] 2406.06716

Metal-Poor Stars in the MW Disk: Resonant Cooling of Vertical Oscillations of Halo Stars in Barred Galaxies

Using numerical simulations of a barred disk galaxy embedded in nonspinning and spinning dark matter (DM) halos, we present a novel mechanism of `cooling' the vertical oscillations of halo DM particles, which acquire the disk kinematics. The underlying mechanism consists of resonant interactions between halo particles and the stellar bar. The cooling mechanism acts both on dynamical and secular timescales, i.e., from ~ 0.5 Gyr to few Gyr, and the stellar bar acts to absorb the kinetic energy of the vertical motions. Using a Milky Way-type stellar halo, we estimate the population of metal-poor disk stars which have been trapped by the MW disk and analyze its kinematics. We find that the population of metal-poor MW disk stars with $|z|\ltorder 3$\,kpc detected by the Gaia DR3 and other surveys can have their origin in the stellar halo. The cooled population also migrates radially outwards compared by acquiring energy from the spinning bar, and prograde-moving stars have a different distribution from the retrograde ones. Next, we have calculated the ratio of the prograde-to-retrograde orbits of the cooled population and found that this ratio varies radially, with the fast-spinning stellar halo resulting in the shallower radial increase of this ratio outside of the corotation. The nonspinning stellar halo shows a monotonic increase of this ratio with radius outside the corotation. Together with analyzed radial migration of these halo stars, the cooling phenomenon of halo metal-poor stars can explain their current disk population, and has corollaries for the chemical evolution of disk galaxies in general.

[19] 2406.06725

Variable radio emission of neutron star X-ray binary Ser X-1 during its persistent soft state

Ser X-1 is a low mass neutron star X-ray binary and has been persistently accreting since its discovery in the 1960s. It has always been observed to be in a soft spectral state and has never showed substantial long-term X-ray variability. Ser X-1 has one previous radio observation in the literature in which radio emission was detected during this soft state, which is contrary to the behavior of black hole X-ray binaries. We have recently obtained 10 randomly sampled radio epochs of Ser X-1 in order to further investigate its anomalous soft state radio emission. Out of 10 epochs, we find 8 non-detections and 2 detections at 10 GHz flux densities of 19.9 +/- 4.2 uJy and 32.2 +/- 3.6 uJy. We do not detect polarization in either epoch, ruling out very high polarization levels (< 63% and 34%). We compare these Ser X-1 results to other X-ray binaries and consider explanations for its long term variable radio behavior.

[20] 2406.06740

All-sky three-dimensional dust density and extinction Maps of the Milky Way out to 2.8 kpc

Three-dimensional dust density maps are crucial for understanding the structure of the interstellar medium of the Milky Way and the processes that shape it. However, constructing these maps requires large datasets and the methods used to analyse them are computationally expensive and difficult to scale up. As a result it is has only recently become possible to map kiloparsec-scale regions of our Galaxy at parsec-scale grid sampling. We present all-sky three-dimensional dust density and extinction maps of the Milky Way out to 2.8~kpc in distance from the Sun using the fast and scalable Gaussian Process algorithm \DustT. The sampling of the three-dimensional map is $l,b,d = 1^{\circ} \times1^{\circ} \times 1.7$~pc. The input extinction and distance catalogue contains 120 million stars with photometry and astrometry from Gaia DR2, 2MASS and AllWISE. This combines the strengths of optical and infrared data to probe deeper into the dusty regions of the Milky Way. We compare our maps with other published 3D dust maps. All maps quantitatively agree at the $0.001$~mag~pc$^{-1}$ scale with many qualitatively similar features, although each map also has its own features. We recover Galactic features previously identified in the literature. Moreover, we also see a large under-density that may correspond to an inter-arm or -spur gap towards the Galactic Centre.

[21] 2406.06757

Exploring Alternative Cosmologies with the LSST: Simulated Forecasts and Current Observational Constraints

In recent years, the Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) model, which has been pivotal in cosmological studies, has faced significant challenges due to emerging observational and theoretical inconsistencies. This paper explores alternative cosmological models to address these discrepancies, using simulated three years photometric Supernovae Ia data from the Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST), supplemented with additional Pantheon+, Union, and the recently released Dark Energy Survey 5 Years (DESY5) supernova compilations and Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) measurements. We assess the constraining power of these datasets on various dynamic dark energy models, including CPL, BA, JBP, SCPL, and GCG. Our analysis demonstrates that the LSST with its high precision data, can provide tighter constraints on dark energy parameters compared to other datasets. Additionally, the inclusion of BAO measurements significantly improves parameter constraints across all models. Except for Pantheon+, we find that across all the cosmological datasets, and the dark energy models considered in this work, there is a consistent deviation from the LCDM model that exceeds a 2-sigma significance level. Our findings underscore the necessity of exploring dynamic dark energy models, which offer more consistent frameworks with fundamental physics and observational data, potentially resolving tensions within the LCDM paradigm. Furthermore, the use of simulated LSST data highlights the survey's potential in offering significant advantages for exploring alternative cosmologies, suggesting that future LSST observations would play a crucial role.

[22] 2406.06772

Simulations predict intermediate-mass black hole formation in globular clusters

Intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) are those between 100 and 10$^5$ solar masses ($M_{\odot}$); their formation process is debated. One possible origin is the growth of less massive black holes (BHs) via mergers with stars and compact objects within globular clusters (GCs). However, previous simulations have indicated that this process only produces IMBHs $<500 M_{\odot}$ because the gravitational wave recoil ejects them when they merge with other BHs. We perform star-by-star simulations of GC formation, finding that high-density star formation in a GC's parent giant molecular cloud can produce sufficient mergers of massive stars to overcome that mass threshold. We conclude that GCs can form with IMBHs $\gtrsim 10^3 M_{\odot}$, which is sufficiently massive to be retained within the GC even with the expected gravitational wave recoil.

[23] 2406.06827

Predictions for a Low-mass Cutoff for the Primordial Black Hole Mass Spectrum

In this note we outline how a modest violation in the conservation of mass during the merger of two PBHs affects the PBH mass spectrum that we previously obtained using a Boltzmann equation model for the evolution of the mass spectrum with no mass loss. We find that if the initial cosmological redshift is on the order 10$^{12}$, then the fraction of primordial holes with masses greater than $10^{3}$ solar masses appears be close to what is required to provide the seeds for galaxies. In addition we note that as a result of rapid collisions and strong coupling to electromagnetic radiation for temperatures $>$ GeV (Chapline 2018), there will be an effective low mass cutoff in the mass spectrum for PBH masses less than a certain PBH mass less than than $0.1M_{\odot}$. We also point out that this cutoff in the mass spectrum below $\sim 0.1 M_\odot$ can be confirmed by combining future microlensing observations from the Roman Space Telescope and the Vera C. Rubin Observatory with astrometric observations.

[24] 2406.06828

CCAT: Comparisons of 280 GHz TiN and Al Kinetic Inductance Detector Arrays

The CCAT Collaboration's six-meter Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope is scheduled to begin observing in the Chilean Atacama in 2025, targeting a variety of science goals throughout cosmic history. Prime-Cam is a 1.8-meter diameter cryostat that will host up to seven independent instrument modules designed for simultaneous spectroscopic and broadband, polarimetric surveys at millimeter to submillimeter wavelengths. The first of these instrument modules, the 280 GHz module, will include ${\sim}$10,000 kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) across three arrays. While the first array was fabricated out of tri-layer TiN/Ti/TiN, the other two arrays were fabricated out of a single layer of Al. This combination of materials within the same instrument provides a unique opportunity to directly compare the performance and noise properties of two different detector materials that are seeing increasing use within the field. We present preliminary comparisons here based on lab testing, along with a discussion of the potential impacts on operation when observing and translating raw data to science-grade maps.

[25] 2406.06830

Cosmological Stasis from Dynamical Scalars: Tracking Solutions and the Possibility of a Stasis-Induced Inflation

It has recently been realized that many theories of physics beyond the Standard Model give rise to cosmological histories exhibiting extended epochs of cosmological stasis. During such epochs, the abundances of different energy components such as matter, radiation, and vacuum energy each remain fixed despite cosmological expansion. In previous analyses of the stasis phenomenon, these different energy components were modeled as fluids with fixed, unchanging equations of state. In this paper, by contrast, we consider more realistic systems involving dynamical scalars which pass through underdamping transitions as the universe expands. Indeed, such systems might be highly relevant for BSM scenarios involving higher-dimensional bulk moduli and inflatons. Remarkably, we find that stasis emerges even in such situations, despite the appearance of time-varying equations of state. Moreover, this stasis includes several new features which might have important phenomenological implications and applications. For example, in the presence of an additional "background" energy component, we find that the scalars evolve into a "tracking" stasis in which the stasis equation of state automatically tracks that of the background. This phenomenon exists even if the background has only a small initial abundance. We also discuss the intriguing possibility that our results might form the basis of a new "Stasis Inflation" scenario in which no ad-hoc inflaton potential is needed and in which there is no graceful-exit problem. Within such a scenario, the number of e-folds of cosmological expansion produced is directly related to the hierarchies between physical BSM mass scales. Moreover, non-zero matter and radiation abundances can be sustained throughout the inflationary epoch.

[26] 2406.06850

The PAU Survey: Photometric Calibration of Narrow Band Images

The Physics of the Accelerating Universe (PAU) camera is an optical narrow band and broad band imaging instrument mounted at the prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope. We describe the image calibration procedure of the PAU Survey data. We rely on an external photometric catalogue to calibrate our narrow band data using stars that have been observed by both datasets. We fit stellar templates to the stellar broad band photometry of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and synthesise narrow band photometry that we compare to the PAUS narrow band data to determine their calibration. Consequently, the PAUS data are in the AB system as inherited from its reference calibrator. We do several tests to check the performance of the calibration. We find it self-consistent when comparing repeated observations of the same objects, with a good overall accuracy to the AB system which we estimate to be at the 2\% precision level and no significant trends as a function of narrow band filter or wavelength. Repeated observations allow us to build a spatial map of the illumination pattern of the system. We also check the wavelength dependence of the calibration comparing to stellar spectra. We find that using only blue stars reduces the effects of variations in the stellar template fitting to broad-band colours, improving the overall precision of the calibration to around 1\% and its wavelength uniformity. The photometric redshift performance obtained with the PAUS data attests to the validity of our calibration to reach the PAUS science goals.

[27] 2406.06873

Pushing the limits of the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph (COS) with an optimized background correction

Observations utilizing the ultraviolet capabilities of the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope are of unique value to the astronomy community. Spectroscopy down to 900 A with COS has enabled new science areas. However, contrary to the situation at longer wavelengths, these observations are limited by detector background noise. The background correction currently applied by the standard calibration pipeline (CalCOS) is not optimized for faint targets, limiting the scientific value of low signal-to-noise observations. In this work we investigate a possible dependence of the variations of the dark rate in both segments of the COS far-ultraviolet (FUV) detector on time, detector high voltage (HV), and solar activity. Through our analysis we identified a number of detector states (on a configuration basis, e.g., HV and segment) characterizing the spatial distribution of dark counts, and created superdarks to be used in an optimized 2-dimensional (2D) background correction. We have developed and tested Another COS Dark Correction (ACDC), a dedicated pipeline to perform a 2D background correction based on statistical methods, producing background-corrected and flux-calibrated spectra. While our testing of ACDC showed an average improvement in S/N values of ~10%, in a few cases the improvements in S/N reached 60% across the whole wavelength range of individual segments.

[28] 2406.06885

The Prevalence of Resonance Among Young, Close-in Planets

Multiple planets undergoing disk migration may be captured into a chain of mean-motion resonances with the innermost planet parked near the disk's inner edge. Subsequent dynamical evolution may disrupt these resonances, leading to the non-resonant configurations typically observed among {\it Kepler} planets that are Gyrs old. In this scenario, resonant configurations are expected to be more common in younger systems. This prediction can now be tested, thanks to recent discoveries of young planets, particularly those in stellar clusters, by NASA's {\it TESS} mission. We divided the known planetary systems into three age groups: young ($<$100-Myr-old), adolescent (0.1-1-Gyr-old), and mature ($>1$-Gyr-old). The fraction of neighboring planet pairs having period ratios within a few percent of a first-order commensurability (e.g.~4:3, 3:2, or 2:1) is 70$\pm$15\% for young pairs, 24$\pm$8\% for adolescent pairs, and 15$\pm$2\% for mature pairs. The fraction of systems with at least one nearly commensurable pair (either first or second-order) is 86$\pm13$\% among young systems, 38$\pm12$\% for adolescent systems, and 23$\pm3$\% for mature systems. First-order commensurabilities prevail across all age groups, with an admixture of second-order commensurabilities. Commensurabilities are more common in systems with high planet multiplicity and low mutual inclinations. Observed period ratios often deviate from perfect commensurability by $\sim$1\% even among young planets, too large to be explained by resonant repulsion with equilibrium eccentricity tides. We also find that super-Earths in the radius gap ($1.5-1.9R_\oplus$) are less likely to be near-resonant (11.9$\pm2.0\%$) compared to Earth-sized planets ($R_p<1R_\oplus$; 25.3$\pm4.4\%$) or mini-Neptunes ($1.9R_\oplus \leq R_p<2.5R_\oplus$; 14.4$\pm1.8\%$).

[29] 2406.06921

GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array eXtended (GLEAM-X) survey II: Second Data Release

We present the second data release for the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array eXtended (GLEAM-X) survey. This data release is an area of 12,892-deg^2 around the South Galactic Pole region covering 20h 40m <= RA <= 6h 40m, -90deg <= Dec <= +30deg. Observations were taken in 2020 using the Phase-II configuration of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) and covering a frequency range of 72-231MHz with twenty frequency bands. We produce a wideband source-finding mosaic over 170-231MHz with a median root mean squared noise of 1.5 (+1.5/-0.5) mJy beam^(-1). We present a catalogue of 624,866 components, including 562,302 components which are spectrally fit. This catalogue is 98% complete at 50mJy, and a reliability of 98.7% at a 5sigma level, consistent with expectations for this survey. The catalogue is made available via Vizier and the PASA datastore and accompanying mosaics for this data release are made available via AAO Data Central and SkyView.

[30] 2406.06939

Dynamical properties of mildly relativistic ejecta produced by the mass-loading of gamma-ray burst jets in dense ambient media

We present the results of a series of 3D special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) jet in a massive circumstellar medium (CSM) surrounding the progenitor star. Our simulations reproduce the jet morphology transitioning from a well-collimated state to a thermal pressure-driven state for a range of CSM masses and outer radii. The jet-CSM interaction redistributes the jet energy to materials expanding into a wide solid angle and results in a quasi-spherical ejecta with 4-velocities from $\Gamma\beta\simeq 0.1$ to $\simeq 10$. The mass and kinetic energy of the ejecta with velocities faster than $0.1c$ are typically of the order of $0.1\,M_\odot$ and $10^{51}\,\mathrm{erg}$ with only a weak dependence on the CSM mass and radius for the explored CSM parameter ranges. We find that the numerically obtained density structure of the mildly relativistic ejecta is remarkably universal. The radial density profile is well approximated as a power-law function of the radial velocity with an index of $-5$, $\rho\propto v^{-5}$, in agreement with our previous simulations and other studies, as well as those suggested from recent studies on early-phase spectra of supernovae associated with GRBs. Such fast ejecta rapidly becomes transparent following its expansion. Gradually releasing the trapped thermal photons, the ejecta gives rise to bright UV--optical emission within $\sim 1$ day. We discuss the potential link of the relativistic ejecta resulting from jet-CSM interaction to GRB-associated supernovae as well as fast and blue optical transients.

[31] 2406.06940

High-velocity blue-shifted Fe XXV He$α$ line during a superflare of the RS CVn-type star IM Peg

Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) detected a superflare, releasing $5\times 10^{37}$ erg in 2$-$10 keV, of the RS CVn-type star IM Peg at 10:41 UT on 2023 July 23 with its Gas Slit Camera (GSC; 2$-$30 keV). We conducted X-ray follow-up observations of the superflare with Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER; 0.2$-$12 keV) starting at 16:52 UT on July 23 until 06:00 UT on August 2. NICER X-ray spectra clearly showed emission lines of the Fe XXV He$\alpha$ and Fe XXVI Ly$\alpha$ for $\sim 1.5$ days since the MAXI detection. The Fe XXV He$\alpha$ line was blue-shifted with its maximum Doppler velocity reaching $-2200 \pm 600$ $\mathrm{km \: s^{-1}}$, suggesting an upward-moving plasma during the flare, such as a coronal mass ejection (CME) and/or chromospheric evaporation. This is the first case that the Fe XXV He$\alpha$ line is blue-shifted during a stellar flare and its velocity overwhelmingly exceeds the escape velocity of the star ($-230$ $\mathrm{km \: s^{-1}}$). One hour before the most pronounced blueshift detection, a signature of reheating the flare plasma was observed. We discuss the origin of the blueshift, a CME or high-velocity chromospheric evaporation.

[32] 2406.06951

Determination method of binary fractions by the integrated spectrum

We need to resolve the individual stars for binary fraction determinations of stellar systems. Therefore, it is not possible to obtain the binary fractions for dense or distant stellar systems. % We proposed a method to determine the binary fraction of a dense or distant stellar system. The method is to first determine the binary fraction variation for any two adjacent regions and then add up those binary fraction variations along the radial direction to obtain the binary fraction for a stellar system. Binary fraction variation is derived by using ten binary fraction-sensitive spectral absorption feature indices (SAFIs) and the binary fraction variation calibrations in terms of these SAFIs. Using this method, we first presented the binary fraction variations for twenty-one Galactic globular clusters (GCs). By comparisons, we find that they agree well with the binary fractions based on the main-sequence fiducial line method by previous studies. This verifies that the above mentioned method is feasible. Next, we presented the binary fraction variations of thirteen Galactic GCs. We gave the relationships between binary fraction and various parameters, and found that binary fraction is negatively correlated with NHB and NRR, binary fraction of some studies is not strongly correlated with NBS, and the number of GCs with large binary fraction is greater at extreme blue horizontal branch population ratio. At last, if we want to obtain more accurate binary fraction, we suggest that the spectroscopic and photometric observations are conducted at an appropriate area interval for a stellar system.

[33] 2406.06971

Polar alignment of a dusty circumbinary disc -- I. Dust ring formation

We investigate the formation of dust traffic jams in polar-aligning circumbinary discs. We use 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamical simulations of both gas and dust to model an initially highly misaligned circumbinary disc around an eccentric binary. As the circumbinary disc evolves to a polar configuration (perpendicular to the binary orbital plane), the difference in the precession between the gas and dust produces dust traffic jams, which become dense dust rings. We find the formation of dust rings exists for different Stokes number, binary eccentricity, and initial disc tilt. Dust rings are only produced while the circumbinary disc is misaligned to the binary orbital plane. When the disc becomes polar aligned, the dust rings are still present and long-lived. Once these dust rings are formed, they drift inward. The drift timescale depends on the Stokes number. The lower the Stokes number, the faster the dust ring drifts near the inner edge of the disc. The dust rings will have an increased midplane dust-to-go ratio, which may be a favourable environment for the steaming instability to operate.

[34] 2406.07010

Entropy and thermodynamical stability of white dwarfs

A structure of spherical white dwarfs is calculated for a non-zero temperature. It is shown that the thermodynamical stability of the white dwarf stars can be described naturally within the concept of the Helmholtz free energy of the Coulomb fully ionized electron-ion plasma.

[35] 2406.07022

The Gaia-ESO Survey: No sign of multiple stellar populations in open clusters from their sodium and oxygen abundances

Context: The light element (anti-)correlations shown by globular clusters (GCs) are the main spectroscopic signature of multiple stellar populations. These internal abundance variations provide us with fundamental constraints on the formation mechanism of stellar clusters. Aims: Using Gaia-ESO, the largest and most homogeneous survey of open clusters (OCs), we intend to check whether these stellar aggregates display the same patterns. Based on previous studies of many GCs, several young and massive clusters in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as a few OCs, we do not expect to find any anti-correlation, given the low mass of Milky Way OCs. Methods: We used the results based on UVES spectra of stars in Gaia-ESO to derive the distribution of Na and O abundances and seevwhether they show an unexplained dispersion or whether they are anti-correlated. By selecting only high-probability members with high-precision stellar parameters, we ended up with more than 700 stars in 74 OCs. We examined the O-Na distribution in 28 OCsvwith at least 4 stars available as well as the Na distribution in 24 OCs, with at least 10 stars available. Results: We find that the distribution of Na abundances is compatible with a single-value population, within the errors. The fewvapparent exceptions can be explained by differences in the evolutionary phase (main sequence and giant post first dredge-up episode) or by difficulties in analysing low gravity giants. We did not find any indication of an Na-O anti-correlation in any of the clusters for which O has been derived. Conclusions: Based on the very small spread we find, OCs maintain the status of single stellar populations. However, a definitive answer requires studying more elements and larger samples covering different evolutionary phases. This will be possible with the next generation of large surveys

[36] 2406.07030

Exoplanets in reflected starlight with dual-field interferometry: A case for shorter wavelengths and a fifth Unit Telescope at VLTI/Paranal

The direct observation of cold and temperate planets within 1 to 10 AU would be extremely valuable for uncovering their atmospheric compositions but remains a formidable challenge with current astronomical methods. Ground-based optical interferometry, capable of high angular-resolution imaging, offers a promising avenue for studying these exoplanets, complementing space-based observations. Our objective is to explore the fundamental limits of dual-field interferometry and assess its potential for characterizing exoplanets in reflected light using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We developed analytical expressions to describe the performance of dual-field interferometry and integrated these with simulations of atmospheric wavefronts corrected by extreme Adaptive Optics. An analytical solution for optimal phase apodization was formulated to enhance starlight rejection when injected into a single-mode fibre. This framework was applied to determine the detectability of known exoplanets in reflected light across various wavelength bands for both the current VLTI and a proposed extended version. Our results indicate that employing shorter wavelengths improves detectability, enabling at least seven Jupiter-mass exoplanets to be observed in the J band with current VLTI's baselines. Adding new baselines with lengths beyond 200 meters significantly enhances VLTI's capabilities, increasing the number of detectable exoplanets and revealing potential habitable zone candidates such as $\tau$ Ceti e and Proxima Centauri b. To substantially improve the VLTI's exoplanet characterization capabilities, we recommend developing instrumentation at wavelengths shorter than 1$\,\mu$m, as well as the addition of a fifth Unit Telescope (UT5).

[37] 2406.07058

The evolution of coronal shock wave properties and their relation with solar energetic particles

Shock waves driven by fast and wide coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are highly efficient particle accelerators involved in the production of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The gradual SEP event measured by STEREO-A and B on October 11, 2013 had notable properties: (1) it occurred in isolation with very low background particle intensities, (2) it had a clear onset of SEPs measured in situ allowing detailed timing analyses, and (3) it was associated with a fast CME event magnetically connected with STA and B. These allowed us to investigate the temporal connection between the rapidly evolving shock properties, such as compression ratio, Mach number and geometry, and the intensity and composition of SEPs measured in situ. We use shock reconstruction techniques and multi-viewpoint imaging data from STA and B, SOHO, and SDO spacecraft to determine the kinematic evolution of the expanding shock wave. Using 3D magneto-hydrodynamic modelling we obtained shock wave properties along an ensemble of magnetic field lines connected to STA and B, estimating their uncertainties. Using a velocity dispersion analysis of the SEP data, we time shift the SEP time series and analyze the relations between their properties and the modeled shock ones, as well as the energy dependence of these relations. We find a very good temporal agreement between the formation of the modelled shock wave and the estimated release times for both electrons and protons. This simultaneous release suggests a common acceleration process. This early phase is marked at both STEREOs by elevated electron-to-proton ratios that coincide with the highly quasi-perpendicular phase of the shock, suggesting that the rapid evolution of the shock as it transits from the low to the high corona modifies the conditions under which particles are accelerated. We discuss these findings in terms of basic geometry and acceleration processes.

[38] 2406.07140

Constraints on Lorentz invariance violation from the extraordinary Mrk 421 flare of 2014 using a novel analysis method

The Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV), a proposed consequence of certain quantum gravity (QG) scenarios, could instigate an energy-dependent group velocity for ultra-relativistic particles. This energy dependence, although suppressed by the massive QG energy scale $E_\mathrm{QG}$, expected to be on the level of the Planck energy $1.22 \times 10^{19}$ GeV, is potentially detectable in astrophysical observations. In this scenario, the cosmological distances traversed by photons act as an amplifier for this effect. By leveraging the observation of a remarkable flare from the blazar Mrk\,421, recorded at energies above 100 GeV by the MAGIC telescopes on the night of April 25 to 26, 2014, we look for time delays scaling linearly and quadratically with the photon energies. Using for the first time in LIV studies a binned-likelihood approach we set constraints on the QG energy scale. For the linear scenario, we set $95\%$ lower limits $E_\mathrm{QG}>2.7\times10^{17}$ GeV for the subluminal case and $E_\mathrm{QG}> 3.6 \times10^{17}$ GeV for the superluminal case. For the quadratic scenario, the $95\%$ lower limits for the subluminal and superluminal cases are $E_\mathrm{QG}>2.6 \times10^{10}$ GeV and $E_\mathrm{QG}>2.5\times10^{10}$ GeV, respectively.

[39] 2406.07154

A portrait of the rotation of Ultra-Cool Dwarfs revealed by TESS

This study presents the results of a search for rotation signature in 250 Gaia DR3 Ultra-Cool Dwarfs (UCDs) with TESS light curves. We identified 71 targets with unambiguous periodicities, of which 61 present rotation signatures and a single source behavior, with periods between 0.133 and 5.81 days. Five UCDs show double-dip features, namely variations with two periods, one approximately double or half the other. The remaining ten UCDs with unambiguous variability present a likely non-single behavior. We also found 20 UCDs showing complex behavior in their light curves, with noticeable fluctuations and irregular structure, with a few exhibiting apparent changes in their temporal structure. The remaining 159 targets show noisy light curves corresponding to low-amplitude signals, whose temporal variation cannot be easily identified. The distribution of the UCDs with rotation signature in the CMD diagram points to a lack of rotating objects within about $11.5<M_{G}<12.5$ and $G-G_{RP}<1.5$ separating them into two regimes, one mainly composed of less massive late-M stars with $P_{rot} \geq 1.0$ d, and another mainly composed of more massive early-M stars with $P_{rot}<1.0$ d. It is important to emphasize that by separating stars into age intervals, one observes that UCDs with $P_{rot} \geq 1.0$ d tend to be located in regions of younger objects, and, in contrast, those with $P_{rot}<1.0$ d are mainly concentrated in regions of older objects. Whether these trends of stars contrasting the sample separation is physical or produced by observational biases is a question to be verified in future studies.

[40] 2406.07179

Comparative Analysis of $k$-essence and Quintessence Scalar Field Models: A Data Analysis Approach

We perform a comparative analysis of quintessence and $k$-essence scalar field models in the data analysis perspective. We study the quintessence field with an exponential potential and the $k$-essence field with an inverse square potential in the present work. Before delving into data analysis, we provide a brief perspective on dynamical evolution on both of the models and obtain the stability constraints on the model parameters. We adopt Bayesian inference procedure to estimate the model parameters that best-fit the data. A comprehensive analysis utilizing Observational Hubble data (OHD) and Pantheon+ compilation of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) shows that $k$-essence model fits the data slightly better than the quintessence model while the evidence of these models in comparison with the $\Lambda$CDM model is weak. The value of the Hubble constant predicted by both the models is in close agreement with the value obtained by the Planck2018 collaboration assuming the $\Lambda$CDM model.

[41] 2406.07180

Detailed chemical abundances of the globular cluster Terzan 6 in the inner bulge

We used near-infrared spectroscopy at medium-high resolution (R=8,000$-$25,000) to perform the first comprehensive chemical study of the intermediate luminosity bulge globular cluster Terzan~6. We derived detailed abundances and abundance patterns of 27 giant stars, likely members of Terzan~6, based on their accurate Hubble Space Telescope proper motions and line-of-sight radial velocities. From the spectral analysis of these stars, we determined an average heliocentric radial velocity of 143.3$\pm$1.0 km s$^{-1}$ with a velocity dispersion of 5.1$\pm$0.7 km s$^{-1}$ and an average [Fe/H]=$-0.65\pm0.01$ and a low 1$\sigma$ dispersion of 0.03 dex. We also measured some depletion of [Mn/Fe] with respect to the solar-scaled values and enhancement of for [Ca/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Mg/Fe], [Ti/Fe], [O/Fe], [Al/Fe], [Na/Fe], and, to a lower extent, for [K/Fe], consistent with previous measurements of other bulge globular clusters and favoring the scenario of a rapid bulge formation and chemical enrichment. Some spread in the light element abundances suggest the presence of first- and second-generation stars, typical of genuine globulars. Finally, we measured some depletion of carbon and low $\rm ^{12}C/^{13}C$ isotopic ratios, as in previous studies of field and cluster bulge giants, indicating that extra-mixing mechanisms should be at work during the post main sequence evolution in the high metallicity regime as well.

[42] 2406.07193

Accurate estimate of the ESPRESSO fiber-injection losses inferred from integrated field-stabilization images

Ground-based astronomy is unavoidably subject to the adverse effect of atmospheric turbulence, a.k.a. the seeing, which blurs the images and limits the achievable spatial resolution. For spectroscopic observations, it leads to slit or fiber-injection losses, since not all photons distributed over the extended seeing disk can be captured. These losses might have a very substantial impact on the overall efficiency of a spectrograph and are naturally highly variable. Assessing the fiber-injection losses requires accurate information about the image quality (IQ) delivered by the telescope to the instrument over the course of the observations, which, however, is often not directly available. ESPRESSO provides acquisition and field-stabilization images attached to the science data and thus offers the opportunity for a post-processing analysis. Here, we present a novel method to infer the IQ profile and fiber-injection losses from the integrated field-stabilization images, utilizing the spill-over light that does not get injected into the fiber. We validate these measurements against the IQ observed in the acquisition images and determine that our method delivers unbiased estimates with a scatter of 0.11" for the FWHM of the profile and 15% in terms of fiber-injection losses. This compares favorably to the estimates derived from either the differential image motion monitor (DIMM) or the telescope guide probe sensors and therefore represents a valuable tool to characterize the instrument efficiency and to correct raw spectra for fiber-injection losses.

[43] 2406.07195

Binary asteroid candidates in Gaia DR3 astrometry

Asteroids with companions constitute an excellent sample for studying the collisional and dynamical evolution of minor planets. The currently known binary population were discovered by different complementary techniques that produce, for the moment, a strongly biased distribution, especially in a range of intermediate asteroid sizes (approximately 20 to 100 km) where both mutual photometric events and high-resolution adaptive optic imaging are poorly efficient. A totally independent technique of binary asteroid discovery, based on astrometry, can help to reveal new binary systems and populate a range of sizes and separations that remain nearly unexplored. In this work, we describe a dedicated period detection method and its results for the Gaia DR3 data set. This method looks for the presence of a periodic signature in the orbit post-fit residuals. After conservative filtering and validation based on statistical and physical criteria, we are able to present a first sample of astrometric binary candidates, to be confirmed by other observation techniques such as photometric light curves and stellar occultations.

[44] 2406.07196

A search for Galactic post-AGB stars in Gaia DR3

Context. When low and intermediate-mass stars leave the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase, and before they reach the Planetary Nebulae stage, they enter a very brief and rather puzzling stellar evolutionary stage named post-AGB. Aims. To provide a reliable catalogue of galactic post-AGB stars together with their physical and evolutionary properties obtained through Gaia DR3 astrometry and photometry. Methods. We started by identifying post-AGB stars or possible candidates from the bibliography with their Gaia DR3 counterpart sources. Using the available photometry, interstellar extinction, literature spectroscopically derived temperatures or spectral types and parallax-derived distances from Gaia DR3, we fitted their Spectral Energy Distributions and we estimated their luminosities and circumstellar extinctions. When compared to models, luminosity values allowed us to disclose objects that are likely post-AGB stars from other target types. Their position on the HR diagram allows direct comparison with updated post-AGB evolutionary tracks and an estimation of their masses and evolutionary ages. Results. We obtained a sample of 69 reliable post-AGB candidates that meet our classification criteria, providing their coordinates, distances, effective temperature, total extinction, luminosity, mass, and evolutionary age. In addition, similar data for other stellar objects in our initial compilation, such as supergiant stars or young stellar objects, is provided. Conclusions. We have filtered out the data that have the best precision in parallaxes and distances to obtain more accurate luminosities, which allows us to classify with confidence the objects of the sample among different stellar phases. This allows us to provide a small but reliable sample of post-AGB objects. Derived mean evolutionary time and average mass values are in agreement with theoretical expectations.

[45] 2406.07244

Collisionless shock in a relativistically hot unmagnetized electron-positron plasma

In this work, we investigate collisionless shocks propagating in a relativistically hot unmagnetized electron-positron plasmas. We estimate the dissipation fraction at shocks in the relativistically hot plasma, showing that it is sufficiently large to explain the observation of gamma-ray bursts even when the shock is not highly relativistic. It is shown by two-dimensional particle in cell simulations that magnetic fields are generated around the shock front by the Weibel instability, as in the cold upstream plasma. However, in contrast to the cold upstream plasma, no particles are accelerated at the shock in the simulation time of $t = 3600 \omega_p^{-1}$. The decay of the magnetic field in the downstream region is slower for slower shock velocities in the hot plasma cases. Applying the slow decay of the downstream magnetic field, we propose a model that generate magnetic fields in large downstream region, which is required from the standard model of the gamma-ray burst afterglow.

[46] 2406.07276

The New Worlds Simulations: Large-scale Simulations across Three Cosmologies

In this paper we describe the set of ``New Worlds Simulations'', three very large cosmology simulations, Qo'noS, Vulcan, and Ferenginar, that were carried out on the Summit supercomputer with the Hardware/Hybrid Cosmology Code, HACC. The gravity-only simulations follow the evolution of structure in the Universe by each employing 12,288^3 particles in (3 Gpc/h)^3 volumes, leading to a mass resolution of m_p~10^9 Msun/h. The simulations cover three different cosmologies, one LambdaCDM model, consistent with measurements from Planck, one simulation with massive neutrinos, and one simulation with a varying dark energy equation of state. All simulations have the same phases to allow a detailed comparison of the results and the investigation of the impact of different cosmological parameters. We present measurements of some basic statistics, such as matter power spectra, correlation function, halo mass function and concentration-mass relation and investigate the differences due to the varying cosmologies. Given the large volume and high resolution, these simulations provide excellent bases for creating synthetic skies. A subset of the data is made publicly available as part of this paper.

[47] 2406.07285

Exploring Waveform Variations among Neutron Star Ray-tracing Codes for Complex Emission Geometries

Pulse Profile Modeling (PPM), the technique used to infer mass, radius and geometric parameters for rotation-powered millisecond pulsars using data from the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER), relies on relativistic ray-tracing of thermal X-ray photons from hot spots on the neutron star surface to the observer. To verify our ray-tracing codes we have in the past conducted cross-tests for simple hot spot geometries, focusing primarily on the implementation of the space-time model. In this paper, we present verification for test problems that explore the more complex hot spot geometries that are now being employed in the NICER PPM analyses. We conclude that the accuracy of our computed waveforms is in general sufficiently high for analyses of current NICER data sets. We have however identified some extreme configurations where extra care may be needed.

[48] 2406.07300

Shadows, rings and optical appearance of a magnetically charged regular black hole illuminated by various accretion disks

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) imaging of the supermassive black holes at the centers of Messier 87 galaxy and the Milky Way galaxy marks a significant step in observing the photon rings and central brightness depression that define the optical appearance of black holes with an accretion disk scenario. Inspired by this, we take into account a static and spherically symmetric magnetically charged regular black hole (MCRBH) metric characterized by its mass and an additional parameter q, which arises from the coupling of Einstein gravity and nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) in the weak field approximation. This parameterized model offers a robust foundation for testing the coupling of Einstein gravity and NLED in the weak-field approximation, using the EHT observational results. In this study, we investigate the geodesic motion of particles around the solution, followed by a discussion of its fundamental geometrical characteristics such as scalar invariants. Using null geodesics, we examine how the model parameter influences the behavior of the photon sphere radius and the associated shadow silhouette. We seek constraints on q by applying the EHT results for supermassive black holes M87* and Sgr A*. Furthermore, it is observed that the geodesics of time-like particles are susceptible to variations in q, which can have an impact on the traits of the innermost stable circular orbit and the marginally bounded orbit. Our primary objective is to probe how the free parameter q affects various aspects of the accretion disk surrounding the MCRBH using the thin-disk approximation. Next, we discuss the physical characteristics of the thin accretion disk as well as the observed shadows and rings of the MCRBH, along with its luminosity, across various accretion models. Ultimately, variations in accretion models and the parameter q yield distinct shadow images and optical appearances of the MCRBH.

[49] 2406.07308

Revealing Predictive Maintenance Strategies from Comprehensive Data Analysis of ASTRI-Horn Historical Monitoring Data

Modern telescope facilities generate data from various sources, including sensors, weather stations, LiDARs, and FRAMs. Sophisticated software architectures using the Internet of Things (IoT) and big data technologies are required to manage this data. This study explores the potential of sensor data for innovative maintenance techniques, such as predictive maintenance (PdM), to prevent downtime that can affect research. We analyzed historical data from the ASTRI-Horn Cherenkov telescope, spanning seven years, examining data patterns and variable correlations. The findings offer insights for triggering predictive maintenance model development in telescope facilities.

[50] 2406.07336

Searching for gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black holes early inspiral

The early inspiral from stellar-mass binary black holes can emit milli-Hertz gravitational wave signals, making them detectable sources for space-borne gravitational wave missions like TianQin. However, the traditional matched filtering technique poses a significant challenge for analyzing this kind of signals, as it requires an impractically high number of templates ranging from $10^{31}$ to $10^{40}$. We propose a search strategy that involves two main parts: initially, we reduce the dimensionality of the simulated signals using incremental principal component analysis (IPCA). Subsequently we train the convolutional neural networks (CNNs) based on the compressed TianQin data obtained from IPCA, aiming to develop both a detection model and a point parameter estimation model. The compression efficiency for the trained IPCA model achieves a cumulative variance ratio of 95.6% when applied to $10^6$ simulated signals. To evaluate the performance of CNN we generate the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detection model which is applied to the test data with varying signal-to-noise ratios. At a false alarm probability of 5% the corresponding true alarm probability for signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 50 is 86.5%. Subsequently, we introduce the point estimation model to evaluate the value of the chirp mass of corresponding sBBH signals with an error. For signals with a signal-to-noise ratio of 50, the trained point estimation CNN model can estimate the chirp mass of most test events, with a standard deviation error of 2.48 $M_{\odot}$ and a relative error precision of 0.12.

[51] 2406.07341

Analytical Delta-V Approximation for Nonlinear Programming of Multi-target Rendezvous and Flyby Trajectories

This study proposes an analytical Delta-V approximation of short-time transfers based on the linear relative motion and a gradient-based nonlinear programming model of multi-target rendezvous and flyby trajectories. In previous studies, the Lambert's solution is commonly used to evaluate Delta-V of short-duration transfers. In this study, to avoid the iteration process for obtaining the Lambert's solution and its gradient, the linear relative motion equations are applied to form an analytical two-point boundary value model for the near-circular orbit rendezvous problems. Although the relative motion equations are usually applicable when the two orbits are close enough, and the position and velocity errors would become more significant as the orbital differences increase, the errors of the velocity increments were proved acceptable in our simulations. Moreover, the analytical formula facilitates the calculation of the gradients to the start epoch and flight time, which are used to establish a nonlinear programming model for sequence optimization that gradient-based algorithms can easily solve. Simulation results demonstrated that the analytical Delta-V approximation requires much less calculation than the Lambert's solution, and the proposed gradient-based nonlinear programming algorithms can obtain similar results in less time than previous methods.

[52] 2406.07363

Comments on: "Almost All Carbon/Oxygen White Dwarfs Can Support Double Detonations"

I critically review some claims in the paper ``Almost All Carbon/Oxygen White Dwarfs Can Support Double Detonations'' (arXiv:2405.19417). The claim of that paper that the community converges on a leading scenario of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the double detonation scenario, is wrong, as hundreds of papers in recent years study five and more different SN Ia scenarios and their channels. Moreover, the finding by that paper that the double detonation scenario with the explosion of the secondary white dwarf (WD; the mass-donor WD) is common, i.e., the triple-detonation channel and the quadruple-detonation sub-channel, implies highly no-spherical explosions. The highly non-spherical explosions contradict the morphologies of many SN Ia remnants. I find that the results of that paper strengthen the claim that the double detonation scenario (with its channels) might account for a non-negligible fraction of peculiar SNe Ia but only for a very small fraction (or non at all) of normal SNe Ia.

[53] 2406.07372

Searching for rapid pulsations in solar flare X-ray data

Most studies of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flares have identified characteristic periods in the 5 - 300s range. Due to observational limitations there have been few attempts to probe the < 5s period regime and understand the prevalence of such short-period quasi-periodic pulsations. However, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed approximately 1500 solar flares to date in high cadence 16 Hz burst mode, providing us with an opportunity to study short-period quasi-periodic pulsations at X-ray energies. We systematically analyse every solar flare observed by Fermi/GBM in burst mode, estimating the prevalence of quasi-periodic pulsations in multiple X-ray energy bands. To better understand these results, we complement this with analysis of synthetic solar flare lightcurves, both with and without oscillatory signals present. Using these synthetic lightcurves, we can understand the likely false alarm and true positive rates in the real solar GBM data. We do not find strong evidence for widespread short-period quasi-periodic pulsations, indicating either a low base occurrence rate of such signatures or that their typical signal-to-noise ratios must be low - less than 1 - in Fermi/GBM data. Finally, we present a selection of the most interesting potential quasi-periodic pulsation events that were identified in the GBM solar X-ray data.

[54] 2406.07419

Single and merger soliton dynamics in scalar field dark matter with and without self-interactions

(abridged)Scalar field dark matter (SFDM) made of bosons has become a popular alternative to the CDM paradigm, especially for its potential to cure the so-called "small-scale problems" of CDM. Cosmological simulations have determined that SFDM halos exhibit a core-envelope structure, but they are computationally expensive. Halo cores have been found to be well approximated by "solitons". The study of single soliton and multiple soliton merger dynamics constitutes a more feasible approach to investigate in detail the genuine quantum dynamics of SFDM and its interplay with self-gravity for a multitude of free boson parameters. In this paper, we present dedicated simulations of single solitons and binary soliton mergers, for models without and with a 2-boson, repulsive, weak to intermediate self-interaction (SI), as well as multiple soliton mergers without SI. We adapt the open-source code Pyultralight to simulate solitons with SI. We derive numerical scaling relations between the central density and mass of solitons for several values of SI and find deviations from the monotonic relations known from fuzzy dark matter (no SI), or the strongly repulsive Thomas-Fermi regime. Solitons with SI exemplify larger cores and lower central densities, compared to solitons without SI. Using our simulations, we extract numerical density profiles for solitons and post-merger objects, and fit them to analytic functions of previous literature. We find a mild preference for Gaussian cores for objects with SI, while the envelopes of post-mergers can be fit to NFW profiles albeit with some caution as we discuss. Similar to previous work, we find global, persistent oscillations for solitons as well as post-mergers, confirming that self-gravitating SFDM has very long relaxation times, although objects with SI exhibit oscillations of comparatively smaller amplitude.

[55] 2406.07427

Support for fragile porous dust in a gravitationally self-regulated disk around IM Lup

Protoplanetary disks, the birthplace of planets, are expected to be gravitationally unstable in their early phase of evolution. IM Lup, a well-known T-Tauri star, is surrounded by a protoplanetary disk with spiral arms likely caused by gravitational instability. The IM Lup disk has been observed using various methods, but developing a unified explanatory model is challenging. Here we present a physical model of the IM Lup disk that offers a comprehensive explanation for diverse observations spanning from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. Our findings underscore the importance of dust fragility in retaining the observed millimeter emission and reveal the preference for moderately porous dust to explain observed millimeter polarization. We also find that the inner disk region is likely heated by gas accretion, providing a natural explanation for bright millimeter emission within 20 au. The actively heated inner region in the model casts a 100-au-scale shadow, aligning seamlessly with the near-infrared scattered light observation. The presence of accretion heating also supports the fragile dust scenario in which accretion efficiently heat the disk midplane. Due to the fragility of dust, it is unlikely that a potential embedded planet at 100 au formed via pebble accretion in a smooth disk, pointing to local dust enhancement boosting pebble accretion or alternative pathways such as outward migration or gravitational fragmentation.

[56] 2406.07439

Search for photons above 10$^{18}$ eV by simultaneously measuring the atmospheric depth and the muon content of air showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

The Pierre Auger Observatory is the most sensitive instrument to detect photons with energies above $10^{17}$ eV. It measures extensive air showers generated by ultra high energy cosmic rays using a hybrid technique that exploits the combination of a fluorescence detector with a ground array of particle detectors. The signatures of a photon-induced air shower are a larger atmospheric depth of the shower maximum ($X_{max}$) and a steeper lateral distribution function, along with a lower number of muons with respect to the bulk of hadron-induced cascades. In this work, a new analysis technique in the energy interval between 1 and 30 EeV (1 EeV = $10^{18}$ eV) has been developed by combining the fluorescence detector-based measurement of $X_{max}$ with the specific features of the surface detector signal through a parameter related to the air shower muon content, derived from the universality of the air shower development. No evidence of a statistically significant signal due to photon primaries was found using data collected in about 12 years of operation. Thus, upper bounds to the integral photon flux have been set using a detailed calculation of the detector exposure, in combination with a data-driven background estimation. The derived 95% confidence level upper limits are 0.0403, 0.01113, 0.0035, 0.0023, and 0.0021 km$^{-2}$ sr$^{-1}$ yr$^{-1}$ above 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 EeV, respectively, leading to the most stringent upper limits on the photon flux in the EeV range. Compared with past results, the upper limits were improved by about 40% for the lowest energy threshold and by a factor 3 above 3 EeV, where no candidates were found and the expected background is negligible. The presented limits can be used to probe the assumptions on chemical composition of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and allow for the constraint of the mass and lifetime phase space of super-heavy dark matter particles.

[57] 2406.07446

Holographic and Gravity-Thermodynamic Approaches in Entropic Cosmology: Bayesian Assessment using late-time Data

We investigate the cosmological implications of entropy-based approaches in the context of Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) and Gravity-Thermodynamics (GT) formalisms. We utilise the extended Barrow entropy form, with the index parameter $\Delta$, representing the fractal dimension of the horizon. We also test implementing different parameter ranges for $\Delta$, which can be extended to Tsallis' interpretation within the same formal cosmology. We perform a Bayesian analysis to constrain the cosmological parameters using the Pantheon+, more recent DESy5, DESI, and, as a supplement, Quasar datasets. We find that the HDE model within almost all data combinations performs extremely well in comparison to the GT approach, which is usually strongly disfavored. Using the combination of DESy5+DESI alone, we find that the GT approaches are disfavored at $|\log \mathcal{B}| \sim 5.8$ and $|\log \mathcal{B}| \sim 6.2$ for the Barrow and Tsallis limits on $\Delta$, respectively, wrt $\Lambda$CDM model. While the HDE approach is statistically equivalent to $\Lambda$CDM when comparing the Bayesian evidence. We also investigate the evolution of the dark energy equation of state and place limits on the same, consistent with quintessence-like behaviour in the HDE approaches.

[58] 2406.07470

Exploring non-radial oscillation modes in dark matter admixed neutron stars

Because of their extreme densities and consequently, gravitational potential, compact objects such as neutron stars can prove to be excellent captors of dark matter particles. Considering purely gravitational interactions between dark and hadronic matter, we construct dark matter admixed stars composed of two-fluid matter subject to current astrophysical constraints of maximum mass and tidal deformability. We choose a wide range of parameters to construct the dark matter equation of state, and the DDME2 parameterization for the hadronic equation of state. We then examine the effect of dark matter on the stellar structure, tidal deformability and non-radial modes considering the relativistic Cowling approximation. We find the effect on $p$-modes is substantial, with frequencies decreasing up to the typical $f-$mode frequency range for most stars with a dark matter halo. The effects on the $f-$mode frequency are less extreme. Finally, we find the most probable and $1\sigma$ values of the dark matter parameters used in this study.

[59] 2406.07489

Prospects for the detection of Dark Matter with Long-lived Mediators in the Sun using the Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory

The operation of the next generation of gamma-ray observatories will lead to a great advance in dark matter searches. In this paper, we use the hidden sectors hypothesis within the so-called secluded models to calculate the capabilities of the Southern Wide-field Gamma-ray Observatory (SWGO) to detect gamma-ray signatures produced by dark matter particles concentrated in the Sun. We assume the dark matter particle annihilates into metastable mediators which decay into $\gamma\gamma$, $e^+e^-$, $\tau^+\tau^-$, and $\bar{b}b$ outside the Sun. We found that the SWGO will be able to probe a spin-dependent cross-section of about $10^{-46}$ cm$^2$ for dark matter masses smaller than 5 TeV. This result shows an unprecedented sensitivity surpassing the current instruments by more than one order of magnitude.

[60] 2406.07490

Transition from decaying to decayless kink oscillations of solar coronal loops

The transition of an impulsively excited kink oscillation of a solar coronal loop to an oscillation with a stationary amplitude, i.e., the damping pattern, is determined using the low-dimensional self-oscillation model. In the model, the decayless kink oscillations are sustained by the interaction of the oscillating loop with an external quasi-steady flow. The analytical solution is based on the assumption that the combined effect of the effective dissipation, for example, by resonant absorption, and interaction with an external flow, is weak. The effect is characterised by a dimensionless coupling parameter. The damping pattern is found to depend upon the initial amplitude and the coupling parameter. The approximate expression shows a good agreement with a numerical solution of the self-oscillation equation. The plausibility of the established damping pattern is demonstrated by an observational example. Notably, the damping pattern is not exponential, and the characteristic decay time is different from the time determined by the traditionally used exponential damping fit. Implications of this finding for seismology of the solar coronal plasmas are discussed. In particular, it is suggested that a very rapid, in less than the oscillation period, decay of the oscillation to the stationary level, achieved for larger values of the coupling parameter, can explain the relative rareness of the kink oscillation events.

[61] 2406.07493

A model-independent test of pre-recombination New Physics: Machine Learning based estimate of the Sound Horizon from Gravitational Wave Standard Sirens and the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation Angular Scale

In any cosmological model where spacetime is described by a pseudo-Riemannian manifold, photons propagate along null geodesics, and their number is conserved, upcoming Gravitational Wave (GW) observations can be combined with measurements of the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) angular scale to provide model-independent estimates of the sound horizon at the baryon-drag epoch. By focusing on the accuracy expected from forthcoming surveys such as LISA GW standard sirens and DESI or Euclid angular BAO measurements, we forecast a relative precision of $\sigma_{r_{\rm d}} /r_{\rm d} \sim 1.5\%$ within the redshift range $z \lesssim 1$. This approach will offer a unique model-independent measure of a fundamental scale characterizing the early universe, which is competitive with model-dependent values inferred within specific theoretical frameworks. These measurements can serve as a consistency test for $\Lambda$CDM, potentially clarifying the nature of the Hubble tension and confirming or ruling out new physics prior to recombination with a statistical significance of $\sim 4\sigma$.

[62] 2406.07510

COMAP Pathfinder -- Season 2 results I. Improved data selection and processing

The CO Mapping Array Project (COMAP) Pathfinder is performing line intensity mapping of CO emission to trace the distribution of unresolved galaxies at redshift $z \sim 3$. We present an improved version of the COMAP data processing pipeline and apply this to the first two seasons of observations. This analysis improves on the COMAP Early Science (ES) results in several key aspects. On the observational side, all second season scans were made in constant-elevation mode, after noting that the previous Lissajous scans were associated with increased systematic errors; those scans accounted for 50% of the total Season 1 data volume. Secondly, all new observations were restricted to an elevation range of 35-65 degrees, to minimize sidelobe ground pickup. On the data processing side, more effective data cleaning in both the time- and map-domain has allowed us to eliminate all data-driven power spectrum-based cuts. This increases the overall data retention and reduces the risk of signal subtraction bias. On the other hand, due to the increased sensitivity, two new pointing-correlated systematic errors have emerged, and we introduce a new map-domain PCA filter to suppress these. Subtracting only 5 out of 256 PCA modes, we find that the standard deviation of the cleaned maps decreases by 67% on large angular scales, and after applying this filter, the maps appear consistent with instrumental noise. Combining all these improvements, we find that each hour of raw Season 2 observations yields on average 3.2 times more cleaned data compared to ES analysis. Combining this with the increase in raw observational hours, the effective amount of data available for high-level analysis is a factor of 8 higher than in ES. The resulting maps have reached an uncertainty of $25$-$50\,\mu K$ per voxel, providing by far the strongest constraints on cosmological CO line emission published to date.

[63] 2406.07511

COMAP Pathfinder -- Season 2 results II. Updated constraints on the CO(1-0) power spectrum

We present updated constraints on the cosmological 3D power spectrum of carbon monoxide CO(1-0) emission in the redshift range $2.4$-$3.4$. The constraints are derived from the two first seasons of Carbon monOxide Mapping Array Project (COMAP) Pathfinder line-intensity mapping observations aiming to trace star-formation during the Epoch of Galaxy Assembly. These results improve on the previous Early Science (ES) results through both increased data volume and improved data processing methodology. On the methodological side, we now perform cross-correlations between groups of detectors (''feed-groups''), as opposed to cross-correlations between single feeds, and this new feed-group pseudo power spectrum (FGPXS) is constructed to be more robust against systematic effects. In terms of data volume, the effective mapping speed is significantly increased due to an improved observational strategy as well as better data selection methodology. The updated spherically- and field-averaged FGPXS, $\tilde{C}(k)$, is consistent with zero, at a probability-to-exceed of around $34\,\%$, with an excess of $2.7\,\sigma$ in the most sensitive bin. Our power spectrum estimate is about an order of magnitude more sensitive in our six deepest bins across ${0.09\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1} < k < 0.73\,\mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}}$, as compared to the feed-feed pseudo power spectrum (FPXS) of COMAP ES. Each of these bins individually constrains the CO power spectrum to ${kP_\mathrm{CO}(k)< 2400-4900\,\mathrm{\mu K^2 Mpc^{2}}}$ at $95\,\%$ confidence. To monitor potential contamination from residual systematic effects, we analyze a set of 312 difference-map null tests and find that these are consistent with the instrumental noise prediction. In sum, these results provide the strongest direct constraints on the cosmological 3D CO(1-0) power spectrum published to date.

[64] 2406.07512

COMAP Pathfinder -- Season 2 results III. Implications for cosmic molecular gas content at "Cosmic Half-past Eleven"

The Carbon monOxide Mapping Array Project (COMAP) Pathfinder survey continues to demonstrate the feasibility of line-intensity mapping using high-redshift carbon monoxide (CO) line emission traced at cosmological scales. The latest COMAP Pathfinder power spectrum analysis is based on observations through the end of Season 2, covering the first three years of Pathfinder operations. We use our latest constraints on the CO(1-0) line-intensity power spectrum at $z\sim3$ to update corresponding constraints on the cosmological clustering of CO line emission and thus the cosmic molecular gas content at a key epoch of galaxy assembly. We first mirror the COMAP Early Science interpretation, considering how Season 2 results translate to limits on the shot noise power of CO fluctuations and the bias of CO emission as a tracer of the underlying dark matter distribution. The COMAP Season 2 results place the most stringent limits on the CO tracer bias to date, at $\langle{Tb}\rangle<4.8$ $\mu$K. These limits narrow the model space significantly compared to previous CO line-intensity mapping results while maintaining consistency with small-volume interferometric surveys of resolved line candidates. The results also express a weak preference for CO emission models used to guide fiducial forecasts from COMAP Early Science, including our data-driven priors. We also consider directly constraining a model of the halo-CO connection, and show qualitative hints of capturing the total contribution of faint CO emitters through the improved sensitivity of COMAP data. With continued observations and matching improvements in analysis, the COMAP Pathfinder remains on track for a detection of cosmological clustering of CO emission.

[65] 2406.07526

Cosmological constraints on $Λ_{\rm s}$CDM scenario in a type II minimally modified gravity

The idea of a rapid sign-switching cosmological constant (mirror AdS-dS transition) in the late universe at $z\sim1.7$, known as the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM model, has significantly improved the fit to observational data and provides a promising scenario for alleviating major cosmological tensions, such as the $H_0$ and $S_8$ tensions. However, in the absence of a fully predictive model, implementing this fit required conjecturing that the dynamics of the linear perturbations are governed by general relativity. Recent work embedding the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM model with the Lagrangian of a type-II minimally modified gravity known as VCDM has propelled $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM to a fully predictive model, removing the uncertainty related to the aforementioned assumption; we call this new model $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM. In this work, we demonstrate that not only does $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM fit the data better than the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, but the new model, $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM, performs even better in alleviating cosmological tensions while also providing a better fit to the data, including CMB, BAO, SNe Ia, and Cosmic Shear measurements. Our findings highlight the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$CDM framework, particularly the $\Lambda_{\rm s}$VCDM model, as a compelling alternative to the standard $\Lambda$CDM model, especially by successfully alleviating the $H_0$ tension. Additionally, these models predict higher values for $\sigma_8$, indicating enhanced structuring, albeit with lower present-day matter density parameter values and consequently reduced $S_8$ values, alleviating the $S_8$ tension as well. This demonstrates that the data are well fit by a combination of background and linear perturbations, both having dynamics differing from those of $\Lambda$CDM. This paves the way for further exploration of new ways for embedding the sign-switching cosmological constant into other models.

[66] 2406.07533

Interpreting DESI 2024 BAO: late-time dynamical dark energy or a local effect?

We perform fits to DESI, CMB and supernova data to understand the physical origin of the DESI hint for dynamical dark energy. We find that the linear parametrization of the equation of state $w$ may guide to misleading interpretations, such as the hint for a phantom Universe, which are not preferred by the data. Instead, physical quintessence models fit the data well. Model-independently, present observations prefer deviations from the constant dark energy, $w=-1$, only at very low redshifts, $z < \mathcal{O}(0.1)$. We find that this result is driven by low-$z$ supernova data. Therefore, either the fundamental properties of our Universe, characterised by the equation of state $w$ and the Hubble parameter $H$, underwent dramatic changes very recently or, alternatively, we do not fully understand the systematics of our local Universe in a radius of about $300\,h^{-1}\rm Mpc$.

[67] 2406.07534

On the potential of probing the neutron star composition in accreting X-ray binaries

Transiently accreting Low Mass X-Ray Binaries have the potential to probe the core composition of their neutron stars via deep crustal heating caused by nuclear reactions. We statistically assess this deep crustal heating scenario, taking into account the various microphysical and astrophysical uncertainties. We find that despite the sizable uncertainties there is the chance to discriminate different compositional scenarios. Several observed sources statistically challenge a minimal hadronic matter composition, where cooling proceeds exclusively via slow modified Urca reactions. Considering here two exemplary extended uniform compositions, namely ultra-dense hadronic matter with direct Urca emission and ungapped quark matter, we find that they are even within uncertainties distinguishable. We show that although exotic forms of matter are generally only expected in an inner core, which could in principle have any size, sufficiently large astrophysical data sets nonetheless have the potential to statistically discriminate compositional scenarios, in particular when further mass measurements become available.

[68] 2406.06661

Constraining extended teleparallel gravity via cosmography: A model-independent approach

As a classical approach, the dynamics of the Universe, influenced by its dark components, are unveiled through prior modifications of Einstein's equations. Cosmography, on the other hand, is a highly efficient tool for reconstructing any modified theory in a model-independent manner. By employing kinematic variables, it offers a profound explanation for cosmic expansion. Although the cosmographical approach has been highly successful in several geometric theories in recent years, it has not been extensively explored in coupled gravities. With this in mind, we intend to constrain an extended teleparallel gravity model, $f(T,\mathcal{T})$, through cosmographic parameters. We utilize Taylor series expansion, assuming a minimally coupled form, to constrain the unknowns involved in the series. To achieve this, we conduct a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis (MCMC) using three different datasets (CC, BAO, and Pantheon+SH0ES). The constrained results obtained from MCMC are then compared and verified using various cosmological parameters. Finally, we compare the resulting models with \textbf{three} well-known $f(T,\mathcal{T})$ models.

[69] 2406.06696

Inflaton Production of Scalar Dark Matter through Fluctuations and Scattering

We study the effects on particle production of a Planck-suppressed coupling between the inflaton and a scalar dark matter candidate, $\chi$. In the absence of this coupling, the dominant source for the relic density of $\chi$ is the long wavelength modes produced from the scalar field fluctuations during inflation. In this case, there are strong constraints on the mass of the scalar and the reheating temperature after inflation from the present-day relic density of $\chi$ (assuming $\chi$ is stable). When a coupling $\sigma \phi^2 \chi^2$ is introduced, with $\sigma = {\tilde \sigma} m_\phi^2/ M_P^2 \sim 10^{-10} {\tilde \sigma}$, where $m_\phi$ is the inflaton mass, the allowed parameter space begins to open up considerably even for ${\tilde \sigma}$ as small as $\gtrsim 10^{-7}$. For ${\tilde \sigma} \gtrsim \frac{9}{16}$, particle production is dominated by the scattering of the inflaton condensate, either through single graviton exchange or the contact interaction between $\phi$ and $\chi$. In this regime, the range of allowed masses and reheating temperatures is maximal. For $0.004 < {\tilde \sigma} < 50$, constraints from isocurvature fluctuations are satisfied, and the production from parametric resonance can be neglected.

[70] 2406.06708

Theory of neutrino fast flavor evolution. I. Linear response theory and stability conditions

Neutrino-neutrino refraction leads to collective flavor evolution that can include fast flavor conversion, an ingredient still missing in numerical simulations of core-collapse supernovae. We provide a theoretical framework for the linear regime of this phenomenon using the language of response theory. In analogy to electromagnetic waves, we introduce a flavor susceptibility as the linear response to an external flavor field. By requiring self-consistency, this approach leads to the usual dispersion relation for growing modes, but differs from the traditional treatment in that it predicts Landau damping of subluminal collective modes. The new dispersion relation has definite analyticity properties and can be expanded for small growth rates. This approach simplifies and intuitively explains Morinaga's proof of sufficiency for the occurrence of growing modes. We show that weakly growing modes arise as soon as an angular crossing is formed, due to their resonant interaction with individual neutrino modes. For longitudinal plasma waves, a similar resonance causes Landau damping or conversely, the two-stream instability.

[71] 2406.06743

Gravitational Radiation Power Spectrum of Garfinkle-Vachaspati Cosmic String Loops

We examine the power spectrum $P_n$ of the $n$th harmonic for Garfinkle-Vachaspati cosmic strings, which correspond to planar rectangular loops. While these loop tractories are self-intersecting, a slightly perturbed non-self-intersecting form of these trajectories has been suggested as a generic end state of cosmic string loop fragmentation. We find that $P_n$ scales as $n^{-2} \ln n$, rather than the expected $n^{-2}$ for kink-kink collisions. This result is demonstrated analytically for even $n$ in square loops and numerically for all other cases. At lowest order, the effect of loop decays is to further enhance $P_n$ at large $n$ relative to its value at small $n$. The consequences for relic stochastic background radiation along with the caveats pertaining to our results are discussed.

[72] 2406.06745

Universal properties of the evolution of the Universe in modified loop quantum cosmology

In this paper, we systematically study the evolution of the Universe in the framework of a modified loop quantum cosmological model (mLQC-I) with various inflationary potentials, including chaotic, Starobinsky, generalized Starobinsky, polynomials of the first and second kinds, generalized T- models and natural inflation. In all these models, the big bang singularity is represented by a quantum bounce, and the evolution of the Universe both before and after the bounce is universal and weakly depends on the inflationary potentials, as long as the evolution is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton at the bounce. In particular, the evolution in the pre-bounce region can be universally divided into three different phases: pre-bouncing, pre-transition, and pre-de Sitter. The pre-bouncing phase occurs immediately before the quantum bounce, during which the evolution of the Universe is dominated by the kinetic energy of the inflaton. Thus, the equation of state of the inflaton is about one, w = 1. Soon, the inflation potential takes over, so w rapidly falls from one to negative one. This pre-transition phase is very short and quickly turns into the pre-de Sitter phase, whereby the effective cosmological constant with a Planck size takes over and dominates the rest of the contracting phase. In the entire pre-bounce regime, the evolution of the expansion factor and the inflaton can be approximated by analytical solutions, which are universal and independent of the inflation potentials.

[73] 2406.06782

Optimal Demodulation Domain for Microwave SQUID Multiplexers in Presence of Readout System Noise

The Microwave SQUID Multiplexer ({\mu}MUX) is the device of choice for the readout of a large number of Low-Temperature Detectors in a wide variety of experiments within the fields of astronomy and particle physics. While it offers large multiplexing factors, the system noise performance is highly dependent on the cold and warm-readout electronic systems used to read it out, as well as the demodulation domain and parameters chosen. In order to understand the impact of the readout systems in the overall noise performance, first we extended the available {\mu}MUX simulation frameworks including additive and multiplicative noise sources in the probing tones (i.e. phase and amplitude noise), along with the capability of demodulating the scientific data, either in resonator's phase or amplitude. Then, considering the additive noise as a dominant noise source, the optimum readout parameters to achieve minimum system noise were found for both open-loop and flux-ramp demodulation schemes in the aforementioned domains. Later, we evaluated the system noise sensitivity to multiplicative noise sources under the optimum readout parameters. Finally, as a case study, we evaluated the optimal demodulation domain and expected system noise level for a typical Software-Defined Radio (SDR) readout system. This work leads to an improved system performance prediction and noise engineering based on the available readout electronics and selected demodulation domain.

[74] 2406.06923

Starobinsky inflation and Swampland conjectures

This paper is devoted to memory of late Professor V. G. Bagrov, who was my first teacher in theoretical physics. About 45 years later, theoretical physics has changed and me too. The subject of this paper relates some old ideas in cosmology with some recent ideas, as is reflected in the title. The current status of Starobinsky inflation is reviewed and compared to three main conjectures in the Swampland program. It is argued that the Starobinsky inflation model is not in conflict with those Swampland conjectures in their basic versions.

[75] 2406.07123

Study of selected mild steels for application in vacuum systems of future gravitational wave detectors

Next-generation gravitational wave detectors (GWDs) like the Cosmic Explorer and Einstein Telescope require extensive vacuum tubing, necessitating cost-effective materials. This study explores the viability of mild steel as an alternative to austenitic stainless steel for UHV beampipes, focusing on outgassing rates and surface chemistry after low-temperature bakeouts. Mild steels exhibit significantly lower hydrogen outgassing rates, below 10$^{-14}$ mbar l s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-2}$ after bakeouts at 80{\deg}C for 48 hours. While water vapor is the primary residual gas after such low-temperature bakeouts, repeated treatments reduce its outgassing rate and modify surface conditions so that such benefit is preserved after at least six months of exposure to laboratory air. These findings position mild steel as an economical and efficient material for future GWD beampipes.

[76] 2406.07316

Multimessenger constraints for electrophilic feebly interacting particles from supernovae

Several extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of sub-GeV particles that can be copiously produced in the cores of supernovae. A broad family of these particles are dubbed feebly interacting particles (FIPs), which can have masses of up to a few hundreds of MeV. Here, we review the most recent and leading constraints on electrophilic FIPs, describing multimessenger techniques that allow us to probe the full phenomenology of the electron/positron emission produced by these FIPs; from their associated X-ray emission to the production of the $511$~keV line. Furthermore, the approach described here is independent of the specific particle model and can be translated to the coupling and other properties of a variety of different particles, such as axion-like particles, sterile neutrinos or dark photons

[77] 2406.07396

Impact of the nuclear equation of state on the formation of twin stars

Twin stars-two stable neutron stars (NSs) with the same mass but different radii have long been proposed to appear as a consequence of a possible first-order phase transition in NS matter. Within a meta-model for the EOS of hybrid stars, we revisit the viability of twin stars and its dependence on numerous parameters characterizing the EOS of nuclear matter, quark matter, and the phase transition between them. While essentially no experimental constraint exists for the last two, parameters characterizing the EOS of neutron-rich nucleonic matter have been constrained within various ranges by terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations. Within these ranges, the impact of nuclear EOS on the formation of twin stars is studied. It is found that the symmetry energy of neutron-rich nucleonic matter notably influences the formation of twin stars, particularly through its slope $L$ and curvature $K_{\rm sym}$. Conversely, the EOS of symmetric nuclear matter shows minimal influence on the formation of twin stars, partially owing to its relatively well-constrained parameters.

[78] 2406.07491

Spread Complexity of High Energy Neutrino Propagation over Astrophysical Distances

Spread complexity measures the minimized spread of quantum states over all choices of basis. It generalizes Krylov operator complexity to quantum states under continuous Hamiltonian evolution. In this paper, we study spread complexity in the context of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos and propose a new flavor ratio based on complexity. Our findings indicate that our proposal might favor an initial ratio of fluxes as $\phi_{\nu_e}^0: \phi_{\nu_\mu}^0: \phi_{\nu_\tau}^0 = 1:0:0$ over a more generally expected ratio of $1:2:0$, when the IceCube neutrino observatory achieves its projected sensitivity to discriminate between flavors. Additionally, complexity-based definitions of flavor ratios exhibit a slight but nonzero sensitivity to the neutrino mass ordering, which traditional flavor ratios cannot capture.