New articles on Astrophysics


[1] 2208.07879

Templates for Fitting Photometry of Ultra-High-Redshift Galaxies

Recent data from the James Webb Space Telescope allows a first glimpse of galaxies at $z \gtrsim 11$. The most successful tool for identifying ultra-high-redshift candidates and inferring their properties is photometric template fitting. However, current methods rely on templates derived from much lower-redshift conditions, including a stellar initial mass function which is physically disallowed at $z > 6$ due to cosmic microwave background heating, stellar population ages greater than the age of the Universe at $z > 12$, and weaker emission lines than currently observed at $z > 7.5$. Here, two sets of synthetic templates, optimized for the expected astrophysics of galaxies at $8 < z < 12$ and $z > 12$, are developed and used to fit three galaxies at $z > 12$ from the SMACS0723 field. Using these templates, the best-fit redshifts are similar to those found with previous template sets, but the inferred stellar masses drop by as much as 1-1.6 dex, so that stellar masses are no longer seemingly inconsistent with $\Lambda$CDM. The two new template sets are released in formats compatible with EAZY and LePhare.


[2] 2208.07880

Possible counterpart signal of the Fermi bubbles at the cosmic-ray positrons

The inner galaxy has hosted cosmic-ray burst events including those responsible for the gamma-ray Fermi bubbles and the eROSITA bubbles in X-rays. In this work, we study the AMS-02 positron fraction and find three features around 12, 21 and 48 GeV of which the lowest energy has a 1.4 to 4.9-$\sigma$ significance, depending on astrophysical background assumptions. Using background simulations that explain the cosmic-ray positron fraction, positron flux and electron plus positron flux, by primary, secondary cosmic rays and cosmic rays from local pulsars, we test these spectral features as originating from electron/positron burst events from the inner galaxy. We find the 12 GeV feature, to be explained by an event of age $\tau \simeq 3 - 10$ Myr; in agreement with the proposed age of the Fermi bubbles. Furthermore, the energy in cosmic-ray electrons and positrons propagating along the galactic disk and not within the Fermi bubbles volume, is estimated to be $10^{51.5}-10^{57.5}$ ergs, or $O(10^{-4}) -O(1)$ the cosmic-ray energy causing the Fermi bubbles. We advocate that these positron fraction features, are the counterpart signals of the Fermi bubbles, or of substructures in them, or of the eROSITA bubbles.


[3] 2208.07881

Intermediate-mass Black Holes on the Run from Young Star Clusters

The existence of black holes (BHs) with masses in the range between stellar remnants and supermassive BHs has only recently become unambiguously established. GW190521, a gravitational wave signal detected by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration, provides the first direct evidence for the existence of such intermediate-mass BHs (IMBHs). This event sparked and continues to fuel discussion on the possible formation channels for such massive BHs. As the detection revealed, IMBHs can form via binary mergers of BHs in the "upper mass gap" ($\approx40 -120\,M_{\odot}$). Alternatively, IMBHs may form via the collapse of a very massive star formed through stellar collisions and mergers in dense star clusters. In this study, we explore the formation of IMBHs with masses between $120$ and $500\,M_{\odot}$ in young, massive star clusters using state-of-the-art Cluster Monte Carlo ($\texttt{CMC}$) models. We examine the evolution of IMBHs throughout their dynamical lifetimes, ending with their ejection from the parent cluster due to gravitational radiation recoil from BH mergers, or dynamical recoil kicks from few-body scattering encounters. We find that $ \textit{all}$ of the IMBHs in our models are ejected from the host cluster within the first $\sim 500$ Myr, indicating a low retention probability of IMBHs in this mass range for globular clusters today. We estimate the peak IMBH merger rate to be $\mathcal{R} \approx 2 \, \rm{Gpc}^{-3}\,\rm{yr}^{-1}$ at redshift $z \approx 2$.


[4] 2208.07883

A Reanalysis of the Composition of K2-106b: an Ultra-short Period Super-Mercury Candidate

We present a reanalysis of the K2-106 transiting planetary system, with a focus on the composition of K2-106b, an ultra-short period, super-Mercury candidate. We globally model existing photometric and radial velocity data and derive a planetary mass and radius for K2-106b of $M_{p} = 8.53\pm1.02~M_{\oplus}$ and $R_{p} = 1.71^{+0.069}_{-0.057}~R_{\oplus}$, which leads to a density of $\rho_{p} = 9.4^{+1.6}_{-1.5}$ $\rm g~cm^{-3}$, a significantly lower value than previously reported in the literature. We use planet interior models that assume a two-layer planet comprised of a liquid, pure Fe core and iron-free, $\rm MgSiO_{3}$ mantle, and we determine the range of core mass fractions that are consistent with the observed mass and radius. We use existing high-resolution spectra of the host star to derive Fe/Mg/Si abundances ([Fe/H]$=-0.03 \pm 0.01$, [Mg/H]$= 0.04 \pm 0.02$, [Si/H]$=0.03 \pm 0.06$) to infer the composition of K2-106b. We find that although K2-106b has a high density and core mass fraction ($44^{+12}_{-15}\%$) compared to the Earth ($33\%$), its composition is consistent with what is expected assuming that it reflects the relative refractory abundances of its host star. K2-106b is therefore unlikely to be a super-Mercury, as has been suggested in previous literature.


[5] 2208.07889

Numerical dependencies of the galactic dynamo in isolated galaxies with SPH

Understanding the numerical dependencies that act on the galactic dynamo is a crucial step in determining what resolution and what conditions are required to properly capture the magnetic fields observed in galaxies. Here, we present an extensive study on the numerical dependencies of the galactic dynamo in isolated spiral galaxies using smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD). We performed 53 isolated spiral galaxy simulations with different initial setups, feedback, resolution, Jeans floor and dissipation parameters. The results show a strong mean-field dynamo occurring in the spiral-arm region of the disk, likely produced by the classical alpha-omega dynamo or the recently described gravitational instability dynamo. The inclusion of feedback is seen to work in both a destructive and positive fashion for the amplification process. Destructive interference for the amplification occurs due to break down of filament structure in the disk, increase of turbulent diffusion and the ejection of magnetic flux from the central plane to the circumgalactic medium. The positive effect of feedback is the increase in vertical motions and the turbulent fountain flows that develop, showing a high dependence on the small-scale vertical structure and the numerical dissipation within the galaxy. Galaxies with an effective dynamo saturate their magnetic energy density at levels between 10-30% of the thermal energy density. The density averaged numerical Prandtl number is found to be below unity throughout the galaxy for all our simulations, with an increasing value with radius. Assuming a turbulent injection length of 1 kpc, the numerical magnetic Reynolds number are within the range of $Re_{mag}=10-400$, indicating that some regions are below the levels required for the small-scale dynamo ($Re_{mag,crit}=30-2700$) to be active.


[6] 2208.07891

Evolution of the Hub-filament Structures in IC 5146 in the Context of the Energy Balance of Gravity, Turbulence, and Magnetic Field

We present the results of 850 $\mu$m polarization and C$^{18}$O (3-2) line observations toward the western hub-filament structure (W-HFS) of the dark Streamer in IC 5146 using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) SCUBA-2/POL-2 and HARP instruments. We aim to investigate how the relative importance of the magnetic field, gravity, and turbulence affects core formation in HFS by comparing the energy budget of this region. We identified four 850 $\mu$m cores and estimated the magnetic field strengths ($B_{\rm pos}$) of the cores and the hub and filament using the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The estimated $B_{\rm pos}$ is $\sim$80 to 1200 $\mu$G. From Wang et al., $B_{\rm pos}$ of E-47, a core in the eastern hub (E-hub), and E-hub were re-estimated to be 500 and 320 $\mu$G, respectively, with the same method. We measured the gravitational ($E_{\rm G}$), kinematic ($E_{\rm K}$), and magnetic energies ($E_{\rm B}$) in the filament and hubs and compared the relative importance among them. We found that an $E_{\rm B}$-dominant filament has $aligned$ fragmentation type, while $E_{\rm G}$-dominant hubs show $no$ and $clustered$ fragmentation types. In the $E_{\rm G}$ dominant hubs, it seems that the portion of $E_{\rm K}$ determines whether the hub becomes to have $clustered$ (the portion of $E_{\rm K}\sim20\%$) or $no$ fragmentation type ($\sim10\%$). We propose an evolutionary scenario for the E- and W-HFSs, where the HFS forms first by the collision of turbulent flows, and then the hubs and filaments can go into various types of fragmentation depending on their energy balance of gravity, turbulence, and magnetic field.


[7] 2208.07906

Reducing the background in X-ray imaging detectors via machine learning

The sensitivity of astronomical X-ray detectors is limited by the instrumental background. The background is especially important when observing low surface brightness sources that are critical for many of the science cases targeted by future X-ray observatories, including Athena and future US-led flagship or probe-class X-ray missions. Above 2keV, the background is dominated by signals induced by cosmic rays interacting with the spacecraft and detector. We develop novel machine learning algorithms to identify events in next-generation X-ray imaging detectors and to predict the probability that an event is induced by a cosmic ray vs. an astrophysical X-ray photon, enabling enhanced filtering of the cosmic ray-induced background. We find that by learning the typical correlations between the secondary events that arise from a single primary, machine learning algorithms are able to successfully identify cosmic ray-induced background events that are missed by traditional filtering methods employed on current-generation X-ray missions, reducing the unrejected background by as much as 30 per cent.


[8] 2208.07915

Reference-star differential imaging on SPHERE/IRDIS

Reference-star differential imaging (RDI) is a promising technique in high-contrast imaging that is thought to be more sensitive to exoplanets and disks than angular differential imaging (ADI) at short angular separations (i.e., <0.3"). However, it is unknown whether the performance of RDI on ground-based instruments can be improved by using all the archival data to optimize the subtraction of stellar contributions. We characterize the performance of RDI on SPHERE/IRDIS data in direct imaging of exoplanets and disks. We made use of all the archival data in H23 obtained by SPHERE/IRDIS in the past five years to build a master reference library and perform RDI. In the point-source detection, RDI can outperform ADI at small angular separations (<0.4") if the observing conditions are around the median conditions of our master reference library. On average, RDI has a gain of ~0.8 mag over ADI at 0.15" separation for observations under median conditions. We demonstrate that including more reference targets in the master reference library can indeed help to improve the performance of RDI. In disk imaging, RDI can reveal more disk features and provide a more robust recovery of the disk morphology. We resolve 33 disks in total intensity (19 planet-forming disks and 14 debris disks), and 4 of them can only be detected with RDI. Two disks are resolved in scattered light for the first time. Three disks are detected in total intensity for the first time. The master reference library we built in this work can be easily implemented into legacy or future SPHERE surveys to perform RDI, achieving better performance than that of ADI. To obtain optimal RDI gains over ADI, we recommend future observations be carried out under seeing conditions of 0.6"-0.8".


[9] 2208.07932

Interchange reconnection within coronal holes powers the fast solar wind

The fast solar wind that fills the heliosphere originates from deep within regions of open magnetic field on the Sun called coronal holes. However the energy source responsible for accelerating the outflowing plasma to such high speeds is still widely debated, although there is broad evidence that it is ultimately magnetic in nature with candidate mechanisms including Alfven wave heating and interchange reconnection. The magnetic field near the solar surface within coronal holes is structured on spatial scales associated with the boundaries of meso-scale supergranulation convection cells, where descending flows create intense bundles of magnetic field. The energy density in these network magnetic field bundles is a likely candidate as an energy source of the wind. Here we report measurements of two fast solar wind streams from the Parker Solar Probe (PSP) spacecraft near its 10th perihelion which provides strong evidence for the interchange reconnection mechanism. Specifically, we show that supergranulation structure at the coronal hole base remains imprinted in the near-Sun solar wind resulting in asymmetric patches of magnetic 'switchbacks' and bursty solar wind streams with corresponding energetic ions with power law-like distributions extending to beyond 100 keV. Particle-in-cell simulations of interchange reconnection between open and closed magnetic structures support key features of the observations, including the energetic ion spectra. Important characteristics of interchange reconnection in the low corona are inferred from the PSP data including that the reconnection is collisionless and that the rate of energy release is sufficient to heat the ambient plasma and drive the fast wind.


[10] 2208.07936

Liger at Keck Observatory: Design of Imager Optical Assembly and Spectrograph Re-Imaging Optics

Liger is an adaptive optics (AO) fed imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) designed to take advantage of the Keck All-sky Precision Adaptive-optics (KAPA) upgrade for the W.M. Keck Observatory. We present the design and analysis of the imager optical assembly including the spectrograph Re-Imaging Optics (RIO) which transfers the beam path from the imager focal plane to the IFS slicer module and lenslet array. Each imager component and the first two RIO mechanisms are assembled and individually aligned on the same optical plate. Baffling suppresses background radiation and scattered light, and a pupil viewing camera allows the imager detector to focus on an image of the telescope pupil. The optical plate mounts on an adapter frame for alignment of the overall system. The imager and RIO will be characterized in a cryogenic test chamber before installation in the final science cryostat.


[11] 2208.07937

Liger at Keck Observatory: Design of the Data Reduction System and Software Interfaces

Liger is a second generation near-infrared imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) for the W. M. Keck Observatory that will utilize the capabilities of the Keck All-sky Precision Adaptive-optics (KAPA) system. Liger operates at a wavelength range of 0.81 {\mu}m - 2.45 {\mu}m and utilizes a slicer and a lenslet array IFS with varying spatial plate scales and fields of view resulting in hundreds of modes available to the astronomer. Because of the high level of complexity in the raw data formats for the slicer and lenslet IFS modes, Liger must be designed in conjunction with a Data Reduction System (DRS) which will reduce data from the instrument in real-time and deliver science-ready data products to the observer. The DRS will reduce raw imager and IFS frames from the readout system and provide 2D and 3D data products via custom quick-look visualization tools suited to the presentation of IFS data. The DRS will provide the reduced data to the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) and will be available to astronomers for offline post-processing of observer data. We present an initial design for the DRS and define the interfaces between observatory and instrument software systems.


[12] 2208.07938

Liger at Keck Observatory: Imager Detector and IFS Pick-off Mirror Assembly

Liger is a next-generation near-infrared imager and integral field spectrograph (IFS) planned for the W.M. Keck Observatory. Liger is designed to take advantage of improved adaptive optics (AO) from the Keck All-Sky Precision Adaptive Optics (KAPA) upgrade currently underway. Liger operates at 0.84-2.45 $\mu$m with spectral resolving powers of R$\sim$4,000-10,000. Liger makes use of a sequential imager and spectrograph design allowing for simultaneous observations. There are two spectrograph modes: a lenslet with high spatial sampling of 14 and 31 mas, and a slicer with 75 and 150 mas sampling with an expanded field of view. Two pick-off mirrors near the imager detector direct light to these two IFS channels. We present the design and structural analysis for the imager detector and IFS pick-off mirror mounting assembly that will be used to align and maintain stability throughout its operation. A piezoelectric actuator will be used to step through $\rm3\,mm$ of travel during alignment of the instrument to determine the optimal focus for both the detector and pick-off mirrors which will be locked in place during normal operation. We will demonstrate that the design can withstand the required gravitational and shipping loads and can be aligned within the positioning tolerances for the optics.


[13] 2208.07948

The Cosmic Hunt for Members in the Outskirts of Ultra Faint Dwarf Galaxies: Ursa Major I, Coma Berenices, and Boötes I

Gaia EDR3 data was used to identify potential members in the outskirts of three ultra faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies; Coma Berenices (> 2Rh), Ursa Major I ($\sim$ 4Rh), and Bo\"otes I ($\sim$ 4Rh), as well as a new member in the central region of Ursa Major I. These targets were observed with the Gemini GRACES spectrograph, which was used to determine precision radial velocities and metallicities that confirm their associations with the UFD galaxies. The spectra were also used to measure absorption lines for 10 elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Ba), which confirm that the chemical abundances of the outermost stars are in good agreement with stars in the central regions. The abundance ratios and chemical patterns of the stars in Coma Berenices are consistent with contributions from SN Ia, which is unusual for its star formation history and in conflict with previous suggestions that this system evolved chemically from a single core collapse supernova event. The chemistries for all three galaxies are consistent with the outermost stars forming in the central regions, then moving to their current locations through tidal stripping and/or supernova feedback. In Bo\"otes I, however, the lower metallicity and lack of strong carbon enrichment of its outermost stars could also be evidence of a dwarf galaxy merger.


[14] 2208.07956

HST UV Spectroscopy of the Planet-Hosting T Tauri Star PDS 70

We summarize Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV observations of the weak-lined T Tauri star (wTTS) PDS 70 obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). These observations provide the first far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) spectra of PDS 70. Ground-based observations have so far revealed two formative giant planets orbiting in a wide gap in its circumstellar disk. Both the star and young planets are thought to still be accreting. The HST spectra provide new insight into physical conditions in the star's outer atmosphere and circumstellar environment. The spectra are dominated by chromospheric and transition region emission lines with maximum formation temperatures log T = 4.5 - 5.2 K. Stellar continuum emission is present in the NUV but we find no significant FUV continuum, as could arise from accretion shocks. Several fluorescent FUV H2 emission lines are present, a surprising result since H2 lines are usually undetected in wTTS. The H2 lines likely originate in irradiated circumstellar gas that could serve as a reservoir for the star's waning accretion. A previously established correlation between C IV line luminosity and accretion rate yields $\dot{M}_{acc}$ $\sim$ 10$^{-10}$ $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, consistent with previous estimates. ALMA disk gas models imply strong absorption of stellar X-ray and UV (XUV) radiation near the star, effectively shielding the planets. Inner disk gas is exposed to ongoing photoevaporation by XUV radiation and the disk is nearing the end of its expected lifetime, making PDS 70 an important example of a young planet-hosting star in the late stage of accretion.


[15] 2208.07976

Presolar stardust in asteroid Ryugu

We have conducted a NanoSIMS-based search for presolar material in samples recently returned from C-type asteroid Ryugu as part of JAXA's Hayabusa2 mission. We report the detection of all major presolar grain types with O- and C-anomalous isotopic compositions typically identified in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites: 1 silicate, 1 oxide, 1 O-anomalous supernova grain of ambiguous phase, 38 SiC, and 16 carbonaceous grains. At least two of the carbonaceous grains are presolar graphites, whereas several grains with moderate C isotopic anomalies are probably organics. The presolar silicate was located in a clast with a less altered lithology than the typical extensively aqueously altered Ryugu matrix. The matrix-normalized presolar grain abundances in Ryugu are 4.8$^{+4.7}_{-2.6}$ ppm for O-anomalous grains, 25$^{+6}_{-5}$ ppm for SiC grains and 11$^{+5}_{-3}$ ppm for carbonaceous grains. Ryugu is isotopically and petrologically similar to carbonaceous Ivuna-type (CI) chondrites. To compare the in situ presolar grain abundances of Ryugu with CI chondrites, we also mapped Ivuna and Orgueil samples and found a total of SiC grains and 6 carbonaceous grains. No O-anomalous grains were detected. The matrix-normalized presolar grain abundances in the CI chondrites are similar to those in Ryugu: 23 $^{+7}_{-6}$ ppm SiC and 9.0$^{+5.3}_{-4.6}$ ppm carbonaceous grains. Thus, our results provide further evidence in support of the Ryugu-CI connection. They also reveal intriguing hints of small-scale heterogeneities in the Ryugu samples, such as locally distinct degrees of alteration that allowed the preservation of delicate presolar material.


[16] 2208.08062

A Mid-infrared Flare in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3786: A Changing-look Event Triggered by an Obscured Tidal Disruption Event?

We report an exceptional mid-infrared flare in the Seyfert 1.8 NGC 3786. In the multi-epoch data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, the nuclear mid-infrared brightness of NGC 3786 appears to vary substantially up to $0.5-0.8$ mag around mid-2020. However, there is no evidence of significant variation in the corresponding light curve of the optical band from the Zwicky Transient Facility. This implies that the flare may have been heavily obscured by nuclear dust. Through follow-up spectroscopic observations with Gemini-North after the flare, we find that broad emission lines in ${\rm Pa}\alpha$ and ${\rm Pa}\beta$ newly appear, while the broad ${\rm H}\beta$ emission is marginally detected in the post-flare spectrum. In addition, their central wavelengths are systematically redshifted up to 900 km s$^{-1}$ with respect to the narrow emission lines. This reveals that the flare is associated with the changing-look phenomenon from type 1.8 to type 1. Based on these findings, we argue that the flare is likely to originate from an obscured tidal disruption event, although extreme variation in the accretion rate may not be ruled out completely.


[17] 2208.08101

Can primordial parity violation explain the observed cosmic birefringence?

Recently, the cross-correlation between $E$- and $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is well explained by cosmic birefringence with rotation angle $\beta\approx 0.3$ deg, has been found in CMB polarization data. We carefully investigate the possibility of explaining the observed $EB$ correlation by the primordial chiral gravitational waves (CGWs), which can be generated in the parity-violating theories in the primordial Universe. We found that the CGWs scenario does not work due to the overproduction of the $BB$ auto-correlation which far exceeds the observed one by SPTPol and POLARBEAR.


[18] 2208.08117

HostPhot: global and local photometry of galaxies hosting supernovae or other transients

Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have assumed a fundamental role as cosmological distance indicators since the discovery of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. Correlations between their optical peak luminosity, the decline rate of their light curves and their optical colours allow them to be standardised, reducing their observed r.m.s scatter. Over a decade ago, the optical peak luminosity of SNe Ia was found to correlate with host galaxy stellar mass, further improving their standardisation. Since then, host galaxy properties have been used in cosmological analyses of SNe Ia and tremendous effort has gone into finding the property, such as star formation rate, that fundamentally drives the correlation between SNe Ia and their host galaxies. Furthermore, it has been noted that the local environment in which the progenitors of SNe Ia evolve is much better at reducing the scatter in estimated distances than the global environment, i.e., the whole galaxy. HostPhot is a tool that facilitates the calculation of both local and global photometry of galaxies hosting SNe Ia, therefore helping in the study of the environmental effect on these objects.


[19] 2208.08134

Per aspera ad astra simul: Through difficulties to the stars together

In this article, we detail the strategic partnerships "Per Aspera Ad Astra Simul" and "European Collaborating Astronomers Project: Espa\~na-Czechia-Slovakia". These strategic partnerships were conceived to foment international collaboration for educational activities (aimed at all levels) as well as to support the development and growth of early career researchers. The activities, carried out under the auspices of these strategic partnerships, demonstrate that Key Action 2 of the Erasmus+ programme can be an extremely valuable resource for supporting international educational projects, as well as the great impact that such projects can have on the general public and on the continued development of early career researchers. We strongly encourage other educators to make use of the opportunities offered by the Erasmus+ scheme.


[20] 2208.08167

Carbon macromolecules in the cycle of interstellar matter: observations andlaboratory experiments

Carbon macromolecules are intermediates between small gas-phase species and larger dust structures. I illustrate how observations and dedicated laboratory experiments support this picture.


[21] 2208.08174

SOFIA FEEDBACK survey: PDR diagnostics of stellar feedback in different regions of RCW 49

We quantified the effects of stellar feedback in RCW 49 by determining the physical conditions in different regions using the [CII] 158 $\mu$m and [OI] 63 $\mu$m observations from SOFIA, the $^{12}$CO (3-2) observations from APEX and the H$_2$ line observations from Spitzer telescopes. Large maps of RCW 49 were observed with the SOFIA and APEX telescopes, while the Spitzer observations were only available towards three small areas. From our qualitative analysis, we found that the H$_2$ 0-0 S(2) emission line probes denser gas compared to the H$_2$ 0-0 S(1) line. In four regions ("northern cloud", "pillar", "ridge", and "shell"), we compared our observations with the updated PDR Toolbox models and derived the integrated far-ultraviolet flux between 6-13.6 eV ($G_{\rm 0}$), H nucleus density ($n$), temperatures and pressures. We found the ridge to have the highest $G_{\rm 0}$ (2.4 $\times$ 10$^3$ Habing units), while the northern cloud has the lowest $G_{\rm 0}$ (5 $\times$ 10$^2$ Habing units). This is a direct consequence of the location of these regions with respect to the Wd2 cluster. The ridge also has a high density (6.4 $\times$ 10$^3$ cm$^{-3}$), which is consistent with its ongoing star formation. Among the Spitzer positions, we found the one closest to the Wd2 cluster to be the densest, suggesting an early phase of star formation. Furthermore, the Spitzer position that overlaps with the shell was found to have the highest $G_{\rm 0}$ and we expect this to be a result of its proximity to an O9V star.


[22] 2208.08208

The effects of plasma on the magnification and time delay of strongly lensed fast radio bursts

The number of identified Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) is increasing rapidly with current and future facilities. Strongly lensed FRBs are expected to be found as well, which can provide precise time delays and thus have rich applications in cosmology and fundamental physics. However, the radio signal of lensed FRBs will be deflected by plasma in lens galaxies in addition to gravity. Such deflections by both gravity and plasma will cause frequency dependent time delays, which are different from the dispersion delay and the geometric delay caused by gravitational lensing. Depending on the lensing and plasma models, the frequency-time delay relation of the lensed images can show distinguishing behaviours either between the multiple images, or from the dispersion relation. Such phenomena cannot be neglected in future studies, especially at low radio frequency, as plasma exists in lens galaxies in general. More importantly, such information provides not only a potential way to search for lensed FRBs, but also constraints on the mass and plasma distributions in lens galaxy. In particular, plasma may make the missing central images observable at low radio frequency.


[23] 2208.08212

Ionized filaments and ongoing physical processes in massive star-forming sites around l = 345.5 degree

Numerous research studies on dust and molecular filaments have been conducted in star-forming sites, but only a limited number of studies have focused on ionized filaments. To observationally study this aspect, we present an analysis of multi-wavelength data of an area of $\sim$74.6 arcmin $\times$ 55 arcmin around l = 345.5 degree. Using the 843 MHz continuum map, two distinct ionized filaments (i.e., IF-A (extent $\sim$8.5 arcmin) and IF-B (extent $\sim$22.65 arcmin)) hosting ionized clumps powered by massive OB stars are identified. Using the $^{13}$CO(2-1) and C$^{18}$O(2-1) line data, the parent molecular clouds of IF-A and IF-B are studied in a velocity range of [$-$21, $-$10] km s$^{-1}$, and have filamentary appearances. At least two cloud components around $-$18 and $-$15 km s$^{-1}$ toward the parent clouds of IF-A and IF-B are investigated, and are connected in velocity space. These filamentary clouds also spatially overlap with each other along the major axis, backing the filamentary twisting/coupling nature. Noticeable Class I protostars and massive stars appear to be observed toward the common zones of the cloud components. These findings support the collision of two filamentary clouds around 1.2 Myr ago. The existence of the ionized filaments seems to be explained by the combined feedback of massive stars. The molecular filaments associated with IF-A and IF-B favour the outcomes of the most recent model concerning the escape and the trap of the ionizing radiation from an O star formed in a filament.


[24] 2208.08243

The ALMA REBELS Survey: The Dust-obscured Cosmic Star Formation Rate Density at Redshift 7

Cosmic dust is an essential component shaping both the evolution of galaxies and their observational signatures. How quickly dust builds up in the early Universe remains an open question that requires deep observations at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths to resolve. Here we use Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of 45 galaxies from the Reionization Era Bright Emission Line Survey (REBELS) and its pilot programs, designed to target [CII] and dust emission in UV-selected galaxies at $z\sim7$, to investigate the dust content of high-redshift galaxies through a stacking analysis. We find that the typical fraction of obscured star formation $f_\mathrm{obs} = \mathrm{SFR}_\mathrm{IR} / \mathrm{SFR}_\mathrm{UV + IR}$ depends on stellar mass, similar to what is observed at lower redshift, and ranges from $f_\mathrm{obs} \approx 0.3 - 0.6$ for galaxies with $\log_{10}\left(M_\star / M_\odot\right) = 9.4 - 10.4$. We further adopt the $z\sim7$ stellar mass function from the literature to extract the cosmic star formation rate density from the REBELS survey. Our results suggest only a relatively modest decrease in the cosmic star formation rate density from $z\gtrsim3$ onward, with dust-obscured star formation still contributing $\sim30-50\%$ at $z\sim7$. While we extensively discuss potential caveats, our analysis suggests that dust-obscured star formation at high redshift may be more important than previously expected.


[25] 2208.08245

The technological and scientific development of ASKAP

Science results from pilot surveys with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) have increased strongly over the last few years. This trend is likely to continue with full surveys scheduled to commence later this year. Thanks to novel Phased Array Feeds each ASKAP pointing covers around 30 square degr, making it a fast survey machine delivering high-resolution radio images of the sky. Among recent science highlights are the studies of neutral hydrogen in the Magellanic Clouds as well as nearby galaxy groups and clusters, catalogs of millions of radio continuum sources, the discovery of odd radio circles, and the localization of fast radio bursts, to name just a few. To demonstrate the ASKAP survey speed we also conducted the Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) covering the whole sky south of declination +41 degr at 15 arcsec resolution.


[26] 2208.08248

A first search of transients in the Galactic Center from 230 GHz ALMA observations

The Galactic Center (GC) presents one of the highest stellar densities in our Galaxy, making its surroundings an environment potentially rich in radio transients, such as pulsars and different kinds of flaring activity. In this paper, we present the first study of transient activity in the region of the GC based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter (mm/submm) Array (ALMA) continuum observations at 230 GHz. This search is based on a new self-calibration algorithm, especially designed for variability detection in the GC field. Using this method, we have performed a search of radio transients in the effective field of view of~$\sim 30\,$arcseconds of the GC central supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* (SgrA*) using ALMA 230 GHz observations taken during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) campaign, which span several observing hours (5-10) on 2017 April 6, 7, and 11. This calibration method allows one to disentangle the variability of unresolved SgrA* from any potential transient emission in the wider field of view and residual effects of the imperfect data calibration. Hence, a robust statistical criterion to identify real transients can be established: the event should survive at least three times the correlation time and it must have a peak excursion of at least seven times the instantaneous root-mean-square between consecutive images. Our algorithms are successfully tested against realistic synthetic simulations of transient sources in the GC field. Having checked the validity of the statistical criterion, we provide upper limits for transient activity in the effective field of view of the GC at 230 GHz.


[27] 2208.08256

Precursors of Supernovae from Mass Eruption: Prospects for Early Warning of Nearby Core-collapse Supernovae

Recent observations of a large fraction of Type II supernovae show traces of dense circumstellar medium (CSM) very close to the progenitor star. If this CSM is created by eruptive mass loss several months before core-collapse, the eruption itself may be visible as a precursor, helpful as an early warning of a near-future supernova. Using radiation hydrodynamical simulations based on the open-source code CHIPS, we theoretically model the emission from mass eruption of a red supergiant star. We find that for a modest mass eruption the luminosity is typically on the order of $10^{39}$ erg s$^{-1}$, can last as long as hundreds of days until the star explodes, and is mainly bright in the infrared (from -9 to -11 mag around peak). We discuss observational strategies to find these signatures from Galactic and local Type II supernovae.


[28] 2208.08303

Precision speckle pattern reconstruction for high contrast imaging

In High Contrast Imaging, a large instrumental, technological and algorithmic effort is made to reduce residual speckle noise and improve the detection capabilities. In this work, we explore the potential of using a precise physical description of speckle images, in conjunction with the optimal detection statistic to perform High Contrast Imaging. Our method uses short-exposure speckle images, reconstructing the Point Spread Function (PSF) of each image with phase retrieval algorithms. Using the reconstructed PSF's we calculate the optimal detection statistic for all images. We analyze the arising bias due to the use of a reconstructed PSF and correct for it completely up to its accumulation over $10^4$ images. We measure in simulations the method's sensitivity loss due to overfitting in the reconstruction process and get to an estimated 5$\sigma$ detection limit of $5\times 10^{-7}$ flux ratio at angular separations of $0.1 -0.5^{\prime\prime}$ for a $1h$ observation of Sirius A with a 2m-telescope.


[29] 2208.08308

Transient radio emission from low-redshift galaxies at z<0.3 revealed by VLASS and FIRST surveys

We present the discovery of a sample of 18 low-redshift (z<0.3) galaxies with transient nuclear radio emission. These galaxies are not or weakly detected in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm survey performed on 1993-2009, but have brightened significantly in the radio flux (by a factor of >5) in the epoch I (2017-2019) observations of Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS). All the 18 galaxies have been detected in the epoch II VLASS observations in 2020-2021, for which the radio flux is found to evolve slowly (by a factor of ~40%) over a period of about three years. 15 galaxies have been observed in the Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey, and a flat or inverted spectral slope between 888 MHz and 3 GHz is found. Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra taken before the radio brightening, 14 out of 18 can be classified to be LINERs or normal galaxies with weak or no nuclear activity. Most galaxies are red and massive, with more than half having central black hole masses above 10^8Msun. We find that only one galaxy in our sample displays optical flare lasting for at least two months, and a long decay in the infrared light curve that can be explained as the dust-heated echo emission of central optical flare, such as a stellar tidal disruption event. We discuss several possibilities for the transient radio emission and conclude that it is likely associated with a new-born radio jet triggered by short sporadic fueling of supermassive black hole. Such a scenario can be tested with further multi-frequency radio observations of these sources through measuring their radio flux variability and spectral evolution.


[30] 2208.08314

Understanding dust production and mass loss on the AGB phase using post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds

Aims: We aim to understand the variation of the surface chemistry that occurs during the AGB phase by analysing results from observations of single post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds. We also aim at reconstruct dust formation processes, that are active in the circumstellar envelope of AGB stars. Methods: We study likely single post-AGB sources in the Magellanic Clouds that exhibit a double-peaked (shell-type) spectral energy distribution (SED). We interpret their SED by comparing with results from radiative transfer calculations, to derive the luminosity and the dust content of the individual sources. Additionally, we compare the observationally derived stellar parameters and the photospheric chemical abundances of the target sample with results from stellar evolution modelling of AGB and post-AGB stars. This allows for the characterization of the individual sources in terms of initial mass and formation epoch of the progenitors. Results: We find that amongst our target sample of 13 likely single post-AGB stars with shell-type SED, 8 objects are carbon stars descending from ~1-2.5 Msun progenitors. 5 of the 13 objects are of lower mass, descending from M<1 Msun stars. Based on the dust mineralogy, we find that these 5 stars are surrounded by silicate dust, and thus failed to become carbon stars. The dust optical depth and the luminosity of the stars are correlated, owing to the faster evolutionary time-scale brighter stars, which makes the dusty layer to be closer to the central object. From our detailed analysis of the SEDs, we deduce that the dust currently observed around post-AGB stars was released after the onset of the central star contraction and an increase in the effective temperature to ~3500-4000 K.


[31] 2208.08379

A Multiwavelength view of IC 860: What Is in Action inside Quenching Galaxies

We present a multiwavelength study of IC 860, a nearby post-starburst galaxy at the early stage of transitioning from blue and star-forming to red and quiescent. Optical images reveal a galaxy-wide, dusty outflow originating from a compact core. We find evidence for a multiphase outflow in the molecular and neutral gas phase from the CO position-velocity diagram and NaD absorption features. We constrain the neutral mass outflow rate to be ~0.5 M$_{\odot}/$yr, and the total hydrogen mass outflow rate to be ~12 M$_{\odot}$/yr. Neither outflow component seems able to escape the galaxy. We also find evidence for a recent merger in the optical images, CO spatial distribution, and kinematics, and evidence for a buried AGN in the optical emission line ratios, mid-IR properties, and radio spectral shape. The depletion time of the molecular gas reservoir under the current star formation rate is ~7 Gyr, indicating that the galaxy could stay at the intermediate stage between the blue and red sequence for a long time. Thus the timescales for a significant decline in star formation rate ("quenching") and gas depletion are not necessarily the same. Our analysis supports the quenching picture where outflows help suppress star formation by disturbing rather than expelling the gas and shed light on possible ongoing activities in similar quenching galaxies.


[32] 2208.08391

Searching for axion-like particles through CMB birefringence from string-wall networks

Axion-like particles (ALPs) can form a network of cosmic strings and domain walls that survives after recombination and leads to anisotropic birefringence of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In addition to studying cosmic strings, we clarify and emphasize how the formation of ALP-field domain walls impacts the cosmic birefringence signal; these observations provide a unique way of probing ALPs with masses in the range $3H_0 \lesssim m_a \lesssim 3H_{\rm cmb}$. Using measurements of CMB birefringence from several telescopes, we find no evidence for axion-defect-induced anisotropic birefringence of the CMB. We extract constraints on the model parameters that include the ALP mass $m_a$, ALP-photon coupling $\mathcal{A} \propto g_{a\gamma\gamma} f_a$, the domain wall number $N_{\rm dw}$, and parameters characterizing the abundance and size of defects in the string-wall network. Considering also recent evidence for isotropic CMB birefringence, we find it difficult to accommodate this with the non-detection of anisotropic birefringence under the assumption that the signal is generated by an ALP defect network.


[33] 2208.08423

Galactic contribution to the high-energy neutrino flux found in track-like IceCube events

Context: Astrophysical sources of neutrinos detected by large-scale neutrino telescopes remain uncertain. While there exist statistically significant observational indications that a part of the neutrino flux is produced by blazars, numerous theoretical studies suggest also the presence of potential Galactic point sources. Some of them have been observed in gamma rays above 100 TeV. Moreover, cosmic-ray interactions in the Galactic disk guarantee a diffuse neutrino flux. However, these Galactic neutrinos have not been unambiguously detected so far. Aims: Here we examine whether such a Galactic component is present among the observed neutrinos of the highest energies. Methods: We analyze public track-like IceCube events with estimated neutrino energies above 200 TeV. We examine the distribution of arrival directions of these neutrinos in the Galactic latitude b with the help of a simple unbinned, non-parametric test statistics, the median |b| over the sample. Results: This distribution deviates from that implied by the null hypothesis of the neutrino flux isotropy, and is shifted towards lower |b| with the p-value of 4*10^{-5}, corresponding to the statistical significance of 4.1 sigma. Conclusions: There exists a significant component of the high-energy neutrino flux of Galactic origin, matching well the multi-messenger expectations from Tibet-ASgamma observations of diffuse Galactic gamma rays at hundreds of TeV. Together with the previously established extragalactic associations, the Galactic component we report here implies that the neutrino sky is rich and is composed of contributions from various classes of sources.


[34] 2208.05506

Parameter Estimation of Gravitational Waves with a Quantum Metropolis Algorithm

After the first detection of a gravitational wave in 2015, the number of successes achieved by this innovative way of looking through the universe has not stopped growing. However, the current techniques for analyzing this type of events present a serious bottleneck due to the high computational power they require. In this article we explore how recent techniques based on quantum algorithms could surpass this obstacle. For this purpose, we propose a quantization of the classical algorithms used in the literature for the inference of gravitational wave parameters based on the well-known Quantum Walks technique applied to a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. Finally, we compare this algorithm with its classical counterpart for all the events of the first GW catalog GWTC-1 for the estimation of different sets of parameters with increasing complexities and we find a polynomial advantage in the quantum algorithms, thus setting a first starting point for future algorithms.


[35] 2208.07878

Lepto-axiogenesis and the scale of supersymmetry

If the Peccei-Quinn field containing the QCD axion undergoes rotations in the early universe, the dimension-five operator responsible for neutrino masses can generate a lepton asymmetry that ultimately gives rise to the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This lepto-axiogenesis scenario requires a flat potential for the radial direction of the Peccei-Quinn field, naturally realized in supersymmetric models. We carefully compute the efficiency of this mechanism for the Dine-Fischler-Srednicki-Zhitnitsky (DFSZ) and Kim-Shifman-Vainshtein-Zakharov (KSVZ) axion models and place lower bounds on the masses of scalar superpartners required to reproduce the observed baryon asymmetry. For the KSVZ model, we find an efficiency for generation of the asymmetry six times larger than the previously extant computation after including scattering channels involving superpartners. In this case, the superpartner scale should be above $\sim$ 30 TeV for a domain wall number of one; the lower bound weakens for larger domain wall numbers. We find that the superpartner mass scale may be as low as 5 TeV for the DFSZ model. In all cases, the lower bound on the superpartner masses is inversely proportional to the neutrino mass and so can strengthen as the upper bound on the neutrino mass improves. We identify the parameter space where the axion rotation can simultaneously produce axion dark matter via kinetic misalignment; in this case it is possible to put an upper bound of order 300 TeV on the masses of scalar superpartners.


[36] 2208.07972

Dissimilar Donuts in the Sky? Effects of a Pressure Singularity on the Circular Photon Orbits and Shadow of a Cosmological Black Hole

The black hole observations obtained so far indicate one thing: similar "donuts" exist in the sky. But what if some of the observed black hole shadows that will obtained in the future are different from the others? In this work the aim is to show that a difference in the shadow of some observed black holes in the future, might explain the $H_0$-tension problem. In this letter we investigate the possible effects of a pressure cosmological singularity on the circular photon orbits and the shadow of galactic supermassive black holes at cosmological redshifts. Since the pressure singularity is a global event in the Universe, the effects of the pressure singularity will be imposed on supermassive black holes at a specific redshift. As we show, the pressure singularity affects the circular photon orbits around cosmological black holes described by the McVittie metric, and specifically, for some time before the time instance that the singularity occurs, the photon orbits do not exist. We discuss the possible effects of the absence of circular photon orbits on the shadow of these black holes. Our idea indicates that if a pressure singularity occurred in the near past, then this could have a direct imprint on the shadow of supermassive galactic black holes at the redshift corresponding to the time instance that the singularity occurred in the past. Thus, if a sample of shadows is observed in the future for redshifts $z\leq 0.01$, and for a specific redshift differences are found in the shadows, this could be an indication that a pressure singularity occurred, and this global event might resolve the $H_0$-tension as discussed in previous work. However, the observation of several shadows at redshifts $z\leq 0.01$ is rather a far future task.


[37] 2208.08020

Low-Mass dark matter (in)direct detection with inelastic scattering

We revisit the detection of luminous dark matter in direct detection experiments. In this scenario, dark matter scatters endothermically to produce an excited state, which decays to produce a photon. We explore ways in which the electron recoil signal from the decay photon can be differentiated from other potential electron recoil signals with a narrow spectral shape. We find that larger volume/exposure xenon detectors will be unable to differentiate the signal origin without significant improvements in detector energy resolution of around an order of magnitude. We also explore what can be learned about a generic luminous dark matter signal with a higher resolution detector. Motivated by the advancements in energy resolution by solid-state detectors, we find that sub-eV resolution enables the discovery of LDM in the presence of background levels that would otherwise make observation impossible. We also find that sub-eV resolution can be used to determine the shape of the luminous dark matter decay spectrum and thus constrain the dark matter mass and velocity distribution.


[38] 2208.08050

Neutrinos in Stellar Astrophysics

The physics of the mysterious and stealthy neutrino is at the heart of many phenomena in the cosmos. These particles interact with matter and with each other through the aptly named weak interaction. At typical astrophysical energies the weak interaction is some twenty orders of magnitude weaker than the electromagnetic interaction. However, in the early universe and in collapsing stars neutrinos can more than make up for their feeble interaction strength with huge numbers. Neutrinos can dominate the dynamics in these sites and set the conditions that govern the synthesis of the elements. Here we journey through the history of the discovery of these particles and describe their role in stellar evolution and collapse, the big bang, and multi-messenger astrophysics. Neutrino physics is at the frontier of elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and cosmology. All of these fields overlap in the neutrino story.


[39] 2208.08107

Symmetry restoration in the vicinity of neutron stars with a nonminimal coupling

We propose a new model of scalarized neutron stars (NSs) realized by a self-interacting scalar field $\phi$ nonminimally coupled to the Ricci scalar $R$ of the form $F(\phi)R$. The scalar field has a self-interacting potential and sits at its vacuum expectation value $\phi_v$ far away from the source. Inside the NS, the dominance of a positive nonminimal coupling over a negative mass squared of the potential leads to a symmetry restoration with the central field value $\phi_c$ close to $0$. This allows the existence of scalarized NS solutions connecting $\phi_v$ with $\phi_c$ whose difference is significant, whereas the field is located in the vicinity of $\phi=\phi_v$ for weak gravitational stars. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass and radius of NSs as well as the gravitational force around the NS surface can receive sizable corrections from the scalar hair, while satisfying local gravity constraints in the Solar system. Unlike the original scenario of spontaneous scalarization induced by a negative nonminimal coupling, the catastrophic instability of cosmological solutions can be avoided. We also study the cosmological dynamics from the inflationary epoch to today and show that the scalar field $\phi$ finally approaches the asymptotic value $\phi_v$ without spoiling a successful cosmological evolution. After $\phi$ starts to oscillate about the potential minimum, the same field can also be the source for cold dark matter.


[40] 2208.08137

Monopoles, Strings and Gravitational Waves in Non-minimal Inflation

We discuss how in $SO(10)$ grand unification an observable number density of topologically stable intermediate mass ( $\sim 10^{14}$ GeV) monopoles survive inflation driven by a Coleman-Weinberg potential and non-minimal coupling of the inflaton field to gravity. The scalar spectral index $n_s$ is in excellent agreement with the current observations, and the tensor to scalar ratio $r\gtrsim 0.003$. The model also predicts the presence of intermediate scale topologically stable cosmic strings, and their gravitational wave spectrum reflects the amount of cosmic inflation experienced by the associated symmetry breaking. The discovery of these primordial monopoles and the stochastic gravitational wave background from the strings would provide important new insights regarding the symmetry breaking patterns in the early universe.


[41] 2208.08229

Inflation with Stochastic Boundary

We study the Brownian motion of a field where there are boundaries in the inflationary field space. Both the field and the boundary undergo Brownian motions with the amplitudes of the noises determined by the Hubble expansion rate of the corresponding dS spacetime. This setup mimics models of inflation in which curvature perturbation is induced from inhomogeneities generated at the surface of end of inflation. The cases of the drift dominated regime as well as the diffusion dominated regime are studied in details. We calculate the first hitting probabilities as well as the mean number of e-folds for the field to hit either of the boundaries in the field space. The implications for models of inflation are reviewed.


[42] 2208.08269

LeXInt: Package for Exponential Integrators employing Leja interpolation

We present a publicly available software for exponential integrators that computes the $\varphi_l(z)$ functions using polynomial interpolation. The interpolation method at Leja points have recently been shown to be competitive with the traditionally-used Krylov subspace method. The developed framework facilitates easy adaptation into any Python software package for time integration.


[43] 2208.08278

MSW effect with quark matter: Neutron Star as a case study

With the recent findings from various astrophysical results hinting towards possible existence of strange quark matters with the baryonic resonances such as $\Lambda^0, \Sigma^0, \Xi, \Omega$ in the core of neutron stars, we investigate the MSW effect, in general, in quark matter. We find that the resonance condition for the complete conversion of down-quark to strange quark requires estremely large matter density ($\rho_u \simeq 10^{5}\,\mbox{fm}^{-3} $). Nonetheless the neutron stars provide a best condition for the conversion to be statistically significant which is of the same order as is expected from imposing charge neutrality condition. This has a possibility of resolving the hyperon puzzle as well as the equation of state for dense baryonic matter.


[44] 2208.08296

Sneutrinos as two inflatons and curvaton and leptogenesis

We argue that sneutrinos can be embedded in a multi-field inflation framework where two inflatons and a curvaton simultaneously contribute to primordial fluctuations, which is consistent with current constraints on the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio from Planck and BICEP/Keck 2018. We also show that the same framework can also explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis realized by the decay of the lightest sneutrino. We investigate the parameter range for the scenario to work such as that of sneutrino masses. In particular, we show that the tensor-to-scalar ratio should be larger than $10^{-4}$ for a successful scenario.


[45] 2208.08333

Reheating era in Gauss-Bonnet theories of gravity compatible with the GW170817 event

In the present article we showcase how the reheating era can be described properly in the context of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity assuming that the primordial gravitational waves propagate with the velocity of light. The equations of the duration of reheating along with the reheating temperature are derived and as demonstrated, their expressions are quite similar to the case of a canonical scalar field where now the second derivative of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupling function appears and effectively alters the numerical value of the scalar potential. The appearance of such term is reminiscing of a $\lambda R$ model of gravity where $\lambda$ is now dynamical. We consider two viable inflationary models of interest, the former involves an error function as scalar Gauss-Bonnet coupling function and the latter a Woods-Saxon scalar potential. It is shown that for both models the aforementioned quantities can be in agreement with theoretical expectations. The only constraint that is needed is the assumption that the second time derivative of the Gauss-Bonnet scalar coupling function is actually lesser than the Planck mass squared, that is $\ddot\xi<\frac{M_{Pl}^2}{8}$ in order to obtain a viable description. We find that a free parameter of the theory and specifically the potential amplitude for the Woods-Saxon model during the inflationary era, dictates the effective equations of state and therefore the reheating epoch can be described either by a type of stiff matter with EoS parameter equal to unity or by an EoS parameter close to that of the radiation.